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Sample records for specific trpc6 channel

  1. VEGF regulates TRPC6 channels in podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Loddenkemper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    increased TRPC6 mRNA expression and TRPC6 protein levels. The effects of VEGF165 were dose dependent and could be blocked by phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitors. In the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis, we did not observe an effect of VEGF on TRPC6 protein levels, indicating...

  2. Human Digital Meissner Corpuscles Display Immunoreactivity for the Multifunctional Ion Channels Trpc6 and Trpv4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Paula; Cabo, Roberto; San José, Isabel; Gago, Angel; Suazo, Iván C; García-Suárez, Olivia; Cobo, Juan; Vega, José A

    2017-06-01

    Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here, we investigated the occurrence, distribution, and possible colocalization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents). TRPC6 immunoreactivity was restricted to the axon of Meissner corpuscles, whereas TRPV4 was detected in the axon but also in the lamellar cells. Moreover, axonal colocalization of TRPV4 and TRPC6 was found in the digital Meissner corpuscles. Present results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence and colocalization of two ion channels candidates to mechanosensors in human cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The functional significance of these ion channels in that place remains to be clarified, but should be related to different properties of mechanosensitivity. Anat Rec, 300:1022-1031, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular determinants for cardiovascular TRPC6 channel regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Juan; Geshi, Naomi; Takahashi, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    and distribution of TRPC6 channels did not significantly change with these mutations. Electrophysiological and immunocytochemical data with the Myc-tagged TRPC6 channel indicated that Thr487 is most likely located at the intracellular side of the cell membrane. Overexpression of T487A caused significant reduction...

  4. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel protein expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patie......The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed...... that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated homocysteine levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared to control subjects. We further observed that administration of homocysteine or acetylcysteine significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared...... to control conditions. We therefore hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans....

  5. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Soumya C; Kannan, Anbarasu; Gopal, Ashidha; Devaraj, Niranjali; Halagowder, Devaraj

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy

  6. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Soumya C, E-mail: chidambaram.soumya@gmail.com [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Kannan, Anbarasu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Gopal, Ashidha [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Devaraj, Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Halagowder, Devaraj [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy.

  7. Insulin Increases Expression of TRPC6 Channels in Podocytes by a Calcineurin-Dependent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Shengqiang; Liu, Ying; Li, Xinming

    2016-01-01

    and protein in podocytes. Insulin increased TRPC6 transcripts in a time and dose-dependent manner. The insulin-induced elevation of TRPC6 transcripts was blocked in the presence of tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, and NFAT-inhibitor (each p ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison test). Transcripts......, cyclosporine A, and NFAT-inhibitor blocked that insulin effect (p ANOVA). Immunofluorescence showed that insulin increased TRPC6-expression on the cell surface. Fluorescence-spectrophotometry and manganese quench experiments indicated that the increased TRPC6-expression after insulin...

  8. The Na+/K+-ATPase and the amyloid-beta peptide aβ1-40 control the cellular distribution, abundance and activity of TRPC6 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Sylvain; Boonen, Marielle; Chevallet, Mireille; Jarvis, Louis; Abebe, Addis; Benharouga, Mohamed; Faller, Peter; Jadot, Michel; Bouron, Alexandre

    2015-11-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase interacts with the non-selective cation channels TRPC6 but the functional consequences of this association are unknown. Experiments performed with HEK cells over-expressing TRPC6 channels showed that inhibiting the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with ouabain reduced the amount of TRPC6 proteins and depressed Ca(2+) entry through TRPC6. This effect, not mimicked by membrane depolarization with KCl, was abolished by sucrose and bafilomycin-A, and was partially sensitive to the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA/AM. Biotinylation and subcellular fractionation experiments showed that ouabain caused a multifaceted redistribution of TRPC6 to the plasma membrane and to an endo/lysosomal compartment where they were degraded. The amyloid beta peptide Aβ(1-40), another inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, but not the shorter peptide Aβ1-16, reduced TRPC6 protein levels and depressed TRPC6-mediated responses. In cortical neurons from embryonic mice, ouabain, veratridine (an opener of voltage-gated Na(+) channel), and Aβ(1-40) reduced TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) responses whereas Aβ(1-16) was ineffective. Furthermore, when Aβ(1-40) was co-added together with zinc acetate it could no longer control TRPC6 activity. Altogether, this work shows the existence of a functional coupling between the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and TRPC6. It also suggests that the abundance, distribution and activity of TRPC6 can be regulated by cardiotonic steroids like ouabain and the naturally occurring peptide Aβ(1-40) which underlines the pathophysiological significance of these processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dexamethasone Resisted Podocyte Injury via Stabilizing TRPC6 Expression and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyou Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TRPC6, a member of the canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC subfamily, is an important cation selective ion channel on podocytes. Podocytes are highly differentiated cells located on the visceral face of glomerular basement membrane and featured by numerous foot processes, on which nephrin, podocin, and TRPC6 locate. Podocytes and the slit diaphragm (SD between adjacent foot processes form a selective filtration barrier impermeable to proteins. TRPC6 is very critical for normal podocyte function. To investigate the function of TRPC6 in podocytes and its relation to proteinuria in kidney diseases, we over-expressed TRPC6 in podocytes by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN and observed the changes of foot processes, TRPC6 protein distribution, and mRNA expression. Accordingly, in this study, we further investigated the role of specific signaling mechanisms underlying the prosurvival effects of dexamethasone (DEX on podocyte repair. Our results showed that podocytes processes of overexpressing TRPC6 were reduced remarkably. These changes could be rescued by DEX via blocking TRPC6 channel. Additionally, our results also showed an improvement in TRPC6 arrangement in the cells and decrease of mRNA expression and protein distribution. From these results, we therefore proposed that overexpression of TRPC6 in podocytes may be one of the fundamental changes relating to the dysfunction of the SD and proteinuria. DEX may be maintained the structure and function integrity of SD by blocking TRPC6 signal pathway and played an important role in mechanisms of anti-proteinuria.

  10. TRPC6 channel-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK, PI3K, and CAMKIV signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Jeanine H; Schuwald, Anita M; Sillani, Giacomo; Ye, Lian; Müller, Walter E; Leuner, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    The non-selective cationic transient receptor canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are involved in synaptic plasticity changes ranging from dendritic growth, spine morphology changes and increase in excitatory synapses. We previously showed that the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the active antidepressant component of St. John's wort, induces neuritic outgrowth and spine morphology changes in PC12 cells and hippocampal CA1 neurons. However, the signaling cascade that transmits the hyperforin-induced transient rise in intracellular calcium into neuritic outgrowth is not yet fully understood. Several signaling pathways are involved in calcium transient-mediated changes in synaptic plasticity, ranging from calmodulin-mediated Ras-induced signaling cascades comprising the mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K signal transduction pathways as well as Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) and CAMKIV. We show that several mechanisms are involved in TRPC6-mediated synaptic plasticity changes in PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons. Influx of calcium via TRPC6 channels activates different pathways including Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and CAMKIV in both cell types, leading to cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation. These findings are interesting not only in terms of the downstream targets of TRPC6 channels but also because of their potential to facilitate further understanding of St. John's wort extract-mediated antidepressant activity. Alterations in synaptic plasticity are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Beside several other proteins, TRPC6 channels regulate synaptic plasticity. This study demonstrates that different pathways including Ras/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and CAMKIV are involved in the improvement of synaptic plasticity by the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the antidepressant active constituent of St. John

  11. Cryo-EM structure of the cytoplasmic domain of murine transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 6 (TRPC6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azumaya, Caleigh M; Sierra-Valdez, Francisco; Cordero-Morales, Julio F; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2018-05-11

    The kidney maintains the internal milieu by regulating the retention and excretion of proteins, ions, and small molecules. The glomerular podocyte forms the slit diaphragm of the ultrafiltration filter, whose damage leads to progressive kidney failure and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) ion channel is expressed in the podocyte and mutations in its cytoplasmic domain cause FSGS in humans. In vitro evaluation of disease-causing mutations in TRPC6 has revealed that these genetic alterations result in abnormal ion channel gating. However, the mechanism whereby the cytoplasmic domain modulates TRPC6 function is largely unknown. Here we report a cryoEM structure of the cytoplasmic domain of murine TRPC6 at 3.8Å resolution. The cytoplasmic fold of TRPC6 is characterized by an inverted dome-like chamber pierced by four radial horizontal helices that converge into a vertical coiled-coil at the central axis. Unlike in other TRP channels, TRPC6 displays a unique domain swap that occurs at the junction of the horizontal helices and coiled-coil. Multiple FSGS mutations converge at the buried interface between the vertical coiled-coil and the ankyrin repeats, which form the dome, suggesting these regions are critical for allosteric gating modulation. This functionally critical interface is a potential target for drug design. Importantly, dysfunction in other family members leads to learning deficits (TRPC1/4/5) and ataxia (TRPC3). Our data provide a structural framework for the mechanistic investigation of the TRPC family. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. TRPC6 enhances angiotensin II-induced albuminuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eckel, Jason

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in the canonical transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6) are responsible for familial forms of adult onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The mechanisms by which TRPC6 mutations cause kidney disease are not well understood. We used TRPC6-deficient mice to examine the function of TRPC6 in the kidney. We found that adult TRPC6-deficient mice had BP and albumin excretion rates similar to wild-type animals. Glomerular histomorphology revealed no abnormalities on both light and electron microscopy. To determine whether the absence of TRPC6 would alter susceptibility to hypertension and renal injury, we infused mice with angiotensin II continuously for 28 days. Although both groups developed similar levels of hypertension, TRPC6-deficient mice had significantly less albuminuria, especially during the early phase of the infusion; this suggested that TRPC6 adversely influences the glomerular filter. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recording to measure cell-membrane currents in primary cultures of podocytes from both wild-type and TRPC6-deficient mice. In podocytes from wild-type mice, angiotensin II and a direct activator of TRPC6 both augmented cell-membrane currents; TRPC6 deficiency abrogated these increases in current magnitude. Our findings suggest that TRPC6 promotes albuminuria, perhaps by promoting angiotensin II-dependent increases in Ca(2+), suggesting that TRPC6 blockade may be therapeutically beneficial in proteinuric kidney disease.

  13. Modeling non-syndromic autism and the impact of TRPC6 disruption in human neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Acab, Allan; Gupta, Abha R.; Sunaga, Daniele Yumi; Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Nicol, Xavier; Nunez, Yanelli; Walker, Michael F.; Murdoch, John D.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Ji, Weizhen; Lifton, Richard P.; Vadasz, Estevão; Dietrich, Alexander; Pradhan, Dennis; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li; Guoe, Xiang; Haddad, Gabriel; Marchetto, Maria C. N.; Spitzer, Nicholas; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; State, Matthew W.; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic variants have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and the functional study of such variants will be critical for the elucidation of autism pathophysiology. Here, we report a de novo balanced translocation disruption of TRPC6, a cation channel, in a non-syndromic autistic individual. Using multiple models, such as dental pulp cells, iPSC-derived neuronal cells and mouse models, we demonstrate that TRPC6 reduction or haploinsufficiency leads to altered neuronal development, morphology, and function. The observed neuronal phenotypes could then be rescued by TRPC6 complementation and by treatment with IGF1 or hyperforin, a TRPC6-specific agonist, suggesting that ASD individuals with alterations in this pathway might benefit from these drugs. We also demonstrate that MeCP2 levels affect TRPC6 expression. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome, revealing common pathways among ASDs. Genetic sequencing of TRPC6 in 1041 ASD individuals and 2872 controls revealed significantly more nonsynonymous mutations in the ASD population, and identified loss-of-function mutations with incomplete penetrance in two patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPC6 is a novel predisposing gene for ASD that may act in a multiple-hit model. This is the first study to use iPSC-derived human neurons to model non-syndromic ASD and illustrate the potential of modeling genetically complex sporadic diseases using such cells. PMID:25385366

  14. Synergistic activation of vascular TRPC6 channel by receptor and mechanical stimulation via phospholipase C/diacylglycerol and phospholipase A2/¿-hydroxylase/20-HETE pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Ryuji; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Jian, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    ). Single TRPC6 channel activity evoked by carbachol was also enhanced by a negative pressure added in the patch pipette. Mechanical potentiation of carbachol- or OAG-induced I(TRPC6) was abolished by small interfering RNA knockdown of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) or pharmacological inhibition of omega...... or Arg8 vasopressin was greatly enhanced by mechanical stimuli via 20-HETE production. Furthermore, myogenic response of pressurized mesenteric artery was significantly enhanced by weak receptor stimulation dependently on 20-HETE production. These results collectively suggest that simultaneous operation...

  15. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Barin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution includes all activities undertaken by the producer, alone or in cooperation, since the end of the final finished products or services until they are in possession of consumers. The distribution consists of the following major components: distribution channels or marketing channels, which together form a distribution network; logistics o rphysical distribution. In order to effective achieve, distribution of goods requires an amount of activities and operational processes related to transit of goods from producer to consumer, the best conditions, using existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  16. Pulsatile atheroprone shear stress affects the expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Marki, Alex

    2012-01-01

    in comparison with endothelial cells grown under static conditions. There was a significant association between the expression of TRPC6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in human vascular tissue. No-flow and atheroprone flow conditions are equally characterized by an increase in the expression of tumor necrosis......The goal of the study was to assess whether pulsatile atheroprone shear stress modulates the expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPM7, and TRPV1 mRNA, in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Exposure of cultured vascular endothelial cells to defined...

  17. Decreased expression of transient receptor potential channels in cerebral vascular tissue from patients after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Suess, Olaf; Liu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    , TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPM4, TRPM6, and TRPM7 channels were detected in cerebral vascular tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Control cerebral vascular tissue was obtained from normotensive patients who underwent neurosurgical operation because of brain tumor. To examine a possible relation between...

  18. universal specific energy curve for para- bolic open channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    UNIVERSAL SPECIFIC ENERGY CURVE FOR PARA-. BOLIC OPEN CHANNELS. K.O. Aiyesimoju. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Lagos. Lagos, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. From the general relationship between specific energy and flow depth for all open channels, the specific relationship for parabolic open ...

  19. Structural Determinants of Specific Lipid Binding to Potassium Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weingarth, M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330985655; Prokofyev, A.; van der Cruijsen, E.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330826743; Nand, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337731403; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Pongs, O.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated specific lipid binding to the pore domain of potassium channels KcsA and chimeric KcsAKv1.3 on the structural and functional level using extensive coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, solid-state NMR, and single channel measurements. We show that, while

  20. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  1. The Proteoglycan Syndecan 4 Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 6 Channels via RhoA/ROCK Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Echtermeyer, Frank; Thilo, Florian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Syndecan 4 (Sdc4) modulates signal transduction and regulates activity of protein channels. Sdc4 is essential for the regulation of cellular permeability. We hypothesized that Sdc4 may regulate transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels, a determinant of glomerular perme...... permeability, in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sdc4 knockout (Sdc4(-/-)) mice showed increased glomerular filtration rate and ameliorated albuminuria under baseline conditions and after bovine serum albumin overload (each P...

  2. Specific Sorting and Post-Golgi trafficking of Dendritic Potassium Channels in Living Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Stampe; Watanabe, Shoji; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2014-01-01

    Proper membrane localization of ion channels is essential for the function of neuronal cells. Particularly, the computational ability of dendrites depends on the localization of different ion channels in specific sub-compartments. However, the molecular mechanisms which control ion channel...

  3. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+ Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Bergeron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+ channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics.

  4. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  5. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiso, Hironori; Ohba, Takayoshi; Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression

  6. Application-specific integrated circuit design for a typical pressurized water reactor pressure channel trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Manges, W.W.; Emery, M.S.; Vendermolen, R.I.; Bhatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the use of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in nuclear plant safety systems. ASICs have certain advantages over software-based systems because they can be simple enough to be thoroughly tested, and they can be tailored to replace existing equipment. An architecture to replace a pressurized water reactor pressure channel trip is presented. Methods of implementing digital algorithms are also discussed

  7. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Sami F.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Ferrer-Villada, Tania; López-Izquierdo, Angelica; Pandit, Sandeep; Calvo, Conrado J.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Berenfeld, Omer; Sánchez Chapula, José A.; Jalife, José

    2010-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial fibrillation). We hypothesize that the antimalarial quinoline chloroquine exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (IK1), Kir3.1 (IKACh), or Kir6.2 (IKATP) and reducing inward rectifier potassium currents. In isolated hearts of three different mammalian species, intracoronary chloroquine perfusion reduced fibrillatory frequency (atrial or ventricular), and effectively terminated the arrhythmia with resumption of sinus rhythm. In patch-clamp experiments chloroquine blocked IK1, IKACh, and IKATP. Comparative molecular modeling and ligand docking of chloroquine in the intracellular domains of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2 suggested that chloroquine blocks or reduces potassium flow by interacting with negatively charged amino acids facing the ion permeation vestibule of the channel in question. These results open a novel path toward discovering antiarrhythmic pharmacophores that target specific residues of the cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier potassium channels.—Noujaim, S. F., Stuckey, J. A., Ponce-Balbuena, D., Ferrer-Villada, T., López-Izquierdo, A., Pandit, S., Calvo, C. J., Grzeda, K. R., Berenfeld, O., Sánchez Chapula, J. A., Jalife, J. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets. PMID:20585026

  8. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Their Link with Cardio/Cerebro-Vascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiong; Liu, Hui-Xia; Shen, Kuo; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) constitute a series of nonselective cation channels with variable degrees of Ca 2+ selectivity. TRPCs consist of seven mammalian members, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7, which are further divided into four subtypes, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4/5, and TRPC3/6/7. These channels take charge of various essential cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, and dysfunction. This review, organized into seven main sections, will provide an overview of current knowledge about the underlying pathogenesis of TRPCs in cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, including hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular ischemia reperfusion injury. Collectively, TRPCs could become a group of drug targets with important physiological functions for the therapy of human cardio/cerebro-vascular diseases.

  9. Site-specific electronic structure analysis by channeling EELS and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Yu; Ikeno, Hirokazu; Yoshioka, Satoru; Tanaka, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Site-specific electronic structures were investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) under electron channeling conditions. The Al-K and Mn-L(2,3) electron energy loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of, respectively, NiAl2O4 and Mn3O4 were measured. Deconvolution of the raw spectra with the instrumental resolution function restored the blunt and hidden fine features, which allowed us to interpret the experimental spectral features by comparing with theoretical spectra obtained by first-principles calculations. The present method successfully revealed the electronic structures specific to the differently coordinated cationic sites.

  10. Calibration and assessment of channel-specific biases in microarray data with extended dynamical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Henrik; Jönsson, Göran; Vallon-Christersson, Johan

    2004-11-12

    Non-linearities in observed log-ratios of gene expressions, also known as intensity dependent log-ratios, can often be accounted for by global biases in the two channels being compared. Any step in a microarray process may introduce such offsets and in this article we study the biases introduced by the microarray scanner and the image analysis software. By scanning the same spotted oligonucleotide microarray at different photomultiplier tube (PMT) gains, we have identified a channel-specific bias present in two-channel microarray data. For the scanners analyzed it was in the range of 15-25 (out of 65,535). The observed bias was very stable between subsequent scans of the same array although the PMT gain was greatly adjusted. This indicates that the bias does not originate from a step preceding the scanner detector parts. The bias varies slightly between arrays. When comparing estimates based on data from the same array, but from different scanners, we have found that different scanners introduce different amounts of bias. So do various image analysis methods. We propose a scanning protocol and a constrained affine model that allows us to identify and estimate the bias in each channel. Backward transformation removes the bias and brings the channels to the same scale. The result is that systematic effects such as intensity dependent log-ratios are removed, but also that signal densities become much more similar. The average scan, which has a larger dynamical range and greater signal-to-noise ratio than individual scans, can then be obtained. The study shows that microarray scanners may introduce a significant bias in each channel. Such biases have to be calibrated for, otherwise systematic effects such as intensity dependent log-ratios will be observed. The proposed scanning protocol and calibration method is simple to use and is useful for evaluating scanner biases or for obtaining calibrated measurements with extended dynamical range and better precision. The

  11. Discovery of talatisamine as a novel specific blocker for the delayed rectifier K+ channels in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M-K; Liu, H; Jiang, H-L; Yue, J-M; Hu, G-Y; Chen, H-Z

    2008-08-13

    Blocking specific K+ channels has been proposed as a promising strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Using a computational virtual screening approach and electrophysiological testing, we found four Aconitum alkaloids are potent blockers of the delayed rectifier K+ channel in rat hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we first tested the action of the four alkaloids on the voltage-gated K+, Na+ and Ca2+ currents in rat hippocampal neurons, and then identified that talatisamine is a specific blocker for the delayed rectifier K+ channel. External application of talatisamine reversibly inhibited the delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) with an IC50 value of 146.0+/-5.8 microM in a voltage-dependent manner, but exhibited very slight blocking effect on the voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ currents even at the high concentration of 1-3 mM. Moreover, talatisamine exerted a significant hyperpolarizing shift of the steady-state activation, but did not influence the steady state inactivation of IK and its recovery from inactivation, suggesting that talatisamine had no allosteric action on IK channel and was a pure blocker binding to the external pore entry of the channel. Our present study made the first discovery of potent and specific IK channel blocker from Aconitum alkaloids. It has been argued that suppressing K+ efflux by blocking IK channel may be favorable for Alzheimer's disease therapy. Talatisamine can therefore be considered as a leading compound worthy of further investigations.

  12. Propensity score estimation to address calendar time-specific channeling in comparative effectiveness research of second generation antipsychotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie B Dusetzina

    Full Text Available Channeling occurs when a medication and its potential comparators are selectively prescribed based on differences in underlying patient characteristics. Drug safety advisories can provide new information regarding the relative safety or effectiveness of a drug product which might increase selective prescribing. In particular, when reported adverse effects vary among drugs within a therapeutic class, clinicians may channel patients toward or away from a drug based on the patient's underlying risk for an adverse outcome. If channeling is not identified and appropriately managed it might lead to confounding in observational comparative effectiveness studies.To demonstrate channeling among new users of second generation antipsychotics following a Food and Drug Administration safety advisory and to evaluate the impact of channeling on cardiovascular risk estimates over time.Florida Medicaid data from 2001-2006.Retrospective cohort of adults initiating second generation antipsychotics. We used propensity scores to match olanzapine initiators with other second generation antipsychotic initiators. To evaluate channeling away from olanzapine following an FDA safety advisory, we estimated calendar time-specific propensity scores. We compare the performance of these calendar time-specific propensity scores with conventionally-estimated propensity scores on estimates of cardiovascular risk.Increased channeling away from olanzapine was evident for some, but not all, cardiovascular risk factors and corresponded with the timing of the FDA advisory. Covariate balance was optimized within period and across all periods when using the calendar time-specific propensity score. Hazard ratio estimates for cardiovascular outcomes did not differ across models (Conventional PS: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.81-3.18 versus calendar time-specific PS: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.77-3.04.Changes in channeling over time was evident for several covariates but had limited impact on cardiovascular risk

  13. Effects of variable specific heat on energy transfer in a high-temperature supersonic channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Dou, Hua-Shu; Zhu, Zuchao

    2018-05-01

    An energy transfer mechanism in high-temperature supersonic turbulent flow for variable specific heat (VSH) condition through turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean kinetic energy (MKE), turbulent internal energy (TIE) and mean internal energy (MIE) is proposed. The similarities of energy budgets between VSH and constant specific heat (CSH) conditions are investigated by introducing a vibrational energy excited degree and considering the effects of fluctuating specific heat. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of temporally evolving high-temperature supersonic turbulent channel flow is conducted at Mach number 3.0 and Reynolds number 4800 combined with a constant dimensional wall temperature 1192.60 K for VSH and CSH conditions to validate the proposed energy transfer mechanism. The differences between the terms in the two kinetic energy budgets for VSH and CSH conditions are small; however, the magnitude of molecular diffusion term for VSH condition is significantly smaller than that for CSH condition. The non-negligible energy transfer is obtained after neglecting several small terms of diffusion, dissipation and compressibility related. The non-negligible energy transfer involving TIE includes three processes, in which energy can be gained from TKE and MIE and lost to MIE. The same non-negligible energy transfer through TKE, MKE and MIE is observed for both the conditions.

  14. Understanding transporter specificity and the discrete appearance of channel-like gating domains in transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE eDIALLINAS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are ubiquitous proteins mediating the translocation of solutes across cell membranes, a biological process involved in nutrition, signaling, neurotransmission, cell communication and drug uptake or efflux. Similarly to enzymes, most transporters have a single substrate binding-site and thus their activity follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Substrate binding elicits a series of structural changes, which produce a transporter conformer open towards the side opposite to the one from where the substrate was originally bound. This mechanism, involving alternate outward- and inward-facing transporter conformers, has gained significant support from structural, genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. Most transporters are specific for a given substrate or a group of substrates with similar chemical structure, but substrate specificity and/or affinity can vary dramatically, even among members of a transporter family that show high overall amino acid sequence and structural similarity. The current view is that transporter substrate affinity or specificity is determined by a small number of interactions a given solute can make within a specific binding site. However, genetic, biochemical and in silico modeling studies with the purine transporter UapA of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans have challenged this dogma. This review highlights results leading to a novel concept, stating that substrate specificity, but also transport kinetics and transporter turnover, are determined by subtle intramolecular interactions between a major substrate binding site and independent outward- or cytoplasmically-facing gating domains, analogous to those present in channels. This concept is supported by recent structural evidence from several, phylogenetically and functionally distinct transporter families. The significance of this concept is discussed in relationship to the role and potential exploitation of transporters in drug action.

  15. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfeng; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. → Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. → Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. → The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  16. Homeostasis or channelopathy? Acquired cell type-specific ion channel changes in temporal lobe epilepsy and their antiepileptic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfart, Jakob; Laker, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Neurons continuously adapt the expression and functionality of their ion channels. For example, exposed to chronic excitotoxicity, neurons homeostatically downscale their intrinsic excitability. In contrast, the “acquired channelopathy” hypothesis suggests that proepileptic channel characteristics develop during epilepsy. We review cell type-specific channel alterations under different epileptic conditions and discuss the potential of channels that undergo homeostatic adaptations, as targets for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Most of the relevant studies have been performed on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a widespread AED-refractory, focal epilepsy. The TLE patients, who undergo epilepsy surgery, frequently display hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which is associated with degeneration of cornu ammonis subfield 1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs). Although the resected human tissue offers insights, controlled data largely stem from animal models simulating different aspects of TLE and other epilepsies. Most of the cell type-specific information is available for CA1 PCs and dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs). Between these two cell types, a dichotomy can be observed: while DG GCs acquire properties decreasing the intrinsic excitability (in TLE models and patients with HS), CA1 PCs develop channel characteristics increasing intrinsic excitability (in TLE models without HS only). However, thorough examination of data on these and other cell types reveals the coexistence of protective and permissive intrinsic plasticity within neurons. These mechanisms appear differentially regulated, depending on the cell type and seizure condition. Interestingly, the same channel molecules that are upregulated in DG GCs during HS-related TLE, appear as promising targets for future AEDs and gene therapies. Hence, GCs provide an example of homeostatic ion channel adaptation which can serve as a primer when designing novel anti-epileptic strategies. PMID:26124723

  17. Mitragynine and its potential blocking effects on specific cardiac potassium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Yea Lu; Teah, Yi Fan; Chong, Yoong Min [Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals, NIBM, Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation (MOSTI), Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar [Clinical Research Center, Hospital Seberang Jaya, Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Kollert, Sina [Institute of Physiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg (Germany); Adenan, Mohd Ilham [Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Wahab, Habibah Abdul [Pharmaceutical Design & Simulation (PhDS) Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard [Institute of Physiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg (Germany); Tan, Mei Lan, E-mail: tanml@usm.my [Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals, NIBM, Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation (MOSTI), Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I{sub Kr} current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, I{sub K1}, a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and I{sub KACh}, a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The effects on Kir2.1 and GIRK channels currents were also determined in the oocytes. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were inhibited by mitragynine with an IC{sub 50} value of 1.62 μM and 1.15 μM in the transfected cell line and Xenopus oocytes, respectively. The S6 point mutations of Y652A and F656A attenuated the inhibitor effects of mitragynine, indicating that mitragynine interacts with these high affinity drug-binding sites in the hERG channel pore cavity which was consistent with the molecular docking simulation. Interestingly, mitragynine does not affect the hERG expression at the transcriptional level but inhibits the protein expression. Mitragynine is also found to inhibit I{sub KACh} current with an IC{sub 50} value of 3.32 μM but has no significant effects on I{sub K1}. Blocking of both hERG and GIRK channels may cause additive cardiotoxicity risks. - Highlights: • The potential cardiac potassium channel blocking properties of mitragynine were investigated. • Mitragynine blocks hERG channel and I{sub Kr} in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and hERG cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. • Mitragynine inhibits the hERG protein but not the mRNA expression. • Mitragynine

  18. Mitragynine and its potential blocking effects on specific cardiac potassium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Yea Lu; Teah, Yi Fan; Chong, Yoong Min; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Kollert, Sina; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Wahab, Habibah Abdul; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I Kr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, I K1 , a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and I KACh , a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The effects on Kir2.1 and GIRK channels currents were also determined in the oocytes. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were inhibited by mitragynine with an IC 50 value of 1.62 μM and 1.15 μM in the transfected cell line and Xenopus oocytes, respectively. The S6 point mutations of Y652A and F656A attenuated the inhibitor effects of mitragynine, indicating that mitragynine interacts with these high affinity drug-binding sites in the hERG channel pore cavity which was consistent with the molecular docking simulation. Interestingly, mitragynine does not affect the hERG expression at the transcriptional level but inhibits the protein expression. Mitragynine is also found to inhibit I KACh current with an IC 50 value of 3.32 μM but has no significant effects on I K1 . Blocking of both hERG and GIRK channels may cause additive cardiotoxicity risks. - Highlights: • The potential cardiac potassium channel blocking properties of mitragynine were investigated. • Mitragynine blocks hERG channel and I Kr in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and hERG cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. • Mitragynine inhibits the hERG protein but not the mRNA expression. • Mitragynine inhibits GIRK channel. • Simultaneous

  19. Site-specific distribution of claudin-based paracellular channels with roles in biological fluid flow and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Tamura, Atsushi; Suzuki, Koya; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2017-10-01

    The claudins are a family of membrane proteins with at least 27 members in humans and mice. The extracellular regions of claudin proteins play essential roles in cell-cell adhesion and the paracellular barrier functions of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cell sheets. Furthermore, the extracellular regions of some claudins function as paracellular channels in the paracellular barrier that allow the selective passage of water, ions, and/or small organic solutes across the TJ in the extracellular space. Structural analyses have revealed a common framework of transmembrane, cytoplasmic, and extracellular regions among the claudin-based paracellular barriers and paracellular channels; however, differences in the claudins' extracellular regions, such as their charges and conformations, determine their properties. Among the biological systems that involve fluid flow and metabolism, it is noted that hepatic bile flow, renal Na + reabsorption, and intestinal nutrient absorption are dynamically regulated via site-specific distributions of paracellular channel-forming claudins in tissue. Here, we focus on how site-specific distributions of claudin-2- and claudin-15-based paracellular channels drive their organ-specific functions in the liver, kidney, and intestine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. A family of fluoride-specific ion channels with dual-topology architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Randy B; Robertson, Janice L; Kolmakova-Partensky, Ludmila; Miller, Christopher

    2013-08-27

    Fluoride ion, ubiquitous in soil, water, and marine environments, is a chronic threat to microorganisms. Many prokaryotes, archea, unicellular eukaryotes, and plants use a recently discovered family of F(-) exporter proteins to lower cytoplasmic F(-) levels to counteract the anion's toxicity. We show here that these 'Fluc' proteins, purified and reconstituted in liposomes and planar phospholipid bilayers, form constitutively open anion channels with extreme selectivity for F(-) over Cl(-). The active channel is a dimer of identical or homologous subunits arranged in antiparallel transmembrane orientation. This dual-topology assembly has not previously been seen in ion channels but is known in multidrug transporters of the SMR family, and is suggestive of an evolutionary antecedent of the inverted repeats found within the subunits of many membrane transport proteins. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01084.001.

  1. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K.; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G.; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K+ currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K+ channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance–voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn2+. Low pH similarly reduces Mg2+ sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca2+. Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K+ currents observed in vivo. PMID:23712551

  2. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K; Bayliss, Douglas A; Jegla, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K(+) currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K(+) channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance-voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn(2+). Low pH similarly reduces Mg(2+) sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca(2+). Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K(+) currents observed in vivo.

  3. Antiepileptic drugs targeting sodium channels: subunit and neuron-type specific interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Certain antiepileptic drugs (e.g. carbamazepine and lamotrigine) block sodium channels in an use-dependent manner and this mechanism contributes to the anti-convulsant properties of these drugs. There are, however, subtle differences in sodium current blocking properties of the antiepileptic drugs

  4. Use of mutant-specific ion channel characteristics for risk stratification of long QT syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jons, Christian; O-Uchi, Jin; Moss, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    Inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by mutations in ion channels that delay cardiac repolarization, increasing the risk of sudden death from ventricular arrhythmias. Currently, the risk of sudden death in individuals with LQTS is estimated from clinical parameters such as age, gender, and...

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and genotypes of transient receptor potential ion channel and acetylcholine receptor genes from isolated B lymphocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Johnston, Samantha; Chacko, Anu; Nguyen, Thao; Smith, Peter; Staines, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Objective The pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is unknown; however, a small subgroup of patients has shown muscarinic antibody positivity and reduced symptom presentation following anti-CD20 intervention. Given the important roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) and acetylcholine (ACh) signalling in B cell activation and potential antibody development, we aimed to identify relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in isolated B cells from CFS/ME patients. Methods A total of 11 CFS/ME patients (aged 31.82 ± 5.50 years) and 11 non-fatigued controls (aged 33.91 ± 5.06 years) were included. Flow cytometric protocols were used to determine B cell purity, followed by SNP and genotype analysis for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and nine mammalian ACh receptor genes. SNP association and genotyping analysis were performed using ANOVA and PLINK analysis software. Results Seventy-eight SNPs were identified in nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the CFS/ME group, of which 35 were in mAChM3. The remaining SNPs were identified in nAChR delta (n = 12), nAChR alpha 9 (n = 5), TRPV2 (n = 7), TRPM3 (n = 4), TRPM4 (n = 1) mAChRM3 2 (n = 2), and mAChRM5 (n = 3) genes. Nine genotypes were identified from SNPs in TRPM3 (n = 1), TRPC6 (n = 1), mAChRM3 (n = 2), nAChR alpha 4 (n = 1), and nAChR beta 1 (n = 4) genes, and were located in introns and 3' untranslated regions. Odds ratios for these specific genotypes ranged between 7.11 and 26.67 for CFS/ME compared with the non-fatigued control group. Conclusion This preliminary investigation identified a number of SNPs and genotypes in genes encoding TRP ion channels and AChRs from B cells in patients with CFS/ME. These may be involved in B cell functional changes, and suggest a role for Ca 2+ dysregulation in AChR and TRP ion channel signalling in the pathomechanism of CFS/ME.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Subject-Specific On-Body Radio Propagation Channels for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, subject-specific narrowband (2.45 GHz and ultra-wideband (3–10.6 GHz on-body radio propagation studies in wireless body area networks (WBANs were performed by characterizing the path loss for eight different human subjects of different shapes and sizes. The body shapes and sizes of the test subjects used in this study are characterised as thin, medium build, fatty, shorter, average height and taller. Experimental investigation was made in an indoor environment using a pair of printed monopoles (for the narrowband case and a pair of tapered slot antennas (for the ultra-wideband (UWB case. Results demonstrated that, due to the different sizes, heights and shapes of the test subjects, the path loss exponent value varies up to maximum of 0.85 for the narrowband on-body case, whereas a maximum variation of the path loss exponent value of 1.15 is noticed for the UWB case. In addition, the subject-specific behaviour of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between narrowband and UWB systems, and it was deduced that the on-body radio channels are subject-specific for both narrowband and UWB system cases, when the same antennas (same characteristics are used. The effect of the human body shape and size variations on the eight different on-body radio channels is also studied for both the narrowband and UWB cases.

  7. Subtype-specific, bi-component inhibition of SK channels by low internal pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Torben; Jespersen, Thomas; Jorgensen, Nanna K

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low intracellular pH (pH(i) 6.4) on cloned small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel currents of all three subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) were investigated in HEK293 cells using the patch-clamp technique. In 400 nM internal Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, all subtypes were inhibited by pH(i) 6...

  8. Specific profiles of ion channels and ionotropic receptors define adipose- and bone marrow derived stromal cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forostyak, Oksana; Butenko, Olena; Anděrová, Miroslava; Forostyak, Serhiy; Syková, Eva; Verkhratsky, A.; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 622-634 ISSN 1873-5061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34077S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/2373; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : adipose derived stromal cells * bone marrow stromal cell * Ca(2+) signaling * Ion channels Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.494, year: 2016

  9. Characterization of the omega-conotoxin target. Evidence for tissue-specific heterogeneity in calcium channel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.J.; Johnson, D.S.; Olivera, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx-VIA) is a 27 amino acid peptide from the venom of the fish-hunting snail, Conus geographus, that blocks voltage-activated Ca channels. The characterization of a biologically active, homogeneous 125 I-labeled monoiodinated Tyr 22 derivative of omega-conotoxin GVIA and its use in binding and cross-linking studies are described. The 125 I-labeled toxin is specifically cross-linked to a receptor protein with an apparent M/sub r/ of 135,000. The stoichiometry between omega-conotoxin and nitrendipine binding sites in different chick tissues was determined. Skeletal muscle has a high concentration of [ 3 H]nitrendipine binding sites but no detectable omega-conotoxin sites. Brain microsomes have both binding sites, but omega-conotoxin targets are in excess. These results, combined with recent electrophysiological studies define four types of Ca channels in chick tissues, N, T, L/sub n/ (omega sensitive), and L/sub m/ (omega insensitive), and are consistent with the hypothesis that the α-subunits of certain neuronal Ca 2+ channels (L/sub n/, N) are the molecular targets of omega-conotoxin GVIA

  10. The Sarcoglycan complex is expressed in the cerebrovascular system and is specifically regulated by astroglial Cx30 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cécile eBoulay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, the most prominent glial cell type in the brain, send specialized processes called endfeet, around blood vessels and express a large molecular repertoire regulating the cerebrovascular system physiology. One of the most striking properties of astrocyte endfeet is their enrichment in gap junction protein Connexin 43 and 30 (Cx43 and Cx30 allowing in particular for direct intercellular trafficking of ions and small signaling molecules through perivascular astroglial networks. In this study, we addressed the specific role of Cx30 at the gliovascular interface. Using an inactivation mouse model for Cx30 (Cx30Δ/Δ, we showed that absence of Cx30 does not affect blood-brain barrier (BBB organization and permeability. However, it results in the cerebrovascular fraction, in a strong upregulation of Sgcg encoding γ-Sarcoglycan (SG, a member of the Dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC connecting cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. The same molecular event occurs in Cx30T5M/T5M mutated mice, where Cx30 channels are closed, demonstrating that Sgcg regulation relied on Cx30 channel functions. We further characterized the expression of other Sarcoglycan complex (SGC molecules in the cerebrovascular system and showed the presence of α-, β-, δ-, γ-, ε- and ζ- SG, as well as Sarcospan. Their expression was however not modified in Cx30Δ/Δ. These results suggest that a full SGC might be present in the cerebrovascular system, and that expression of one of its member, γ-Sarcoglycan, depends on Cx30 channels. As described in skeletal muscles, the SGC may contribute to membrane stabilization and signal transduction in the cerebrovascular system, which may therefore be regulated by Cx30 channel-mediated functions.

  11. Cardiac Subtype-Specific Modeling of Kv1.5 Ion Channel Deficiency Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Marczenke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrarapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur, mediated by Kv1.5 channels, constitutes a key component of the atrial action potential. Functional mutations in the underlying KCNA5 gene have been shown to cause hereditary forms of atrial fibrillation (AF. Here, we combine targeted genetic engineering with cardiac subtype-specific differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs to explore the role of Kv1.5 in atrial hiPSC-cardiomyocytes. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of integration-free hiPSCs was employed to generate a functional KCNA5 knockout. This model as well as isogenic wild-type control hiPSCs could selectively be differentiated into ventricular or atrial cardiomyocytes at high efficiency, based on the specific manipulation of retinoic acid signaling. Investigation of electrophysiological properties in Kv1.5-deficient cardiomyocytes compared to isogenic controls revealed a strictly atrial-specific disease phentoype, characterized by cardiac subtype-specific field and action potential prolongation and loss of 4-aminopyridine sensitivity. Atrial Kv1.5-deficient cardiomyocytes did not show signs of arrhythmia under adrenergic stress conditions or upon inhibiting additional types of K+ current. Exposure of bulk cultures to carbachol lowered beating frequencies and promoted chaotic spontaneous beating in a stochastic manner. Low-frequency, electrical stimulation in single cells caused atrial and mutant-specific early afterdepolarizations, linking the loss of KCNA5 function to a putative trigger mechanism in familial AF. These results clarify for the first time the role of Kv1.5 in atrial hiPSC-cardiomyocytes and demonstrate the feasibility of cardiac subtype-specific disease modeling using engineered hiPSCs.

  12. Contribution of small conductance K+ channels to sinoatrial node pacemaker activity: insights from atrial-specific Na+ /Ca2+ exchange knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Angelo G; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Heidi; Zaini, Audrey; Kim, Brian; Yue, Xin; Philipson, Kenneth D; Goldhaber, Joshua I

    2017-06-15

    Repolarizing currents through K + channels are essential for proper sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaking, but the influence of intracellular Ca 2+ on repolarization in the SAN is uncertain. We identified all three isoforms of Ca 2+ -activated small conductance K + (SK) channels in the murine SAN. SK channel blockade slows repolarization and subsequent depolarization of SAN cells. In the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) knockout mouse, cellular Ca 2+ accumulation during spontaneous SAN pacemaker activity produces intermittent hyperactivation of SK channels, leading to arrhythmic pauses alternating with bursts of pacing. These findings suggest that Ca 2+ -sensitive SK channels can translate changes in cellular Ca 2+ into a repolarizing current capable of modulating pacemaking. SK channels are a potential pharmacological target for modulating SAN rate or treating SAN dysfunction, particularly under conditions characterized by abnormal increases in diastolic Ca 2+ . Small conductance K + (SK) channels have been implicated as modulators of spontaneous depolarization and electrical conduction that may be involved in cardiac arrhythmia. However, neither their presence nor their contribution to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity has been investigated. Using quantitative PCR (q-PCR), immunostaining and patch clamp recordings of membrane current and voltage, we identified all three SK isoforms (SK1, SK2 and SK3) in mouse SAN. Inhibition of SK channels with the specific blocker apamin prolonged action potentials (APs) in isolated SAN cells. Apamin also slowed diastolic depolarization and reduced pacemaker rate in isolated SAN cells and intact tissue. We investigated whether the Ca 2+ -sensitive nature of SK channels could explain arrhythmic SAN pacemaker activity in the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) knockout (KO) mouse, a model of cellular Ca 2+ overload. SAN cells isolated from the NCX KO exhibited higher SK current than wildtype (WT) and apamin

  13. Homeostatic Presynaptic Plasticity Is Specifically Regulated by P/Q-type Ca2+ Channels at Mammalian Hippocampal Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Alexander F; van Heusden, Fran C; Al-Mubarak, Bashayer; Padamsey, Zahid; Emptage, Nigel J

    2017-10-10

    Voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (VGCC) represent the principal source of Ca 2+ ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca 2+ influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent regulation is unknown. Here, we study the role of VGCC in homeostatic plasticity (HSP) in mammalian hippocampal neurons using optical techniques. We find that changes in evoked Ca 2+ currents specifically through P/Q-type, but not N-type, VGCC mediate bidirectional homeostatic regulation of both neurotransmitter release efficacy and the size of the major synaptic vesicle pools. Selective dependence of HSP on P/Q-type VGCC in mammalian terminals has important implications for phenotypes associated with P/Q-type channelopathies, including migraine and epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Homeostatic Presynaptic Plasticity Is Specifically Regulated by P/Q-type Ca2+ Channels at Mammalian Hippocampal Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Jeans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VGCC represent the principal source of Ca2+ ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca2+ influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent regulation is unknown. Here, we study the role of VGCC in homeostatic plasticity (HSP in mammalian hippocampal neurons using optical techniques. We find that changes in evoked Ca2+ currents specifically through P/Q-type, but not N-type, VGCC mediate bidirectional homeostatic regulation of both neurotransmitter release efficacy and the size of the major synaptic vesicle pools. Selective dependence of HSP on P/Q-type VGCC in mammalian terminals has important implications for phenotypes associated with P/Q-type channelopathies, including migraine and epilepsy.

  15. On specific features of neutron spatial-energy distribution formation in a complex cell of a channel water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurova, L.N.; Naumov, V.I.; Belousov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of calculations of spatial-energy neutron distribution formation specific features in the cells with great amount and heterogeneous distribution of water. Considered is the two-region cylindrical cell with the central zone of 4 cm radius, consisting of moderators of different types. The calculation results show, that in the absence of absorption with the energy decrease flattening of neutron flux density by the cell takes place. Here in the case of hydrogen bearing moderator in the central zone the effect of the flux initial perturbation covers the essentially wider energy range, than in the case of hydrogenless moderator. Perturbation effect strongly depends on the composition of the peripheric zone (graphite, heavy water) and the size of the cell. The energy range, which is covered by the perturbation in the case of a hydrogen-bearing moderator in the central zone, is comparable with resonance energy range for uranium-238. A conclusion is made on the limited possibilities of the ''flat flux'' approximation for analyzing the resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactors with essential content of water in the channels

  16. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  17. New binding site on common molecular scaffold provides HERG channel specificity of scorpion toxin BeKm-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Yuliya V; Bocharov, Eduard V; Angelo, Kamilla

    2002-01-01

    The scorpion toxin BeKm-1 is unique among a variety of known short scorpion toxins affecting potassium channels in its selective action on ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG)-type channels. BeKm-1 shares the common molecular scaffold with other short scorpion toxins. The toxin spatial structure...... resolved by NMR consists of a short alpha-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. By toxin mutagenesis study we identified the residues that are important for the binding of BeKm-1 to the human ERG K+ (HERG) channel. The most critical residues (Tyr-11, Lys-18, Arg-20, Lys-23) are located...

  18. Gliadin Fragments and a Specific Gliadin 33-mer Peptide Close KATP Channels and Induce Insulin Secretion in INS-1E Cells and Rat Islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Morten; Calloe, Kirstine; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . A similar effect was observed in isolated rat islets (1.6-fold increase). In INS-1E cells, diazoxide reduced the stimulatory effect of gliadin digest. Additionally, gliadin digest was shown to decrease current through KATP-channels. A specific gliadin 33-mer had a similar effect, both on current and insulin...

  19. Ion-channel genosensor for the detection of specific DNA sequences derived from Plum Pox Virus in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecka, Kamila; Michalczuk, Lech; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2014-10-09

    A DNA biosensor for detection of specific oligonucleotides sequences of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in plant extracts and buffer is proposed. The working principles of a genosensor are based on the ion-channel mechanism. The NH2-ssDNA probe was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to form an amide bond between the carboxyl group of oxidized electrode surface and amino group from ssDNA probe. The analytical signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered in Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox marker. The 22-mer and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences derived from PPV and DNA samples from plants infected with PPV were used as targets. Similar detection limits of 2.4 pM (31.0 pg/mL) and 2.3 pM (29.5 pg/mL) in the concentration range 1-8 pM were observed in the presence of the 22-mer ssDNA and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences of PPV, respectively. The genosensor was capable of discriminating between samples consisting of extracts from healthy plants and leaf extracts from infected plants in the concentration range 10-50 pg/mL. The detection limit was 12.8 pg/mL. The genosensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity. The 20-mer partially complementary DNA sequences with four complementary bases and DNA samples from healthy plants used as negative controls generated low signal.

  20. Seeking Structural Specificity: Direct Modulation of Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels by Alcohols and General Anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, James R.; Harris, R. Adron

    2014-01-01

    Alcohols and other anesthetic agents dramatically alter neurologic function in a wide range of organisms, yet their molecular sites of action remain poorly characterized. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, long implicated in important direct effects of alcohol and anesthetic binding, have recently been illuminated in renewed detail thanks to the determination of atomic-resolution structures of several family members from lower organisms. These structures provide valuable models for understanding and developing anesthetic agents and for allosteric modulation in general. This review surveys progress in this field from function to structure and back again, outlining early evidence for relevant modulation of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and the development of early structural models for ion channel function and modulation. We highlight insights and challenges provided by recent crystal structures and resulting simulations, as well as opportunities for translation of these newly detailed models back to behavior and therapy. PMID:24515646

  1. Energetic performance is improved by specific activation of K+ fluxes through K(Ca) channels in heart mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aon, Miguel A; Cortassa, Sonia; Wei, An-Chi

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial volume regulation depends on K+ movement across the inner membrane and a mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent K+ channel (mitoK(Ca)) reportedly contributes to mitochondrial K+ uniporter activity. Here we utilize a novel K(Ca) channel activator, NS11021, to examine the role of mito...... similar nonspecific (toxin-insensitive) effects at high concentrations. The results indicate that activating K+ flux through mitoK(Ca) mediates a beneficial effect on energetics that depends on mitochondrial swelling with maintained DeltaPsi(m)....

  2. Determinants of Isoform-Specific Gating Kinetics of hERG1 Channel: Combined Experimental and Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Perissinotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IKr is the rapidly activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, the ion current largely responsible for the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Inherited forms of long QT syndrome (LQTS (Lees-Miller et al., 1997 in humans are linked to functional modifications in the Kv11.1 (hERG ion channel and potentially life threatening arrhythmias. There is little doubt now that hERG-related component of IKr in the heart depends on the tetrameric (homo- or hetero- channels formed by two alternatively processed isoforms of hERG, termed hERG1a and hERG1b. Isoform composition (hERG1a- vs. the b-isoform has recently been reported to alter pharmacologic responses to some hERG blockers and was proposed to be an essential factor pre-disposing patients for drug-induced QT prolongation. Very little is known about the gating and pharmacological properties of two isoforms in heart membranes. For example, how gating mechanisms of the hERG1a channels differ from that of hERG1b is still unknown. The mechanisms by which hERG 1a/1b hetero-tetramers contribute to function in the heart, or what role hERG1b might play in disease are all questions to be answered. Structurally, the two isoforms differ only in the N-terminal region located in the cytoplasm: hERG1b is 340 residues shorter than hERG1a and the initial 36 residues of hERG1b are unique to this isoform. In this study, we combined electrophysiological measurements for HEK cells, kinetics and structural modeling to tease out the individual contributions of each isoform to Action Potential formation and then make predictions about the effects of having various mixture ratios of the two isoforms. By coupling electrophysiological data with computational kinetic modeling, two proposed mechanisms of hERG gating in two homo-tetramers were examined. Sets of data from various experimental stimulation protocols (HEK cells were analyzed simultaneously and fitted to Markov-chain models (M

  3. A genetic variant of the sperm-specific SLO3 K+ channel has altered pH and Ca2+ sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanyan; Ferreira, Juan J; Dzikunu, Victor; Butler, Alice; Lybaert, Pascale; Yuan, Peng; Magleby, Karl L; Salkoff, Lawrence; Santi, Celia M

    2017-05-26

    To fertilize an oocyte, sperm must first undergo capacitation in which the sperm plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized via activation of potassium (K + ) channels and resultant K + efflux. Sperm-specific SLO3 K + channels are responsible for these membrane potential changes critical for fertilization in mouse sperm, and they are only sensitive to pH i However, in human sperm, the major K + conductance is both Ca 2+ - and pH i -sensitive. It has been debated whether Ca 2+ -sensitive SLO1 channels substitute for human SLO3 (hSLO3) in human sperm or whether human SLO3 channels have acquired Ca 2+ sensitivity. Here we show that hSLO3 is rapidly evolving and reveal a natural structural variant with enhanced apparent Ca 2+ and pH sensitivities. This variant allele (C382R) alters an amino acid side chain at a principal interface between the intramembrane-gated pore and the cytoplasmic gating ring of the channel. Because the gating ring contains sensors to intracellular factors such as pH and Ca 2+ , the effectiveness of transduction between the gating ring and the pore domain appears to be enhanced. Our results suggest that sperm-specific genes can evolve rapidly and that natural genetic variation may have led to a SLO3 variant that differs from wild type in both pH and intracellular Ca 2+ sensitivities. Whether this physiological variation confers differences in fertility among males remains to be established. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Homeostatic Presynaptic Plasticity Is Specifically Regulated by P/Q-type Ca2+ Channels at Mammalian Hippocampal Synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Jeans, Alexander F.; van Heusden, Fran C.; Al-Mubarak, Bashayer; Padamsey, Zahid; Emptage, Nigel J.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VGCC) represent the principal source of Ca2+ ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca2+ influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent ...

  5. The small molecule NS11021 is a potent and specific activator of Ca2+-activated big-conductance K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Nardi, Antonio; Calloe, Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    , a mitochondrial K(+) channel with KCa1.1-resembling properties has been found in the heart, where it may be involved in regulation of energy consumption. In the present study, the effect of a novel NeuroSearch compound, 1-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-[4-bromo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-thiourea (NS11021...

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of simultaneously acquired (dual channel) radiogallium and Tc-99m-HDP in painful hip and knee prosthetic joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarzynski, J.J.; Sziklas, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.J.; Rich, D.A.; Spencer, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Differentiation of prosthetic loosening from infection, by use of sequential bone and radiogallium imaging, has been discussed in the literature. The authors investigated simultaneous (2 channel) imaging of Ga-67 and Tc-99m-HDP in multiviews, in order to assess the parameter of Tc-99m-Ga-67 incongruity. Acquisition of data was carried out 2 days after 5 mCi of Ga-67 citrate IV and 2 hours after 8 mCi of Tc-99m-HDP. Dual data channels were used to insure perfect superimposition of the images and to reduce total imaging time. Normalized bone images were taken, then subtracted from those of Ga-67, by means of progressive weighting factors. A total of 68 studies were carried out on 43 patients. Exams involved both knee and hip prostheses, in population with 63% of the patients over age 60 years. Time from placement of the prosthesis to the dual radionuclide exam was within 2 years in 48% and within 5 years in 78%. Sensitivity was 0.88 and specificity 0.89. Using information on the follow-up dual channel studies, 40/43 cases were correctly identified (93%). Dual channel radionuclide imaging offers a readily available and accurate means of differentiating infection from loosening of hip or knee prostheses

  7. Rat hypocretin/orexin neurons are maintained in a depolarized state by TRPC channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cvetkovic-Lopes

    Full Text Available In a previous study we proposed that the depolarized state of the wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx neurons was independent of synaptic inputs as it persisted in tetrodotoxin and low calcium/high magnesium solutions. Here we show first that these cells are hyperpolarized when external sodium is lowered, suggesting that non-selective cation channels (NSCCs could be involved. As canonical transient receptor channels (TRPCs are known to form NSCCs, we looked for TRPCs subunits using single-cell RT-PCR and found that TRPC6 mRNA was detectable in a small minority, TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC7 in a majority and TRPC4 and 5 in the vast majority (∼90% of hcrt/orx neurons. Using intracellular applications of TRPC antibodies against subunits known to form NSCCs, we then found that only TRPC5 antibodies elicited an outward current, together with hyperpolarization and inhibition of the cells. These effects were blocked by co-application of a TRPC5 antigen peptide. Voltage-clamp ramps in the presence or absence of TRPC5 antibodies indicated the presence of a current with a reversal potential close to -15 mV. Application of the non-selective TRPC channel blocker, flufenamic acid, had a similar effect, which could be occluded in cells pre-loaded with TRPC5 antibodies. Finally, using the same TRPC5 antibodies we found that most hcrt/orx cells show immunostaining for the TRPC5 subunit. These results suggest that hcrt/orx neurons are endowed with a constitutively active non-selective cation current which depends on TRPC channels containing the TRPC5 subunit and which is responsible for the depolarized and active state of these cells.

  8. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide lotilaner (Credelio™: a non-competitive antagonist specific to invertebrates γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channels (GABACls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien Rufener

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-gated chloride channels (GABACls and, to a lesser extent, of inhibitory glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls. Lotilaner (Credelio™, a novel representative of this chemical class, is currently evaluated for its excellent ectoparasiticide properties. Methods In this study, we investigated the molecular mode of action and pharmacology of lotilaner. We report the successful gene identification, cDNA cloning and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of Drosohpila melanogaster (wild type and dieldrin/fipronil-resistant forms, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (an ectoparasite copepod crustacean of salmon, Rhipicephalus microplus and Canis lupus familiaris GABACls. Automated Xenopus oocyte two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was used to assess GABACls functionality and to compare ion channel inhibition by lotilaner with that of established insecticides addressing GABACls as targets. Results In these assays, we demonstrated that lotilaner is a potent non-competitive antagonist of insects (fly GABACls. No cross-resistance with dieldrin or fipronil resistance mutations was detected, suggesting that lotilaner might bind to a site at least partly different from the one bound by known GABACl blockers. Using co-application experiments, we observed that lotilaner antagonism differs significantly from the classical open channel blocker fipronil. We finally confirmed for the first time that isoxazoline compounds are not only powerful antagonists of GABACls of acari (ticks but also of crustaceans (sea lice, while no activity on a dog GABAA receptor was observed up to a concentration of 10 μM. Conclusions Together, these results demonstrate that lotilaner is a non-competitive antagonist specific to invertebrate’s γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channels (GABACls. They contribute to our understanding of the mode of

  9. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide lotilaner (Credelio™): a non-competitive antagonist specific to invertebrates γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channels (GABACls).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufener, Lucien; Danelli, Vanessa; Bertrand, Daniel; Sager, Heinz

    2017-11-01

    The isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and, to a lesser extent, of inhibitory glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). Lotilaner (Credelio™), a novel representative of this chemical class, is currently evaluated for its excellent ectoparasiticide properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mode of action and pharmacology of lotilaner. We report the successful gene identification, cDNA cloning and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of Drosohpila melanogaster (wild type and dieldrin/fipronil-resistant forms), Lepeophtheirus salmonis (an ectoparasite copepod crustacean of salmon), Rhipicephalus microplus and Canis lupus familiaris GABACls. Automated Xenopus oocyte two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was used to assess GABACls functionality and to compare ion channel inhibition by lotilaner with that of established insecticides addressing GABACls as targets. In these assays, we demonstrated that lotilaner is a potent non-competitive antagonist of insects (fly) GABACls. No cross-resistance with dieldrin or fipronil resistance mutations was detected, suggesting that lotilaner might bind to a site at least partly different from the one bound by known GABACl blockers. Using co-application experiments, we observed that lotilaner antagonism differs significantly from the classical open channel blocker fipronil. We finally confirmed for the first time that isoxazoline compounds are not only powerful antagonists of GABACls of acari (ticks) but also of crustaceans (sea lice), while no activity on a dog GABA A receptor was observed up to a concentration of 10 μM. Together, these results demonstrate that lotilaner is a non-competitive antagonist specific to invertebrate's γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channels (GABACls). They contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this new ectoparasiticide compound.

  10. Subtype-specific Modulation of Acid-sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) Function by 2-Guanidine-4-methylquinazoline*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijevic, Omar; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal Na+-selective channels that are transiently activated by extracellular acidification. ASICs are involved in fear and anxiety, learning, neurodegeneration after ischemic stroke, and pain sensation. The small molecule 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) was recently shown to open ASIC3 at physiological pH. We have investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect and the possibility that GMQ may alter the function of other ASICs besides ASIC3. GMQ shifts the pH dependence of activation to more acidic pH in ASIC1a and ASIC1b, whereas in ASIC3 this shift goes in the opposite direction and is accompanied by a decrease in its steepness. GMQ also induces an acidic shift of the pH dependence of inactivation of ASIC1a, -1b, -2a, and -3. As a consequence, the activation and inactivation curves of ASIC3 but not other ASICs overlap in the presence of GMQ at pH 7.4, thereby creating a window current. At concentrations >1 mm, GMQ decreases maximal peak currents by reducing the unitary current amplitude. Mutation of residue Glu-79 in the palm domain of ASIC3, previously shown to be critical for channel opening by GMQ, disrupted the GMQ effects on inactivation but not activation. This suggests that this residue is involved in the consequences of GMQ binding rather than in the binding interaction itself. This study describes the mechanisms underlying the effects of a novel class of ligands that modulate the function of all ASICs as well as activate ASIC3 at physiological pH. PMID:22948146

  11. Subtype-specific modulation of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) function by 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijevic, Omar; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2012-10-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal Na(+)-selective channels that are transiently activated by extracellular acidification. ASICs are involved in fear and anxiety, learning, neurodegeneration after ischemic stroke, and pain sensation. The small molecule 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) was recently shown to open ASIC3 at physiological pH. We have investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect and the possibility that GMQ may alter the function of other ASICs besides ASIC3. GMQ shifts the pH dependence of activation to more acidic pH in ASIC1a and ASIC1b, whereas in ASIC3 this shift goes in the opposite direction and is accompanied by a decrease in its steepness. GMQ also induces an acidic shift of the pH dependence of inactivation of ASIC1a, -1b, -2a, and -3. As a consequence, the activation and inactivation curves of ASIC3 but not other ASICs overlap in the presence of GMQ at pH 7.4, thereby creating a window current. At concentrations >1 mM, GMQ decreases maximal peak currents by reducing the unitary current amplitude. Mutation of residue Glu-79 in the palm domain of ASIC3, previously shown to be critical for channel opening by GMQ, disrupted the GMQ effects on inactivation but not activation. This suggests that this residue is involved in the consequences of GMQ binding rather than in the binding interaction itself. This study describes the mechanisms underlying the effects of a novel class of ligands that modulate the function of all ASICs as well as activate ASIC3 at physiological pH.

  12. Acid solution is a suitable medium for introducing QX-314 into nociceptors through TRPV1 channels to produce sensory-specific analgesic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that QX-314, an intracellular sodium channel blocker, can enter into nociceptors through capsaicin-activated TRPV1 or permeation of the membrane by chemical enhancers to produce a sensory-selective blockade. However, the obvious side effects of these combinations limit the application of QX-314. A new strategy for targeting delivery of QX-314 into nociceptors needs further investigation. The aim of this study is to test whether acidic QX-314, when dissolves in acidic solution directly, can enter into nociceptors through acid-activated TRPV1 and block sodium channels from the intracellular side to produce a sensory-specific analgesic effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Acidic solution or noradrenaline was injected intraplantarly to induce acute pain behavior in mice. A chronic constrictive injury model was performed to induce chronic neuropathic pain. A sciatic nerve blockade model was used to evaluate the sensory-specific analgesic effects of acidic QX-314. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were measured by using radiant heat and electronic von Frey filaments test. Spinal Fos protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of p-ERK was detected by western blot assay. Whole cell clamp recording was performed to measure action potentials and total sodium current in rats DRG neurons. We found that pH 5.0 PBS solution induced behavioral hyperalgesia accompanied with the increased expression of spinal Fos protein and p-ERK. Pretreatment with pH 5.0 QX-314, and not pH 7.4 QX-314, alleviated pain behavior, inhibited the increased spinal Fos protein and p-ERK expression induced by pH 5.0 PBS or norepinephrine, blocked sodium currents and abolished the production of action potentials evoked by current injection. The above effects were prevented by TRPV1 channel inhibitor SB366791, but not by ASIC channel inhibitor amiloride. Furthermore, acidic QX-314 employed adjacent to the

  13. A process evaluation: does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marieke A; Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W; Stronks, Karien; Verhoeff, Arnoud P

    2013-08-19

    Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups could increase reach and receptivity to program participation. We explored using ethnically specific channels and key figures to reach Ghanaian, Antillean, and Surinamese mothers with an invitation for an exercise program, and subsequently, to determine the mothers' receptivity and participation. We conducted a mixed methods process evaluation in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. To recruit mothers, we employed ethnically specific community organizations and ethnically matched key figures as recruiters over Dutch health educators. Reach and participation were measured using reply cards and the attendance records from the exercise programs. Observations were made of the recruitment process. We interviewed 14 key figures and 32 mothers to respond to the recruitment channel and recruiter used. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Recruitment through ethnically specific community channels was successful among Ghanaian mothers, but less so among Antillean and Surinamese mothers. The more close-knit an ethnic community was, retaining their own culture and having poorer comprehension of the Dutch language, the more likely we were to reach mothers through ethnically specific organizations. Furthermore, we found that using ethnically matched recruiters resulted in higher receptivity to the program and, among the Ghanaian mothers in particular, in greater participation. This was because the ethnically matched recruiter was a familiar, trusted person, a translator, and a motivator who was enthusiastic, encouraging, and able to adapt her message (targeting/tailoring). Using a health expert was preferred in order to increase the credibility and professionalism of the

  14. Expression of background potassium channels in rat DRG is cell-specific and down-regulated in a neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollema-Mays, Sarah L; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Ashford, Crystle J; Apkarian, A Vania; Martina, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with hyperexcitability of DRG neurons. Despite the importance of leakage potassium channels for neuronal excitability, little is known about their cell-specific expression in DRGs and possible modulation in neuropathic pain. Multiple leakage channels are expressed in DRG neurons, including TASK1, TASK3, TRESK, TRAAK, TWIK1, TREK1 and TREK2 but little is known about their distribution among different cell types. Our immunohistochemical studies show robust TWIK1 expression in large and medium size neurons, without overlap with TRPV1 or IB4 staining. TASK1 and TASK3, on the contrary, are selectively expressed in small cells; TASK1 expression closely overlaps TRPV1-positive cells, while TASK3 is expressed in TRPV1- and IB4-negative cells. We also studied mRNA expression of these channels in L4-L5 DRGs in control conditions and up to 4 weeks after spared nerve injury lesion. We found that TWIK1 expression is much higher than TASK1 and TASK3 and is strongly decreased 1, 2 and 4 weeks after neuropathic injury. TASK3 expression, on the other hand, decreases 1 week after surgery but reverts to baseline by 2weeks; TASK1 shows no significant change at any time point. These data suggest an involvement of TWIK1 in the maintenance of the pain condition. © 2013.

  15. Down-regulation of A-type potassium channel in gastric-specific DRG neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Chen, J D Z

    2014-07-01

    Although without evidence of organic structural abnormalities, pain or discomfort is a prominent symptom of functional dyspepsia and considered to reflect visceral hypersensitivity whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we studied electrophysiological properties and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia induced by neonatal gastric irritation. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-day old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days and studied at adulthood. Retrograde tracer-labeled gastric-specific T8 -T12 DRG neurons were harvested for the patch-clamp study in voltage and current-clamp modes and protein expression of K(+) channel in T8 -T12 DRGs was examined by western blotting. (1) Gastric specific but not non-gastric DRG neurons showed an enhanced excitability in neonatal IA-treated rats compared to the control: depolarized resting membrane potentials, a lower current threshold for action potential (AP) activation, and an increase in the number of APs in response to current stimulation. (2) The current density of tetraethylammonium insensitive (transiently inactivating A-type current), but not the tetraethylammonium sensitive (slow-inactivating delayed rectifier K(+) currents), was significantly smaller in IA-treated rats (65.4 ± 6.9 pA/pF), compared to that of control (93.1 ± 8.3 pA/pF). (3) Protein expression of KV 4.3 was down-regulated in IA-treated rats. A-type potassium channels are significantly down-regulated in the gastric-specific DRG neurons in adult rats with mild neonatal gastric irritation, which in part contribute to the enhanced DRG neuron excitabilities that leads to the development of gastric hypersensitivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. OECD/NRC Benchmark Based on NUPEC PWR Sub-channel and Bundle Test (PSBT). Volume I: Experimental Database and Final Problem Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, A.; Schoedel, A.; Avramova, M.; Utsuno, H.; Bajorek, S.; Velazquez-Lozada, A.

    2012-01-01

    The need to refine models for best-estimate calculations, based on good-quality experimental data, has been expressed in many recent meetings in the field of nuclear applications. The needs arising in this respect should not be limited to the currently available macroscopic methods but should be extended to next-generation analysis techniques that focus on more microscopic processes. One of the most valuable databases identified for the thermal-hydraulics modelling was developed by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan, which includes sub-channel void fraction and departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) measurements in a representative Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly. Part of this database has been made available for this international benchmark activity entitled 'NUPEC PWR Sub-channel and Bundle Tests (PSBT) benchmark'. This international project has been officially approved by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and endorsed by the OECD/NEA. The benchmark team has been organised based on the collaboration between Japan and the USA. A large number of international experts have agreed to participate in this programme. The fine-mesh high-quality sub-channel void fraction and departure from nucleate boiling data encourages advancement in understanding and modelling complex flow behaviour in real bundles. Considering that the present theoretical approach is relatively immature, the benchmark specification is designed so that it will systematically assess and compare the participants' analytical models on the prediction of detailed void distributions and DNB. The development of truly mechanistic models for DNB prediction is currently underway. The benchmark problem includes both macroscopic and microscopic measurement data. In this context, the sub-channel grade void fraction data are regarded as the macroscopic data and the digitised computer graphic images are the

  17. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  18. Task-specific modulation of effective connectivity during two simple unimanual motor tasks: A 122-channel EEG study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M.; Christensen, Mark S.; Reck, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillations are thought to underlie coupling of spatially remote neurons and gating of information within the human sensorimotor system. Here we tested the hypothesis that different unimanual motor tasks are specifically associated with distinct patterns of oscillatory coupling in human...

  19. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  20. Substance P Activates Ca2+-Permeable Nonselective Cation Channels through a Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Signaling Pathway in nNOS-Expressing GABAergic Neurons in Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Komatsu, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    To understand the functions of the neocortex, it is essential to characterize the properties of neurons constituting cortical circuits. Here, we focused on a distinct group of GABAergic neurons that are defined by a specific colocalization of intense labeling for both neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and substance P (SP) receptor [neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors]. We investigated the mechanisms of the SP actions on these neurons in visual cortical slices obtained from young glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice. Bath application of SP induced a nonselective cation current leading to depolarization that was inhibited by the NK1 antagonists in nNOS-immunopositive neurons. Ruthenium red and La(3+), transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blockers, suppressed the SP-induced current. The SP-induced current was mediated by G proteins and suppressed by D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), but not by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC, adenylate cyclase or Src tyrosine kinases. Ca(2+) imaging experiments under voltage clamp showed that SP induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) that was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) but not by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that SP regulates nNOS neurons by activating TRP-like Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels through a PC-PLC-dependent signaling pathway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. High glucose modifies transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channels via increased oxidative stress and syndecan-4 in human podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Lee, Marlene; Xia, Shengqiang

    2014-01-01

    oxidative stress and syndecan-4 (SDC-4) in human podocytes. Human podocytes were exposed to control conditions (5.6 mmol/L D-glucose), high glucose (30 mmol/L D-glucose or L-glucose), 100 μmol/L peroxynitrite, or high glucose and the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (100 μmol/L). TRPC6 and SDC-4...... transcripts and protein expression were measured using RT-PCR and in-cell Western assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium were measured using fluorescent dye techniques. High D-glucose increased TRPC6 transcripts to 8.66±4.08 (p....44±0.07 (poxidative stress using peroxynitrite significantly increased TRPC6 transcripts to 4.29±1.26 (p

  2. Nuclear receptor CAR specifically activates the two-pore K+ channel Kcnk1 gene in male mouse livers, which attenuates phenobarbital-induced hepatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-03-01

    KCNK1, a member of the family of two-pore K(+) ion channels, is specifically induced in the livers of male mice after phenobarbital treatment. Here, we have determined the molecular mechanism of this male-specific activation of the Kcnk1 gene and characterized KCNK1 as a phenobarbital-inducible antihyperplasia factor. Upon activation by phenobarbital, nuclear receptor CAR binds the 97-bp response element (-2441/-2345) within the Kcnk1 promoter. This binding is observed in the livers of male mice, but not in the livers of female mice and requires the pituitary gland, because hypophysectomy abrogates it. Hyperplasia further progressed in the livers of Kcnk1 ( -/- ) male mice compared with those of Kcnk1 ( +/+ ) males after phenobarbital treatment. Thus, KCNK1 suppresses phenobarbital-induced hyperplasia. These results indicate that phenobarbital treatment induces KCNK1 to elicit a male-specific and growth-suppressing signal. Thus, KCNK1 and Kcnk1 ( -/- ) mice provide an experimental tool for further investigation into the molecular mechanism of CAR-mediated promotion of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.

  3. Smooth-muscle-specific gene transfer with the human maxi-k channel improves erectile function and enhances sexual behavior in atherosclerotic cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Williams, Koudy; Zhao, Weixin; D'Agostino, Ralph; Kaplan, Jay; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Yoo, James; Calenda, Giulia; Davies, Kelvin P; Sellers, Rani S; Melman, Arnold

    2009-12-01

    Despite the advent of effective oral therapies for erectile dysfunction (ED), many patients are not successfully treated, and side effects have been documented. To further evaluate the potential utility of naked DNA-based gene transfer as an attractive treatment option for ED. The effects of gene transfer on erectile function and sexual behavior were evaluated in eight male cynomolgus monkeys with ED secondary to moderately severe, diet-induced atherosclerosis. Following establishment of baseline characteristics, animals were subjected to intracavernous injection of a smooth-muscle-specific gene transfer vector (pSMAA-hSlo) encoding the pore-forming subunit of the human large-conductance, calcium-sensitive potassium channel (Maxi-K). For the sexual behavior studies, 2 wk of baseline data were obtained, and then animals were placed in the presence of estrogen-implanted females (n=2) three times per week for 30 min, and sexual behavior was recorded. The intracavernous pressure response to papaverine injection was also monitored. Dramatic changes in erectile function and sexual behavior were observed after intracorporal gene transfer. The frequency of partial (6±2 to 10±2) and full (2±1.5 to 5±1.4) erections were significantly increased, with a parallel 2-3-fold increase in the duration of the observed erections. The frequency and latency of ejaculation were increased and decreased, respectively. Frequency and duration of grooming by the female were increased, and the latency decreased. Increased latency and decreased frequency of body contact was also observed, and this is characteristic of the typical drop in consort intimacy that occurs after mating in most macaque species. In addition, an increased responsiveness to intracavernous papaverine injection was observed. The data indicate that intracorporal Maxi-K-channel gene transfer enhances erectile capacity and sexual behavior; the data imply that increased erectile function per se may lead to increased sexual

  4. SU-E-T-746: The Use of Radiochromic Film Analyzed with Three Channel Dosimetry as a Secondary Patient-Specific QA Tool for Small SBRT Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadsell, M; Holcombe, C; Chin, E; Hsu, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As diagnostic techniques become more sensitive and targeting methods grow in accuracy, target volumes continue to shrink and SBRT becomes more prevalent. Due to this fact, patient-specific QA must also enhance resolution and accuracy in order to verify dose delivery in these volumes. It has been suggested that when measuring small fields at least two separate detectors be used to verify delivered dose. Therefore, we have instituted a secondary patient QA verification for small (<3cm) SBRT fields using Gafchromic EBT2 film. Methods: Films were cross-calibrated using a Farmer chamber in plastic water at reference conditions as defined by TG-51. Films were scanned, and an RGB calibration curve was created according to best practices published by Ashland, Inc. Four SBRT cases were evaluated both with the Scandidos Delta4 and with EBT2 films sandwiched in plastic water. Raw values obtained from the film were converted to dose using an in-house algorithm employing all three color channels to increase accuracy and dosimetric range. Gamma and dose profile comparisons to Eclipse dose calculations were obtained using RIT and compared to values obtained with the Delta4. Results: Film gamma pass rates at 2% and 2mm were similar to those obtained with the Delta4. However, dose difference histograms showed better absolute dose agreement, with the average mean film dose agreeing with calculation to 0.3% and the Delta4 only agreeing to 3.1% across the cases. Additionally, films provided more resolution than the Delta4 and thus their dose profiles better succeeded in diagnosing dose calculation inaccuracies. Conclusion: We believe that the implementation of secondary patient QA using EBT2 film analyzed with all three color channels is an invaluable tool for evaluation of small SBRT fields. Furthermore, we have shown that this method can sometimes provide a more detailed and faithful reproduction of plan dose than the Delta4

  5. The Ca{sup 2+} channel TRPML3 specifically interacts with the mammalian ATG8 homologue GATE16 to regulate autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Suzy; Kim, Hyun Jin, E-mail: kimhyunjin@skku.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Split-ubiquitin MY2H screen identified GATE16 as an interacting protein of TRPML3. •TRPML3 specifically binds to a mammalian ATG8 homologue GATE16, not to LC3B. •The interaction of TRPML3 with GATE16 facilitates autophagosome formation. •GATE16 is expressed in both autophagosome and extra-autophagosomal compartments. -- Abstract: TRPML3 is a Ca{sup 2+} permeable cation channel expressed in multiple intracellular compartments. Although TRPML3 is implicated in autophagy, how TRPML3 can regulate autophagy is not understood. To search interacting proteins with TRPML3 in autophagy, we performed split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MY2H) screening with TRPML3-loop as a bait and identified GATE16, a mammalian ATG8 homologue. GST pull-down assay revealed that TRPML3 and TRPML3-loop specifically bind to GATE16, not to LC3B. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments showed that TRPML3 and TRPML3-loop pull down only the lipidated form of GATE16, indicating that the interaction occurs exclusively at the organellar membrane. The interaction of TRPML3 with GATE16 and GATE16-positive vesicle formation were increased in starvation induced autophagy, suggesting that the interaction facilitates the function of GATE16 in autophagosome formation. However, GATE16 was not required for TRPML3 trafficking to autophagosomes. Experiments using dominant-negative (DN) TRPML3(D458K) showed that GATE16 is localized not only in autophagosomes but also in extra-autophagosomal compartments, by contrast with LC3B. Since GATE16 acts at a later stage of the autophagosome biogenesis, our results suggest that TRPML3 plays a role in autophagosome maturation through the interaction with GATE16, by providing Ca{sup 2+} in the fusion process.

  6. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifan; Li, Shu Jie; Pan, Juncheng; Che, Yongzhe; Yin, Jian; Zhao, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. → Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. → Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. → Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  7. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field involves T-type calcium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly A Buckner

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field (EMF exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca(2+ influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+ channels. Blocking Ca(2+ uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca(2+ influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy.

  8. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field involves T-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca(2+) influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+) channels. Blocking Ca(2+) uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca(2+) influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy.

  9. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide lotilaner (Credelio™): a non-competitive antagonist specific to invertebrates γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channels (GABACls)

    OpenAIRE

    Rufener, Lucien; Danelli, Vanessa; Bertrand, Daniel; Sager, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Background The isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and, to a lesser extent, of inhibitory glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). Lotilaner (Credelio™), a novel representative of this chemical class, is currently evaluated for its excellent ectoparasiticide properties. Methods In this study, we investigated the molecular mode of action and pharmacology of lotilaner. We report the success...

  10. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  11. Resolution studies for the micro vertex detector of the anti PANDA experiment and the reconstruction of charmed mesons for specific hadronic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The PANDA experiment is planned as part of the extended GSI facility FAIR to investigate hadronic reactions in antiproton-proton annihilations. An excellent beam quality and high luminosity is expected which allows the investigation of hadronic reactions such as the spectroscopy of the charmonium system. To ensure different studies of hadronic systems an universal detector is being designed, the PANDA detector. A high resolution Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), as part of the whole setup, is an important component of the track and vertex reconstruction. A mayor part of this work were simulation studies to investigate the resolution ability of the vertex detector. For this the development and implementation of reconstruction algorithms and their integration to the track and vertex reconstruction were an essential part to allow the detailed study of the resolution of the MVD and the whole apparatus under realistic assumptions. The track and vertex reconstruction ability of the detector is shown exemplarily for the channels antiproton-proton into two charged pions and into J/ψ and photon. The expected hadronic background for physics observables requires a high selection power of the experimental setup, especially for the investigation of the charmonium system above the D anti D threshold. For this particular energy region no experimental data exist and the PANDA experiment can contribute to understand the binding of charmed mesonic systems. Charmonium states can decay to open-charm channels which provide a clear signature in the detector from the charged D-Meson decays. In this work the high selection ability of the experimental setup was investigated for two reaction channels. Under the assumption of an expected low reaction cross section the clear identification of the DD(bar) decay channel was shown, even for the presence of a huge hadronic background. This allows a clear identification of the D anti D decay channel and mayor background resources for this channel were

  12. An 8/15-channel Tx/Rx head neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1 + shimming for whole-brain MRI focused on the cerebellum at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenrot, Viktor; Brunheim, Sascha; Rietsch, Stefan H G; Koopmans, Peter J; Ernst, Thomas M; Kraff, Oliver; Orzada, Stephan; Quick, Harald H

    2018-02-09

    To design and evaluate an 8/15-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) head-neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1+ shimming for whole-brain MRI with focus on improved functional MRI of the cerebellum at 7 T. An 8-channel transceiver RF head coil was combined with a 7-channel receive-only array. The noise parameters and acceleration capabilities of this 8Tx/15Rx coil setup were compared with a commercially available 1Tx/32Rx RF head coil. Region-specific 8-channel B1+ shimming was applied when using the 8Tx/15Rx RF coil. To evaluate the capability for functional MRI of the cerebellum, temporal SNR and statistical nonparametric maps for finger-tapping experiments with 14 healthy subjects were derived by applying a variable slice thickness gradient-echo echo-planar functional MRI sequence. The 8Tx/15Rx setup had a lower maximum noise correlation between channels, but higher average correlations compared with the 1Tx/32Rx coil. Both RF coils exhibited identical g-factors in the cerebellum with R = 3 acceleration. The enlarged FOV of the 8Tx/15Rx coil in combination with region-specific B1+ shimming increased homogeneity of the transmission field and temporal SNR in caudal cerebellar regions. Temporal SNR losses in cranial parts were reduced, resulting in more highly significant voxels in the caudally activated areas and identical patterns in the cranial cerebellar parts during a finger-tapping task. Compared with the 1Tx/32Rx RF coil, the presented 8Tx/15Rx RF coil combination successfully improves functional MRI of the human cerebellum at 7 T while maintaining whole-brain coverage. A clear temporal SNR gain in caudal cerebellar regions is shown. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. A process evaluation: does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Marieke A.; Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W.; Stronks, Karien; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups

  14. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  15. Upregulation of T-type Ca2+ channels in long-term diabetes determines increased excitability of a specific type of capsaicin-insensitive DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhyy, Dmytro E; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Viacheslav Y; Khomula, Eugen V; Voitenko, Nana V; Belan, Pavel V

    2015-05-20

    Previous studies have shown that increased excitability of capsaicin-sensitive DRG neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with short-term (2-4 weeks) streptozotocin-induced diabetes is mediated by upregulation of T-type Ca(2+) current. In longer-term diabetes (after the 8th week) thermal hyperalgesia is changed to hypoalgesia that is accompanied by downregulation of T-type current in capsaicin-sensitive small-sized nociceptors. At the same time pain symptoms of diabetic neuropathy other than thermal persist in STZ-diabetic animals and patients during progression of diabetes into later stages suggesting that other types of DRG neurons may be sensitized and contribute to pain. In this study, we examined functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in capsaicin-insensitive DRG neurons and excitability of these neurons in longer-term diabetic rats and in thermally hypoalgesic diabetic rats. Here we have demonstrated that in STZ-diabetes T-type current was upregulated in capsaicin-insensitive low-pH-sensitive small-sized nociceptive DRG neurons of longer-term diabetic rats and thermally hypoalgesic diabetic rats. This upregulation was not accompanied by significant changes in biophysical properties of T-type channels suggesting that a density of functionally active channels was increased. Sensitivity of T-type current to amiloride (1 mM) and low concentration of Ni(2+) (50 μM) implicates prevalence of Cav3.2 subtype of T-type channels in the capsaicin-insensitive low-pH-sensitive neurons of both naïve and diabetic rats. The upregulation of T-type channels resulted in the increased neuronal excitability of these nociceptive neurons revealed by a lower threshold for action potential initiation, prominent afterdepolarizing potentials and burst firing. Sodium current was not significantly changed in these neurons during long-term diabetes and could not contribute to the diabetes-induced increase of neuronal excitability. Capsaicin-insensitive low-pH-sensitive type

  16. The specificity of Av3 sea anemone toxin for arthropods is determined at linker DI/SS2-S6 in the pore module of target sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur Barzilai, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Regev, Noa; Gordon, Dalia; Moran, Yehu; Gurevitz, Michael

    2014-10-15

    Av3 is a peptide neurotoxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis that shows specificity for arthropod voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Interestingly, Av3 competes with a scorpion α-toxin on binding to insect Navs and similarly inhibits the inactivation process, and thus has been classified as 'receptor site-3 toxin', although the two peptides are structurally unrelated. This raises questions as to commonalities and differences in the way both toxins interact with Navs. Recently, site-3 was partly resolved for scorpion α-toxins highlighting S1-S2 and S3-S4 external linkers at the DIV voltage-sensor module and the juxtaposed external linkers at the DI pore module. To uncover channel determinants involved in Av3 specificity for arthropods, the toxin was examined on channel chimaeras constructed with the external linkers of the mammalian brain Nav1.2a, which is insensitive to Av3, in the background of the Drosophila DmNav1. This approach highlighted the role of linker DI/SS2-S6, adjacent to the channel pore, in determining Av3 specificity. Point mutagenesis at DI/SS2-S6 accompanied by functional assays highlighted Trp404 and His405 as a putative point of Av3 interaction with DmNav1. His405 conservation in arthropod Navs compared with tyrosine in vertebrate Navs may represent an ancient substitution that explains the contemporary selectivity of Av3. Trp404 and His405 localization near the membrane surface and the hydrophobic bioactive surface of Av3 suggest that the toxin possibly binds at a cleft by DI/S6. A partial overlap in receptor site-3 of both toxins nearby DI/S6 may explain their binding competition capabilities.

  17. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  18. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  19. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  20. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  1. Design and characterization of a laterally mounted phased-array transducer breast-specific MRgHIFU device with integrated 11-channel receiver array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, A; Merrill, R; Minalga, E; Vyas, U; de Bever, J; Todd, N; Hadley, R; Dumont, E; Neumayer, L; Christensen, D; Roemer, R; Parker, D

    2012-03-01

    This work presents the design and preliminary evaluation of a new laterally mounted phased-array MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) system with an integrated 11-channel phased-array radio frequency (RF) coil intended for breast cancer treatment. The design goals for the system included the ability to treat the majority of tumor locations, to increase the MR image's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) throughout the treatment volume and to provide adequate comfort for the patient. In order to treat the majority of the breast volume, the device was designed such that the treated breast is suspended in a 17-cm diameter treatment cylinder. A laterally shooting 1-MHz, 256-element phased-array ultrasound transducer with flexible positioning is mounted outside the treatment cylinder. This configuration achieves a reduced water volume to minimize RF coil loading effects, to position the coils closer to the breast for increased signal sensitivity, and to reduce the MR image noise associated with using water as the coupling fluid. This design uses an 11-channel phased-array RF coil that is placed on the outer surface of the cylinder surrounding the breast. Mechanical positioning of the transducer and electronic steering of the focal spot enable placement of the ultrasound focus at arbitrary locations throughout the suspended breast. The treatment platform allows the patient to lie prone in a face-down position. The system was tested for comfort with 18 normal volunteers and SNR capabilities in one normal volunteer and for heating accuracy and stability in homogeneous phantom and inhomogeneous ex vivo porcine tissue. There was a 61% increase in mean relative SNR achieved in a homogeneous phantom using the 11-channel RF coil when compared to using only a single-loop coil around the chest wall. The repeatability of the system's energy delivery in a single location was excellent, with less than 3% variability between repeated temperature measurements at the same

  2. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  4. Application of a compressible flow solver and barotropic cavitation model for the evaluation of the suction head in a low specific speed centrifugal pump impeller channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbach, P; Müller, T; Skoda, R

    2015-01-01

    Commonly, for the simulation of cavitation in centrifugal pumps incompressible flow solvers with VOF kind cavitation models are applied. Since the source/sink terms of the void fraction transport equation are based on simplified bubble dynamics, empirical parameters may need to be adjusted to the particular pump operating point. In the present study a barotropic cavitation model, which is based solely on thermodynamic fluid properties and does not include any empirical parameters, is applied on a single flow channel of a pump impeller in combination with a time-explicit viscous compressible flow solver. The suction head curves (head drop) are compared to the results of an incompressible implicit standard industrial CFD tool and are predicted qualitatively correct by the barotropic model. (paper)

  5. Electrophysiological characterisation of KCNQ channel modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, R.L

    Potassium (K+) ion channels are ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells, and each channel serves a precise physiological role due to its specific biophysical characteristics and expression pattern. A few K+ channels are targets for certain drugs, and in this thesis it is suggested that the KCNQ K......+ channels may be targets for neuroprotective, anti-epileptic and anti-nociceptive compounds. The importance of these channels is underscored by the fact that four out of five KCNQ channel subtypes are involved in severe human diseases. However, the pharmacology of the KCNQ channels is yet poorly understood...... as these channels were identified only recently. Therefore, there is a need for understanding the biophysical behavior and pharmacology of these ion channels. KCNQ channels belong to the group of voltage-activated K+ channels. The subfamily consists of KCNQ1-5, which is primarily expressed in the CNS, heart, ear...

  6. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  8. The mibefradil derivative NNC55-0396, a specific T-type calcium channel antagonist, exhibits less CYP3A4 inhibition than mibefradil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Peter H; Quesada, Arnulfo; Handforth, Adrian; Hankinson, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    A novel mibefradil derivative, NNC55-0396, designed to be hydrolysis-resistant, was shown to be a selective T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor without L-type Ca(2+) channel efficacy. However, its effects on cytochromes P450 (P450s) have not previously been examined. We investigated the inhibitory effects of NNC55-0396 toward seven major recombinant human P450s--CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYPC19, and CYP2E1--and compared its effects with those of mibefradil and its hydrolyzed metabolite, Ro40-5966. Our results show that CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are the two P450s most affected by mibefradil, Ro40-5966, and NNC55-0396. Mibefradil (IC(50) = 33 +/- 3 nM, K(i) = 23 +/- 0.5 nM) and Ro40-5966 (IC(50) = 30 +/- 7.8 nM, K(i) = 21 +/- 2.8 nM) have a 9- to 10-fold greater inhibitory activity toward recombinant CYP3A4 benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzylation activity than NNC55-0396 (IC(50) = 300 +/- 30 nM, K(i) = 210 +/- 6 nM). More dramatically, mibefradil (IC(50) = 566 +/- 71 nM, K(i) = 202 +/- 39 nM) shows 19-fold higher inhibition of CYP3A-associated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes compared with NNC55-0396 (IC(50) = 11 +/- 1.1 microM, K(i) = 3.9 +/- 0.4 microM). Loss of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity by recombinant CYP3A4 was shown to be time- and concentration-dependent with both compounds. However, NNC55-0396 (K(I) = 3.87 microM, K(inact) = 0.061/min) is a much less potent mechanism-based inhibitor than mibefradil (K(I) = 83 nM, K(inact) = 0.048/min). In contrast, NNC55-0396 (IC(50) = 29 +/- 1.2 nM, K(i) = 2.8 +/- 0.3 nM) and Ro40-5966 (IC(50) = 46 +/- 11 nM, K(i) = 4.5 +/- 0.02 nM) have a 3- to 4-fold greater inhibitory activity toward recombinant CYP2D6 than mibefradil (IC(50) = 129 +/- 21 nM, K(i) = 12.7 +/- 0.9 nM). Our results suggest that NNC55-0396 could be a more favorable T-type Ca(2+) antagonist than its parent compound, mibefradil, which was withdrawn from the market because of strong inhibition of CYP3A4.

  9. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  10. Specific features of design and electric circuit of the pulse modulator of the amplification channel of second-section linear accelerator for a meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyukov, L.V.; Fedorov, A.F.; Terekhov, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The circuit and design of a modulator at pulse power of 15 MW and average power of 300 kW, intended for supplying a klystron generator, are described. The modulator is designed for operating in a lengthy mode. The capacitance storage-former is made in the form of three parallel sections of artificial shaping lines in order to lower the specific loads on the elements of the shaping line and thyristors. The thyristor spark gaps are made in the form of a unified water-cooled assembly composed of 12 series TD-320 thyristors. An assessment of the modulator reliability has shown that the average time-to-fault is 800 hr. Modulator tests confirm that the choice of the circuit solution is correct. The modulator total efficiency equals to approximately 0.9

  11. Establishment of human sperm-specific voltage-dependent anion channel 3 recombinant vector for the production of a male contraceptive vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant vector of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene for production of VDAC3 antibody, which is potential as male contraception vaccine.Methods: Target fragment sequence of VDAC3 gene was obtained through amplification of human sperm VDAC3 cDNA with primers covering exon 5 to exon 8. Its PCR product in size of 435 bp was cloned to the pET101/D-TOPO expression vector (5753 bp. E. coli bacteria were transformed with this vector. Cloning of VDAC3 fragment gene to the vector was confirmed by the using of XbaI restriction enzyme and PCR colony method with primers covering exons 5-8 of the human VDAC3 gene.Results: Alignment analysis of amplified fragment covering exon 5 to exon 8 of VDAC3 gene showed 94% homology to human VDAC3 gene from databank. After cloning to the expression vector and transformation to E. coli competent cells, twelve colonies could grow in culture media. Gel electrophoresis of sliced VDAC3 recombinant vector showed a single band in the size of 6181 bp in 8 colonies. After application of PCR colony and amplicon sequencing, the result showed a single band in the size of 435 bp and fragment sequence with 94% identity to human VDAC3 gene.Conclusion: The construction of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene recombinant vector was established in this study. In the future, this recombinant vector will be used to produce VDAC3 antibody for the development of a male contraception vaccine. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:61-5Keywords: Contraception, recombinant vector, sperm, VDAC3

  12. High-efficient photo-electron transport channel in SiC constructed by depositing cocatalysts selectively on specific surface sites for visible-light H{sub 2} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Da; Peng, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Pan, Nanyan; Guo, Zhongnan; Yuan, Wenxia, E-mail: wxyuanwz@163.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-04-18

    Control cocatalyst location on a metal-free semiconductor to promote surface charge transfer for decreasing the electron-hole recombination is crucial for enhancing solar energy conversion. Based on the findings that some metals have an affinity for bonding with the specific atoms of polar semiconductors at a heterostructure interface, we herein control Pt deposition selectively on the Si sites of a micro-SiC photocatalyst surface via in-situ photo-depositing. The Pt-Si bond forming on the interface constructs an excellent channel, which is responsible for accelerating photo-electron transfer from SiC to Pt and then reducing water under visible-light. The hydrogen production is enhanced by two orders of magnitude higher than that of bare SiC, and 2.5 times higher than that of random-depositing nano-Pt with the same loading amount.

  13. The Drosophila Gr28bD product is a non-specific cation channel that can be used as a novel thermogenetic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Aditi; Salari, Autoosa; Berigan, Benton R; Miguel, Kayla C; Amirshenava, Marzie; Robinson, Abbey; Zars, Benjamin C; Lin, Jenna L; Milescu, Lorin S; Milescu, Mirela; Zars, Troy

    2018-01-17

    Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila. Our results show that Gr28bD expression in Xenopus oocytes produces a non-specific cationic current that is activated by elevated temperatures. This current is non-inactivating and non-voltage dependent. When expressed in Drosophila motor neurons, Gr28bD can be used to change the firing pattern of individual cells in a temperature-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that pan-neuronal or motor neuron expression of Gr28bD can be used to alter fruit fly behavior with elevated temperatures. Together, these results validate the potential of the Gr28bD gene as a founding member of a new class of thermogenetic tools.

  14. Study of material properties using channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, R.H.; Kephart, J.O.; Klein, R.K.; Park, H.; Berman, B.L.; Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    A possible application for channeling radiation is for investigating the properties of crystals in which the channeling occurs. In this paper we present some general considerations concerning channeling radiation as a measurement technique, and then we proceed to describe several specific examples

  15. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  16. Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  17. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  18. Distribution channels: Specific aspects and new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrić Dražen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Products and services distribution is aimed to a basic purpose of marketing - to satisfy needs of people and to distribute products to different types of customers, in necessary quantities, to designed destinations with competitive prices and in time when it is needed. For a effective distribution to take place it is necessary to have several resources from different profiles of organizations and to coordinate their knowledge.

  19. The specific features of marketing channel design

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonavičienė, Rasa; Alijošienė, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    […] Distribution as one of four elements of marketing complex is inseparable part of marketing decisions, which involves all the decisions about distribution of products to the end user. […] Every enterprise that acts at the conditions of market economy pays a big attention to organization and optimisation of the process of product distribution to the end user. The production performance, success of sales programme and position of the enterprise in the target market depends on product realiza...

  20. Marketing channel behaviour and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Thesis submitted to University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Business Administration. A major aim of this study is to offer a relatively comprehensive picture of marketing channel behaviour and performance. Given the statistical difficulties in testing a very large, comprehensive model to achieve this aim, two separate but overlapping models are proposed. One model specifically addresses behaviour in marketing channels, while the other integrates k...

  1. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. Scope of Review: This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. Major Conclusions: As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. General Significance: The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:24291688

  2. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  3. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite-memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, achieving the upper bound implies that the channel is asymptotically noiseless

  4. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  5. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan......In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known...... to be standard KCNQ potassium channel blockers. These compounds have been used in many different tissues as specific pharmacological tools to discern native currents conducted by KCNQ channels from other potassium currents. In this article, we demonstrate that ERG1-2 channels are also reversibly inhibited by XE......991 in the micromolar range (EC(50) 107 microM for ERG1). The effect has been characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ERG1-2 and in the mammalian HEK293 cell line stably expressing ERG1 channels. The IC(50) values for block of KCNQ channels by XE991 range 1-65 microM. In conclusion, great...

  6. Plasma channels for electron beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.F.; Smith, J.R.; Moffatt, M.E.; Nguyen, K.T.; Uhm, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in transport of intense relativistic electron beams using plasma channels. These channels are formed by either: ionization of an organic gas by UV photoionization or electron impact ionization of a low pressure gas utilizing a low energy (typically several hundred volts) electron gun. The second method is discussed here. As their electron gun, the authors used a 12 volt lightbulb filament which is biased to -400 volts with respect to the grounded 15 cm diameter drift tube. The electrons emitted from the filament are confined by an axial magnetic field of --100 Gauss to create a plasma channel which is less than 1 cm in radius. The channel density has been determined with Langmuir probes and the resulting line densities were found to be 10 11 to 10 12 per cm. When a multi-kiloamp electron beam is injected onto this channel, the beam space charge will eject the plasma electrons leaving the ions behind to charge neutralize the electron beam, hence allowing the beam to propagate. In this work, the authors performed experimental studies on the dynamics of the plasma channel. These include Langmuir probe measurements of a steady state (DC) channel, as well as time-resolved Langmuir probe studies of pulsed channels. In addition they performed experimental studies of beam propagation in these plasma channels. Specifically, they observed the behavior of current transport in these channels. Detailed results of beam transport and channel studies are presented

  7. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  8. Detection of the V1016G mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by allele-specific PCR assay, and its distribution and effect on deltamethrin resistance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Steven A; Plernsub, Suriya; Yanola, Jintana; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Choochote, Wej; Somboon, Pradya

    2013-08-30

    Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widespread among populations of Aedes aegypti, the main vector for the dengue virus. Several different point mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene contribute to such resistance. A mutation at position 1016 in domain II, segment 6 of the VGSC gene in Ae. aegypti leads to a valine to glycine substitution (V1016G) that confers resistance to deltamethrin. This study developed and utilized an allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay that could be used to detect the V1016G mutation. The assay was validated against a number of sequenced DNA samples of known genotype and was determined to be in complete agreement. Larvae and pupae were collected from various localities throughout Thailand. Samples were reared to adulthood and their resistance status against deltamethrin was determined by standard WHO susceptibility bioassays. Deltamethrin-resistant and susceptible insects were then genotyped for the V1016G mutation. Additionally, some samples were genotyped for a second mutation at position 1534 in domain III (F1534C) which is also known to confer pyrethroid resistance. The bioassay results revealed an overall mortality of 77.6%. Homozygous 1016G individuals survived at higher rates than either heterozygous or wild-type (1016 V) mosquitoes. The 1016G mutation was significantly and positively associated with deltamethrin resistance and was widely distributed throughout Thailand. Interestingly, wild-type 1016 V mosquitoes tested were homozygous for the 1534C mutation, and all heterozygous mosquitoes were also heterozygous for 1534C. Mutant homozygous (G/G) mosquitoes expressed the wild-type (F/F) at position 1534. However, the presence of the 1534C mutation was not associated with deltamethrin resistance. Our bioassay results indicate that all populations sampled display some degree of resistance to deltamethrin. Homozygous 1016G mosquitoes were far likelier to survive such exposure. However, resistance in some

  9. TRPV6 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher-Trost, Claudia; Weissgerber, Petra; Wissenbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    TRPV6 (former synonyms ECAC2, CaT1, CaT-like) displays several specific features which makes it unique among the members of the mammalian Trp gene family (1) TRPV6 (and its closest relative, TRPV5) are the only highly Ca(2+)-selective channels of the entire TRP superfamily (Peng et al. 1999; Wissenbach et al. 2001; Voets et al. 2004). (2) Translation of Trpv6 initiates at a non-AUG codon, at ACG, located upstream of the annotated AUG, which is not used for initiation (Fecher-Trost et al. 2013). The ACG codon is nevertheless decoded by methionine. Not only a very rare event in eukaryotic biology, the full-length TRPV6 protein existing in vivo comprises an amino terminus extended by 40 amino acid residues compared to the annotated truncated TRPV6 protein which has been used in most studies on TRPV6 channel activity so far. (In the following numbering occurs according to this full-length protein, with the numbers of the so far annotated truncated protein in brackets). (3) Only in humans a coupled polymorphism of Trpv6 exists causing three amino acid exchanges and resulting in an ancestral Trpv6 haplotype and a so-called derived Trpv6 haplotype (Wissenbach et al. 2001). The ancestral allele encodes the amino acid residues C197(157), M418(378) and M721(681) and the derived alleles R197(157), V418(378) and T721(681). The ancestral haplotype is found in all species, the derived Trpv6 haplotype has only been identified in humans, and its frequency increases with the distance to the African continent. Apparently the Trpv6 gene has been a strong target for selection in humans, and its derived variant is one of the few examples showing consistently differences to the orthologues genes of other primates (Akey et al. 2004, 2006; Stajich and Hahn 2005; Hughes et al. 2008). (4) The Trpv6 gene expression is significantly upregulated in several human malignancies including the most common cancers, prostate and breast cancer (Wissenbach et al. 2001; Zhuang et al. 2002; Fixemer et al

  10. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  11. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  12. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  13. Eight channel fast scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoup, W D; Stubbs, R J [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    An eight channel 64-bit scaler has been constructed with a static CMOS memory. Scaling frequencies are independently variable, at each channel, as are the number of bits/channel. The scaler, when used in conjunction with a multichannel charge to time converter results in a very flexible, gated multichannel ADC.

  14. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  15. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  16. Performance Evaluation of Proportional Fair Scheduling Algorithm with Measured Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Pons, Manuel Rubio

    2005-01-01

    subjected to measured channel traces. Specifically, we applied measured signal fading recorded from GSM cell phone users making calls on an indoor wireless office system. Different from reference channel models, these measured channels have much more irregular fading between users, which as we show...

  17. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  18. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  19. Cnidarian Toxins Acting on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Greenberg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical activity in excitable cells. As such, they are essential components of neuromuscular and neuronal systems, and are targeted by toxins from a wide variety of phyla, including the cnidarians. Here, we review cnidarian toxins known to target voltage-gated ion channels, the specific channel types targeted, and, where known, the sites of action of cnidarian toxins on different channels.

  20. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  1. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  2. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  3. Spiking neural P systems with multiple channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jinyu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Sun, Zhang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiangnian

    2017-11-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SNP systems, in short) are a class of distributed parallel computing systems inspired from the neurophysiological behavior of biological spiking neurons. In this paper, we investigate a new variant of SNP systems in which each neuron has one or more synaptic channels, called spiking neural P systems with multiple channels (SNP-MC systems, in short). The spiking rules with channel label are introduced to handle the firing mechanism of neurons, where the channel labels indicate synaptic channels of transmitting the generated spikes. The computation power of SNP-MC systems is investigated. Specifically, we prove that SNP-MC systems are Turing universal as both number generating and number accepting devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Channels: a new way to revisit pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    Many "essential" diseases that manifest themselves in the form of crises or fits (epilepsies, episodic ataxia, periodic paralyses, myotonia, heart rhythm disorders, etc.) are due to ionic channel dysfunction and are thus referred to as "channelopathies". Some of these disorders are congenital, due to mutations of genes encoding channel subunits, while others result from toxic, immune or hormonal disturbances affecting channelfunction. Channelopathies take on a wide variety of clinical forms, depending on the type of channel (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride...) and the type of dysfunction (loss or gain of function). Some apparently unrelated diseases affecting distinct organs are due to a similar dysfunction of the same channel, revealing unsuspected relationships between organs and between medical specialties. In addition, a given syndrome can be caused by distinct channel dysfunctions. This provides new opportunities for diferential diagnosis and specific correction of the causal defects, although some treatments find applications across multiple medical specialties.

  5. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  6. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  7. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to coolant channels for pressurised water and boiling water reactors and the arrangement described aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel rods and the coolant. Baffle means extending axially within the channel are provided and disposed relative to the fuel rods so as to restrict flow oscillations occurring within the coolant from being propagated transversely to the axis of the channel. (UK)

  8. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  9. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  10. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  11. Selling Tourism Products through the Opaque Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ogonowska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses the properties of the advanced Opaque booking systems used by online travel agencies in conjunction with their traditional transparent booking system. In section 2 an updated literature review is presented. This review underlines the interest and the specificities of Opaque goods in the Tourism Industry. It also characterises properties of the Name-Your-Own-Price channel introduced by Priceline and the Opaque channel developed by Hotwire. Then, in s...

  12. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  13. Omni channel fashion shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; van Delft, L.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Pantano, E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives insight into consumers' online and offline fashion shopping behavior, consumers' omni-channel usage during the shopping process, and consumer fashion shopper segments. Based on a literature review, omni-channel shopping behavior during the shopping process was operationalized.

  14. Channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, A.; Avrahami, Z.; Sheinfux, B.; Grinberg, J.

    1976-01-01

    A channel electron multiplier is described having a tubular wall coated with a secondary-electron emitting material and including an electric field for accelerating the electrons, the electric field comprising a plurality of low-resistive conductive rings each alternating with a high-resistive insulating ring. The thickness of the low-resistive rings is many times larger than that of the high-resistive rings, being in the order of tens of microns for the low-resistive rings and at least one order of magnitude lower for the high-resistive rings; and the diameter of the channel tubular walls is also many times larger than the thickness of the high-resistive rings. Both single-channel and multiple-channel electron multipliers are described. A very important advantage, particularly in making multiple-channel multipliers, is the simplicity of the procedure that may be used in constructing such multipliers. Other operational advantages are described

  15. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  16. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  17. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo C. DiFrancesco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4 in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic and

  18. Coherifying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  19. CANDU channel flow verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazalu, N.; Negut, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain accurate information on each channel flow that enables us to assess precisely the level of reactor thermal power and, for reasons of safety, to establish which channel is boiling. In order to assess the channel flow parameters, computer simulations were done with the NUCIRC code and the results were checked by measurements. The complete channel flow measurements were made in the zero power cold condition. In hot conditions there were made flow measurements using the Shut Down System 1 (SDS 1) flow devices from 0.1 % F.P. up to 100 % F.P. The NUCIRC prediction for CANDU channel flows and the measurements by Ultrasonic Flow Meter at zero power cold conditions and SDS 1 flow channel measurements at different reactor power levels showed an acceptable agreement. The 100 % F.P. average errors for channel flow of R, shows that suitable NUCIRC flow assessment can be made. So, it can be done a fair prediction of the reactor power distribution. NUCIRC can predict accurately the onset of boiling and helps to warn at the possible power instabilities at high powers or it can detect the flow blockages. The thermal hydraulic analyst has in NUCIRC a suitable tool to do accurate predictions for the thermal hydraulic parameters for different steady state power levels which subsequently leads to an optimal CANDU reactor operation. (authors)

  20. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  1. Channel follower leakage restrictor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.; Smith, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    An improved means is provided to control coolant leakage between the flow channel and the lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly. The means includes an opening in the lower tie plate and a movable element adjacent thereto. The coolant pressure within the tie plate biases the movable means toward the inner surface of the surrounding flow channel to compensate for any movement of the flow channel away from the lower tie plate to thereby control the leakage of coolant flow from the fuel assemblies to the spaces among the fuel assemblies of the core. 9 figures

  2. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  3. Many channel spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.; Glumac, B.; Pauko, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle of the ITER unfolding code as used for the many channel spectrum unfolding is described. Its unfolding ability is tested on seven typical neutron spectra. The effect of the initial spectrum approximation upon the solution is discussed

  4. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  5. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  6. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  7. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The TRP ("transient receptor potential") family of ion channels now comprises more than 30 cation channels, most of which are permeable for Ca2+, and some also for Mg2+. On the basis of sequence homology, the TRP family can be divided in seven main subfamilies: the TRPC ('Canonical') family......, the TRPV ('Vanilloid') family, the TRPM ('Melastatin') family, the TRPP ('Polycystin') family, the TRPML ('Mucolipin') family, the TRPA ('Ankyrin') family, and the TRPN ('NOMPC') family. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has exploded during recent years, leading...... to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  8. Authentication over Noisy Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Lifeng; Gamal, Hesham El; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios,...

  9. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  10. Stream Channel Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Cycles of wetting and drying are also t ,v itiue swelling and shrinkage of the soil. S 11ied blocks or peds of soil fabric ,,ks. id downslope soil creep ...hydrographs of water and sediment at the point in question. By feeding the output from the hydrology-transport model into the finite element model...the banks as undercut banks fail. Channel irregularities such as seepage zones, cattle crossings, overbank drainage, buried channels, organic deposits

  11. Channeling and dynamic chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, IU L; Gonchar, V IU; Truten, V I; Shulga, N F

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that axial channeling of relativistic electrons can give rise to the effect of dynamic chaos which involves essentially chaotic motion of a particle in the channel. The conditions leading to the effect of dynamic chaos and the manifestations of this effect in physical processes associated with the passage of particles through a crystal are examined using a silicon crystal as an example. 7 references.

  12. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  13. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  14. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  15. Activation, Permeability, and Inhibition of Astrocytic and Neuronal Large Pore (Hemi)channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Ye, Zu-Cheng; Calloe, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    overlapping sensitivity to the inhibitors Brilliant Blue, gadolinium, and carbenoxolone. These results demonstrated isoform-specific characteristics among the large pore membrane channels; an open (hemi)channel is not a nonselective channel. With these isoform-specific properties in mind, we characterized...

  16. Channel Modelling for Multiprobe Over-the-Air MIMO Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kyösti

    2012-01-01

    a fading emulator, an anechoic chamber, and multiple probes. Creation of a propagation environment inside an anechoic chamber requires unconventional radio channel modelling, namely, a specific mapping of the original models onto the probe antennas. We introduce two novel methods to generate fading emulator channel coefficients; the prefaded signals synthesis and the plane wave synthesis. To verify both methods we present a set of simulation results. We also show that the geometric description is a prerequisite for the original channel model.

  17. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered...

  18. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  19. Channel identification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  20. TRP channel proteins and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Baruch; Cook, Boaz

    2002-04-01

    TRP channel proteins constitute a large and diverse family of proteins that are expressed in many tissues and cell types. This family was designated TRP because of a spontaneously occurring Drosophila mutant lacking TRP that responded to a continuous light with a transient receptor potential (hence TRP). In addition to responses to light, TRPs mediate responses to nerve growth factor, pheromones, olfaction, mechanical, chemical, temperature, pH, osmolarity, vasorelaxation of blood vessels, and metabolic stress. Furthermore, mutations in several members of TRP-related channel proteins are responsible for several diseases, such as several tumors and neurodegenerative disorders. TRP-related channel proteins are found in a variety of organisms, tissues, and cell types, including nonexcitable, smooth muscle, and neuronal cells. The large functional diversity of TRPs is also reflected in their diverse permeability to ions, although, in general, they are classified as nonselective cationic channels. The molecular domains that are conserved in all members of the TRP family constitute parts of the transmembrane domains and in most members also the ankyrin-like repeats at the NH2 terminal of the protein and a "TRP domain" at the COOH terminal, which is a highly conserved 25-amino acid stretch with still unknown function. All of the above features suggest that members of the TRP family are "special assignment" channels, which are recruited to diverse signaling pathways. The channels' roles and characteristics such as gating mechanism, regulation, and permeability are determined by evolution according to the specific functional requirements.

  1. New Trends in Cancer Therapy: Targeting Ion Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Arcangeli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression and activity of different channel types mark and regulate specific stages of cancer establishment and progression. Blocking channel activity impairs the growth of some tumors, both in vitro and in vivo, which opens a new field for pharmaceutical research. However, ion channel blockers may produce serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias. For instance, Kv11.1 (hERG1 channels are aberrantly expressed in several human cancers, in which they control different aspects of the neoplastic cell behaviour. hERG1 blockers tend to inhibit cancer growth. However they also retard the cardiac repolarization, thus lengthening the electrocardiographic QT interval, which can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Several possibilities exist to produce less harmful compounds, such as developing specific drugs that bind hERG1 channels in the open state or disassemble the ion channel/integrin complex which appears to be crucial in certain stages of neoplastic progression. The potential approaches to improve the efficacy and safety of ion channel targeting in oncology include: (1 targeting specific conformational channel states; (2 finding ever more specific inhibitors, including peptide toxins, for channel subtypes mainly expressed in well-identified tumors; (3 using specific ligands to convey traceable or cytotoxic compounds; (4 developing channel blocking antibodies; (5 designing new molecular tools to decrease channel expression in selected cancer types. Similar concepts apply to ion transporters such as the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+/H+ exchanger. Pharmacological targeting of these transporters is also currently being considered in anti-neoplastic therapy.

  2. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  3. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  4. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  5. A conceptual model of channel choice : measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Jager, Wander

    2004-01-01

    This study tries to understand how consumers evaluate channels for their purchasing. Specifically, it develops a conceptual model that addresses consumer value perceptions of using the Internet versus the traditional (physical) channel. Previous research showed that perceptions of price, product

  6. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.

    1992-11-01

    This report extends the work reported in document INFO-0370 on fuel channel refilling by providing analysis of the refilling tests conducted using the RD-14 and RD-14M test facilities. The analysis focuses on the general thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the facilities following various small and large inlet and outlet header breaks with emergency coolant injection. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHENA was tested against results obtained from selected experiments carried out in the two facilities. Conclusions related to the effect of break size, mode of emergency core injection, primary pump operation and parallel channels are presented. (Author) (116 figs., 17 tabs., 53 refs.)

  7. Ion channels in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with the most dismal prognosis. It is characterized by extensive invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Median survival is only 15 months due to this behavior, rendering focal surgical resection ineffective and adequate radiotherapy impossible. At this moment, several ion channels have been implicated in glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. This paper summarizes studies on potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium channels of glioblastoma. It provides an up-to-date overview of the literature that could ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets.

  8. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of existing data on fuel channel refilling is presented. The analysis focuses on the data obtained using the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Test (CWIT) Facility. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulics computer code CATHENA is also used to simulate experimental results on fuel channel refilling from both the CWIT and RD-14 facilities. Conclusions related to single and double break tests, including the effect of non-condensible gases, are presented. A set of recommendations is given for further analysis and separate effect experiments. (67 figs., 5 tabs., 24 refs.)

  9. Identifying cochlear implant channels with poor electrode-neuron interface: partial tripolar, single-channel thresholds and psychophysical tuning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Faulkner, Kathleen F

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of a threshold measure, made with a restricted electrode configuration, to identify channels exhibiting relatively poor spatial selectivity. With a restricted electrode configuration, channel-to-channel variability in threshold may reflect variations in the interface between the electrodes and auditory neurons (i.e., nerve survival, electrode placement, and tissue impedance). These variations in the electrode-neuron interface should also be reflected in psychophysical tuning curve (PTC) measurements. Specifically, it is hypothesized that high single-channel thresholds obtained with the spatially focused partial tripolar (pTP) electrode configuration are predictive of wide or tip-shifted PTCs. Data were collected from five cochlear implant listeners implanted with the HiRes90k cochlear implant (Advanced Bionics Corp., Sylmar, CA). Single-channel thresholds and most comfortable listening levels were obtained for stimuli that varied in presumed electrical field size by using the pTP configuration for which a fraction of current (sigma) from a center-active electrode returns through two neighboring electrodes and the remainder through a distant indifferent electrode. Forward-masked PTCs were obtained for channels with the highest, lowest, and median tripolar (sigma = 1 or 0.9) thresholds. The probe channel and level were fixed and presented with either the monopolar (sigma = 0) or a more focused pTP (sigma > or = 0.55) configuration. The masker channel and level were varied, whereas the configuration was fixed to sigma = 0.5. A standard, three-interval, two-alternative forced choice procedure was used for thresholds and masked levels. Single-channel threshold and variability in threshold across channels systematically increased as the compensating current, sigma, increased and the presumed electrical field became more focused. Across subjects, channels with the highest single-channel thresholds, when measured with a

  10. Atomic basis for therapeutic activation of neuronal potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Robin Y; Yau, Michael C; Galpin, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Retigabine is a recently approved anticonvulsant that acts by potentiating neuronal M-current generated by KCNQ2-5 channels, interacting with a conserved Trp residue in the channel pore domain. Using unnatural amino-acid mutagenesis, we subtly altered the properties of this Trp to reveal specific...

  11. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  12. Channel allocation and rate adaptation for relayed transmission over correlated fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2009-09-01

    We consider, in this paper, channel allocation and rate adaptation scheme for relayed transmission over correlated fading channels via cross-layer design. Specifically, jointly considering the data link layer buffer occupancy and channel quality at both the source and relay nodes, we develop an optimal channel allocation and rate adaptation policy for a dual-hop relayed transmission. As such the overall transmit power for the relayed system is minimized while a target packet dropping rate (PDR) due to buffer over flows is guaranteed. In order to find such an optimal policy, the channel allocation and rate adaptation transmission framework is formulated as a constraint Markov decision process (CMDP). The PDR performance of the optimal policy is compared with that of two conventional suboptimal schemes, namely the channel quality based and the buffer occupancy based channel allocation schemes. Numerical results show that for a given power budget, the optimal scheme requires significantly less power than the conventional schemes in order to maintain a target PDR. ©2009 IEEE.

  13. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  14. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  15. Workshop on Gas Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Effect of pressure on gas permeability. In Fish … Different channels or splice variants at different depth.  HRE (hypoxia-response elements): which...proteins unexpectedly have HREs . HIF-1.  Shear stress:  expression of NOS  Are different splice variants used under different conditions?  Size

  16. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this chapter, we will review the molecular identities and biophysical properties of these channels. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the possibility and prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:27261823

  17. Morphometric relations of fractal-skeletal based channel network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractal-skeletal based channel network (F-SCN model is proposed. Four regular sided initiator-basins are transformed as second order fractal basins by following a specific generating mechanism with non-random rule. The morphological skeletons, hereafter referred to as channel networks, are extracted from these fractal basins. The morphometric and fractal relationships of these F-SCNs are shown. The fractal dimensions of these fractal basins, channel networks, and main channel lengths (computed through box counting method are compared with those of estimated length–area measures. Certain morphometric order ratios to show fractal relations are also highlighted.

  18. Ligand Access Channels in Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Urban

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationships may bring invaluable information on structural elements of both enzymes and substrates that, together, govern substrate specificity. Buried active sites in cytochrome P450 enzymes are connected to the solvent by a network of channels exiting at the distal surface of the protein. This review presents different in silico tools that were developed to uncover such channels in P450 crystal structures. It also lists some of the experimental evidence that actually suggest that these predicted channels might indeed play a critical role in modulating P450 functions. Amino acid residues at the entrance of the channels may participate to a first global ligand recognition of ligands by P450 enzymes before they reach the buried active site. Moreover, different P450 enzymes show different networks of predicted channels. The plasticity of P450 structures is also important to take into account when looking at how channels might play their role.

  19. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically

  20. Private channels in plant-pollinator mutualisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Volatile compounds often mediate plant-pollinator interactions, and may promote specialization in plant-pollinator relationships, notably through private channels of unusual compounds. Nevertheless, the existence of private channels, i.e., the potential for exclusive communication via unique signals and receptors, is still debated in the literature. Interactions between figs and their pollinating wasps offer opportunities for exploring this concept. Several experiments have demonstrated that chemical mediation is crucial in ensuring the encounter between figs and their species-specific pollinators. Indeed, chemical messages emitted by figs are notably species- and developmental stage-specific, making them reliable cues for the pollinator. In most cases, the species-specificity of wasp attraction is unlikely to result from the presence of a single specific compound. Nevertheless, a recent paper on the role of scents in the interaction between Ficus semicordata and its pollinating wasp Ceratosolen gravelyi showed that a single compound, 4-methylanisole, is the main signal compound in the floral scent, and is sufficient by itself to attract the obligate pollinator. Mainly focusing on these results, we propose here that a floral scent can act as a private channel, attracting only the highly specific pollinator. PMID:20484975

  1. Quantum channels and their entropic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holevo, A S; Giovannetti, V

    2012-01-01

    One of the major achievements of the recently emerged quantum information theory is the introduction and thorough investigation of the notion of a quantum channel which is a basic building block of any data-transmitting or data-processing system. This development resulted in an elaborated structural theory and was accompanied by the discovery of a whole spectrum of entropic quantities, notably the channel capacities, characterizing information-processing performance of the channels. This paper gives a survey of the main properties of quantum channels and of their entropic characterization, with a variety of examples for finite-dimensional quantum systems. We also touch upon the 'continuous-variables' case, which provides an arena for quantum Gaussian systems. Most of the practical realizations of quantum information processing were implemented in such systems, in particular based on principles of quantum optics. Several important entropic quantities are introduced and used to describe the basic channel capacity formulae. The remarkable role of specific quantum correlations—entanglement—as a novel communication resource is stressed.

  2. Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.

  3. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  4. Some properties of a channeling model of fracture flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Tsang, C.F.; Neretnieks, I.

    1986-12-01

    The Gamma distribution and the log-normal distribution were used to describe the density distribution of the apertures within a channel. For every set of parameter values (correlation length, and the parameters of the distributions) 95 different statistically equivalent channels were generated. The aperture distribution along the channels are then used to determine the total channel volume, the hydraulic conductivity and the flow rate and residence time for a given gradient. The volumes of the channels were found to vary little whereas the hydraulic conductivity, which is primarily determined by the smallest aperture along the channels, varies considerably. For a wide density distribution the hydraulic conductivity easily spans several orders of magnitude. The flow rate and the velocity variations are primarily influenced by the conductivity variations and are only to a small extent influenced by the volume variations in the channel. The average specific area of the whole channel exhibits small variations. The hydraulic and transport properties of hypothetical fractures containing several channels are investigated by randomly picking several of the generated channels, coupling them in parallel and subjecting them to the same hydraulic head difference. The flow rate and residence time distribution of the coupled channels is used to investigate the dispersion properties of the fracture. It was found that the dispersion expressed as Peclet numbers was on the order of 1 to 4 for most of the distributions used but could attain very large Peclet numbers for (unrealistically) narrow aperture distributions. Simulations of breakthrough curves for tracers in single fracture flow experiments indicate that when few channels participate and the dispersion in the individual channels is small, the breakthrough curve is expected not to be entirely smooth but to contain distinct plateaus. This property has been noted in several experiments. (orig./HP)

  5. VAX CAMAC channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.J.; Breidenbach, M.; Granieri, C.D.; Grund, J.E.; Patrick, J.F.; Weaver, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    A new generation CAMAC System has been developed for the Mark II Detector at SLAC's PEP storage ring. This flexible system can efficiently transfer data between a host computer and a very large set of CAMAC data acquisition and control modules. A bipolar microprocessor operates as a Channel interface by supervising the CAMAC system and minimizing the host computer's work. This programmable channel couples the host to a set of System Crates; each System Crate houses Branch Drivers that can directly control a set of crates or communicate over differential parallel highways to Branch Receivers for control of distant crates. A coherent software package integrates the high level programs, system driver level programs, and microcode control of the system

  6. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  7. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois

    2007-01-01

    A complete and detailed description of the theoretical background of an '(1D) thermal-hydraulic drift-flux based mixture-fluid' coolant channel model and its resulting module CCM will be presented. The objective of this module is to simulate as universally as possible the steady state and transient behaviour of the key characteristic parameters of a single- or two-phase fluid flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channel. Due to the possibility that different flow regimes can appear along any channel, such a 'basic (BC)' 1D channel is assumed to be subdivided into a number of corresponding sub-channels (SC-s). Each SC can belong to only two types of flow regime, an SC with just a single-phase fluid, containing exclusively either sub-cooled water or superheated steam, or an SC with a two-phase mixture flow. After an appropriate nodalisation of such a BC (and therefore also its SC-s) a 'modified finite volume method' has been applied for the spatial discretisation of the partial differential equations (PDE-s) which represent the basic conservation equations of thermal-hydraulics. Special attention had to be given to the possibility of variable SC entrance or outlet positions (which describe boiling boundaries or mixture levels) and thus the fact that an SC can even disappear or be created anew. The procedure yields for each SC type (and thus the entire BC), a set of non-linear ordinary 1st order differential equations (ODE-s). To link the resulting mean nodal with the nodal boundary function values, both of which are present in the discretised differential equations, a special quadratic polygon approximation procedure (PAX) had to be constructed. Together with the very thoroughly tested packages for drift-flux, heat transfer and single- and two-phase friction factors this procedure represents the central part of the here presented 'Separate-Region' approach, a theoretical model which provides the basis to the very effective working code package CCM

  8. Tourism distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The distribution channels link the customers with the businesses. For many years, the tourism businesses may have distributed their products and services through intermediaries. However, the latest advances in technology have brought significant changes in this regard. More individuals and corporate customers are increasingly benefiting of ubiquitous technologies, including digital media. The development of mobile devices and their applications, are offering a wide range of possibilities to t...

  9. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julia Craven

    2015-12-08

    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  10. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  11. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    Drug resistance of Influenza A against antivirals is an increasing problem. No effective Influenza A drugs targeting the crucial viral protein, the proton transporter M2 are available anymore due to widespread resistance. Thanks to research efforts elucidating M2 protein structure, function and i...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  12. Matching Dyadic Distributions to Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Böcherer, Georg; Mathar, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Many communication channels with discrete input have non-uniform capacity achieving probability mass functions (PMF). By parsing a stream of independent and equiprobable bits according to a full prefix-free code, a modu-lator can generate dyadic PMFs at the channel input. In this work, we show that for discrete memoryless channels and for memoryless discrete noiseless channels, searching for good dyadic input PMFs is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler distance between a dyadic PMF ...

  13. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  14. Microstructural information from channeling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1984-09-01

    Channeling is sensitive to nearly all structural changes in solids. One briefly recalls how particles are dechanneled by lattice defects and describes the main applications of channeling to materials science: detection of radiation damage, location of impurity atoms, precipitations in alloys... Channeling being a phenomenon characteristic of perfect crystals, any type of lattice imperfection (phonons, crystal defects, precipitation etc.) is expected to produce dechanneling. Consequently channeling and its opposite, dechanneling, have both been used to study structure and structural changes of materials

  15. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  16. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  17. TRP channels in kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Recent studies of TRP channels indicate that they are involved in numerous fundamental cell

  18. Parallel inter channel interaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.

    1995-01-01

    Parallel channels interactions are examined. For experimental researches of nonstationary regimes flow in three parallel vertical channels results of phenomenon analysis and mechanisms of parallel channel interaction for adiabatic condition of one-phase fluid and two-phase mixture flow are shown. (author)

  19. The human role in changing river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K. J.

    2006-09-01

    Direct consequences of the human role, where human activity affects river channels through engineering works including channelization, dam construction, diversion and culverting, have been long recognised [Marsh, G.P., 1864. Man and Nature or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Charles Scribner, New York; Thomas Jr., W.L., (ed.) 1956. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.]. The less obvious indirect effects of point and reach changes occurring downstream and throughout the basin, however, are much more recently appreciated, dating from key contributions by Strahler [Strahler, A.N., 1956. The nature of induced erosion and aggradation. In W. L. Thomas (Ed.), Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 621-638.], Wolman [Wolman, M.G., 1967. A cycle of sedimentation and erosion in urban river channels. Geografiska Annaler 49A, 385-95.], Schumm [Schumm, S.A., 1969. River metamorphosis. Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal Hydraulics Division 95, 255-73.], and Graf [Graf, W.L., 1977. The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science, 277, 178-191.]. These are complemented by effects of alterations of land use, such as deforestation, intensive agriculture and incidence of fire, with the most extreme effects produced by building activity and urbanisation. Changing river channels are most evident in the channel cross-section where changes of size, shape and composition are now well-established, with up to tenfold increases or decreases illustrated by results from more than 200 world studies. In addition the overall channel planform, the network and the ecology have changed. Specific terms have become associated with changing river channels including enlargement, shrinkage and metamorphosis. Although the scope of adjustment has been established, it has not always been possible to predict what will happen in a particular location

  20. On the capacity of multiaccess fading channels with full channel state information at low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2013-06-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multiaccess (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver (CSI-R) and at the transmitters (CSI-T), at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Inspired from this result, we propose an on-off scheme, compute its achievable rate, and provide a necessary condition on the fading channels under which this scheme achieves single user capacity bounds of the MAC channel at asymptotically low power regime. We argue that this necessary condition characterizes a class of fading that encompasses all known wireless channels, where the capacity region of the MAC channel has a simple expression in terms of users\\' average power constraints only. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Conductance of Ion Channels - Theory vs. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Mijajlovic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane ion channels mediate a number of essential physiological processes in a cell ranging from regulating osmotic pressure to transmission of neural signals. Kinetics and selectivity of ion transport is of critical importance to a cell and, not surprisingly, it is a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. In this presentation we will analyze in detail computer simulations of two simple channels from fungi - antiamoebin and trichotoxin. Each of these channels is made of an alpha-helical bundle of small, nongenomically synthesized peptides containing a number of rare amino acids and exhibits strong antimicrobial activity. We will focus on calculating ionic conductance defined as the ratio of ionic current through the channel to applied voltage. From molecular dynamics simulations, conductance can be calculated in at least two ways, each involving different approximations. Specifically, the current, given as the number of charges transferred through the channel per unit of time, can be obtained from the number of events in which ions cross the channel during the simulation. This method works well for large currents (high conductance values and/or applied voltages). If the number of crossing events is small, reliable estimates of current are difficult to achieve. Alternatively, conductance can be estimated assuming that ion transport can be well approximated as diffusion in the external potential given by the free energy profile. Then, the current can be calculated by solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation in this external potential and applied voltage (the generalized Nernst-Planck equation). To do so three ingredients are needed: the free energy profile, the position-dependent diffusion coefficient and the diffusive flux of ions into the channel. All these quantities can be obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. An important advantage of this method is that it can be used equally well to estimating large and small currents

  2. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  3. A versatile technology platform for microfluidic handling systems, part II : channel design and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; de Boer, Meint J.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic devices often require channels of a specific size and shape. These devices are then made in a fabrication process that is often specialized to produce only those (and very similar) channels. As a result, devices requiring channels of different size and shape cannot easily be integrated

  4. Feedback Halves the Dispersion for Some Two-User Broadcast Channels with Common Message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the maximum coding rate achievable on a two-user broadcast channel for the case where a common- message is transmitted using fixed-blocklength codes with feed- back. Specifically, we focus on a family of broadcast channels com- posed of two antisymmetric Z-channels. For this setup,...

  5. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  6. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    muscle k142), heart muscle (80), bo- are released. In recent years much has been learned vine pulmonar arter endothelial cells (251), and rat about the...b3 Zn or cytes from cystic fibrosis patients lack a Cl current that Ni (1 mM)-added to the cytoplasmic side of the mem- can be acti% ated b3 the...that at37’C hu- to be defectiv.- in cystic fibrosis (55, 277), and Chen et al. man T-cell CiL channels are active at rest, implies that (25) have shown

  7. Assessing the Returns from Organic Marketing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farmers face heightened pressure in developing a portfolio of different marketing channels and in bargaining competitively with increasingly sophisticated marketing participants in the supply chain for organic products. This research assists producers by identifying specific farm and demographic factors that enhance earnings given the choice of marketing outlet. The two significant selectivity coefficients confirm that organic earnings when marketing through a single outlet are biased...

  8. Boundary vapor contentsin an annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remizov, O.V.; Shurkin, N.G.; Podgornyj, K.K.; Gal'chenko, Eh.F.; Bukhteev, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The work is aimed at the experimental investigation of the worsening of the heat transfer in an annular channel. The experiments have been carried out on the annular channel 32x28x3000 mm with the even distribution of the heat flux along the length at pressures of 6.9-19.6 MPa, flow rate of 350-1000 kg/m 2 s, and specific heat fluxes from 0.18 up to 0.6 MW/m 2 . Heating is external, oneside. Water monodistillate of the following composition has been used as a coolant: pH 9; dry residue - 0.8-1.2 mg/kg, oxygen -10-15 mg/kg. It is found out that the change character of the temperature field of the heating surface of the annular channel at the regime with the worsen of heat emission depends on the ratio of regime parameters. At pressures of 6.9-13.7 MPa and flow rate of 350-500 kg/m 2 s the channel wall temperature rises monotoneously, never reaching its maximum. With pressure rise > 13.7 MPa and mass velocity > 500 kg/m 2 s the temperature of the heat emitting surface reaches its maximum, and then slowly falls. At pressures of 6.9-11.8 MPa the boundary vapor content value within the whole range of mass velocities does not depend on the specific heat flux q. At pressures higher than 13.7 MPa and mass velocities of 350-1000 kg/m 2 s the boundary vapor content depends on q. The heating of the external or internal surface of the annular channel affects the value of the boundary vapor content within the whole range of regime parameters' change under investigation

  9. Mimicking multi-channel scattering with single-channel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multi-channel (MC) problem as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold 6Li and 87Rb atoms in the ground state and in the ...

  10. The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-07

    We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.

  11. The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir; Chaaban, Anas; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.

  12. G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channels involved in corticostriatal presynaptic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, David; Mateos, Verónica; Islas, Gustavo; Barral, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Presynaptic modulation has been associated mainly with calcium channels but recent data suggests that inward rectifier potassium channels (K(IR)) also play a role. In this work we set to characterize the role of presynaptic K(IR) channels in corticostriatal synaptic transmission. We elicited synaptic potentials in striatum by stimulating cortical areas and then determined the synaptic responses of corticostriatal synapsis by using paired pulse ratio (PPR) in the presence and absence of several potassium channel blockers. Unspecific potassium channels blockers Ba(2+) and Cs(+) reduced the PPR, suggesting that these channels are presynaptically located. Further pharmacological characterization showed that application of tertiapin-Q, a specific K(IR)3 channel family blocker, also induced a reduction of PPR, suggesting that K(IR)3 channels are present at corticostriatal terminals. In contrast, exposure to Lq2, a specific K(IR)1.1 inward rectifier potassium channel, did not induce any change in PPR suggesting the absence of these channels in the presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. Our results indicate that K(IR)3 channels are functionally expressed at the corticostriatal synapses, since blockage of these channels result in PPR decrease. Our results also help to explain how synaptic activity may become sensitive to extracellular signals mediated by G-protein coupled receptors. A vast repertoire of receptors may influence neurotransmitter release in an indirect manner through regulation of K(IR)3 channels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  14. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels....... A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct...... characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion...

  15. Single channel recording of a mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangyan; Li, Shunjin; Zong, Guangning; Liu, Xiaofen; Fei, Shuang; Shen, Linda; Guan, Xiangchen; Yang, Xue; Shen, Yuequan

    2018-01-29

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is the pore-forming subunit of the entire uniporter complex and plays an important role in mitochondrial calcium uptake. However, the single channel recording of MCU remains controversial. Here, we expressed and purified different MCU proteins and then reconstituted them into planar lipid bilayers for single channel recording. We showed that MCU alone from Pyronema omphalodes (pMCU) is active with prominent single channel Ca 2+ currents. In sharp contrast, MCU alone from Homo sapiens (hMCU) is inactive. The essential MCU regulator (EMRE) activates hMCU, and therefore, the complex (hMCU-hEMRE) shows prominent single channel Ca 2+ currents. These single channel currents are sensitive to the specific MCU inhibitor Ruthenium Red. Our results clearly demonstrate that active MCU can conduct large amounts of calcium into the mitochondria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  17. HCN Channels Modulators: The Need for Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Maria Novella; Sartiani, Laura; Masi, Alessio; Mannaioni, Guido; Manetti, Dina; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, the molecular correlate of the hyperpolarization-activated current (If/Ih), are membrane proteins which play an important role in several physiological processes and various pathological conditions. In the Sino Atrial Node (SAN) HCN4 is the target of ivabradine, a bradycardic agent that is, at the moment, the only drug which specifically blocks If. Nevertheless, several other pharmacological agents have been shown to modulate HCN channels, a property that may contribute to their therapeutic activity and/or to their side effects. HCN channels are considered potential targets for developing drugs to treat several important pathologies, but a major issue in this field is the discovery of isoform-selective compounds, owing to the wide distribution of these proteins into the central and peripheral nervous systems, heart and other peripheral tissues. This survey is focused on the compounds that have been shown, or have been designed, to interact with HCN channels and on their binding sites, with the aim to summarize current knowledge and possibly to unveil useful information to design new potent and selective modulators. PMID:26975509

  18. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mizanur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  19. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  20. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eGeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1 channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD, also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with 5 closed states on the upper tier and 5 open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states.

  1. Acoustic Imaging of a Turbidity Current Flowing along a Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Hiroji, A.; Cahill, L.; Fedele, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of a 3 month sequence of repetitive surveys and ADCP monitoring, more than 30 turbidity currents have been identified modifying a lobe channel in 130 to 190m of water on the Squamish prodelta. For a 6 day period, daily surveys at low tide tried to capture the change resulting from a single flow. On the 8thof June three flows occurred within a half hour. Along channel multibeam images of the seabed and water column were obtained from a moving vessel immediately before, during and after the passage of the third flow. In this manner the spatial extent of the in-channel and overbank flow could be constrained. By following the flow, the spatial pattern of scattering from the flow upper surface could be examined over a 2 km length of the channel. Along channel bands of high scattering appear related to enhanced release of gas along the channel flanks. Notably, no signature of the underlying across-channel bedform modulations were evident, suggesting that the upper surface of the flow does not feel the influence of the channel floor. Overbank spillage of the flow could be detected by perturbation of a plankton scattering layer just above the seabed. Additionally, evidence of enhanced overbank deposition due to flow stripping on the outer corner of a bend was identified from backscatter changes. The specific seabed alteration due to this flow could be identified and compared with the cumulative change over three months in the channel and adjacent channel-lobe transition zone. As the flow passed under the ADCP, it had a peak velocity of over 2 m/s, a thickness of 4-5m and duration of 35 minutes. Based on the timing of the flow head when in view of the surface vessel, it was decelerating as it exited the mouth of the channel.

  2. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  3. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  4. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.

    1965-01-01

    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...... of radiation damage by channeled particles. As an application, one gets a necessary criterion for the occurence of super tails in channeling experiments. The theory involves some assumptions on the behaviour of Born-Mayer potentials which are verified by comparison to experimental displacement energies....

  5. Atrial fibrillation: Therapeutic potential of atrial K+ channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Ursula; Odening, Katja E

    2017-08-01

    Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K + ) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets. These channels include the ultra-rapidly activating, delayed outward-rectifying Kv1.5 channel conducting I Kur , the acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifying Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel conducting I K,ACh , the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels of small conductance (SK) conducting I SK , and the two pore domain K + (K2P) channels TWIK-1, TASK-1 and TASK-3 that are responsible for voltage-independent background currents I TWIK-1 , I TASK-1 , and I TASK-3 . Here, we briefly review the characteristics of these K + channels and their roles in atrial fibrillation. The antiarrhythmic potential of drugs targeting the described channels is discussed as well as their putative value in treatment of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging large cohorts of single ion channels and their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eHiersemenzel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As calcium is the most important signaling molecule in neurons and secretory cells, amongst many other cell types, it follows that an understanding of calcium channels and their regulation of exocytosis is of vital importance. Calcium imaging using calcium dyes such as Fluo3, or FRET-based dyes that have been used widely has provided invaluable information, which combined with modeling has estimated the sub-types of channels responsible for triggering the exocytotic machinery as well as inferences about the relative distances away from vesicle fusion sites these molecules adopt. Importantly, new super-resolution microscopy techniques, combined with novel Ca2+ indicators and imaginative imaging approaches can now define directly the nanoscale locations of very large cohorts of single channel molecules in relation to single vesicles. With combinations of these techniques the activity of individual channels can be visualized and quantified using novel Ca2+ indicators. Fluorescently labeled specific channel toxins can also be used to localize endogenous assembled channel tetramers. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and other single-photon-resolution spectroscopic approaches offer the possibility to quantify protein-protein interactions between populations of channels and the SNARE protein machinery for the first time. Together with simultaneous electrophysiology, this battery of quantitative imaging techniques has the potential to provide unprecedented detail describing the locations, dynamic behaviours, interactions and conductance activities of many thousands of channel molecules and vesicles in living cells.

  7. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  8. MONETARY TRANSMISSION CHANNELS IN ROMANIA – THE CREDIT CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RĂDULESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical – intuitive analysis applied to the segment of monetary transmission evidences the fact that forming the traditional monetary impulses transmission channels are in a starting phase due to the long financial non – intermediary process which Romanian economy had known. In these conditions, the exchange rate channel, and also NBR currency purchases was, for a long time, an important way through which monetary authorities actions influenced macro economical behaviors. But starting with 2000, it is observed a credit channel reactivation and, especially, interest rate channel. Anyhow, the credit channel continues to be undermined by the existence of liquidity surplus within the system, by the phenomena of substitution of national currency credit with currency credits, and also moral hazardous displays. Albeit some of these phenomena also affect the interest rate channel, its role in sending monetary policy impulses is in a continuous progress. Apparently, it acts by way of nominal interest rates, their real level seeming less relevant. Once with remaking the two traditional channels, the companies and households balance is configured and consolidated, which shall potentate in the future the efficiency of the monetary policy. This paper analyses the credit channel in Romania, through an unrestricted VAR analysis.. It shows the responses of exchange rate, inflation rate, GDP, interest rate, imports and exports to a shock on non-governmental credit

  9. The Extended-Window Channel Estimator for Iterative Channel-and-Symbol Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry John R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm to channel estimation results in a well-known iterative channel-and-symbol estimator (ICSE. The EM-ICSE iterates between a symbol estimator based on the forward-backward recursion (BCJR equalizer and a channel estimator, and may provide approximate maximum-likelihood blind or semiblind channel estimates. Nevertheless, the EM-ICSE has high complexity, and it is prone to misconvergence. In this paper, we propose the extended-window (EW estimator, a novel channel estimator for ICSE that can be used with any soft-output symbol estimator. Therefore, the symbol estimator may be chosen according to performance or complexity specifications. We show that the EW-ICSE, an ICSE that uses the EW estimator and the BCJR equalizer, is less complex and less susceptible to misconvergence than the EM-ICSE. Simulation results reveal that the EW-ICSE may converge faster than the EM-ICSE.

  10. Light squeezing through arbitrarily shaped plasmonic channels and sharp bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for optical energy squeezing and anomalous light transmission through arbitrarily-shaped plasmonic ultranarrow channels and bends connecting two larger plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. It is shown how a proper design of subwavelength optical channels at cutoff, patterned by plasmonic implants and connecting larger plasmonic waveguides, may allow enhanced resonant transmission inspired by the anomalous properties of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. The resonant transmission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the channel length and its specific geometry, such as possible presence of abruptions and bends

  11. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this article, we will review their molecular identities and biophysical properties. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ZnO-channel thin-film transistors: Channel mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    ZnO-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) test structures are fabricated using a bottom-gate structure on thermally oxidized Si; ZnO is deposited via RF sputtering from an oxide target, with an unheated substrate. Electrical characteristics are evaluated, with particular attention given to the extraction and interpretation of transistor channel mobility. ZnO-channel TFT mobility exhibits severe deviation from that assumed by ideal TFT models; mobility extraction methodology must accordingly be recast so as to provide useful insight into device operation. Two mobility metrics, μ avg and μ inc , are developed and proposed as relevant tools in the characterization of nonideal TFTs. These mobility metrics are employed to characterize the ZnO-channel TFTs reported herein; values for μ inc as high as 25 cm2/V s are measured, comprising a substantial increase in ZnO-channel TFT mobility as compared to previously reported performance for such devices

  13. Transitions in the Communication Capacity of Dissipative Qubit Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, D.

    2009-05-01

    The information transmission is studied for quantum channels in which the noise includes dissipative effects, more specifically, nonunitality. Noise is usually a nuisance but can sometimes be helpful. For these channels, the communication capacity is shown to increase with the dissipative component of the noise and may exhibit transitions beyond which it increases faster. The optimal states are constructed analytically as well as the pertaining “phase” diagram.

  14. Cardiac ion channels and mechanisms for protection against atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Sørensen, Ulrik S

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is recognised as the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. Ongoing drug development is aiming at obtaining atrial specific effects in order to prevent pro-arrhythmic, devastating ventricular effects. In principle, this is possible due to a differe...... to the recent discovery that Ca(2+)-activated small conductance K(+) channels (SK channels) are important for the repolarisation of atrial action potentials. Finally, an overview of current pharmacological treatment of AF is included....

  15. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    . A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct....... The introduction of new powerful HTS electrophysiological techniques is predicted to cause a revolution in ion channel drug discovery....

  16. On the capacity of multiple access and broadcast fading channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-01-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multi-access (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters, at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points.More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Inspired from this result, we propose an on-off scheme, compute its achievable rate, and show that this scheme achieves single user capacity bounds of the MAC channel for a wide class of fading channels at asymptotically low power regime. We argue that this class of fading encompasses all known wireless channels for which the capacity region of the MAC channel has even a simpler expression in terms of users\\' average power constraints only. Using the duality of Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we deduce a simple characterization of the BC capacity region at low power regime and show that for a class of fading channels (including Rayleigh fading), time-sharing is asymptotically optimal. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. The Channel Network model and field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Channel Network model describes the fluid flow and solute transport in fractured media. The model is based on field observations, which indicate that flow and transport take place in a three-dimensional network of connected channels. The channels are generated in the model from observed stochastic distributions and solute transport is modeled taking into account advection and rock interactions, such as matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock. The most important site-specific data for the Channel Network model are the conductance distribution of the channels and the flow-wetted surface. The latter is the surface area of the rock in contact with the flowing water. These parameters may be estimated from hydraulic measurements. For the Aespoe site, several borehole data sets are available, where a packer distance of 3 meters was used. Numerical experiments were performed in order to study the uncertainties in the determination of the flow-wetted surface and conductance distribution. Synthetic data were generated along a borehole and hydraulic tests with different packer distances were simulated. The model has previously been used to study the Long-term Pumping and Tracer Test (LPT2) carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where the distance travelled by the tracers was of the order hundreds of meters. Recently, the model has been used to simulate the tracer tests performed in the TRUE experiment at HRL, with travel distance of the order of tens of meters. Several tracer tests with non-sorbing and sorbing species have been performed

  18. Finite element analysis of BWR fuel channel buckling during a seismic event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mika; Iwamoto, Yuji; Ledford, Kevin; Cantonwine, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the predicted response of three BWR fuel channel designs in bending using a typical moment profile for GNF fuel designs. The bending performance of the fuel channel is predicted using ANSYS, a finite element modeling tool. Specifically, linear and non-linear buckling analyses were performed to determine the onset of elastic buckling, which causes a wavy structure on the compression face in bending that might also increase channel – control blade friction, and to determine to onset of channel collapse, which causes permanent deformation and would inhibit control rod insertion. The three channel designs considered in this paper are the 0.080 inch uniform channel, the 0.100 inch uniform channel and the 0.120 inch uniform channel at the beginning of fuel life (BOL) and at the end of fuel life (EOL). (author)

  19. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  20. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor

    2012-09-06

    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  1. Perceived quality of channel zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Ahmed, K.; Brunnström, K.

    2006-01-01

    The end user experience of service quality is critical to the success of a service provider's IPTV deployment program. A key element involved in validating IPTV quality of experience (QoE) is how quickly and reliably users can change TV channels, often referred to as channel zapping. Currently there

  2. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  3. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  4. Ion channels: molecular targets of neuroactive insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond-Delpech, Valérie; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, Benedict M; Rauh, James J; Sattelle, David B

    2005-11-01

    Many of the insecticides in current use act on molecular targets in the insect nervous system. Recently, our understanding of these targets has improved as a result of the complete sequencing of an insect genome, i.e., Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examine the recent work, drawing on genetics, genomics and physiology, which has provided evidence that specific receptors and ion channels are targeted by distinct chemical classes of insect control agents. The examples discussed include, sodium channels (pyrethroids, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dihydropyrazoles and oxadiazines); nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (cartap, spinosad, imidacloprid and related nitromethylenes/nitroguanidines); gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (cyclodienes, gamma-BHC and fipronil) and L-glutamate receptors (avermectins). Finally, we have examined the molecular basis of resistance to these molecules, which in some cases involves mutations in the molecular target, and we also consider the future impact of molecular genetic technologies in our understanding of the actions of neuroactive insecticides.

  5. Decreasing vortex flux in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow

  6. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  7. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more and more important. Accordingly, it may freely be said that the choice, i.e. the movement of marketing channels represents one of the strategic decisions which has to be made by a company management and which will subsequently very significantly influence the functioning and efficacy of not only the system of distribution, but also the entire business transactions.

  8. A computational design approach for virtual screening of peptide interactions across K+ channel families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Doupnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels represent a large family of membrane proteins with many being well established targets in pharmacotherapy. The ‘druggability’ of heteromeric channels comprised of different subunits remains obscure, due largely to a lack of channel-specific probes necessary to delineate their therapeutic potential in vivo. Our initial studies reported here, investigated the family of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir channels given the availability of high resolution crystal structures for the eukaryotic constitutively active Kir2.2 channel. We describe a ‘limited’ homology modeling approach that can yield chimeric Kir channels having an outer vestibule structure representing nearly any known vertebrate or invertebrate channel. These computationally-derived channel structures were tested in silico for ‘docking’ to NMR structures of tertiapin (TPN, a 21 amino acid peptide found in bee venom. TPN is a highly selective and potent blocker for the epithelial rat Kir1.1 channel, but does not block human or zebrafish Kir1.1 channel isoforms. Our Kir1.1 channel-TPN docking experiments recapitulated published in vitro findings for TPN-sensitive and TPN-insensitive channels. Additionally, in silico site-directed mutagenesis identified ‘hot spots’ within the channel outer vestibule that mediate energetically favorable docking scores and correlate with sites previously identified with in vitro thermodynamic mutant-cycle analysis. These ‘proof-of-principle’ results establish a framework for virtual screening of re-engineered peptide toxins for interactions with computationally derived Kir channels that currently lack channel-specific blockers. When coupled with electrophysiological validation, this virtual screening approach may accelerate the drug discovery process, and can be readily applied to other ion channels families where high resolution structures are available.

  9. Methods of channeling simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.H.

    1989-06-01

    Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs

  10. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  11. Is channel segmentation necessary to reach a multiethnic population with weight-related health promotion? An analysis of use and perception of communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marieke A; Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W; Verhoeff, Arnoud; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    To explore similarities and differences in the use and perception of communication channels to access weight-related health promotion among women in three ethnic minority groups. The ultimate aim was to determine whether similar channels might reach ethnic minority women in general or whether segmentation to ethnic groups would be required. Eight ethnically homogeneous focus groups were conducted among 48 women of Ghanaian, Antillean/Aruban, or Afro-Surinamese background living in Amsterdam. Our questions concerned which communication channels they usually used to access weight-related health advice or information about programs and whose information they most valued. The content analysis of data was performed. The participants mentioned four channels - regular and traditional health care, general or ethnically specific media, multiethnic and ethnic gatherings, and interpersonal communication with peers in the Netherlands and with people in the home country. Ghanaian women emphasized ethnically specific channels (e.g., traditional health care, Ghanaian churches). They were comfortable with these channels and trusted them. They mentioned fewer general channels - mainly limited to health care - and if discussed, negative perceptions were expressed. Antillean women mentioned the use of ethnically specific channels (e.g., communication with Antilleans in the home country) on balance with general audience-oriented channels (e.g., regular health care). Perceptions were mixed. Surinamese participants discussed, in a positive manner, the use of general audience-oriented channels, while they said they did not use traditional health care or advice from Surinam. Local language proficiency, time resided in the Netherlands, and approaches and messages received seemed to explain channel use and perception. The predominant differences in channel use and perception among the ethnic groups indicate a need for channel segmentation to reach a multiethnic target group with weight

  12. Ion channels in the central regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo eSohn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability and synaptic function in the brain. Recent evidence suggests that ion channels expressed by neurons within the brain are responsible for regulating energy and glucose homeostasis. In addition, the central effects of neurotransmitters and hormones are at least in part achieved by modifications of ion channel activity. This review focuses on ion channels and their neuronal functions followed by a discussion of the identified roles for specific ion channels in the central pathways regulating food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose balance.

  13. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  14. Channel Simulation in Quantum Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenza Riccardo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss how channel simulation can be used to simplify the most general protocols of quantum parameter estimation, where unlimited entanglement and adaptive joint operations may be employed. Whenever the unknown parameter encoded in a quantum channel is completely transferred in an environmental program state simulating the channel, the optimal adaptive estimation cannot beat the standard quantum limit. In this setting, we elucidate the crucial role of quantum teleportation as a primitive operation which allows one to completely reduce adaptive protocols over suitable teleportation-covariant channels and derive matching upper and lower bounds for parameter estimation. For these channels,wemay express the quantum Cramér Rao bound directly in terms of their Choi matrices. Our review considers both discrete- and continuous-variable systems, also presenting some new results for bosonic Gaussian channels using an alternative sub-optimal simulation. It is an open problem to design simulations for quantum channels that achieve the Heisenberg limit.

  15. Decision making by superimposing information from parallel cognitive channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aityan, Sergey K.

    1993-08-01

    A theory of decision making with perception through parallel information channels is presented. Decision making is considered a parallel competitive process. Every channel can provide confirmation or rejection of a decision concept. Different channels provide different impact on the specific concepts caused by the goals and individual cognitive features. All concepts are divided into semantic clusters due to the goals and the system defaults. The clusters can be alternative or complimentary. The 'winner-take-all' concept nodes firing takes place within the alternative cluster. Concepts can be independently activated in the complimentary cluster. A cognitive channel affects a decision concept by sending an activating or inhibitory signal. The complimentary clusters serve for building up complex concepts by superimposing activation received from various channels. The decision making is provided by the alternative clusters. Every active concept in the alternative cluster tends to suppress the competitive concepts in the cluster by sending inhibitory signals to the other nodes of the cluster. The model accounts for a time delay in signal transmission between the nodes and explains decreasing of the reaction time if information is confirmed by different channels and increasing of the reaction time if deceiving information received from the channels.

  16. Channel access: A software bus for the LAACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    The host processor for a code running within a distributed process control system is often predetermined by constraints built into the software architecture of the control system. Input/output (I/O) channels directly connected to the host processors are usually easier to access in software than channels on remote processors. It is often difficult to modernize selective parts of a control system's software while leaving the other parts unchanged. Likewise, software developed at one laboratory is often difficult to integrate into a control system developed at another laboratory. Software that runs in one machine or operating-system architecture is often unable to communicate with control-system software running on a different platform. For the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System (LAACS) we have attempted to address the above difficulties with a software communication facility which we call Channel Access. Channel Access provides a 'software bus' that allows programs to be connected through a network to I/O channels on real-time processors in a manner similar to the way in which hardware modules are integrated within a standardized hardware bus such as CAMAC or VME. We have already placed an operator interface on Channel Access and we are currently designing alarm, archiving and sequencing tools as well. Numerous application-specific programs use Channel Access. This paper describes the unique feature of this approach and its performance as an integral part of the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System. (orig.)

  17. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  18. Multi-carrier Communications over Time-varying Acoustic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aval, Yashar M.

    Acoustic communication is an enabling technology for many autonomous undersea systems, such as those used for ocean monitoring, offshore oil and gas industry, aquaculture, or port security. There are three main challenges in achieving reliable high-rate underwater communication: the bandwidth of acoustic channels is extremely limited, the propagation delays are long, and the Doppler distortions are more pronounced than those found in wireless radio channels. In this dissertation we focus on assessing the fundamental limitations of acoustic communication, and designing efficient signal processing methods that cam overcome these limitations. We address the fundamental question of acoustic channel capacity (achievable rate) for single-input-multi-output (SIMO) acoustic channels using a per-path Rician fading model, and focusing on two scenarios: narrowband channels where the channel statistics can be approximated as frequency- independent, and wideband channels where the nominal path loss is frequency-dependent. In each scenario, we compare several candidate power allocation techniques, and show that assigning uniform power across all frequencies for the first scenario, and assigning uniform power across a selected frequency-band for the second scenario, are the best practical choices in most cases, because the long propagation delay renders the feedback information outdated for power allocation based on the estimated channel response. We quantify our results using the channel information extracted form the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE'10). Next, we focus on achieving reliable high-rate communication over underwater acoustic channels. Specifically, we investigate orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the state-of-the-art technique for dealing with frequency-selective multipath channels, and propose a class of methods that compensate for the time-variation of the underwater acoustic channel. These methods are based on multiple

  19. A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP, this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively.

  20. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders.

  1. An ERG channel inhibitor from the scorpion Buthus eupeus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Y.V.; Kozlov, S.A.; Lipkin, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    and the three mutants partly inhibited the native M-like current in NG108-15 at 100 nm. The effect of the recombinant BeKm-1 on different K(+) channels was also studied. BeKm-1 inhibited hERG1 channels with an IC(50) of 3.3 nm, but had no effect at 100 nm on hEAG, hSK1, rSK2, hIK, hBK, KCNQ1/KCNE1, KCNQ2/KCNQ3......, KCNQ4 channels, and minimal effect on rELK1. Thus, BeKm-1 was shown to be a novel specific blocker of hERG1 potassium channels....

  2. Neuronal trafficking of voltage-gated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla S; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Misonou, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    The computational ability of CNS neurons depends critically on the specific localization of ion channels in the somatodendritic and axonal membranes. Neuronal dendrites receive synaptic inputs at numerous spines and integrate them in time and space. The integration of synaptic potentials is regul......The computational ability of CNS neurons depends critically on the specific localization of ion channels in the somatodendritic and axonal membranes. Neuronal dendrites receive synaptic inputs at numerous spines and integrate them in time and space. The integration of synaptic potentials...

  3. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected......'s mixing-length theory with a mixing length that is proportional to the height of the fluid layer. Using averaged boundary-layer equations, taking into account the friction with the channel walls and the eddy viscosity, the flow both upstream and downstream of the jump can be understood. For the downstream...... subcritical flow, we assume that the critical height is attained close to the channel outlet. We use mass and momentum conservation to determine the position of the jump and obtain an estimate which is in rough agreement with our experiment. We show that the averaging method with a varying velocity profile...

  4. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanping; Yu Jingsheng; Sun Hongqiang; Hao Pu; Cai Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  5. Flooding correlations in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Chang, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer in narrow gap is considered as important phenomena in severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Also in heat removal of electric chip. Critical heat flux(CHF) in narrow gap limits the maximum heat transfer rate in narrow channel. In case of closed bottom channel, flooding limited CHF occurrence is observed. Flooding correlations will be helpful to predict the CHF in closed bottom channel. In present study, flooding data for narrow channel geometry were collected and the work to recognize the effect of the span, w and gap size, s were performed. And new flooding correlations were suggested for high-aspect-ratio geometry. Also, flooding correlation was applied to flooding limited CHF data

  6. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.; Kee Haeyoung.

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach's Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins τ J , j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  7. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  8. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazekas, P; Haeyoung, Kee

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach`s Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins {tau}{sub J}, j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig.

  9. A measuring generator for testing spectrometric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh Sy Hien; Kalinkin, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    A measuring generator for testing and tuning an amplitude spectrometric channel is described. The device consists of a pseudo random pulse generator, constructed on shifters, a sawtooth wave generator and a shaper of stable amplitude pulses with exponential decay times. The device is made as CAMAC unit width modules and has the following specifications: average pulse repetition rate of pseudo random pulses is 3.1; 25; 50; 100; 200 kHz; peak amplitude of 2 Hz pulse repetition of saw tooth pulses is 6 V; peak amplitude of exponential shape pulses is 5 V. The block-diagram and basic circuits of the device are given

  10. Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham J. Fetterman; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2008-01-01

    The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E x B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity

  11. α Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity

  12. Developmental regulation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The developmental regulation of the voltage-sensitive Na + channel in rat skeletal muscle was studied in vivo and in vitro. In triceps surae muscle developing in vivo the development of TTX-sensitive Na + channel occurred primarily during the first three postnatal weeks as determined by the specific binding of [ 3 H]saxitoxin. This development proceeded in two separate phases. The first phase occurs independently of continuing motor neuron innervation and accounts for 60% of the adult density of TTX-sensitive Na + channels. The second phase, which begins about day 11, requires innervation. Muscle cells in primary culture were found to have both TTX-sensitive and insensitive Na + channels. The development of the TTX-sensitive channel, in vitro, paralleled the initial innervation-independent phase of development observed in vivo. The density of TTX-sensitive Na + channels in cultured muscle cells was regulated by electrical activity and cytosolic Ca ++ levels. Pharmacological blockade of the spontaneous electrical activity present in these cells lead to a nearly 2-fold increase in the surface density of TTX-sensitive channels. The turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na + channel was measured by blocking the incorporation of newly synthesized channels with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked protein glycosylation. The regulation of channel density by electrical activity, cytosolic Ca ++ levels, and agents affecting cyclic neucleotide levels had no effect on the turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na + channel, indicating that these regulatory agents instead affect the synthesis of the channel

  13. Modeling and characterization of different channels based on human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhen Li; Zedong Nie; Yuhang Liu; Lei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Human body communication (HBC), which uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals, provides a prospective communication solution for body sensor networks (BSNs). In this paper, an inhomogeneous model which includes the tissue layers of skin, fat, and muscle is proposed to study the propagation characteristics of different HBC channels. Specifically, the HBC channels, namely, the on-body to on-body (OB-OB)channel, on-body to in-body (OB-IB) channel, in-body to on-body (IB-OB) channel, and in-body to in-body (IB-IB)channel, are studied over different frequencies (from 1MHz to 100MHz) through numerical simulations with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show that the gain of OB-IB channel and IB-OB channel is almost the same. The gain of IB-IB channel is greater than other channels in the frequency range 1MHz to 70MHz. In addition, the gain of all channels is associated with the channel length and communication frequency. The simulations are verified by experimental measurements in a porcine tissue sample. The results show that the simulations are in agreement with the measurements.

  14. Consumers' cross-channel use in online and offline purchases : An Analysis of Cross-Media And Cross-Channel Behaviors between Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Bronner, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how online and offline buyers of a specific product differ in their cross-channel use throughout the purchase process and how this differs across types of products. The authors studied more than 1,000 consumers and their use of 17 channels during a recent purchase. Results showed

  15. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Channel coincidence counter: version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the assay of fast critical assembly fuel drawers and plutonium-bearing fuel rods. The principal feature of the detector is a 7-cm by 7-cm by 97-cm detector channel, which provides a uniform neutron detection efficiency of 16% along the central 40 cm of the channel. The electronics system is identical to that used for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter

  17. TRP Channels in Human Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Van Haute

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.

  18. The functions of store-operated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, James W; Steinckwich-Besançon, Natacha; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Davis, Felicity M; Desai, Pooja N; D'Agostin, Diane M; Wu, Shilan; Bird, Gary S

    2017-06-01

    Store-operated calcium channels provide calcium signals to the cytoplasm of a wide variety of cell types. The basic components of this signaling mechanism include a mechanism for discharging Ca 2+ stores (commonly but not exclusively phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate), a sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum that also serves as an activator of the plasma membrane channel (STIM1 and STIM2), and the store-operated channel (Orai1, 2 or 3). The advent of mice genetically altered to reduce store-operated calcium entry globally or in specific cell types has provided important tools to understand the functions of these widely encountered channels in specific and clinically important physiological systems. This review briefly discusses the history and cellular properties of store-operated calcium channels, and summarizes selected studies of their physiological functions in specific physiological or pathological contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Noise control of subsonic cavity flows using plasma actuated receptive channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Arnob Das; Roy, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a passive receptive rectangular channel at the trailing edge of an open rectangular cavity to reduce the acoustic tones generated due to coherent shear layer impingement. The channel is numerically tested at Mach 0.3 using an unsteady three-dimensional large eddy simulation. Results show reduction in pressure fluctuations in the cavity due to which sound pressure levels are suppressed. Two linear dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators are placed inside the channel to enhance the flow through it. Specifically, acoustic suppression of 7 dB was obtained for Mach 0.3 flow with the plasma actuated channel. Also, the drag coefficient for the cavity reduced by over three folds for the channel and over eight folds for the plasma actuated channel. Such a channel can be useful in noise and drag reduction for various applications, including weapons bay, landing gear and branched piping systems. (fast track communication)

  20. Study of the interaction of potassium ion channel protein with micelle by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, Anil; Talukdar, Keka

    2018-04-01

    Ion channels are proteins forming pore inside the body of all living organisms. This potassium ion channel known as KcsA channel and it is found in the each cell and nervous system. Flow of various ions is regulated by the function of the ion channels. The nerve ion channel protein with protein data bank entry 1BL8, which is basically an ion channel protein in Streptomyces Lividans and which is taken up to form micelle-protein system and the system is analyzed by using molecular dynamics simulation. Firstly, ion channel pore is engineered by CHARMM potential and then Micelle-protein system is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. For some specific micelle concentration, the protein unfolding is observed.

  1. Evolutionary conservation and changes in insect TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hironori; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kohno, Keigo; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-09-10

    TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) channels respond to diverse stimuli and thus function as the primary integrators of varied sensory information. They are also activated by various compounds and secondary messengers to mediate cell-cell interactions as well as to detect changes in the local environment. Their physiological roles have been primarily characterized only in mice and fruit flies, and evolutionary studies are limited. To understand the evolution of insect TRP channels and the mechanisms of integrating sensory inputs in insects, we have identified and compared TRP channel genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus genomes as part of genome sequencing efforts. All the insects examined have 2 TRPV, 1 TRPN, 1 TRPM, 3 TRPC, and 1 TRPML subfamily members, demonstrating that these channels have the ancient origins in insects. The common pattern also suggests that the mechanisms for detecting mechanical and visual stimuli and maintaining lysosomal functions may be evolutionarily well conserved in insects. However, a TRPP channel, the most ancient TRP channel, is missing in B. mori, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis. Although P. humanus and D. melanogaster contain 4 TRPA subfamily members, the other insects have 5 TRPA subfamily members. T. castaneum, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis contain TRPA5 channels, which have been specifically retained or gained in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Furthermore, TRPA1, which functions for thermotaxis in Drosophila, is missing in A. mellifera and N. vitripennis; however, they have other Hymenoptera-specific TRPA channels (AmHsTRPA and NvHsTRPA). NvHsTRPA expressed in HEK293 cells is activated by temperature increase, demonstrating that HsTRPAs function as novel thermal sensors in Hymenoptera. The total number of insect TRP family members is 13-14, approximately half that of mammalian TRP family members. As shown for mammalian TRP channels, this

  2. Evolutionary conservation and changes in insect TRP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRP (Transient Receptor Potential channels respond to diverse stimuli and thus function as the primary integrators of varied sensory information. They are also activated by various compounds and secondary messengers to mediate cell-cell interactions as well as to detect changes in the local environment. Their physiological roles have been primarily characterized only in mice and fruit flies, and evolutionary studies are limited. To understand the evolution of insect TRP channels and the mechanisms of integrating sensory inputs in insects, we have identified and compared TRP channel genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus genomes as part of genome sequencing efforts. Results All the insects examined have 2 TRPV, 1 TRPN, 1 TRPM, 3 TRPC, and 1 TRPML subfamily members, demonstrating that these channels have the ancient origins in insects. The common pattern also suggests that the mechanisms for detecting mechanical and visual stimuli and maintaining lysosomal functions may be evolutionarily well conserved in insects. However, a TRPP channel, the most ancient TRP channel, is missing in B. mori, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis. Although P. humanus and D. melanogaster contain 4 TRPA subfamily members, the other insects have 5 TRPA subfamily members. T. castaneum, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis contain TRPA5 channels, which have been specifically retained or gained in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Furthermore, TRPA1, which functions for thermotaxis in Drosophila, is missing in A. mellifera and N. vitripennis; however, they have other Hymenoptera-specific TRPA channels (AmHsTRPA and NvHsTRPA. NvHsTRPA expressed in HEK293 cells is activated by temperature increase, demonstrating that HsTRPAs function as novel thermal sensors in Hymenoptera. Conclusion The total number of insect TRP family members is 13-14, approximately half that of mammalian TRP

  3. Specifying Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  4. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David

    2003-01-01

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models

  5. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-31

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.

  6. Uncertainty analysis for hot channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panka, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The fulfillment of the safety analysis acceptance criteria is usually evaluated by separate hot channel calculations using the results of neutronic or/and thermo hydraulic system calculations. In case of an ATWS event (inadvertent withdrawal of control assembly), according to the analysis, a number of fuel rods are experiencing DNB for a longer time and must be regarded as failed. Their number must be determined for a further evaluation of the radiological consequences. In the deterministic approach, the global power history must be multiplied by different hot channel factors (kx) taking into account the radial power peaking factors for each fuel pin. If DNB occurs it is necessary to perform a few number of hot channel calculations to determine the limiting kx leading just to DNB and fuel failure (the conservative DNBR limit is 1.33). Knowing the pin power distribution from the core design calculation, the number of failed fuel pins can be calculated. The above procedure can be performed by conservative assumptions (e.g. conservative input parameters in the hot channel calculations), as well. In case of hot channel uncertainty analysis, the relevant input parameters (k x, mass flow, inlet temperature of the coolant, pin average burnup, initial gap size, selection of power history influencing the gap conductance value) of hot channel calculations and the DNBR limit are varied considering the respective uncertainties. An uncertainty analysis methodology was elaborated combining the response surface method with the one sided tolerance limit method of Wilks. The results of deterministic and uncertainty hot channel calculations are compared regarding to the number of failed fuel rods, max. temperature of the clad surface and max. temperature of the fuel (Authors)

  7. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  8. Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...

  9. Role of BK channels in the apoptotic volume decrease in native eel intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Giordano, Maria Elena; Calisi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    High conductance Ca(+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) have previously been demonstrated in the eel intestine. They are specifically activated following a hypotonic stress and sustain Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD). The aim of the present work was to address the possible role...... enterocytes that BK channels, which are involved in RVD in these cells, plays also a crucial role in the AVD process and in the progression of apoptosis....

  10. Structural mechanism underlying capsaicin binding and activation of TRPV1 ion channel

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Xian; Cheng, Wei; Yang, Wei; Yu, Peilin; Song, Zhenzhen; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin bestows spiciness by activating TRPV1 channel with exquisite potency and selectivity. Capsaicin-bound channel structure was previously resolved by cryo-EM at 4.2-to-4.5 ? resolution, however important details required for mechanistic understandings are unavailable: capsaicin was registered as a small electron density, reflecting neither its chemical structure nor specific ligand-channel interactions. We obtained the missing atomic-level details by iterative computation, which were c...

  11. MONETARY TRANSMISSION CHANNELS IN FLEXIBLE MONETARY AND EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES: THE CASE OF SELECTED TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    JOSIFIDIS, Kosta; PUCAR, Emilija Beker; SUPIĆ, Novica

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores selected monetary transmission channels in the case of transition economies. Namely, an exchange rate channel, an interest rate channel, direct and indirect influence to an exchange rate, are focused. Specific (former) transition economies are differentiated according the combination of implemented monetary and exchange rate regimes: exchange rate as a nominal anchor and rigid exchange rate regimes, exchange rate as a nominal anchor and intermediate exchange rate regimes, a...

  12. Information transfer through quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how

  13. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  14. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  15. A Crash Course in Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2017-12-20

    Much progress has been made in understanding the molecular physiology and pharmacology of calcium channels. Recently, there have been tremendous advances in learning about calcium channel structure and function through crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy studies. Here, I will give an overview of our knowledge about calcium channels, and highlight two recent studies that give important insights into calcium channel structure.

  16. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piégay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a−1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill.

  18. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  19. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  20. A Framework for Selection of Intermediary in Marketing Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jandaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study seeks to examine how company can select the best intermediary for its Marketing channels with minimum of criteria and time. Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical framework is proposed based on the mostimportance tasks of intermediary and criteria for measuring them. There are four basic tasks and 30 criteria in three independent levels. Subsequently, an exploratory case study in Iranian Food industry is described that illustrates the value of the framework. Findings – It is possible, for example, to apply the theoretical framework to select the intermediary for any industry or any country. Research limitations/implications – The study has possible location- and industry-specific limitations.Originality/value – Moreover, the framework has proven to be useful in improving the selection of the intermediary in marketing channel. This is a notable and promising side-effect of the exploratory study, at least from a managerial point of view.Keywords: Marketing channel, Distribution channel, Channel design, Selection criteria, channel members, Intermediary selection

  1. Insights into channel dysfunction from modelling and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgaard, Maria; Paramo, Teresa; Domicevica, Laura; Andersen, Ole Juul; Biggin, Philip C

    2018-04-01

    Developments in structural biology mean that the number of different ion channel structures has increased significantly in recent years. Structures of ion channels enable us to rationalize how mutations may lead to channelopathies. However, determining the structures of ion channels is still not trivial, especially as they necessarily exist in many distinct functional states. Therefore, the use of computational modelling can provide complementary information that can refine working hypotheses of both wild type and mutant ion channels. The simplest but still powerful tool is homology modelling. Many structures are available now that can provide suitable templates for many different types of ion channels, allowing a full three-dimensional interpretation of mutational effects. These structural models, and indeed the structures themselves obtained by X-ray crystallography, and more recently cryo-electron microscopy, can be subjected to molecular dynamics simulations, either as a tool to help explore the conformational dynamics in detail or simply as a means to refine the models further. Here we review how these approaches have been used to improve our understanding of how diseases might be linked to specific mutations in ion channel proteins. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Channelopathies.' Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Sterol Regulation of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Andras; Hajdu, Peter; Panyi, Gyorgy; Varga, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential lipid building block of the cellular plasma membrane. In addition to its structural role, it regulates the fluidity and raft structure of the membrane and influences the course of numerous membrane-linked signaling pathways and the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels. This is supported by a vast body of scientific data, which demonstrates the modulation of ion channels with a great variety of ion selectivity, gating, and tissue distribution by changes in membrane cholesterol. Here, we review what is currently known about the modulation of voltage-gated K + (Kv) channels by changes in membrane cholesterol content, considering raft association of the channels, the roles of cholesterol recognition sites, and those of adaptor proteins in cholesterol-Kv channel interactions. We specifically focus on Kv1.3, the dominant K + channel of human T cells. Effects of cholesterol depletion and enrichment and 7-dehydrocholesterol enrichment on Kv1.3 gating are discussed in the context of the immunological synapse and the comparison of the in vitro effects of sterol modifications on Kv1.3 function with ex vivo effects on cells from hypercholesterolemic and Smith-Lemli-Opitz patients. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dopamine negatively modulates the NCA ion channels in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Cooper, Kirsten; Pereira, Laura; Ailion, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The NALCN/NCA ion channel is a cation channel related to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. NALCN has been reported to be a sodium leak channel with a conserved role in establishing neuronal resting membrane potential, but its precise cellular role and regulation are unclear. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of NALCN, NCA-1 and NCA-2, act in premotor interneurons to regulate motor circuit activity that sustains locomotion. Recently we found that NCA-1 and NCA-2 are activated by a signal transduction pathway acting downstream of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq and the small GTPase Rho. Through a forward genetic screen, here we identify the GPCR kinase GRK-2 as a new player affecting signaling through the Gq-Rho-NCA pathway. Using structure-function analysis, we find that the GPCR phosphorylation and membrane association domains of GRK-2 are required for its function. Genetic epistasis experiments suggest that GRK-2 acts on the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3 to inhibit Go signaling and positively modulate NCA-1 and NCA-2 activity. Through cell-specific rescuing experiments, we find that GRK-2 and DOP-3 act in premotor interneurons to modulate NCA channel function. Finally, we demonstrate that dopamine, through DOP-3, negatively regulates NCA activity. Thus, this study identifies a pathway by which dopamine modulates the activity of the NCA channels.

  4. Mechanosensitive channels: feeling tension in a world under pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyronnet eRemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants, like other organisms, are facing multiple mechanical constraints generated both in their tissues and by the surrounding environment. They need to sense and adapt to these forces throughout their lifetime. To do so, different mechanisms devoted to force transduction have emerged. Here we focus on fascinating proteins: the mechanosenstive (MS channels. Mechanosensing in plants has been described for centuries but the molecular identification of MS channels occurred only recently. This review is aimed at plant biologists and plant biomechanists who want to be introduced to MS channel identity, how do they work and what they might do in planta? In this review, electrophysiological properties, regulations and functions of well characterized MS channels belonging to bacteria and animals are compared with those of plant . Common and specific properties are discussed. We deduce which tools and concepts from animal and bacterial fields could be helpful for improving our understanding of plant mechanotransduction. MS channel embedded in its plasma membrane is sandwiched between the cell wall and the cytoskeleton. The consequences of this peculiar situation are analyzed and discussed. We also stress how important it is to probe mechanical forces at cellular and subcellular levels in planta in order to reveal the intimate relationship linking the membrane with MS channel activity. Finally we will propose new tracks to help to reveal their physiological functions at tissue and plant levels.

  5. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  6. Channel evolution under changing hydrological regimes in anabranching reaches downstream of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiao; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Fan, Yongyang

    2018-03-01

    Elucidating the influence of dams on fluvial processes can benefit river protection and basin management. Based on hydrological and topographical data, we analyzed channel evolution in anabranching reaches under changing hydrological regimes influenced by the Three Gorges Dam. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) the channels of specific anabranching reaches were defined as flood trend channels or low-flow trend channels according to the distribution of their flow characteristics. The anabranching reaches were classified as T1 or T2. The former is characterized by the correspondence between the flood trend and branch channels, and the latter is characterized by the correspondence between the flood trend and main channels; 2) on the basis of the new classification, the discrepant patterns of channel evolution seen in anabranching reaches were unified into a pattern that showed flood trend channels shrinking and low-flow trend channels expanding; 3) flood abatement and the increased duration of moderate flow discharges are the main factors that affect channel adjustments in anabranching reaches after dam construction; and 4) in the next few decades, the pattern of channel evolution will remain the same as that of the Three Gorges Dam operation. That is, the morphology will fully adapt to a flow with a low coefficient of variation. Our results are of interest in the management of the Yangtze River and other rivers influenced by dams.

  7. Impact of Heterogeneous Consumers on Pricing Decisions under Dual-Channel Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies impact of heterogeneous consumer behavior on optimal pricing decisions under dual channel supply chain competition, which consists of one manufacturer and one retailer. The manufacturer is market leader with two sales channels: one is direct channel facing consumers directly and the other is indirect channel facing the retailer. Consumers decide whether to buy and from which channel to buy products. Purchasing decisions are based on considerations of prices posted on different channels, preference or loyalty to specific channels, and degree of rationality in decision-making process. Due to the complexity of heterogeneous consumer decision behavior, traditional mathematical analysis to the pricing problem becomes quite challenging. An agent-based modeling and simulation approach is then proposed and implemented. Simulation results reveal that consumer behavior influences both prices and profits. When consumers are increasingly loyal to the retailing channel, the retailer can make a higher selling price and more benefits. On the other hand, when consumers are increasingly loyal to the direct channel, the number of purchases from the direct channel increases and the manufacturer is better off. It is also interesting to note that as rationality level increases, selling prices for both channels slightly decrease.

  8. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances L Meredith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K+ channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K+ channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  9. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Kirk, Matthew E; Rennie, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K(+) channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K(+) channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  10. Promotion through Marketing Channels : The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Hidajet Karaxha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order for a product to be put in the hands of the customer, requires a mechanism which is called distribution channel and which enables the connection between the consumer and producer. One of the many strategies applied by Kosovar companies for the involvement of the members of the channel is also the promotion through distribution channels. Therefore, the strategies which involve the members of the channel have a higher probability to be positively accepted by the members of the channel, when they are part of a general program of supporting the needs of the producers. The process of realizing a marketing strategy of a company does not concise only of achieving specific goals of production during the realization of the promotion phase, but it also requires identifying the target market and achieving it. The purpose of this paper is to review the promotion strategy of distribution channels, which emphasize the support by the members of the channel, initiated by the producers through cooperative advertisements, promotional salaries, slotting taxes, incentives, promotions in markets and also special promotional agreements. The theoretical and practical side of the study are very important, especially regarding to new theoretical and practical views in the study context. Besides the theoretical contribution that will be offered by this paper, there will also be interesting findings in the practical aspect where through this paper, the owners, managers, firms will be able to understand the role and importance of promotion through distribution channels. Knowing that there are only few studies offered in this field, this paper offers help for everyone interested in this field. This paper contains empirical data collected by questionnaires and interviews.

  11. Pannexin-1 channels in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mark S; Whyte-Fagundes, Paige; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2017-09-05

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) expression is raised in several animal seizure models and in resected human epileptic brain tissue, suggesting relevance to epilepsy. Multiple factors that are characteristic of seizures are thought to regulate Panx1 channel opening, including elevated levels of extracellular K + . Panx1, when open, 1) releases ATP, glutamate, and other metabolites into the extracellular medium, and 2) may depolarize the membrane due to a channel reversal potential around 0mV. Resultant ATP release from stimulated Panx1 can activate purinergic receptors, including P2X7 receptors. Glutamate and other signaling molecules released by Panx1 opening may have both excitatory and inhibitory actions on seizure generation. This review examines the critical and complex roles of Panx1 channels in epilepsy, which could provide a basis for future therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  13. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  14. Multi-channel electronically scanned cryogenic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Kruse, Nancy M. H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multielement array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, prepatterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  15. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River (South...

  16. 33 CFR 117.822 - Beaufort Channel, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.822 Beaufort Channel, NC. The... bridge need not open between the hours of 6:30 a.m. to 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to 6 p.m. (b) From 10 p.m. to...

  17. A decoupling approach to classical data transmission over quantum channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg; Tomamichel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    be solved this way, one of the most basic coding problems remains impervious to a direct application of this method, sending classical information through a quantum channel. We will show that this problem can, in fact, be solved using decoupling ideas, specifically by proving a dequantizing theorem, which...

  18. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    Small-conductance, calcium-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are voltage-insensitive channels that have been identified molecularly within the last few years. As SK channels play a fundamental role in most excitable cells and participate in afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike-frequency adapt...... at concentrations of 3 microM and above. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressive widely used clinically, inhibits SK3 channels with an IC50 of 39.1 +/- 10 microM (n=6)....

  19. Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)

  20. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The ion-channel laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Dawson, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam propagating through a plasma in the ion-focused regime exhibits an electromagnetic instability at a resonant frequency ω ∼ 2γ 2 ω β . Growth is enhanced by optical guiding in the ion channel, which acts as dielectric waveguide, with fiber parameter V ∼ 2 (I/I A ) 1/2 . A 1-D theory for such an ''ion-channel laser'' is formulated, scaling laws are derived and numerical examples are given. Possible experimental evidence is noted. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Electron angular distribution axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one

  3. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  4. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  5. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargent, B.; Couraud, F.

    1990-01-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, the authors investigated the effect of Na + -channel activators (scorpion α toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na + channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t 1/2 , 15 min) disappearance of surface Na + channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of [ 3 H]saxitoxin and 125 I-labeled scorpion β toxin and a decrease in specific 22 Na + uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na + channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na + channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na + concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li + (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na + . Amphotericin B, a Na + ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na + -channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na + -channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na + concentration, whether elicited by Na + -channel activators or mediated by a Na + ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na + channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na + -channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro

  6. Unification of Frequency direction Pilot-symbol Aided Channel Estimation (PACE) for OFDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Christian; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Deneire, Luc

    2007-01-01

    their specificities, namely the presence of virtual subcarriers and non-sample-spaced channels. To ease this choice, we propose a unified presentation of estimators encompassing most of the algorithms that can be found in literature, which only differ by the assumptions made on the channel. This unification leads...

  7. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.753 Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship...

  8. Commercials in the Classroom: A Content Analysis of "Channel One" Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfemeyer, K. Tim; Mueller, Barbara

    "Channel One" is a 12-minute daily TV news program designed specifically to be broadcast to high schools. A study examined critically the content of "Channel One" commercials to determine the values, themes, formats, and appeals used to pitch products to students, with special emphasis placed on the values used and promoted in…

  9. A 16-channel combined loop-dipole transceiver array for 7 Tesla body MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; Raaijmakers, Alexander J.E.; Adriany, Gregor; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Metzger, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a 16-channel transceive body imaging array at 7.0 T with improved transmit, receive, and specific absorption rate (SAR) performance by combining both loop and dipole elements and using their respective and complementary near and far field characteristics. Methods: A 16-channel

  10. The Evolution of Marketing Channel Research Domains and Methodologies: An Integrative Review and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krafft, M.; Goetz, O.; Mantrala, M.; Sotgiu, F.; Tillmanns, S.

    2015-01-01

    Marketing channels are among the most important elements of any value chain. This is because the bulk of a nation's manufacturing output flows through them. The intermediaries (e.g., distributors, wholesalers, retailers) constituting marketing channels perform specific distribution functions, such

  11. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

  12. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  13. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  14. Visualizing multi-channel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antemijczuk, Paweł; Magiera, Marta; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a visualization to illustrate social interactions, built from multiple distinct channels of communication. The visualization displays a summary of dense personal information in a compact graphical notation. The starting point is an abstract drawing of a spider’s web. Below...

  15. CHANNELING IN QUASI-CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANVOORTHUYSEN, EHD; SMULDERS, PJM; WERKMAN, RD; DEBOER, JL; VANSMAALEN, S

    Ion-beam channeling has been observed in quasicrystals. For 1 MeV He-4+ ions in icosahedral AlCuFe the maximum effect found is 36%. The full width at half maximum of the observed dips is 1.3-degrees. The effect persists up to great depths (> 200 nm), thus showing a high degree of ordering in this

  16. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  17. Aquaglyceroporins: ancient channels for metalloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu; Rosen, Barry P

    2008-01-01

    The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:19014407

  18. Sales promotions and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal

  19. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the

  20. An 8-channel transceiver 7-channel receive RF coil setup for high SNR ultrahigh-field MRI of the shoulder at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietsch, Stefan H G; Pfaffenrot, Viktor; Bitz, Andreas K; Orzada, Stephan; Brunheim, Sascha; Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Theysohn, Jens M; Ladd, Mark E; Quick, Harald H; Kraff, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present an 8-channel transceiver (Tx/Rx) 7-channel receive (Rx) radiofrequency (RF) coil setup for 7 T ultrahigh-field MR imaging of the shoulder. A C-shaped 8-channel Tx/Rx coil was combined with an anatomically close-fitting 7-channel Rx-only coil. The safety and performance parameters of this coil setup were evaluated on the bench and in phantom experiments. The 7 T MR imaging performance of the shoulder RF coil setup was evaluated in in vivo measurements using a 3D DESS, a 2D PD-weighted TSE sequence, and safety supervision based on virtual observation points. Distinct SNR gain and acceleration capabilities provided by the additional 7-channel Rx-only coil were demonstrated in phantom and in vivo measurements. The power efficiency indicated good performance of each channel and a maximum B 1 + of 19 μT if the hardware RF power limits of the MR system were exploited. MR imaging of the shoulder was demonstrated with clinically excellent image quality and submillimeter spatial resolution. The presented 8-channel transceiver 7-channel receive RF coil setup was successfully applied for in vivo 7 T MRI of the shoulder providing a clear SNR gain vs the transceiver array without the additional receive array. Homogeneous images across the shoulder region were obtained using 8-channel subject-specific phase-only RF shimming. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. The potential roles of T-type Ca2+ channels in motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gyun ePark

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific behavioral patterns are expressed by complex combinations of muscle coordination. Tremors are simple behavioral patterns and are the focus of studies investigating motor coordination mechanisms in the brain. T-type Ca2+ channels mediate intrinsic neuronal oscillations and rhythmic burst spiking, and facilitate the generation of tremor rhythms in motor circuits. Despite substantial evidence that T-type Ca2+ channels mediate pathological tremors, their roles in physiological motor coordination and behavior remain unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the roles that T-type Ca2+ channels play under pathological conditions, and discuss the potential relevance of these channels in mediating physiological motor coordination.

  2. MIMO channel measurements using optical links on small mobile terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at a novel measurement device for propagation channel measurements using a fiber optic link. Although the idea of using optical links is not new, most of the developments in the area are either too big [5], short range [6] or suitable for anechoic chamber only [7]. The device...... presented here is specifically designed to fit in a very small volume and is optimized for low power consumption (runs on small battery), thus imitating the phone electronics. It can be used for anechoic chamber measurements, however it is designed for long range channel sounding measurements....

  3. Human and automatic speaker recognition over telecommunication channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Gallardo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the evaluation of the human and the automatic speaker recognition performances under different channel distortions caused by bandwidth limitation, codecs, and electro-acoustic user interfaces, among other impairments. Its main contribution is the demonstration of the benefits of communication channels of extended bandwidth, together with an insight into how speaker-specific characteristics of speech are preserved through different transmissions. It provides sufficient motivation for considering speaker recognition as a criterion for the migration from narrowband to enhanced bandwidths, such as wideband and super-wideband.

  4. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  5. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  6. CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR ENERGY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  7. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  8. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem

  9. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadayama, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: wadayama@nitech.ac.jp

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem.

  10. Micro channels in macro thermal management solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosoy Boris V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress in electronics is associated with increase in computing ability and processing speed, as well as decrease in size. Future applications of electronic devices in aviation, aero space and high performance consumer products’ industry demand on very stringent specifications concerning miniaturization, component density, power density and reliability. Excess heat produces stresses on internal components inside the electronic device, thus creating reliability problems. Thus, a problem of heat generation and its efficient removal arises and it has led to the development of advanced thermal control systems. Present research analyses a thermodynamic feasibility of micro capillary heat pumped net works in thermal management of electronic systems, considers basic technological constrains and de sign availability, and identifies perspective directions for the further studies. Computer Fluid Dynamics studies have been per formed on the laminar convective heat transfer and pressure drop of working fluid in silicon micro channels. Surface roughness is simulated via regular constructal, and stochastic models. Three-dimensional numerical solution shows significant effects of surface roughness in terms of the rough element geometry such as height, size, spacing and the channel height on the velocity and pressure fields.

  11. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-01-01

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction. PMID:26287193

  12. Activation of ERG2 potassium channels by the diphenylurea NS1643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Three members of the ERG potassium channel family have been described (ERG1-3 or Kv 11.1-3). ERG1 is by far the best characterized subtype and it constitutes the molecular component of the cardiac I(Kr) current. All three channel subtypes are expressed in neurons but their function remains unclear....... The lack of functional information is at least partly due to the lack of specific pharmacological tools. The compound NS1643 has earlier been reported as an ERG1 channel activator. We found that NS1643 also activates the ERG2 channel; however, the molecular mechanism of the activation differs between...... the ERG1 and ERG2 channels. This is surprising since ERG1 and ERG2 channels have very similar biophysical and structural characteristics. For ERG2, NS1643 causes a left-ward shift of the activation curve, a faster time-constant of activation and a slower time-constant of inactivation as well...

  13. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-08-13

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  14. Performance analysis of amplify-and-forward two-way relaying with co-channel interference and channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the performance of a two-way amplify-and-forward relaying network (AF TWRN) in the presence of unequal power co-channel interferers (CCI). Specifically, we consider AF TWRN with an interference-limited relay and two noisy-nodes with channel estimation error and CCI. We derive the approximate signal-to-interference plus noise ratio expressions and then use these expressions to evaluate the outage probability and error probability. Numerical results show that the approximate closed-form expressions are very close to the exact ones. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  16. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-05-12

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  17. Nonverbal channel use in communication of emotion: how may depend on why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    App, Betsy; McIntosh, Daniel N; Reed, Catherine L; Hertenstein, Matthew J

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that different emotions are most effectively conveyed through specific, nonverbal channels of communication: body, face, and touch. Experiment 1 assessed the production of emotion displays. Participants generated nonverbal displays of 11 emotions, with and without channel restrictions. For both actual production and stated preferences, participants favored the body for embarrassment, guilt, pride, and shame; the face for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; and touch for love and sympathy. When restricted to a single channel, participants were most confident about their communication when production was limited to the emotion's preferred channel. Experiment 2 examined the reception or identification of emotion displays. Participants viewed videos of emotions communicated in unrestricted and restricted conditions and identified the communicated emotions. Emotion identification in restricted conditions was most accurate when participants viewed emotions displayed via the emotion's preferred channel. This study provides converging evidence that some emotions are communicated predominantly through different nonverbal channels. Further analysis of these channel-emotion correspondences suggests that the social function of an emotion predicts its primary channel: The body channel promotes social-status emotions, the face channel supports survival emotions, and touch supports intimate emotions.

  18. Pharmacological Conversion of a Cardiac Inward Rectifier into an Outward Rectifier Potassium Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Sanchez-Chapula, Jose A; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2016-09-01

    Potassium (K(+)) channels are crucial for determining the shape, duration, and frequency of action-potential firing in excitable cells. Broadly speaking, K(+) channels can be classified based on whether their macroscopic current outwardly or inwardly rectifies, whereby rectification refers to a change in conductance with voltage. Outwardly rectifying K(+) channels conduct greater current at depolarized membrane potentials, whereas inward rectifier channels conduct greater current at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Under most circumstances, outward currents through inwardly rectifying K(+) channels are reduced at more depolarized potentials. However, the acetylcholine-gated K(+) channel (KACh) conducts current that inwardly rectifies when activated by some ligands (such as acetylcholine), and yet conducts current that outwardly rectifies when activated by other ligands (for example, pilocarpine and choline). The perplexing and paradoxical behavior of KACh channels is due to the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of the receptor that activates KACh channels, the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Emerging evidence reveals that the affinity of M2R for distinct ligands varies in a voltage-dependent and ligand-specific manner. These intrinsic receptor properties determine whether current conducted by KACh channels inwardly or outwardly rectifies. This review summarizes the most recent concepts regarding the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors and the consequences of this intriguing behavior on cardiac physiology and pharmacology of KACh channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Divalent Metal Ion Transport across Large Biological Ion Channels and Their Effect on Conductance and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Giménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological characterization of large protein channels, usually displaying multi-ionic transport and weak ion selectivity, is commonly performed at physiological conditions (moderate gradients of KCl solutions at decimolar concentrations buffered at neutral pH. We extend here the characterization of the OmpF porin, a wide channel of the outer membrane of E. coli, by studying the effect of salts of divalent cations on the transport properties of the channel. The regulation of divalent cations concentration is essential in cell metabolism and understanding their effects is of key importance, not only in the channels specifically designed to control their passage but also in other multiionic channels. In particular, in porin channels like OmpF, divalent cations modulate the efficiency of molecules having antimicrobial activity. Taking advantage of the fact that the OmpF channel atomic structure has been resolved both in water and in MgCl2 aqueous solutions, we analyze the single channel conductance and the channel selectivity inversion aiming to separate the role of the electrolyte itself, and the counterion accumulation induced by the protein channel charges and other factors (binding, steric effects, etc. that being of minor importance in salts of monovalent cations become crucial in the case of divalent cations.

  20. An Effective Channel Allocation Scheme to Reduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference for WMN Backhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Ismaili, I.A.; Khuhawar, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Two folded work presents channel allocation scheme sustaining channel orthogonality and channel spacing to reduce CCI (Co-Channel Interference) and ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) for inter flow of an intra-flow link. Proposed scheme as a part of radio resource allocation is applied on infrastructure based backhaul of wireless mesh network using directional antennas. The proposed approach is applied separately on 2.4 and 5GHz bands. Interference of connectivity graph is modelled by strongly connected directed graph and greedy algorithms are used for channel allocation. We have used OPNET Modeller suite to simulate network models for this research. The proposed arrangement reduces the channel interference and increases system throughput. In this research, the influence of channel is computed in terms of network throughput and delay. (author)

  1. TAURINE REGULATION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS IN RETINAL NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Matthew JM; Bulley, Simon; Purpura, Lauren; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine activates not only Cl−-permeable ionotropic receptors, but also receptors that mediate metabotropic responses. The metabotropic property of taurine was revealed in electrophysiological recordings obtained after fully blocking Cl−-permeable receptors with an inhibitory “cocktail” consisting of picrotoxin, SR95531, and strychnine. We found that taurine’s metabotropic effects regulate voltage-gated channels in retinal neurons. After applying the inhibitory cocktail, taurine enhanced delayed outward rectifier K+ channels preferentially in Off-bipolar cells, and the effect was completely blocked by the specific PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Additionally, taurine also acted through a metabotropic pathway to suppress both L- and N-type Ca2+ channels in retinal neurons, which were insensitive to the potent GABAB receptor inhibitor, CGP55845. This study reinforces our previous finding that taurine in physiological concentrations produces a multiplicity of metabotropic effects that precisely govern the integration of signals being transmitted from the retina to the brain. PMID:23392926

  2. Multidimensional Rank Reduction Estimator for Parametric MIMO Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pesavento

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel algebraic method for the simultaneous estimation of MIMO channel parameters from channel sounder measurements is developed. We consider a parametric multipath propagation model with P discrete paths where each path is characterized by its complex path gain, its directions of arrival and departure, time delay, and Doppler shift. This problem is treated as a special case of the multidimensional harmonic retrieval problem. While the well-known ESPRIT-type algorithms exploit shift-invariance between specific partitions of the signal matrix, the rank reduction estimator (RARE algorithm exploits their internal Vandermonde structure. A multidimensional extension of the RARE algorithm is developed, analyzed, and applied to measurement data recorded with the RUSK vector channel sounder in the 2 GHz band.

  3. Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.

    2013-09-03

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one- pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin-binding domain. Despite their functional similarities, the plant CNGC family members appear to have different conserved amino acid motifs within corresponding functional domains than animal and bacterial CNGCs do. Here we describe the development and application of methods employing plant CNGC-specific sequence motifs as diagnostic tools to identify novel candidate channels in different plants. These methods are used to evaluate the validity of annotations of putative orthologs of CNGCs from plant genomes. The methods detail how to employ regular expressions of conserved amino acids in functional domains of annotated CNGCs and together with Web tools such as PHI-BLAST and ScanProsite to identify novel candidate CNGCs in species including Physcomitrella patens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  4. LRRK2 regulates voltage-gated calcium channel function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade eBedford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how

  5. Delay-limited capacity of fading multiple access and broadcast channels in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    show that for fading channels where the MAC capacity region is strictly positive, it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power, the boundary

  6. Cooperative jamming power control to enhance secrecy communications of AF Relaying systems for Rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    allocation; (i) rate-optimal power allocation and (ii) outage-optimal power allocation. More specifically, without the instantaneous channel knowledge for the eavesdropper side, the outage probability of the secrecy rate is minimized with respect

  7. Long-pore Electrostatics in Inward-rectifier Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janice L.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels differ from the canonical K+ channel structure in that they possess a long extended pore (∼85 Å) for ion conduction that reaches deeply into the cytoplasm. This unique structural feature is presumably involved in regulating functional properties specific to Kir channels, such as conductance, rectification block, and ligand-dependent gating. To elucidate the underpinnings of these functional roles, we examine the electrostatics of an ion along this extended pore. Homology models are constructed based on the open-state model of KirBac1.1 for four mammalian Kir channels: Kir1.1/ROMK, Kir2.1/IRK, Kir3.1/GIRK, and Kir6.2/KATP. By solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the electrostatic free energy of a K+ ion is determined along each pore, revealing that mammalian Kir channels provide a favorable environment for cations and suggesting the existence of high-density regions in the cytoplasmic domain and cavity. The contribution from the reaction field (the self-energy arising from the dielectric polarization induced by the ion's charge in the complex geometry of the pore) is unfavorable inside the long pore. However, this is well compensated by the electrostatic interaction with the static field arising from the protein charges and shielded by the dielectric surrounding. Decomposition of the static field provides a list of residues that display remarkable correspondence with existing mutagenesis data identifying amino acids that affect conduction and rectification. Many of these residues demonstrate interactions with the ion over long distances, up to 40 Å, suggesting that mutations potentially affect ion or blocker energetics over the entire pore. These results provide a foundation for understanding ion interactions in Kir channels and extend to the study of ion permeation, block, and gating in long, cation-specific pores. PMID:19001143

  8. Amplifier channel for a fission fragment semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurin, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    To compensate the decrease of the transformation coefficient of fission fragment semiconductor detector (SCD) developed is a special amplification channel with controlled transfer coefficient. The block diagram of the channel is presented, the main functional units of which are as follows: preamplifying head with charge-sensitive and timing preamplifiers, linear amplifier and the circuit of spectrum position stabilization, which includes a differential discriminator, integrator and reference signal generator. The amplification channel is made in the CAMAC standard and has the following specifications: dinamical input capacitance of charge-sensitive amplifier c=10000 n PHI, signal amplitude at output of the linear amplifier at energy of fission fragments of 120 MeV has negative polarity and is equal to 5 V. Pulse amplitude change at SCD sensitivity decrease to 50% constitutes not more than 1%. Timing preamplifier has the gain factor at voltage of K=80 at front duration of 3.5 nc. Time resolution of the amplification channel is not worse than 1 nc. Dimensions of preamplifying head are 40x40x15 mm. The amplification channel permitted to use SCD for long-term measurements of fission fragment spectra [ru

  9. Voltage-gated proton channel is expressed on phagosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channel has been suggested to help NADPH oxidase activity during respiratory burst of phagocytes through its activities of compensating charge imbalance and regulation of pH. In phagocytes, robust production of reactive oxygen species occurs in closed membrane compartments, which are called phagosomes. However, direct evidence for the presence of voltage-gated proton channels in phagosome has been lacking. In this study, the expression of voltage-gated proton channels was studied by Western blot with the antibody specific to the voltage-sensor domain protein, VSOP/Hv1, that has recently been identified as the molecular correlate for the voltage-gated proton channel. Phagosomal membranes of neutrophils contain VSOP/Hv1 in accordance with subunits of NADPH oxidases, gp91, p22, p47 and p67. Superoxide anion production upon PMA activation was significantly reduced in neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1 knockout mice. These are consistent with the idea that voltage-gated proton channels help NADPH oxidase in phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species.

  10. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Haiqi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications.

  11. A new sensors-based covert channel on android.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Ismail, Mahamod; Nordin, Rosdiadee

    2014-01-01

    Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5-5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications.

  12. Superimposed Training-Based Channel Estimation for MIMO Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the superimposed training strategy into the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF one-way relay network (OWRN to perform the individual channel estimation at the destination. Through the superposition of a group of additional training vectors at the relay subject to power allocation, the separated estimates of the source-relay and relay-destination channels can be obtained directly at the destination, and the accordance with the two-hop AF strategy can be guaranteed at the same time. The closed-form Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB is derived for the estimation of two sets of flat-fading MIMO channel under random channel parameters and further exploited to design the optimal training vectors. A specific suboptimal channel estimation algorithm is applied in the MIMO AF OWRN using the optimal training sequences, and the normalized mean square error performance for the estimation is provided to verify the Bayesian CRLB results.

  13. Calibration through on-line monitoring of instruments channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Plant technical specifications require periodic calibration of instrument channels, and this has traditionally meant calibration at fixed time intervals for nearly all instruments. Experience has shown that unnecessarily frequent calibrations reduce channel availability and reliability, impact outage durations, and increase maintenance costs. An alternative approach to satisfying existing requirements for periodic calibration consists of on-line monitoring and quantitative comparison of instrument channels during operation to identify instrument degradation and failure. A Utility Working Group has been formed by EPRI to support the technical activities necessary to achieve generic NRC acceptance of on-line monitoring of redundant instrument channels as a basis for determining when to perform calibrations. A topical report proposing NRC acceptance of this approach was submitted in August 1995, and the Working Group is currently resolving NRC technical questions. This paper describes the proposed approach and the current status of the topical report with regard to NRC review. While these activities will not preclude utilities from continuing to use existing calibration approaches, successful acceptance of this performance-based approach will allow utilities to substantially reduce the number of calibrations which are performed. Concurrent benefits will include reduced I ampersand C impact on outage durations and improved sensitivity to instrument channel performance

  14. Ion Permeation and Mechanotransduction Mechanisms of Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Wu, Kun; Geng, Jie; Chi, Shaopeng; Wang, Yanfeng; Zhi, Peng; Zhang, Mingmin; Xiao, Bailong

    2016-03-16

    Piezo proteins have been proposed as the long-sought-after mechanosensitive cation channels in mammals that play critical roles in various mechanotransduction processes. However, the molecular bases that underlie their ion permeation and mechanotransduction have remained functionally undefined. Here we report our finding of the miniature pore-forming module of Piezo1 that resembles the pore architecture of other trimeric channels and encodes the essential pore properties. We further identified specific residues within the pore module that determine unitary conductance, pore blockage and ion selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations and anions. The non-pore-containing region of Piezo1 confers mechanosensitivity to mechano-insensitive trimeric acid-sensing ion channels, demonstrating that Piezo1 channels possess intrinsic mechanotransduction modules separate from their pore modules. In conclusion, this is the first report on the bona fide pore module and mechanotransduction components of Piezo channels, which define their ion-conducting properties and gating by mechanical stimuli, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications. PMID:25295311

  16. Linear stability analysis of heated parallel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Isbin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analyis is presented of thermal hydraulic stability of flow in parallel channels covering the range from inlet subcooling to exit superheat. The model is based on a one-dimensional drift velocity formulation of the two phase flow conservation equations. The system of equations is linearized by assuming small disturbances about the steady state. The dynamic response of the system to an inlet flow perturbation is derived yielding the characteristic equation which predicts the onset of instabilities. A specific application is carried out for homogeneous and regional uniformly heated systems. The particular case of equal characteristic frequencies of two-phase and single phase vapor region is studied in detail. The D-partition method and the Mikhailov stability criterion are used for determining the marginal stability boundary. Stability predictions from the present analysis are compared with the experimental data from the solar test facility. 8 references

  17. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO 2 -binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  18. Topology optimization of Channel flow problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Sigmund, Ole; Haber, R. B.

    2005-01-01

    function which measures either some local aspect of the velocity field or a global quantity, such as the rate of energy dissipation. We use the finite element method to model the flow, and we solve the optimization problem with a gradient-based math-programming algorithm that is driven by analytical......This paper describes a topology design method for simple two-dimensional flow problems. We consider steady, incompressible laminar viscous flows at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. This makes the flow problem non-linear and hence a non-trivial extension of the work of [Borrvall&Petersson 2002......]. Further, the inclusion of inertia effects significantly alters the physics, enabling solutions of new classes of optimization problems, such as velocity--driven switches, that are not addressed by the earlier method. Specifically, we determine optimal layouts of channel flows that extremize a cost...

  19. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  20. Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas: Jetty Stability Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas C; Lin, Lihwa; Batten, Brian K; Brown, Gary L

    2006-01-01

    .... The current has produced a large area of scour on the bay side of the inlet adjacent to the west jetty, and vessels encountering a strong along-channel and cross-channel current at the entrance...

  1. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  2. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  3. Channel Estimation in DCT-Based OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin; Xie, Zhidong; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives the channel estimation of a discrete cosine transform- (DCT-) based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system over a frequency-selective multipath fading channel. Channel estimation has been proved to improve system throughput and performance by allowing for coherent demodulation. Pilot-aided methods are traditionally used to learn the channel response. Least square (LS) and mean square error estimators (MMSE) are investigated. We also study a compressed sensing (CS) based channel estimation, which takes the sparse property of wireless channel into account. Simulation results have shown that the CS based channel estimation is expected to have better performance than LS. However MMSE can achieve optimal performance because of prior knowledge of the channel statistic. PMID:24757439

  4. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  5. Investigation Of Information Sources And Communication Channels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation Of Information Sources And Communication Channels In Ipm Rice ... the information accessibility of farmer groups seems as empowerment strategy. ... information sources and communication channels, in order of importance, ...

  6. The KATP channel in migraine pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Karagholi, Mohammad Al-Mahdi; Hansen, Jakob Møller; Severinsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To review the distribution and function of KATP channels, describe the use of KATP channels openers in clinical trials and make the case that these channels may play a role in headache and migraine. DISCUSSION: KATP channels are widely present in the trigeminovascular system and play...... an important role in the regulation of tone in cerebral and meningeal arteries. Clinical trials using synthetic KATP channel openers report headache as a prevalent-side effect in non-migraine sufferers, indicating that KATP channel opening may cause headache, possibly due to vascular mechanisms. Whether KATP...... channel openers can provoke migraine in migraine sufferers is not known. CONCLUSION: We suggest that KATP channels may play an important role in migraine pathogenesis and could be a potential novel therapeutic anti-migraine target....

  7. Optimization of Communication in Noisy Quantum Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruskai, Mary

    2002-01-01

    .... This project has been concerned with the analysis of mathematical models of noise for qubit channels, with the capacity of qubit channels used to transmit classical information, and with exchange...

  8. Four-channel delay generator model 5740

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumatz, D.; Milner, M.

    1978-01-01

    The 4-channel delay generator model 5740 generates 4-pulse groups in independent channels. The device offers the possibility of controlling both the time intervals between the pulses of a group and the rate of generation of groups

  9. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  10. Consolidation equipment for irradiated nuclear fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Ose, T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed and put into use a new type of mechanical consolidation equipment for irradiated nuclear fuel channels. This includes round-slice cutting of the top 100mm of the fuel channel with a guillotine cutter, and press cutting of the two corners of the remaining length of the fuel channel. Four guillotine blades work in combination with receiving blades arranged inside the fuel channel to cut the top 100mm, including the clips and spacers, of the fuel channel into a round slice. A press assembled in the consolidation equipment then presses the slice to achieve volume reduction. The press cutting operation uses two press cutting blades arranged inside the fuel channel and the receiving blades outside the fuel channel. The remaining length of fuel channel is cut off into L-shaped pieces by press cutting. This consolidation equipment is highly efficient because the round-slice cutting, pressing, and press cutting are all achieved by one unit

  11. On the capacity of multiple access and broadcast fading Channels with full channel state information at low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2013-07-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multi-access (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters (CSI-TR), at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum-rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Using the duality of Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we provide a simple characterization of the BC capacity region at low power regime. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Channeling experiments at IPNE Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Dumitru, M; Ivan, A [Cyclotron Laboratory, Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest, P.O.Box MG-6, (Romania)

    1992-01-01

    Channeling experiments have been performed at the I.P.N.E Cyclotron using a 3 MeV alpha beam. A slide system cut the beam up to 5 minutes spatial resolution with a maximum 60 nA beam current on the target. The two-axis goniometer, fully computer-controlled, moves the target, a silicon wafer, with 2.5 minute resolution, while an alpha particle sensitive solid state detector, monitors the backscattered particle fluence. In the first stage, channeling appears to be a simple, fast and reliable method for precise monocrystal orientation. A reduction of the host yield by a factor of two allowed impurities and defects to be studied. (Author).

  13. Thermoelectricity in Heterogeneous Nanofluidic Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Wang, Qinggong

    2018-05-01

    Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e.g., electronic chips and solar panels). The currents increase linearly with temperature gradient and nonlinearly with channel size. Contributions to ion motion from temperatures and channel properties are evaluated for this phenomenon. The findings provide insights into the study of confined ionic fluids in multiphysical fields, and suggest applications in thermal energy conversion, temperature sensors, and chip-level thermal management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of franchising arrangements in improving coordination between channel members. In particular we focus on two elements of the franchising contract, namely, the royalty structure and the monitoring technology. We begin with a simple analysis where a manufacturer distributes its product through a retailer and the retail demand is affected by the retail price and the service provided by the retailer. In this context we show that neither royalty payments nor moni...

  15. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  16. Trafficking of neuronal calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Zamponi, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku NS20160003. ISSN 2059-6553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * neuron * trafficing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) http://www.neuronalsignaling.org/content/1/1/NS20160003

  17. Spark channel propagation in a microbubble liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya.; Son, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental study on the development of the spark channel from the anode needle under pulsed electrical breakdown of isopropyl alcohol solution in water with air microbubbles has been performed. The presence of the microbubbles increases the velocity of the spark channel propagation and increases the current in the discharge gap circuit. The observed rate of spark channel propagation in microbubble liquid ranges from 4 to 12 m/s, indicating the thermal mechanism of the spark channel development in a microbubble liquid.

  18. Assessing the Consequences of a Channel Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Xinlei (Jack) Chen; George John; Om Narasimhan

    2008-01-01

    Switching marketing channels is an expensive and sticky decision. While a number of theories suggest efficiency and strategic differences between channels, there is virtually no work on combining these ideas into an empirically workable methodology to assess the impact of a channel switch. In this study, we undertake to close this gap with an empirical study of the sports drink market, featuring competing producers and heterogeneous channels. We estimate demand and cost parameters for a numbe...

  19. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  20. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  1. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  2. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  3. Spin chain model for correlated quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Davide [International School for Advanced Studies SISSA/ISAS, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio; Montangero, Simone [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: monta@sns.it

    2008-11-15

    We analyze the quality of the quantum information transmission along a correlated quantum channel by studying the average fidelity between input and output states and the average output purity, giving bounds for the entropy of the channel. Noise correlations in the channel are modeled by the coupling of each channel use with an element of a one-dimensional interacting quantum spin chain. Criticality of the environment chain is seen to emerge in the changes of the fidelity and of the purity.

  4. Subunit Stoichiometry of Human Muscle Chloride Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlke, Christoph; Knittle, Timothy; Gurnett, Christina A.; Campbell, Kevin P.; George, Alfred L.

    1997-01-01

    Voltage-gated Cl? channels belonging to the ClC family appear to function as homomultimers, but the number of subunits needed to form a functional channel is controversial. To determine subunit stoichiometry, we constructed dimeric human skeletal muscle Cl? channels in which one subunit was tagged by a mutation (D136G) that causes profound changes in voltage-dependent gating. Sucrose-density gradient centrifugation experiments indicate that both monomeric and dimeric hClC-1 channels in their ...

  5. Hollow core plasma channel generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, Heinrich Martin

    2018-03-01

    The use of a hollow plasma channel in plasma-based acceleration has beneficial properties for the acceleration of electron and positron bunches. In the scope of the FLASHForward facility at DESY, the generation of such a plasma structure is examined. Therefore, the generation of a ring-shaped laser intensity profile with different techniques is analyzed. From the obtained intensity profiles the electron density of a hollow plasma channel is simulated in the focal region. Different parameters are scanned to understand their influence on the electron density distribution - an important parameter being, for example, the radius of the central region of the channel. In addition to the simulations, experiments are presented, during which a laser pulse is transformed into a hollow beam with a spiral phase plate. Subsequently, it forms a plasma during the interaction with hydrogen, where the plasma is imaged with interferometry. For energies above 0.9 mJ a hollow plasma structure can be observed at the location of first plasma formation.

  6. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  7. Square root approximation to the poisson channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiatmas, A.; Willems, F.M.J.; Baggen, C.P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the Poisson model we present a channel model for optical communications, called the Square Root (SR) Channel, in which the noise is additive Gaussian with constant variance. Initially, we prove that for large peak or average power, the transmission rate of a Poisson Channel when coding

  8. The Marketing Channels of China Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    our reporter

    2001-01-01

    <正> After the 1990’s, the multi-channel structure of sales has still existed although the market mechanism is playing a main role in Chinese auto marketing circulation. Now, the channels of automobile marketing in China are as follows: 1. Manufacturer-established marketing channels

  9. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Q.; Gyftogianni, E.; Graaf, K.F.J. van de; Hoefs, S.J.G.; Weidema, A.F.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  10. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Qing; Gyftogianni, Emmanouela; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Hoefs, Susan; Weidema, Freek A.; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  11. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  12. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with no more than 5 watts ERP. (g) Fixed stations in GMRS systems authorized before March 18, 1968... transmission of another GMRS station on a different channel or channels), the licensee of the GMRS system must... GMRS system from the following 462 MHz channels: 462.5500, 462.5750, 462.6000, 462.6250, 462.6500, 462...

  13. Mechanosensitive Channels: In Touch with Piezo

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels.

  14. Language Planning, Channel Management, and ESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chris

    Channel management, a concept developed in marketing to refer to the process by which a product is moved from production to consumption, uses a channel of distribution operating at several levels, each responsible for one or more of the activities of moving the product forward to the consumer. The function of channel management is to select the…

  15. Inward rectifier potassium (Kir2.1) channels as end-stage boosters of endothelium-dependent vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkusare, Swapnil K; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D; Nelson, Mark T

    2016-06-15

    Increase in endothelial cell (EC) calcium activates calcium-sensitive intermediate and small conductance potassium (IK and SK) channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Endothelial cells express inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels, but their role in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. In the mesenteric arteries, only ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, displayed Kir currents that were predominantly mediated by the Kir2.1 isoform. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in response to muscarinic receptor, TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channel and IK/SK channel agonists were highly attenuated by Kir channel inhibitors and by Kir2.1 channel knockdown. These results point to EC Kir channels as amplifiers of vasodilatation in response to increases in EC calcium and IK/SK channel activation and suggest that EC Kir channels could be targeted to treat endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of vascular disorders. Endothelium-dependent vasodilators, such as acetylcholine, increase intracellular Ca(2+) through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels in the plasma membrane and inositol trisphosphate receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to stimulation of Ca(2+) -sensitive intermediate and small conductance K(+) (IK and SK, respectively) channels. Although strong inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels have been reported in the native endothelial cells (ECs) their role in EC-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. Here, we test the idea that Kir channels boost the EC-dependent vasodilatation of resistance-sized arteries. We show that ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, of small mesenteric arteries have Kir currents, which are substantially reduced in EC-specific Kir2.1 knockdown (EC-Kir2.1(-/-) ) mice. Elevation of extracellular K(+) to 14 mm caused vasodilatation of pressurized arteries, which was prevented by endothelial denudation and Kir channel

  16. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Kashihara, Hiroka; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Kosei; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na+, similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tanaka, Hiroo

    2016-01-05

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na+, similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Extraction of tidal channel networks from airborne scanning laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David C.; Scott, Tania R.; Wang, Hai-Jing

    Tidal channel networks are important features of the inter-tidal zone, and play a key role in tidal propagation and in the evolution of salt marshes and tidal flats. The study of their morphology is currently an active area of research, and a number of theories related to networks have been developed which require validation using dense and extensive observations of network forms and cross-sections. The conventional method of measuring networks is cumbersome and subjective, involving manual digitisation of aerial photographs in conjunction with field measurement of channel depths and widths for selected parts of the network. This paper describes a semi-automatic technique developed to extract networks from high-resolution LiDAR data of the inter-tidal zone. A multi-level knowledge-based approach has been implemented, whereby low-level algorithms first extract channel fragments based mainly on image properties then a high-level processing stage improves the network using domain knowledge. The approach adopted at low level uses multi-scale edge detection to detect channel edges, then associates adjacent anti-parallel edges together to form channels. The higher level processing includes a channel repair mechanism. The algorithm may be extended to extract networks from aerial photographs as well as LiDAR data. Its performance is illustrated using LiDAR data of two study sites, the River Ems, Germany and the Venice Lagoon. For the River Ems data, the error of omission for the automatic channel extractor is 26%, partly because numerous small channels are lost because they fall below the edge threshold, though these are less than 10 cm deep and unlikely to be hydraulically significant. The error of commission is lower, at 11%. For the Venice Lagoon data, the error of omission is 14%, but the error of commission is 42%, due partly to the difficulty of interpreting channels in these natural scenes. As a benchmark, previous work has shown that this type of algorithm

  19. Separation of Particles in Channels Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyatikov Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the separation of particles in channels with different relative length. It is shown that the intensity of turbulence at the inlet section of the channel varies considerably in its length. The dependence of the turbulence damping along the channel expressing by fraction of the distance is shown. The ratio of the particle separation efficiency out the gas flow in the rotor channel is defined. The values of particle separation efficiency in the channel for the angle α=π/4 in turbulent aerosol flow is shows, including without mixing the particles.

  20. CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN MODIFIED ALLUVIAL STREAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R.

    1987-01-01

    This study (a) assesses the channel changes and network trends of bed level response after modifications between 1959 and 1972 of alluvial channels in western Tennessee and (b) develops a conceptual model of bank slope development to qualitatively assess bank stability and potential channel widening. A six-step, semiquantitative model of channel evolution in disturbed channels was developed by quantifying bed level trends and recognizing qualitative stages of bank slope development. Development of the bank profile is defined in terms of three dynamic and observable surfaces: (a) vertical face (70 to 90 degrees), (b) upper bank (25 to 50 degrees), and (c) slough line (20 to 25 degrees).

  1. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  2. A structural view of ligand-dependent activation in thermoTRP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena eSteinberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP proteins are a large family of ion channels, grouped intoseven sub-families. Although great advances have been made regarding the activation andmodulation of TRP channel activity, detailed molecular mechanisms governing TRPchannel gating are still needed. Sensitive to electric, chemical, mechanical, and thermalcues, TRP channels are tightly associated with the detection and integration of sensoryinput, emerging as a model to study the polymodal activation of ion channel proteins.Among TRP channels, the temperature-activated kind constitute a subgroup by itself,formed by Vanilloid receptors 1-4, Melastatin receptors 2, 4, 5 and 8, TRPC5, and TRPA1.Some of the so-called thermoTRP channels participate in the detection of noxious stimulimaking them an interesting pharmacological target for the treatment of pain. However, thepoor specificity of the compounds available in the market represents an important obstacleto overcome. Understanding the molecular mechanics underlying ligand-dependentmodulation of TRP channels may help with the rational design of novel syntheticanalgesics. The present review focuses on the structural basis of ligand-dependentactivation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 channels. Special attention is drawn to the dissection ofligand-binding sites within TRPV1, PIP 2 -dependent modulation of TRP channels, and thestructure of natural and synthetic ligands.

  3. Nanopores: maltoporin channel as a sensor for maltodextrin and lambda-phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To harvest nutrition from the outside bacteria e.g. E. coli developed in the outer cell wall a number of sophisticated channels called porins. One of them, maltoporin, is a passive specific channel for the maltodextrin uptake. This channel was also named LamB as the bacterial virus phage Lambda mis-uses this channel to recognise the bacteria. The first step is a reversible binding followed after a lag phase by DNA injection. To date little is known about the binding capacity and less on the DNA injection mechanism. To elucidate the mechanism and to show the sensitivity of our method we reconstituted maltoporin in planar lipid membranes. Application of an external transmembrane electric field causes an ion current across the channel. Maltoporin channel diameter is around a few Angstroem. At this size the ion current is extremely sensitive to any modification of the channels surface. Protein conformational changes, substrate binding etc will cause fluctuations reflecting the molecular interactions with the channel wall. The recent improvement in ion current fluctuation analysis allows now studying the interaction of solutes with the channel on a single molecular level. Results We could demonstrate the asymmetry of the bacterial phage Lambda binding to its natural receptor maltoporin. Conclusion We suggest that this type of measurement can be used as a new type of biosensors.

  4. Quantum capacity of Pauli channels with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Peng; He Guangqiang; Lu Yuan; Zeng Guihua

    2011-01-01

    The amount of coherent quantum information that can be reliably transmitted down the memory Pauli channels with Markovian correlated noise is investigated. Two methods for evaluating the quantum capacity of the memory Pauli channels are proposed to try to trace the memory effect on the transmissions of quantum information. We show that the evaluation of quantum capacity can be reduced to the calculation of the initial memory state of each successive transmission. Furthermore, we derive quantum capacities of the memory phase flip channel, bit flip channel and bit-phase flip channel. Also, a lower bound of the quantum capacity of the memory depolarizing channel is obtained. An increase of the degree of memory of the channels has a positive effect on the increase of their quantum capacities.

  5. Effects of dislocations on electron channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Juby; Pathak, A P

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of electron channeling in a crystal affected by dislocations is considered. Earlier we had considered the quantum aspects of the positron channeling in a crystal bent by dislocations where the effects of longitudinal motion of the particle were also considered along with the transverse motion. In this paper, the effective potential for the electron case is found for the two regions of dislocation-affected channel. There is considerable shift in the potential minima due to dislocations. The frequency and the corresponding spectrum of the channeling radiation due to electrons channeling through the perfect channel and the two regions of dislocation-affected channels are calculated. The spectral distribution of radiation intensity changes with the parameters of dislocation. The continuity of wavefunctions and their derivatives is used at the three boundaries and the reflection and transmission coefficients are found using these boundary conditions in the same way as in the positron case.

  6. Channel selection for automatic seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the performance of epileptic seizure detection using only a few of the recorded EEG channels and the ability of software to select these channels compared with a neurophysiologist. Methods: Fifty-nine seizures and 1419 h of interictal EEG are used for training and testing...... of an automatic channel selection method. The characteristics of the seizures are extracted by the use of a wavelet analysis and classified by a support vector machine. The best channel selection method is based upon maximum variance during the seizure. Results: Using only three channels, a seizure detection...... sensitivity of 96% and a false detection rate of 0.14/h were obtained. This corresponds to the performance obtained when channels are selected through visual inspection by a clinical neurophysiologist, and constitutes a 4% improvement in sensitivity compared to seizure detection using channels recorded...

  7. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  8. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shilian, E-mail: wangsl@nudt.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhili [College of Electrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, P R China (China)

    2015-01-15

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  10. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  11. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+ channels. To determine if these viral K(+ channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+ channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+ channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+ channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+ channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+ channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+ channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  12. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  13. Molecular and functional expression of high conductance Ca 2+ activated K+ channels in the eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria G; Rizzello, Antonia; Giordano, Maria E

    2008-01-01

    Several types of K(+) channels have been identified in epithelial cells. Among them high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) are of relevant importance for their involvement in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response following hypotonic stress. The aim of the present work...... was to investigate the functional and molecular expression of BK in the eel intestine, which is a useful experimental model for cell volume regulation research. In the present paper using rat BK channel-specific primer, a RT-PCR signal of 696 pb cDNA was detected in eel intestine, whole nucleotide sequence showed...... high similarity (83%) to the alpha subunit of BK channel family. BK channel protein expression was verified by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy, while the functional role of BK channels in epithelial ion transport mechanisms and cell volume regulation was examined by electrophysiological...

  14. Develop A Framework for Selection of Intermediary in Marketing Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Irani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine how a company can select the best intermediary for itsMarketing channels with minimum of criteria and time. A theoretical framework is proposed basedon the most important tasks of intermediary and the criteria to measure them. There are four basictasks and thirty criteria in three independent levels. Subsequently, an exploratory case study inIranian Food industry is described to illustrate the value of the framework. It is possible to apply thetheoretical framework to select the intermediary for any industry or country. However, there mightbe possible location-specific or industry-specific limitations. Moreover, the framework has provedto be useful in improving the selection of the intermediary in marketing channel. This is a notableand promising side-effect of the exploratory study, at least from a managerial point of view.

  15. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  16. Mechanosensitive gating of Kv channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Morris

    Full Text Available K-selective voltage-gated channels (Kv are multi-conformation bilayer-embedded proteins whose mechanosensitive (MS Popen(V implies that at least one conformational transition requires the restructuring of the channel-bilayer interface. Unlike Morris and colleagues, who attributed MS-Kv responses to a cooperative V-dependent closed-closed expansion↔compaction transition near the open state, Mackinnon and colleagues invoke expansion during a V-independent closed↔open transition. With increasing membrane tension, they suggest, the closed↔open equilibrium constant, L, can increase >100-fold, thereby taking steady-state Popen from 0→1; "exquisite sensitivity to small…mechanical perturbations", they state, makes a Kv "as much a mechanosensitive…as…a voltage-dependent channel". Devised to explain successive gK(V curves in excised patches where tension spontaneously increased until lysis, their L-based model falters in part because of an overlooked IK feature; with recovery from slow inactivation factored in, their g(V datasets are fully explained by the earlier model (a MS V-dependent closed-closed transition, invariant L≥4. An L-based MS-Kv predicts neither known Kv time courses nor the distinctive MS responses of Kv-ILT. It predicts Kv densities (hence gating charge per V-sensor several-fold different from established values. If opening depended on elevated tension (L-based model, standard gK(V operation would be compromised by animal cells' membrane flaccidity. A MS V-dependent transition is, by contrast, unproblematic on all counts. Since these issues bear directly on recent findings that mechanically-modulated Kv channels subtly tune pain-related excitability in peripheral mechanoreceptor neurons we undertook excitability modeling (evoked action potentials. Kvs with MS V-dependent closed-closed transitions produce nuanced mechanically-modulated excitability whereas an L-based MS-Kv yields extreme, possibly excessive

  17. Stimulation of Slack K+ channels alters mass at the plasma membrane by triggering dissociation of a phosphatase-regulatory complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Matthew R.; Brown, Maile R.; Kronengold, Jack; Zhang, Yalan; Jenkins, David P.; Barcia, Gulia; Nabbout, Rima; Bausch, Anne E.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar S.; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human mutations in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of Slack sodium-activated potassium (KNa) channels result in childhood epilepsy with severe intellectual disability. Slack currents can be increased by pharmacological activators or by phosphorylation of a Slack C-terminal residue by protein kinase C. Using an optical biosensor assay, we find that Slack channel stimulation in neurons or transfected cells produces loss of mass near the plasma membrane. Slack mutants associated with intellectual disability fail to trigger any change in mass. The loss of mass results from the dissociation of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting protein, Phactr-1, from the channel. Phactr1 dissociation is specific to wild-type Slack channels and is not observed when related potassium channels are stimulated. Our findings suggest that Slack channels are coupled to cytoplasmic signaling pathways, and that dysregulation of this coupling may trigger the aberrant intellectual development associated with specific childhood epilepsies. PMID:27545877

  18. Stimulation of Slack K+ Channels Alters Mass at the Plasma Membrane by Triggering Dissociation of a Phosphatase-Regulatory Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Fleming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human mutations in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of Slack sodium-activated potassium (KNa channels result in childhood epilepsy with severe intellectual disability. Slack currents can be increased by pharmacological activators or by phosphorylation of a Slack C-terminal residue by protein kinase C. Using an optical biosensor assay, we find that Slack channel stimulation in neurons or transfected cells produces loss of mass near the plasma membrane. Slack mutants associated with intellectual disability fail to trigger any change in mass. The loss of mass results from the dissociation of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 targeting protein, Phactr-1, from the channel. Phactr1 dissociation is specific to wild-type Slack channels and is not observed when related potassium channels are stimulated. Our findings suggest that Slack channels are coupled to cytoplasmic signaling pathways and that dysregulation of this coupling may trigger the aberrant intellectual development associated with specific childhood epilepsies.

  19. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  20. Workflow Optimization for Tuning Prostheses with High Input Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of Specific Aim 1 by driving a commercially available two DoF wrist and single DoF hand. The high -level control system will provide analog signals...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0767 TITLE: Workflow Optimization for Tuning Prostheses with High Input Channel PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel Merrill...Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department

  1. Do TRPC channels support working memory? Comparing modulations of TRPC channels and working memory through G-protein coupled receptors and neuromodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboreda, Antonio; Theissen, Frederik M; Valero-Aracama, Maria J; Arboit, Alberto; Corbu, Mihaela A; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2018-03-01

    Working memory is a crucial ability we use in daily life. However, the cellular mechanisms supporting working memory still remain largely unclear. A key component of working memory is persistent neural firing which is believed to serve short-term (hundreds of milliseconds up to tens of seconds) maintenance of necessary information. In this review, we will focus on the role of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels as a mechanism underlying persistent firing. Many years of in vitro work have been suggesting a crucial role of TRPC channels in working memory and temporal association tasks. If TRPC channels are indeed a central mechanism for working memory, manipulations which impair or facilitate working memory should have a similar effect on TRPC channel modulation. However, modulations of working memory and TRPC channels were never systematically compared, and it remains unanswered whether TRPC channels indeed contribute to working memory in vivo or not. In this article, we review the effects of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and neuromodulators, including acetylcholine, noradrenalin, serotonin and dopamine, on working memory and TRPC channels. Based on comparisons, we argue that GPCR and downstream signaling pathways that activate TRPC, generally support working memory, while those that suppress TRPC channels impair it. However, depending on the channel types, areas, and systems tested, this is not the case in all studies. Further work to clarify involvement of specific TRPC channels in working memory tasks and how they are affected by neuromodulators is still necessary in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  3. A Perspective on the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Oggier, Frederique; Hassibi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    A wiretap channel is a communication channel between a transmitter Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob, in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. The goal of communication is to achieve reliability between Alice and Bob, but also confidentiality despite Eve’s presence. Wiretap channels are declined in all kinds of flavors, depending on the underlying channels used by the three players: discrete memoryless channels, additive Gaussian noise channels, or fading channels, to name a few. In this survey, we focus on the case where the three players use multiple-antenna channels with Gaussian noise to communicate. After summarizing known results for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) channels, both in terms of achievable reliable data rate (capacity) and code design, we introduce the MIMO wiretap channel. We then state the MIMO wiretap capacity, summarize the idea of the proof(s) behind this result, and comment on the insights given by the proofs on the physical meaning of the secrecy capacity. We finally discuss design criteria for MIMO wiretap codes.

  4. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  5. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Perspective on the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Oggier, Frederique

    2015-10-01

    A wiretap channel is a communication channel between a transmitter Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob, in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. The goal of communication is to achieve reliability between Alice and Bob, but also confidentiality despite Eve’s presence. Wiretap channels are declined in all kinds of flavors, depending on the underlying channels used by the three players: discrete memoryless channels, additive Gaussian noise channels, or fading channels, to name a few. In this survey, we focus on the case where the three players use multiple-antenna channels with Gaussian noise to communicate. After summarizing known results for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) channels, both in terms of achievable reliable data rate (capacity) and code design, we introduce the MIMO wiretap channel. We then state the MIMO wiretap capacity, summarize the idea of the proof(s) behind this result, and comment on the insights given by the proofs on the physical meaning of the secrecy capacity. We finally discuss design criteria for MIMO wiretap codes.

  7. 16 channel 200 GHz arrayed waveguide grating based on Si nanowire waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lei; An Junming; Zhang Jiashun; Song Shijiao; Wu Yuanda; Hu Xiongwei

    2011-01-01

    A 16 channel arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer with 200 GHz channel spacing based on Si nanowire waveguides is designed. The transmission spectra response simulated by transmission function method shows that the device has channel spacing of 1.6 nm and crosstalk of 31 dB. The device is fabricated by 193 nm deep UV lithography in silicon-on-substrate. The demultiplexing characteristics are observed with crosstalk of 5-8 dB, central channel's insertion loss of 2.2 dB, free spectral range of 24.7 nm and average channel spacing of 1.475 nm. The cause of the spectral distortion is analyzed specifically. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Differential subcellular distribution of ion channels and the diversity of neuronal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Following the astonishing molecular diversity of voltage-gated ion channels that was revealed in the past few decades, the ion channel repertoire expressed by neurons has been implicated as the major factor governing their functional heterogeneity. Although the molecular structure of ion channels is a key determinant of their biophysical properties, their subcellular distribution and densities on the surface of nerve cells are just as important for fulfilling functional requirements. Recent results obtained with high resolution quantitative localization techniques revealed complex, subcellular compartment-specific distribution patterns of distinct ion channels. Here I suggest that within a given neuron type every ion channel has a unique cell surface distribution pattern, with the functional consequence that this dramatically increases the computational power of nerve cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New selection criteria for channel refueling of a Candu-6 reactor: introduction to floppy rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissette, D.

    2001-01-01

    A revised set of rules is in use at Gentilly-2 NGS for the selection of channels for refuelling. Traditional hard channel rejection rules (of go/no-go type) have been replaced by a more efficient set of soft evaluation rules based on concepts borrowed to the Fuzzy Logic. New evaluation rules, labelled as 'Floppy Rules', enable to assess and rate the channel suitability for refuelling by using a smooth and natural continuum of values qualifying excellent, good, fair and poor choices. Global channel suitability for refuelling is measured by combining separate ratings obtained from individual evaluation rules. Each evaluation rule is based on a specific control parameter related to local or lumped core properties. Two new software codes (NEWRULES and REFUEL) designed around the concept of Floppy Rules enable to perform a very efficient selection of optimized channel refuelling sequences either in manual and automatic mode. (author)

  10. CLC channel function and dysfunction in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eStölting

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CLC channels and transporters are expressed in most tissues and fulfill diverse functions. There are four human CLC channels, ClC-1, ClC-2, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb, and five CLC transporters, ClC-3 through -7. Some of the CLC channels additionally associate with accessory subunits. Whereas barttin is mandatory for the functional expression of CLC-K, GlialCam is a facultative subunit of ClC-2 which modifies gating and thus increases the functional variability within the CLC family. Isoform-specific ion conduction and gating properties optimize distinct CLC channels for their cellular tasks. ClC-1 preferentially conducts at negative voltages, and the resulting inward rectification provides a large resting chloride conductance without interference with the muscle action potential. Exclusive opening at voltages negative to the chloride reversal potential allows for ClC-2 to regulate intracellular chloride concentrations. ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb are equally suited for inward and outward currents to support transcellular chloride fluxes. Every human CLC channel gene has been linked to a genetic disease, and studying these mutations has provided much information about the physiological roles and the molecular basis of CLC channel function. Mutations in the gene encoding ClC-1 cause myotonia congenita, a disease characterized by sarcolemmal hyperexcitability and muscle stiffness. Loss-of-function of ClC-Kb/barttin channels in patients suffering from Bartter syndrome identified the determinants of chloride conductances in the limb of Henle. Mutations in CLCN2 were found in patients with CNS disorders but the functional role of this isoform is still not understood. Recent links between ClC-1 and epilepsy and ClC-Ka and heart failure suggested novel cellular functions of these proteins. This review aims to survey the knowledge about physiological and pathophysiological functions of human CLC channels in the light of recent discoveries from biophysical, physiological

  11. Sediment sorting at a side channel bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Denderen, Pepijn; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Side channels have been constructed to reduce the flood risk and to increase the ecological value of the river. In various Dutch side channels large aggradation in these channels occurred after construction. Measurements show that the grain size of the deposited sediment in the side channel is smaller than the grain size found on the bed of the main channel. This suggest that sorting occurs at the bifurcation of the side channel. The objective is to reproduce with a 2D morphological model the fining of the bed in the side channel and to study the effect of the sediment sorting on morphodynamic development of the side channel. We use a 2D Delft3D model with two sediment fractions. The first fraction corresponds with the grain size that can be found on the bed of the main channel and the second fraction corresponds with the grain size found in the side channel. With the numerical model we compute several side channel configurations in which we vary the length and the width of the side channel, and the curvature of the upstream channel. From these computations we can derive the equilibrium state and the time scale of the morphodynamic development of the side channel. Preliminary results show that even when a simple sediment transport relation is used, like Engelund & Hansen, more fine sediment enters the side channel than coarse sediment. This is as expected, and is probably related to the bed slope effects which are a function of the Shields parameter. It is expected that by adding a sill at the entrance of the side channel the slope effect increases. This might reduce the amount of coarse sediment which enters the side channel even more. It is unclear whether the model used is able to reproduce the effect of such a sill correctly as modelling a sill and reproducing the correct hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviour is not straightforward in a 2D model. Acknowledgements: This research is funded by STW, part of the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research under

  12. A Triply Selective MIMO Channel Simulator Using GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carrasco-Alvarez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for implementing a triply selective multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO simulator based on graphics processing units (GPUs is presented. The resulting simulator is based on the implementation of multiple double-selective single-input single-output (SISO channel generators, where the multiple inputs and the multiple received signals have been transformed in order to supply the corresponding space correlation of the channel under consideration. A direct consequence of this approach is the flexibility provided, which allows different propagation statistics to each SISO channel to be specified and thus more complex environments to be replicated. It is shown that under some specific constraints, the statistics of the triply selective MIMO simulator are the same as those reported in the state of art. Simulation results show the computational time improvement achieved, up to 650-fold for an 8 × 8 MIMO channel simulator when compared with sequential implementations. In addition to the computational improvement, the proposed simulator offers flexibility for testing a variety of scenarios in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I systems.

  13. Performance Analysis of Iterative Channel Estimation and Multiuser Detection in Multipath DS-CDMA Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Husheng; Betz, Sharon M.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2007-05-01

    This paper examines the performance of decision feedback based iterative channel estimation and multiuser detection in channel coded aperiodic DS-CDMA systems operating over multipath fading channels. First, explicit expressions describing the performance of channel estimation and parallel interference cancellation based multiuser detection are developed. These results are then combined to characterize the evolution of the performance of a system that iterates among channel estimation, multiuser detection and channel decoding. Sufficient conditions for convergence of this system to a unique fixed point are developed.

  14. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  15. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  17. Structure of conducting channel of lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the plasma density in a lightning channel is studied theoretically. It is shown that the electric-field double layer is formed at the channel boundary. In this case, the electron temperature changes abruptly and ions are accelerated by the electric field of the double layer. The ion momentum flux density is close to the surrounding gas pressure. Cleaning of the channel from heavy particles occurs in particle-exchange processes between the plasma channel and the surrounding air. Hydrogen ions are accumulated inside the expanding channel from the surrounding air, which is enriched by hydrogen-contained molecules. In this case, the plasma channel is unstable and splits to a chain of equidistant bunches of plasma. The hydrogen-enrich bunches burn diffusely after recombination exhibiting the bead lightning behavior

  18. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  19. [Study on corresponding areas the liver and lung channels in brain with fMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Ming; Xie, Peng; Lü, Fa-Jin; Mou, Jun; Li, Yong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Nong; Chen, Wei-Juan; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhao, Li-Bo; Liu, Qing-Jun; Shen, Lin; Zhai, Hong; Yang, De-Yu

    2007-10-01

    To explore distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels in the brain so as to provide imaging basis for construction of channel theory in the brain. Sixty healthy student volunteers were randomly divided into a Liver Channel group (I) and a Lung Channel group (II), and the each group was further divided into five subgroups with 6 volunteers in each subgroup, based on five-shu-point principles which, were Dadun (LR 1, I 1), Xingjian (LR 2, I 2), Taichong (LR 3, I 3), Zhongfeng (LR 4, I 4), Ququan (LR 8, I 5), Shaoshang (LU 11, II 1), Yuji (LU 10, II 2), Taiyuan (LU 9, II 3), Jingqu (LU 8, II 4), and Chize (LU 5, II 5), respectively. In order to observe the brain activating patterns during acupuncture at the different acupoints, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique was adopted. All image data were then analyzed with SPM 2 software. The statistical parameter gram was composed of the pixel P areas, and the commonly activated area of five-shu-point of each channel was considered as the brain distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Liver Channel were homolateral Brodmann area (BA) 34, BA 47, red nucleus, contralateral BA 19, BA 30, BA 39, the superior parietal lobule, cerebellum decline, and bilateral BA 3 and culmen. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Lung Channels included homolateral BA 2, BA 18, BA 35, and contralateral BA 9 and substania nigra. There are relatively specific corresponding brain areas for the Liver and Lung Channels, indicating that there is possible relatively specific connection between channels and the brain.

  20. Search after new agents for hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels; Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffen fuer Hyperpolarisationsaktivierte und zyklisch Nukleotid-gesteuerte Ionenkanaele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struenker, T.

    2005-12-01

    Rhythmic activity of single cells or cellular networks is a common feature of most organisms. Cellular rhythms govern the beating of the heart, cycles of sleep and wakefulness, breathing, and the release of hormones. The endogenous rhythmic activity of many neurons and cardiac relies on a complex interplay between several distinct ion channels. In particular, one type of ion channel plays a prominent role in the control of rhythmic electrical activity because it determines the frequency of the oscillations. The activity of the channels is thus setting the ''pace'' of the activity; therefore, these channels are often referred to as ''pacemaker'' channels. Despite their obvious physiological importance it hasn't been until a few years ago that the genes encoding pacemaker channels have been identified. Because both hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotides are key elements that control their activity, pacemaker channels have now been designated hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. From a scientific as well as medical point of view, HCN channels are interesting drug targets. Only a few substances are known that specifically affect HCN channels. In the present study, a microtiter plate-based high throughput screening assay for HCN1 and HCN4 channels was developed. With this assay, known drugs for HCN channels were characterized. Subsequently, venoms of snails, spiders, scorpions, and snakes were screened for toxins affecting HCN channel activity. A few venoms were identified that possibly contain drugs that act on HCN channels. (orig.)

  1. 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the role of water in the binding of channel-blocking drugs to the influenza M2 channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Gai, Feng; Hochstrasser, Robin M.; Wang, Jun; DeGrado, William F.; Moroz, Yurii S.; Korendovych, Ivan V.; Zanni, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Water is an integral part of the homotetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus, which not only assists proton conduction but could also play an important role in stabilizing channel-blocking drugs. Herein, we employ two dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy and site-specific IR probes, i.e., the amide I bands arising from isotopically labeled Ala30 and Gly34 residues, to probe how binding of either rimantadine or 7,7-spiran amine affects the water dynamics inside the M2 channel. Our results show, at neutral pH where the channel is non-conducting, that drug binding leads to a significant increase in the mobility of the channel water. A similar trend is also observed at pH 5.0 although the difference becomes smaller. Taken together, these results indicate that the channel water facilitates drug binding by increasing its entropy. Furthermore, the 2D IR spectral signatures obtained for both probes under different conditions collectively support a binding mechanism whereby amantadine-like drugs dock in the channel with their ammonium moiety pointing toward the histidine residues and interacting with a nearby water cluster, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We believe these findings have important implications for designing new anti-influenza drugs

  2. 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the role of water in the binding of channel-blocking drugs to the influenza M2 channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet, E-mail: ayanjeet@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gai@sas.upenn.edu; Gai, Feng, E-mail: ayanjeet@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gai@sas.upenn.edu; Hochstrasser, Robin M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Wang, Jun; DeGrado, William F. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Moroz, Yurii S.; Korendovych, Ivan V. [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Zanni, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Water is an integral part of the homotetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus, which not only assists proton conduction but could also play an important role in stabilizing channel-blocking drugs. Herein, we employ two dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy and site-specific IR probes, i.e., the amide I bands arising from isotopically labeled Ala30 and Gly34 residues, to probe how binding of either rimantadine or 7,7-spiran amine affects the water dynamics inside the M2 channel. Our results show, at neutral pH where the channel is non-conducting, that drug binding leads to a significant increase in the mobility of the channel water. A similar trend is also observed at pH 5.0 although the difference becomes smaller. Taken together, these results indicate that the channel water facilitates drug binding by increasing its entropy. Furthermore, the 2D IR spectral signatures obtained for both probes under different conditions collectively support a binding mechanism whereby amantadine-like drugs dock in the channel with their ammonium moiety pointing toward the histidine residues and interacting with a nearby water cluster, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We believe these findings have important implications for designing new anti-influenza drugs.

  3. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z., E-mail: fati-zo-mahi2002@yahoo.fr [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Bechar (Algeria); Varani, L. [Institute of Electronics of the South (IES - CNRS UMR 5214), University of Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  4. Control system design for concrete irrigation channels

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, Timm; Aamo, Ole Morten; Cantoni, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Concrete channels find use at the periphery of irrigation networks, for expansion and to replace small earthen channels given the relative ease of maintenance and elimination of seepage losses. In design, it is important to account for control system performance when dimensioning the channel infrastructure. In this paper, the design of a distributed controller is investigated in terms managing water-levels, and thereby the depth profile (i.e., amount of concrete) needed to support peak flow l...

  5. Electronic trade effect of marketing channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lovreta Stipe; Stojković Dragan

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce has caused many significant changes in marketing channels. Consumers had obtained multiple benefits from e-commerce. In addition, it has increased the level of competition in marketing channels. However, the focus of this paper is multichannel strategy and integration of physical (store) and electronic marketing channels. E-commerce has induced dynamic development of multichannel strategy. This strategy has evolved as a consequence of multichannel consumer orientation. In developed...

  6. Universal communication part II: channels with memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lomnitz, Yuval; Feder, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Consider communication over a channel whose probabilistic model is completely unknown vector-wise and is not assumed to be stationary. Communication over such channels is challenging because knowing the past does not indicate anything about the future. The existence of reliable feedback and common randomness is assumed. In a previous paper it was shown that the Shannon capacity cannot be attained, in general, if the channel is not known. An alternative notion of "capacity" was defined, as the...

  7. Stability analysis for downflow in heated channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    Stability and flow distribution are analysed for downflow in heated channels. It is shown that at low flow rates instabilities associated with the buoyancy forces may appear. A computer code in FORTRAN language to determine downflow distribution among n heated channels is presented. The model used to calculate downflow distribution and the onset of instability is compared with experiments performed in a test section with two parallel channels. (Author) [pt

  8. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  9. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  10. Quantum privacy and Schur product channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W.; Pereira, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the quantum privacy properties of an important class of quantum channels, by making use of a connection with Schur product matrix operations and associated correlation matrix structures. For channels implemented by mutually commuting unitaries, which cannot privatise qubits encoded directly into subspaces, we nevertheless identify private algebras and subsystems that can be privatised by the channels. We also obtain further results by combining our analysis with tools from the theory of quasi-orthogonal operator algebras and graph theory.

  11. Learning in the machine: The symmetries of the deep learning channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Sadowski, Peter; Lu, Zhiqin

    2017-11-01

    In a physical neural system, learning rules must be local both in space and time. In order for learning to occur, non-local information must be communicated to the deep synapses through a communication channel, the deep learning channel. We identify several possible architectures for this learning channel (Bidirectional, Conjoined, Twin, Distinct) and six symmetry challenges: (1) symmetry of architectures; (2) symmetry of weights; (3) symmetry of neurons; (4) symmetry of derivatives; (5) symmetry of processing; and (6) symmetry of learning rules. Random backpropagation (RBP) addresses the second and third symmetry, and some of its variations, such as skipped RBP (SRBP) address the first and the fourth symmetry. Here we address the last two desirable symmetries showing through simulations that they can be achieved and that the learning channel is particularly robust to symmetry variations. Specifically, random backpropagation and its variations can be performed with the same non-linear neurons used in the main input-output forward channel, and the connections in the learning channel can be adapted using the same algorithm used in the forward channel, removing the need for any specialized hardware in the learning channel. Finally, we provide mathematical results in simple cases showing that the learning equations in the forward and backward channels converge to fixed points, for almost any initial conditions. In symmetric architectures, if the weights in both channels are small at initialization, adaptation in both channels leads to weights that are essentially symmetric during and after learning. Biological connections are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Channeling crystals for positron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    Particles traversing at small angles along a single crystal axis experience a collective scattering force of many crystal atoms. The enormous fields can trap the particles along an axis or plane, called channeling. High energy electrons are attracted by the positive nuclei and therefore produce strongly enhanced so called coherent bremsstrahlung and pair production. These effects could be used in a positron production target: A single tungsten crystal is oriented to the incident electron beam within 1 mrad. At 28 GeV/c the effective radiation length is with 0.9 mm about one quarter of the amorphous material. So the target length can be shorter, which yields a higher conversion coefficient and a lower emittance of the positron beam. This makes single crystals very interesting for positron production targets. 18 refs., 2 figs

  13. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  14. Axial channeling in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, A.; Lehmpfuhl, G.

    1978-01-01

    Kossel patterns from Silicon and Niobium were obtained with a convergent electron beam. An intensity maximum in the direction of the zone axes [001] and [111] of Nb was interpreted as axial channeling. The intensity distribution in Kossel patterns was calculated by means of the Bloch wave picture of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Particularly zone axis patterns were calculated for different substance-energy combinations and they were compared with experimental observations. The intensity distribution in the calculated Kossel patterns was very sensitive to the model of absorption and it was found that a treatment of the absorption close to the model of Humphreys and Hirsch [Phil. Mag. 18, 115 (1968)] gave the best agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore it is shown which Bloch waves are important for the intensity distribution in the Kossel patterns, how they are absorbed and how they change with energy. (orig.) [de

  15. Customer Engagement Tool (Multi Channel Communication)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Add new infrastructure within SSA's Enterprise Architecture to allow interactions over multiple, yet to be defined, channels. Possibilities include: Provide a portal...

  16. Channeling ion implantation through palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwara, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of channeling ion implantation into semiconductors through polycrystalline metallic layers is studied. Minimum values and standard deviations of channeling angular yield in polycrystalline Pd 2 Si layers formed on Si have been measured by protons and 4 He, and 14 N ion backscattering and channeling measurements. Depth distributions of the spread of crystallite orientations and scattering centers such as lattice defects have been separately derived by using the above two quantities. It has been concluded that the channeling-ion-implantation technique will become a practical one by using the parallel scanning system

  17. Indoor MIMO Channel Measurement and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2005-01-01

    Forming accurate models of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is essential both for simulation as well as understanding of the basic properties of the channel. This paper investigates different known models using measurements obtained with a 16x32 MIMO channel sounder for the 5.8GHz...... band. The measurements were carried out in various indoor scenarios including both temporal and spatial aspects of channel changes. The models considered include the so-called Kronecker model, a model proposed by Weichselberger et. al., and a model involving the full covariance matrix, the most...

  18. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  19. Optimal processing of reversible quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bisio@unipv.it [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sedlák, Michal [Department of Optics, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, CZ-771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-05-01

    We consider the general problem of the optimal transformation of N uses of (possibly different) unitary channels to a single use of another unitary channel in any finite dimension. We show how the optimal transformation can be fully parallelized, consisting in a preprocessing channel followed by a parallel action of all the N unitaries and a final postprocessing channel. Our techniques allow to achieve an exponential reduction in the number of the free parameters of the optimization problem making it amenable to an efficient numerical treatment. Finally, we apply our general results to find the analytical solution for special cases of interest like the cloning of qubit phase gates.

  20. Almost all quantum channels are equidistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechita, Ion; Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we analyze properties of generic quantum channels in the case of large system size. We use random matrix theory and free probability to show that the distance between two independent random channels converges to a constant value as the dimension of the system grows larger. As a measure of the distance we use the diamond norm. In the case of a flat Hilbert-Schmidt distribution on quantum channels, we obtain that the distance converges to 1/2 +2/π , giving also an estimate for the maximum success probability for distinguishing the channels. We also consider the problem of distinguishing two random unitary rotations.