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Sample records for specific purposes esp

  1. English for Specific Purposes (ESP): A Holistic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Momtazur

    2015-01-01

    English for Specific Purposes, known as acronym-"ESP", has been a distinct activity in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) since 1960s. The flowering period of ESP has been identified due to many incidents like the second world war in 1945, the rapid expansion in scientific, the growth of science and technology, the increased…

  2. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS VS TEXTBOOKS IN ESP (ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Spirovska Tevdovska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the value of authentic materials and textbooks in ESP English for Specific Purposes learning and teaching context. The study compares the characteristics of the authentic materials and the characteristics of textbooks designed and selected for the purpose of teaching and learning English as a foreign language in ESP setting. The study defines the role of materials in ESP setting and compares the benefits and possible drawbacks of both types of materials and resources: the authentic materials in English for Specific Purposes context compared to traditional textbooks designed for the purpose of teaching and learning English for Specific Purposes. The study identifies the benefits of authentic materials, which include the richness as an input source and the authenticity of the tasks offered to learners, as well as the negative sides of authentic materials, which include the level of difficulty that these materials might present to the learner . Furthermore, the study identifies the benefits of textbooks, which include available sources for the learners and less time consuming class preparation for the teachers, as well as the drawbacks which include the impossibility of finding a textbook which corresponds entirely to learners’ needs. In addition, the article focuses on teachers’ attitudes and opinions regarding the appropriateness and exploitability of each source and their preferences and reasons for material selection. The target population consists of eleven lecturers who teach English for Specific Purposes in tertiary education. The lecturers teach various branches of ESP, including ESP for Computer Sciences, Business, Communication and Legal Studies. Data collection is conducted through a specifically designed questionnaire, addressing the questions of materials selection, teachers’ preferences regarding textbooks or authentic materials and the selection criteria applied by the

  3. English for Specific Purposes (ESP Modules in the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC for Success in the Global Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Knight

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available University students must prepare themselves to be successful members of the global workforce, and this paper introduces one way for a self-access center to support such preparation by students outside of the formal classroom environment. In this paper, it is proposed that the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS provide ESP (English for specific purposes modules intended to prepare students for their future careers. Within these self-study modules, the following should be recognized and incorporated: 1. The principles of ESP 2. Elements of outcome-based education 3. The relationship between leadership, learning, and teachingIn describing such ESP modules, this paper also proposes the development of self-access materials that could be made available to facilitate the independent study.

  4. Foreign language teaching for specific purposes: basic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Grynyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to understand, analyse and provide an overall picture on basic aspects of English for Specific Purposes: its definition, scope, historical background, characteristics, types and aims. It also discusses the ESP teaching objectives, the role of ESP teacher and the training process to become an ESP teacher, the purpose of an ESP course and an ESP program.We see a clear rationale, amongst the variety of contradicting views on ESP policy, in coming to an agreement finally that ESP is the teaching of English to the learners who have specific goals and purposes: professional, academic or scientific.The article analyses the main roles and functions of teachers of foreign languages for specific purposes. It outlines the general tasks and responsibilities of higher education teachers whose professional activity is multispectral and multifunctiona; it also analyses the ESP courses and their specific features

  5. NEEDS ANALYSIS IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

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    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Needs analysis is considered to be the cornerstone of English for Specific Purposes(ESP. The concept of Needs analysis has been different along the decades. At the initial stages of ESP( the 1960s and early 1970s, needs analysis consisted in assessing the communicative needs of the learners and the techniques of achieving specific teaching objectives. Nowadays, the tasks of needs analysis is much more complex: it aims at collecting information about the learners and at defining the target situation and environment of studying ESP.

  6. To what extent do science ESP learning materials fit the purpose for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent do science ESP learning materials fit the purpose for which they have been devised? An evaluation in terms of Cronje's (1993) criteria. ... Journal for Language Teaching. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  7. What can ESP do ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Judy

    ESP (English for Specific Purposes) has been the focus of much attention recently but the question arises of “what can ESP do?” Proposed here are three things that are possible with ESP. The first is using ESP as a tool to help students who are not English majors learn how language “works” via the concept of genre texts. The second is using an ESP approach to simulate professional communication contexts in order to raise student interest and motivation. The third is to aim for ESP bilingualism, which is a realistic and attainable goal. All three points will be illustrated with specific examples.

  8. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

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    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  9. English for Specific Purposes: A Case Study in an Industrial Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Clare

    A course outline and sample materials for a course in English for garment workshop employees in New York are presented, and theoretical considerations in establishing an English for specific purposes (ESP) course are explored. Attention is directed to the needs analysis process undertaken in the garment industry. Specifically, ESP is used to mean…

  10. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  11. Esp Research Trends in Asian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Jantaravipark, Arpawan; Sa-ngiamwibool, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Due to the influence of global and regional economic changes, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) plays a more vital role in English language studies worldwide, including in Asian context. A look at any issues relat-ing to Asian ESP will shed light to the needs of English in this content. This present study therefore sur-veyed recent trends of ESP research in this context, with the purpose of the study which aimed to explore recent trends in Asian ESP research from 2005 to 2013. The Asian ESP...

  12. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

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    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  13. The teacher of English for specific purposes and the European Space for Higher Education

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    Ana BOCANEGRA VALLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of the teacher of English for Specific Purposes (ESP from the beginning of ESP research in the 80’s to date when educators are faced with the challenges of the European Space for Higher Education (ESHE and its implementation in educational systems across Europe. Firstly, the most outstanding aspects published in the relevant literature and dealing with the ESP teacher are explored and summarized. Secondly, the new roles to be played under the framework of ESHE are presented and discussed – it has been found that these new roles are not distinctively prescribed by ESHE but references to them are spread through the existing literature. Next, particular attention will be paid to «interdisciplinary collaboration». This notion is highlighted across ESHE instruments of implementation as a brand new practice in tertiary education but in the context of ESP it is a long-established goal with practical approaches adopted worldwide. As a way of conclusion, ESP teacher’s duties are listed bearing in mind the existing bibliography and the ESHE requirements.

  14. The Effect of Task-based Teaching on Incidental Vocabulary Learning in English for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    FALLAHRAFIE, Zahra; RAHMANY, Ramin; SADEGHI, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Learning vocabulary is an essential part of language learning linking the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing together. This paper considers the incidental vocabulary teaching and learning within the framework of task-based activities in the hope of improving learners’ vocabulary acquiring in English for Specific Purposes courses (ESP), concentrating on Mechanical Engineering students at Islamic Azad University of Hashtgerd, Iran. A total number of 55 male and fe...

  15. What Purposes, Specifically? Re-Thinking Purposes and Specificity in the Context of the "New Vocationalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Discipline-specific approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) tend to overlook the purposes of the disciplines themselves and the issue of transferability from academic to professional contexts. This becomes problematic in the context of the "new knowledge economy" and emergent pedagogies in higher education, which are increasingly focused…

  16. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP) in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to…

  17. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  18. Integrating English for Specific Purposes Courseware into Task-Based Learning in a Context of Preparing for International Trade Fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on integrating courseware for participating in international trade fairs into English for specific purposes (ESP) instruction at a technical university in Taiwan. An Information and Communication Technology (ICT) approach combining courseware integration with Task Based Learning (TBL), was adopted. Evaluation of implementing…

  19. The Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) on Reading Comprehension in English for Specific Purposes Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Fahimeh

    2018-01-01

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) has potential to help language learners; however, it has received scant attention. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of NLP techniques on reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course. To achieve this goal, two…

  20. Fundamentals of English for Specific Purposes to the Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore presents the reasons for ESP as well as the fundamentals of ESP to the learner, the teacher, society, on syllabus designing, on material production, and on methodology for realizing ESP teaching goal. Together with these essentials of ESP, the pivotal position of the teacher in accomplishing ...

  1. Crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insights into its product specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Wenhe; Liu, Zihe; Xie, Yongchao; Wang, Hao; Mu, Yajuan; Huang, Yao; Feng, Yue

    2016-09-16

    Specifier proteins are important components of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, which mediate plant defense against herbivory and pathogen attacks. Upon tissue disruption, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to instable aglucones by myrosinases, and then aglucones will rearrange to form defensive isothiocyanates. Specifier proteins can redirect this reaction to form other products, such as simple nitriles, epithionitriles and organic thiocyanates instead of isothiocyanates based on the side chain structure of glucosinolate and the type of the specifier proteins. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the different product spectrums of various specifier proteins was not fully understood. Here in this study, we solved the crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtESP) at 2.3 Å resolution. Structural comparisons with the previously solved structure of thiocyanate forming protein, TFP from Thlaspi arvense (TaTFP) reveal that AtESP shows a dimerization pattern different from TaTFP. Moreover, AtESP harbors a slightly larger active site pocket than TaTFP and several residues around the active site are different between the two proteins, which might account for the different product spectrums of the two proteins. Together, our structural study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of specifier proteins and shed light on the basis of their different product spectrums. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A camera specification for tendering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, M.J.; Davies, M.D.; Kenyon, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized document is described which is suitable for sending to companies which are being invited to tender for the supply of a gamma camera. The document refers to various features of the camera, the performance specification of the camera, maintenance details, price quotations for various options and delivery, installation and warranty details. (U.K.)

  3. Identification and Validation of ESP Teacher Competencies: A Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, G.; Prema, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the research design used for identifying and validating a set of competencies required of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers. The identification of the competencies and the three-stage validation process are also discussed. The observation of classes of ESP teachers for field-testing the validated competencies and…

  4. ESP--Things Fall Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    This paper asserts that a gap is developing in English for Special Purposes (ESP) between theory and practice, between received wisdom and grassroots activity that are important to understand when considering the future of ESP. Evidence for these gaps in ESP are discussed in detail in the context of course design, academic input, and the…

  5. “Read-To-Write-Tasks” in English for Specific Purposes Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At university level students face demanding tasks of reading an enormous amount of professional materials in English. Writing various assignments is another challenging part of higher education. Online activities are the priority for conducting assignments at tertiary level. Students usually start doing the English for Specific Purposes (ESP course before learning subject-matters of the future profession, i.e. in their first year. The cornerstone of the ESP is unfamiliar lexis and numerous concepts of subject-matter. In order to succeed, students need to develop proficiency in reading professional texts and writing skillfully on relevant subject issues. The aim of this paper is to study, first, learners‘ attitudes to online reading of professional materials as well as to writing various assignments online and, second, to examine learners‘ self-assessment of proficiency in these skills. Our research employed brief written surveys designed in accordance with the standards in Social Sciences, which were administered to the students doing the ESP course, and the verbal data obtained during individual interviews intended to assess learners‘ success and achievements throughout the academic year. The respondents were the students specializing in psychology at Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania. All the participants were unanimous in the importance of writing and reading skills for the ESP tasks. 100% of respondents support reading professional materials, and 80% of respondents support exercising online writing. Self-assessment of reading proficiency demonstrates that 90% of students believe they possess very good or good skills of reading, and 70% of learners are sure of their good skills in writing. Respondents’ performance in these skills is less impressive. Some recommendations towards perfecting students’ proficiency in “read-to-write-tasks” are suggested. It is important to help learners develop better rates of reading

  6. Current Perspectives in Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Litzler, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    Interest in Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP)courses has grown in recent years (Harding, 2007). For this reason a paper on the current situation in the field is of relevance. The present article provides a discussion of English for Specific Purposes and it does so by reviewing the history and background of this area of teaching, proposing a…

  7. Vaccination of pregnant cows with EspA, EspB, γ-intimin, and Shiga toxin 2 proteins from Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces high levels of specific colostral antibodies that are transferred to newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, B C; Gerhardt, E; Tironi Farinati, C; Abdala, A; Galarza, R; Vilte, D A; Ibarra, C; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2012-06-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a major cause of intestinal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome, a serious systemic complication that particularly affects children. Cattle are primary reservoirs for EHEC O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. Vaccination of cattle with different combinations of bacterial virulence factors has shown efficacy in decreasing EHEC O157:H7 shedding. It is, therefore, important to demonstrate whether vaccination of pregnant cows with EHEC O157:H7 induces high titers of transferable antibodies to avoid early colonization of calves by the bacteria. In this study we evaluated the ability of EspA, EspB, the C-terminal fragment of 280 amino acids of γ-intimin (γ-intimin C₂₈₀) and inactivated Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 proteins to induce specific antibodies in colostrum and their passive transference to colostrum-fed calves. Friesian pregnant cows immunized by the intramuscular route mounted significantly high serum and colostrum IgG responses against EspB and γ-intimin C₂₈₀ that were efficiently transferred to their calves. Antibodies to EspB and γ-intimin C₂₈₀ were detected in milk samples of vaccinated cows at d 40 postparturition. Significant Stx2-neutralizing titers were also observed in colostrum from Stx2-vaccinated cows and sera from colostrum-fed calves. The results presented showed that bovine colostrum with increased levels of antibodies against EHEC O157:H7 may be obtained by systemic immunization of pregnant cows, and that these specific antibodies are efficiently transferred to newborn calves by feeding colostrum. Hyperimmune colostrum and milk may be an alternative to protect calves from early colonization by EHEC O157:H7 and a possible key source of antibodies to block colonization and toxic activity of this bacterium. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The ESP Instruction: A Study Based on the Pattern of Autonomous Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous inquiry learning is a kind of learning model, which relies mainly on learners and emphasizes that learners should inquire knowledge actively; moreover, ESP, which emphasizes the combination of language learning and specific purposes learning, is a goal-oriented and well targeted instruction system. Therefore, ESP and autonomous inquiry…

  9. Developing and Integrating Courseware for Oral Presentations into ESP Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) multimedia courseware on oral presentations, and its integration into self-study learning and elective courses for students with different English proficiencies, as one solution to problems in ESP courses in Taiwan. The courseware design is based on Mayer's multimedia…

  10. Evaluation of an ESP Course of Qur'anic Sciences and Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hadi; Davari, Ameneh; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is defined as matching process that matches the needs to available solutions. The present study is an attempt to evaluate English for specific purposes (ESP) course book on "the ESP Course of Qur'anic Sciences and Tradition" taught at some universities in Iran. To achieve this goal, a researcher-made questionnaire and an…

  11. EFL Teachers' Perception of University Students' Motivation and ESP Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dja'far, Veri Hardinansyah; Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Bashtomi, Yazid

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at examining Indonesian EFL Teachers' perception of students' motivation and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learning achievement. It also explored the strategies applied by teachers based on their perception of students' motivation and ESP learning achievement. This research involved 204 students who took English for…

  12. 29 CFR 1910.306 - Specific purpose equipment and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Cranes and hoists. This paragraph applies to the installation of electric equipment and wiring used in..., and similar events. This paragraph covers the installation of portable wiring and equipment, including... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific purpose equipment and installations. 1910.306...

  13. The Continuing Evolution of Languages for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Voght, Geoffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This overview to "The Modern Language Journal"'s Focus Issue on Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) takes a fresh look at issues examined in a 1991 article by Grosse and Voght. Reflecting on change drivers and growth in LSP, the authors comment on current challenges to the field and future research needs. Their remarks are based on new insights…

  14. developing french for specific purposes in the nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Following the changing role of the French Language from a vehicle of French culture to a vehicle of Science, Technology, Commerce and Diplomacy, the teaching of French as a foreign language (FFL) around the world has shifted emphasis from literary studies to what has come to be known as French for Specific Purposes ...

  15. Components of Task-Based Needs Analysis of the ESP Learners with the Specialization of Business and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Naira

    2016-01-01

    In the following paper we shall thoroughly analyze the target learning needs of the learners within an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) context. The main concerns of ESP have always been and remain with the needs analysis, text analysis and preparing learners to communicate effectively in the tasks prescribed by their study or work situation.…

  16. Pictures Speak Louder than Words in ESP, Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Seyyed Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    While integrating visual features can be among the most important characteristics of English language textbooks, reviewing the current locally-produced English for Specific Purposes (ESP) ones reveals that they lack such a feature. Enjoying a rich theoretical background including Paivio's dual coding theory as well as Sert's educational semiotics,…

  17. English for Specific Purposes: Podcasts for Listening Skills

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    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The most needed ability in everyday communication is skills of listening. Ability to follow a speaker in a foreign language and respond appropriately needs to be taught like all other language skills. A novel approach to perfecting listening skills has emerged due to audio publishing online. It is known as “podcasting” and has become very popular because it offers language learners extra listening practice both inside and outside the classroom. Moreover, podcasting as online communication technology is a new way to inspire learning: it provides an exciting way for students and educators to explore and discover educational content. However, the applicability of podcasting to teaching English needs researching.This paper addresses research into learners’ perceptions of online listening to podcasts, self-evaluation of one’s performance in individual listening practice and reflections on practical ways of improving skills of listening and developing listening competence. Some implications of research are suggested including a blended learning, i.e. combination of multiple approaches to learning by harmonizing online listening with classroom audition activities in teaching / learning English for Specific Purposes.

  18. The Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP on Reading Comprehension in English for Specific Purposes Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP has potential to help language learners; however, it has received scant attention. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of NLP techniques on reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners at an English for Specific Purposes (ESP course. To achieve this goal, two intact classes of students were selected to form an experimental group (n=30 and a control group (n=30. A reading pretest (based on the course content was given to all participants. The sensory learning styles of the participants were diagnosed using Reid's (1987 leaning style questionnaire, and the participants in the experimental group were familiarized with NLP techniques to be able to implement these techniques in their reading. In the control group, the conventional approach to teach ESP reading was used. Considering the analysis of posttest results through ANCOVA, it was found that implementation of NLP techniques can have significant effect on reading comprehension of Iranian undergraduate EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  19. Inglés con fines específicos: entonces y ahora English for Specific Purposes: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Bueno Velazco

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza del Inglés con Fines Específicos (IFE ha logrado ocupar un lugar respetable en el campo de la enseñanza del Inglés como lengua extranjera o como segunda lengua. En los momentos actuales resulta familiar para todos los relacionados con esta especialidad el concepto de Inglés para ingenieros, Inglés con fines turísticos, Inglés para empresarios y hombres de negocios, Inglés para médicos, para enfermeros y para estomatólogos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo ofrecer una panorámica de la evolución del IFE desde sus inicios. Para ello se ofrecen las condiciones que propiciaron el surgimiento del IFE hasta llegar a su definición partiendo de criterios inicialmente expuestos en la década del 80 hasta los más recientes aportes en este campo.Por último se abordan muy brevemente las tendencias lingüístico- metodológicas por las que ha atravesado el IFE y su situación en la época actualEnglish teaching with Specific Purposes (ESP has been able to reach a respectable place in the field of English teaching as a foreign or second language. Nowadays, it is familiar to those related to this specialty, the concept of English for engineers, English for tourism, English for managers and businessmen, English for doctors, for nurses and dentists. This work's objective is to offer a panorama of the evolution of ESP from its beginnings. To achieve that, the conditions that propitiated the emergence of the ESP are exposed and that analisis goes on until reaching its definition beginning from the approaches initially exposed in the 80s to the most recent contributions in this area. Finally, the current linguistic and methodological trends ESP has gone through and its current situation are presented

  20. Designing English for Specific Purposes Course for Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Isra; Anwar, Behzad

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course for University students enrolled in the Computer Science Department. For this purpose, academic English language needs of the students were analyzed by using a 5 point Likert scale questionnaire. Additionally, interviews were also conducted with four faculty members of…

  1. The efficacy of focus group discussion in teaching ESP speaking skill for prospective vocational school teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmasitah, Sita; Faridi, Abdurrachman; Utomo, Aryo Baskoro; Astuti, Pudji

    2018-03-01

    The aims of the study were to implement the focus group discussion in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) speaking skill for prospective Vocational School teacher and also to find out its effectiveness in improving their English speaking skill in ESP course. Quasi-experimental design was employed in this research. Thirty students of Family Welfare Vocational Education Study Program who were taking ESP course, were divided into two classes; experimental and control class. The research data were collected through interview, observation and the students' speaking assessment. The result showed that the implementation of focus group discussion method in the experimental class effectively increased the students' speaking skill compared to the control class.

  2. THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY AND FLUENCY TO LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rausch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will outline an instructional approach that proposes a Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency (CAF paradigm as a means of providing learners with the CAF-based communication consciousness and CAF-oriented manipulative skills that are increasingly important in language use in Language for Specific Purposes. Given the complex combinations of communicative tasks, communicative formats and communicative circumstances that accompany the wide-ranging and various contexts of contemporary professional communication, communicative competence demands a combinative consciousness and informed application of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency as a communication paradigm. Viewed as a combination of its three components, a CAF paradigm constitutes a fundamental ‘information, language and communication’ triad that can guide professional language use in any communicative circumstance. Viewed as a communicative skill set, the CAF triad implies the capability to adjust specific elements and aspects of information, language and communication as needed for a communicative task, whether in oral or print communication and regardless of task category. Adjusting complexity in this context refers to both content and language complexity. Adjusting accuracy refers to the conventions that dictate appropriate or acceptable language in a given context. Finally, adjusting fluency refers to a sense of communicative fluency, that which yields either smooth and persuasive language as in a native-speaker normative view or explicit and clearly explanatory language as necessary in some communicative encounters. The need to manipulate these three components depends on circumstance variables such as objective, available time, audience characteristics and the degree of detail desired. This paper will outline this combinative CAF notion as background to a materials development project being undertaken in a Japanese university, introducing the specifics of an Extended Reading Aloud

  3. An embedded domain specific language for general purpose vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    Karpinski, Przemyslaw

    2017-01-01

    Portable SIMD code generation is an open problem in modern High Performance Computing systems. Performance portability can already be achieved, however it might fail when user-framework interaction is required. Of all portable vectorization techniques, explicit vectorization, using wrapper-class libraries, is proven to achieve the fastest performance, however it does not exploit optimization opportunities outside the simplest algebraic primitives. A more advanced language is therefore required, but the design of a new independent language is not feasible due to its high costs. This work describes an Embedded Domain Specific Language for solving generalized 1-D vectorization problems. The language is implemented using C++ as a host language and published as a lightweight library. By decoupling expression creation from evaluation a wider range of problems can be solved, without sacrificing runtime efficiency. In this paper we discuss design patterns necessary, but not limited, to efficient EDSL implementatio...

  4. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  5. Online Lexicological Tools in ESP – Towards an Approach to Strategy Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Krajka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Together with great proliferation of online resources on the one hand and a striking lack of commercially published materials for specific ESP domains on the other, the ESP teacher needs to reflect on using Internet materials judiciously in the language classroom. An indispensable element of the teaching process in any context is effective resourcing, or the ability to find, evaluate and use reference tools of various kinds. This strategy is also necessary in the ESP context, and the range of available resources goes beyond dictionaries only and encompasses, among others, specialized dictionaries, glossaries, terminology databanks. The purpose of the present paper is to outline the procedure of online resourcing, by giving specific steps for the training of the skill based on ESP materials of various types. The theoretical discussion of strategy training will be substantiated with the practical activities for the procedure.

  6. From an Appraisal of Iranian ESP Courses to Curriculum Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of second language instruction to various situations including academic settings provides great opportunities for students and researchers to access fresh sources of knowledge. This is extended to the majority of Iranian students receiving courses such as English for Specific Purposes (ESP and English for Academic Purposes (EAP who may not find instruction compatible with their needs and aspirations. The present study intends to provide an insight into the current status of ESP and EAP courses within the Iranian context. To this end, 120 male and female university postgraduate students majoring in various non-English fields were selected and given a survey questionnaire to report on their needs and on the quality of the language courses presented to them. The results of the statistical analysis showed that 44.2 % of students believe that listening comprehension is the most required skill followed by reading, speaking and writing skills at 41.7%, 39.2% and 17% of frequency respectively. Meanwhile, the most satisfying ESP and EAP skills currently presented at universities were found to be listening, speaking and reading, in order of preference. In fact, it seems that the current instructional trend ought to be discontinued or modified in various ways. Finally, a comprehensive analytical analysis of the needs and components of each skill has been provided, discussing the potential of the current research for improving ESP and EAP instruction inside Iran.

  7. Utilising Multimedia ESP Programme in Enhancing Flight Attendants' Safety Knowledge and Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Salameh, Zakaria A.; Kabilan, Muhammad K.; Bani-Salalmeh, Lina

    2011-01-01

    A multimedia English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programme was developed to train flight attendants. The programme comprised of two units. Unit one is listening comprehension, which provides the flight attendants' with specific information of Airbus A340. Unit two is reading comprehension, which provides the flight attendants with the emergency…

  8. Post graduate ESP curriculum: reading and writing needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Dehnad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing learners' needs is an integral part of any curriculum and course design , namely English for specific purposes (ESP, syllabus design, materials development, teaching methods and testing issues. Critical approach to needs analysis, which is a relatively recent approach, acknowledges the rights of different stakeholders including teachers, students and administrators in the process of needs analysis. However, there has been no formal need analysis for syllabus design at postgraduate level in Medical Universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study, conducted in 2011, was an attempt to assess the reading and writing needs of postgraduate students in ESP courses on the basis of critical approach to needs analysis. The study population consisted of 67 people: 56 postgraduate students, 5 heads of departments, 5 ESP instructors and 1 executive manager at the Ministry of Health in Iran. Ethical and demographic forms, needs analysis questionnaires, and a form of semi-structured interview were the instruments of the study. According to the findings, there was a discrepancy between students' and instructors' perception of learners' needs and the assumed needs appearing in the syllabi prescribed by the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study showed that a call for critical needs analysis in which the rights of different stakeholders are acknowledged is necessary for meeting the requirements of any ESP classes especially at postgraduate level where the instructors and learners are fully aware of learners' needs.

  9. The current challenges of teaching ESP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fălăuş, A.

    2017-05-01

    Although the status of lingua franca can easily be claimed by English nowadays, there are always plenty of challenges involved in the process of teaching a foreign language. The simple mastering of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) and the acquisition of general grammar and vocabulary may not be enough in some circumstances. ESP focuses on the specific needs of the learners, concentrating more on language in context and on the students’ need to acquire a set of professional skills and particular job-related functions. This paper, consequently, focuses on identifying the current challenges that teachers and students may encounter in the process of teaching and learning English for Specific Purposes.

  10. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Nasser, Hayedeh

    2014-01-01

    Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988) cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  11. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Dehnad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988 cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  12. Why Do Chinese College Students Learn ESP: An Analysis of Language Learning Motivations within SDT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangxing

    2016-01-01

    This study mainly investigates the motivational characteristics of Chinese college students learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP). By critically examining and comparing Gardner's (1985) Integrative-Instrumental model and the Self-determination Theory (SDT) by Deci and Ryan(1985), the researcher finds out that the latter one is more…

  13. Business English: An Individualised Learning Programme -- An Effective but Defective ESP Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Gui-min

    2008-01-01

    Business English is the core course for ESP (English for Specific Purposes) programs which empathizes the effectiveness and pragmatism. Feasibility is the crucial element for business English programs especially for in-services business people. Business English-An individualised learning programme is an effective and radical business English…

  14. Needs Analysis in ESP Context: Saudi Engineering Students as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Needs analysis can be a vital asset for teachers of English for specific purposes (ESP to identify their learners’ key requirements or needs and determine the areas in which they are lacking skills. Against this background, this study was undertaken during the academic year 2015-16 to define the English language needs of engineering students (N= 200 majoring in civil engineering and industrial engineering. The data of this study was collected from different sources, including a classroom observation protocol, a questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview with both ESP and subject-matter teachers (SM at Umm Al-Qura University. Results of the data analysis offered significant insights as to the teaching of ESP course. The study revealed that receptive skills (i.e., reading and listening were mostly focused on in ESP classes. It has been also reported that writing and reading along with speaking skills were needed more than others. The data analysis helped to determine the most important language tasks in the context of engineering studies. Finally, a call was being made by both ESP and SM teachers to enhance the quality of the ESP course taught to engineering students by offering relevant suggestions. Based on these findings, the present study concluded with implications for course designers and recommendations for future studies.

  15. The Eberline ESP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports that as a health physicist, the author is very excited about the prospects that the Eberline ESP-2 offers for improvements in radiological surveys and data gathering. As an editor, however, the author is somewhat uncomfortable with the length of this review article. Basically, the author had two choices: could wet your appetite with a brief discussion of the ESP-2's capabilities, or the author could cover all of the details necessary for you to understand how the ESP-2 works and why the author thinks it would change the way we perform radiological surveys. In keeping with the how to nature of Radiation Protection Management, the author chose the latter course

  16. Analysis of Practical and Academic Application for Knowledge of Lanquage for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rutkienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the methods applied by graduate master’s degree students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University for the purposes of using knowledge of language for specific purposes in the work and study environment. Their linguistic situation is ambivalent: they act in the academic environment, and therefore the used language has to meet academic requirements; on the other hand, most of them are adapting to the linguistic environment at work. Thus, master’s degree students are able to view the subject of language for specific purposes and the knowledge and skills gained from a practical perspective. With the help of a questionnaire and an interview, the article is aimed at assessing the experience of applying the knowledge gained by the students who completed a course on language for specific purposes 2–5 years ago. The article analyses both academic and practical applications regarding knowledge of language for specific purposes. Extralinguistic factors are taken into account when examining why employed master’s degree students do not always use what they have learnt. The problems of the practical application of knowledge are closely related to the cultural situation; hence, the relevant issues of the postmodern epoch are discussed. The paper explores the interconnection of the practical application of knowledge that covers economic and political factors and globalisation. The study focuses on the academic application of knowledge about the language for specific purposes. Attention is paid to dangers posed for the youth language by the predominance of information technologies in higher education institutions. The article analyses how employed master’s degree students evaluate the course on language for specific purposes and the linguistic revision of MA theses, as well as explores how the knowledge provided meets their needs.

  17. Towards ESP Programmes in Technical and Vocational Institutions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Haji; And Others

    This paper examines the nature of vocational, technical, and polytechnic education in Malaysia, the extent to which English for special purposes (ESP) programs are incorporated into such education, and the need for ESP program reform. In 1992, Malaysia possessed 70 vocational and 9 technical secondary schools, all of which offered some form of ESP…

  18. Production of high quality distillate to meet a fit-for-purpose boiler feedwater specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions Oil and Gas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Neu, D. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Pewaukee, WI (United States); Drone, J.L. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies has significant experience managing boiler water chemistry and is the world's largest manufacturer of evaporation systems. The company has conducted extensive testing and analysis for produced water evaporation distillate from multiple facilities. In order to produce boiler feed water, evaporation of produced water is used at several steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities. There are no official guidelines for the required quality of evaporator distillate to feed a once through steam generator (OTSG) or high pressure industrial watertube boiler (IWT) that will produce injection steam. This paper presented a basis for a fit-for-purpose specification for IWT boilers as well as data on the performance of a Vapor Washer, which produces high quality distilled water that meets fit-for-purpose specifications even during normal variations in feed conditions. Specifically, the paper discussed boiler water requirements for steam injection IWTs; the quality of distillate from a produced water evaporator; the benefits of vapour washing to maintain distillate quality; and suggested boiler chemistry limits for a fit-for-purpose specification. Oxygen, iron, and copper were discussed as being implicated with corrosion and reaction in boilers. Hardness contaminants such as calcium and magnesium were also presented. Suggested limits for boiler water in the fit-for-purpose specification were also presented for silica, total alkalinity, free OH alkalinity, and total dissolved solids in steam. It was concluded that foaming episodes can occur in produced water evaporators due to normal variations, and the distillate can fail to meet the fit-for-purpose specification during foam upsets. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials: time to be specific about their purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tanniou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold. Subgroup analyses can have different and distinct purposes, requiring specific design and analysis solutions. It is relevant to evaluate methodological developments in subgroup analyses against these purposes to guide health care professionals and regulators as well as to identify gaps in current methodology. Methods We defined four purposes for subgroup analyses: (1 Investigate the consistency of treatment effects across subgroups of clinical importance, (2 Explore the treatment effect across different subgroups within an overall non-significant trial, (3 Evaluate safety profiles limited to one or a few subgroup(s, (4 Establish efficacy in the targeted subgroup when included in a confirmatory testing strategy of a single trial. We reviewed the methodology in line with this “purpose-based” framework. The review covered papers published between January 2005 and April 2015 and aimed to classify them in none, one or more of the aforementioned purposes. Results In total 1857 potentially eligible papers were identified. Forty-eight papers were selected and 20 additional relevant papers were identified from their references, leading to 68 papers in total. Nineteen were dedicated to purpose 1, 16 to purpose 4, one to purpose 2 and none to purpose 3. Seven papers were dedicated to more than one purpose, the 25 remaining could not be classified unambiguously. Purposes of the methods were often not specifically indicated, methods for subgroup analysis for safety purposes were almost absent and a multitude of diverse methods were developed for purpose (1. Conclusions It is important that researchers developing methodology for subgroup analysis

  20. Difficulties in Teaching English for Specific Purposes: Empirical Study at Vietnam Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguy?n Th? T?; Mai, Ph?m Th? Tuy?t

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, teaching English, especially English for specific purposes at Vietnam universities has received a lot of attention from students, teachers, and relevant authorities because of not high teaching effectiveness. This results in the fact that students after graduation do not meet English requirements of employers, so unemployment…

  1. Needs Analysis: Strategic Issue on the Teaching of English for Specific Purposes for the Study of Sciences and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Algadrie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology scholars and professionals now need to acquire a higher form of literacy to be able to participate in groups of similar fields or groups of works. The need for English as one of the International language, an established language, has increased because English has access to world knowledge particularly in the field of science and technology, computer utilization, international trade and commerce. However, the need can vary in terms of the study fields, selection of skills, selection of language functions, and the language learners. Effective strategies can only be applied through a thorough analysis of the learners' needs, which will refer to the whole range of language resources for material selection. Since it is clear that ESP course is directly concerned with the purposes of which the learners need English, ESP course should be learner-centered. In this paper the writer would like to give the results of needs analysis (wants and strategies: Shaw, 1982, Allwright and Allwright, 1997 done among the learners (students and lecturers of engineering studies from various departments of Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya (ITS who are learning English at ITS Language Center to fulfill the market demand for job employment of their career and further studies.

  2. Integrating Blog and Face-to-Face Instruction into an ESP Course: English for Hospitality and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of international trade and globalization, English language has been emphasized in Asia countries, thus professionals with a good command of English has become essential and important. This study aimed to establish a blended model combining face-to-face (F2F) instruction for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course: English…

  3. English as a Second Language for French-Canadian Adults Who Travel to Florida: An ESP Syllabus Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Pierre

    A large number of middle aged and retired French-speaking Canadians spend time in Florida during the winter months. While most of them have some knowledge of English, they have a need for communicative competence in English in some business and social situations. This ESP (English for Specific Purposes) syllabus development project attempts to…

  4. Using Exemption Examinations to Assess Finnish Business Students' Non-Formal and Informal Learning of ESP: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Satu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years Finnish university language centres have increasingly developed procedures for assessing and recognising the skills in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) that students acquire in various non-formal and informal learning environments. This article describes the procedures developed by the University of Eastern Finland Language…

  5. A Study of Teaching English for Specific Purposes at a College of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    小澤, 志朗

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects of Teaching English for Specific Purposes, especially English for Science and Technology were examined in order to improve English Education at a College of Technology. First, a survey of the reading classes was carried out in which research papers in English are used as a discussion material by professors of specialized courses. Second, some difficulties are discussed in teaching English for Science and Technology by a teacher of English who has virtually no knowledge of its bac...

  6. Affordances of Telecollaboration tools for English for Specific Purposes online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Pavón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores students’ perceptions of the affordances of different telecollaboration tools used in an innovation project for English for Specific Purposes online learning carried out between the University of Valencia (Spain) and Wofford College (South Carolina, United States) during the school year 2015-2016. Different tools for synchronous and asynchronous communication were used. The asynchronous tools included a discussion forum, a wiki, social networking websites and Google forms;...

  7. Language for Specific Purposes: A Course Design for PROGEST/CEFET-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen S. Batista Marques

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a course design based upon the language for specific purpose approach in CEFET-MG, for the Programa de Capacitação em Gestão de Obras - PROGEST (Program of Study in Engineering, Society and Technology. It is related to the subject matter Language for Professional Purposes, which provides space for discussion about the use and the importance of language and its variations. Its objective is to demonstrate the interaction between the diverse uses of the language, prioritizing the working environment of the professional pupils enrolled in the course. So, the target public profile, its work market - the Civil Construction, the demanded qualification as well as the influence of reading abilities and literacy on the social-communicational contract expected in such environment are discussed.

  8. A strategic, process-oriented approach for an ESP reading course in the humanities

    OpenAIRE

    Placci, Graciela; Longhini, Ana María

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at describing pedagogical materials especially designed for an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course for undergraduate students in the Humanities and Social Sciences (mainly majoring in Education, History, and Geography) at a national public university in Argentina. It expands on the rationale behind the methodology and its practical application. The lessons in the manual seek to transfer to practical application theories based on the latest findings in reading, cognitive...

  9. Languages for Specific Academic Purposes or Languages for General Academic Purposes? A Critical Reappraisal of a Key Issue for Language Provision in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the subject specificity of university language tuition has been going on for decades; it has mostly been discussed in the context of English for Academic Purposes. This paper considers the case for disciplinary specificity with regard to languages other than English. Few, if any, developed curricula, syllabuses, suitable textbooks…

  10. Indoor air quality of everyday use spaces dedicated to specific purposes-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Śmiełowska, Monika; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2018-01-01

    According to literature data, some of the main factors which significantly affect the quality of the indoor environment in residential households or apartments are human activities such as cooking, smoking, cleaning, and indoor exercising. The paper presents a literature overview related to air quality in everyday use spaces dedicated to specific purposes which are integral parts of residential buildings, such as kitchens, basements, and individual garages. Some aspects of air quality in large-scale car parks, as a specific type of indoor environment, are also discussed. All those areas are characterized by relatively short time use. On the other hand, high and very high concentration levels of xenobiotics can be observed, resulting in higher exposure risk. The main compounds or group of chemical compounds are presented and discussed. The main factors influencing the type and amount of chemical pollutants present in the air of such areas are indicated.

  11. Genre-based Pedagogy: A case of an Iranian ESP Business Management course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Toufani Asl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Genre-based instruction has been latterly a very common method used in language courses. In spite of the various research conducted on academic genres, there are still very few studies which examine the learners’ perceptions of genre-based pedagogy, particularly in courses like English for Specific Purposes (ESP. Therefore, the present study aimed at considering the Sophomore Business Management learners’ perspective on genre instruction in their ESP course, at the University of Tehran. The focuses of the present study were the focal genres of textbook and teaching method in terms of the content feature. The data was collected by means of both quantitative and qualitative instruments which were subject to both statistical analysis and constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Results of the study revealed that the practice of genres were relevant to some of the learners’ subsequent academic and non-academic performance. Furthermore, the results regarding the questionnaire section indicated that a number of learners could apply the genre features and they were conscious of them. By and large, it was concluded that the explicit instruction together with the provision of more English-mediated content courses, for practices outside of the classroom, can have a higher impact on ESP programs. Keywords: ESP, genre-based pedagogy, content, textbook, teaching method, activities, learners’ perception

  12. TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type-specific transcription factor dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Aleksander; Prabhakar, Shyam; Tiuryn, Jerzy

    2014-03-19

    Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type-specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing.

  13. Collocations and collocation types in ESP textbooks: Quantitative pedagogical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Vesna Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term collocation, even though it is rather common in the English language grammar, it is not a well known or commonly used term in the textbooks and scientific papers written in the Serbian language. Collocating is usually defined as a natural appearance of two (or more words, which are usually one next to another even though they can be separated in the text, while collocations are defined as words with natural semantic and/or syntactic relations being joined together in a sentence. Collocations are naturally used in all English written texts, including scientific texts and papers. Using two textbooks for English for Specific Purposes (ESP for intermediate students' courses, this paper presents the frequency of collocations and their typology. The paper tries to investigate the relationship between lexical and grammatical collocations written in the ESP texts and the reasons for their presence. There is an overview of the most used subtypes of lexical collocations as well. Furthermore, on applying the basic corpus analysis based on the quantitative analysis, the paper presents the number of open, restricted and bound collocations in ESP texts, trying to draw conclusions on their frequency and hence the modes for their learning. There is also a section related to the number and usage of scientific collocations, both common scientific and narrow-professional ones. The conclusion is that the number of present collocations in the selected two textbooks imposes a demand for further analysis of these lexical connections, as well as new modes for their teaching and presentations to the English learning students.

  14. 21 CFR 862.2050 - General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or... TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2050 General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use. (a) Identification. General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or...

  15. ESP-TIMOC code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaarsma, R.; Perlado, J.M.; Rief, H.

    1978-01-01

    ESP-TIMOC is an 'Event Scanning Program' to analyse the events (collision or boundary crossing parameters) of Monte Carlo particle transport problems. It is a modular program and belongs to the TIMOC code system. ESP-TIMOC is primarily designed to calculate the time dependent response functions such as energy dependent fluxes and currents at interfaces. An eventual extension to other quantities is simple and straight forward

  16. Affordances of telecollaboration tools for English for Specific Purposes online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sevilla-Pavón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores students’ perceptions of the affordances of different telecollaboration tools used in an innovation project for English for Specific Purposes online learning carried out between the University of Valencia (Spain and Wofford College (South Carolina, United States during the school year 2015-2016. Different tools for synchronous and asynchronous communication were used. The asynchronous tools included a discussion forum, a wiki, social networking websites and Google forms; while the tools used for synchronous communication were text, voice and video chat, videoconferencing tools and Google Drive. All the tools were accessible through the online platform used in the project, Google+. By using these tools, students from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean carried out a number of activities and tasks through online telecollaborative methods, involving both synchronous and asynchronous communication. The tasks completed by students through the use of the different tools were aimed at fostering distance online collaboration among American and Spanish students for the development of their linguistic, intercultural and digital literacies.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ajideh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are often linked to the individual's learning style. The purpose of this study was to identify Art and Science students’ major learning style preferences and their strategies they employ to tackle their reading materials in ESP courses at Tabriz Islamic Art University. To this end, 313 Art and Science students at Tabriz Islamic Art University answered two self-report questionnaires (PLSPQ and SORS to identify their major and minor learning styles as well as their reading strategies in ESP reading. In order to find any relationship between the students’ preferred learning style (s and their reading strategies in ESP, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient r was used to analyze the participants’ answers to the questionnaires. The results showed that Art students favored Kinesthetic, Auditory, Visual and Tactile learning styles as their major learning styles while Science students showed preference to only Kinesthetic Learning style as their major learning style and other learning styles as their minor ones. It was also found that the most dominant reading strategies both Art and Science students apply in reading their ESP texts was cognitive strategies. Correlational analyses of their major learning styles and their reading strategies are discussed.

  18. The Spanish Foreign language teaching for specific purposes in The Formation of Physical Culture Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valdés-Aragón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of an ended research about the Spanish foreign language teaching for specific purposes, that contains a proposal of theoretic methodological model based on interactive communicative tasks for speaking skills development in the students academic discourse, who are preparing as future professionals of Physical Culture. The model is derived of the dialectical materialistic interpretations of the interaction and the communication from diverse dimensions (philosophical, psychological, sociological, pedagogic and linguistic and it constitutes a theoretical contribution. In making of this work were used procedures and research techniques like oral records that facilitated to know the students' interlanguage and it was directed to check in what measure a correct use of the language was made. The contribution to Spanish's teaching as a foreign language for professional goals in the physical culture area, reflected in this work, precise the components of the teaching learning process and the teachers' and students' functions in an interactive process. It allows the students to express their ideas with correction and property making use of the scientific style and transactional functions of the language to be able to define, to describe, to argue, to synthesize, to narrate, to debate, among others. The making of a tasks program used in Spanish's teaching as foreign language, constitutes the practical contribution of the research carried out, as well as the application of the model in other courses of foreign languages for professional goals. The work in general sense is a professional experience directed to solve educational problems, particularly those related with the abilities of the Physical Culture professional of the country and the institution in question, where its results were applied during several courses.

  19. Language Learning Strategies of English for Specific Purposes Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad; Ismail, Yusof; Esa, Zaleha; Muhamad, Ainon Jariah

    2013-01-01

    Studies on strategy research have shown the usefulness and importance of language learning strategies (LLS) for ESL and EFL learners. However, research on content-based learners in relation to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) has yet to be undertaken. This study, therefore, investigated the learning…

  20. Spanish for You: Student-Centered and Languages for Specific Purposes Methods in Lower-Division Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a project that used student-centered teaching and languages for specific purposes to increase university students' motivation to study Spanish and willingness to communicate. After reflecting on their personal goals and interests, students were required to choose a purpose or context in which they might use Spanish in…

  1. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  2. Evaluation of Two ESP Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fraidan, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluated two ESP textbooks using the evaluation of McDonough and Shaw (2003) based on external and internal evaluation. The first textbook is "Business Objectives" (1996) by Vicki Hollett, and the second textbook is "Business Studies, Second Edition" (2002) by Alain Anderton. To avoid repetition, I will use BO and…

  3. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  4. Between the ESP Classroom and the Workplace: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Since the launch of far-reaching higher education reforms several years ago, many institutions across Morocco have begun revamping their English for Special Purposes (ESP) programs to bring them in line with the needs of local employers. These reforms recognize the correlation between what students learn in class and success in their future…

  5. Extracting histones for the specific purpose of label-free MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Elisabeth; Van Steendam, Katleen; Scheerlinck, Ellen; Vossaert, Liesbeth; Meert, Paulien; Stella, Martina; Willems, Sander; De Clerck, Laura; Dhaenens, Maarten; Deforce, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    Extracting histones from cells is the first step in studies that aim to characterize histones and their post-translational modifications (hPTMs) with MS. In the last decade, label-free quantification is more frequently being used for MS-based histone characterization. However, many histone extraction protocols were not specifically designed for label-free MS. While label-free quantification has its advantages, it is also very susceptible to technical variation. Here, we adjust an established histone extraction protocol according to general label-free MS guidelines with a specific focus on minimizing sample handling. These protocols are first evaluated using SDS-PAGE. Hereafter, a selection of extraction protocols was used in a complete histone workflow for label-free MS. All protocols display nearly identical relative quantification of hPTMs. We thus show that, depending on the cell type under investigation and at the cost of some additional contaminating proteins, minimizing sample handling can be done during histone isolation. This allows analyzing bigger sample batches, leads to reduced technical variation and minimizes the chance of in vitro alterations to the hPTM snapshot. Overall, these results allow researchers to determine the best protocol depending on the resources and goal of their specific study. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002885. © 2016 The Authors. Proteomics Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Model for predicting fabric filter and ESP costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, W.; Terrill, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) has developed a personal computer (PC) based program (Model) for estimating capital and operating costs of fabric filters (FFs) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The program contains proprietary sizing routines for both types of particulate control devices. For the FF, it determines the number of compartments, number of bags, physical dimensions and other important information. For the ESP, it determines specific collection area (SCA), number of cells, and number of TR sets. This paper reports that the program has the capability of handling a wide range of gas flows. It adjusts construction costs for the labor productivity factors in different locations. The capital costs are considered conceptual in nature with an absolute accuracy range of ±25%. The capital and operating costs are used along with economic factors to determine present worth costs. This allows site specific side-by-side comparisons of FFs and ESPs

  7. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  8. LEARNING MATERIALS SELECTION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF FUTURE PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the

  9. ESP Learners' Needs Related Learning for the Workplace: A Pragmatic Study for Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Typically, an ESP course is designed to develop students' communication skills not solely for the office, but also for useful in a specific workplace. Unfortunately, ESP for Schools of Business at some South-East Asian universities is not being very effective in promoting students' performance in the workplace. Behind this backdrop, this paper…

  10. Perceived Views of Language Teachers on the Use of Needs Analysis in ESP Materials Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi; Salih, Abdel Rahman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Needs analysis is generally believed to be important in ESP/EAP context because it enables practitioners and materials writers to find out about their real learners' needs. Therefore, this study is set out to investigate EFL teachers' beliefs and views about need analysis use and practices, specifically in the ESP/EAP tertiary context of the…

  11. Correlated sampling added to the specific purpose Monte Carlo code McPNL for neutron lifetime log responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickael, M.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The specific purpose neutron lifetime oil well logging simulation code, McPNL, has been rewritten for greater user-friendliness and faster execution. Correlated sampling has been added to the code to enable studies of relative changes in the tool response caused by environmental changes. The absolute responses calculated by the code have been benchmarked against laboratory test pit data. The relative responses from correlated sampling are not directly benchmarked, but they are validated using experimental and theoretical results

  12. Authenticity in the Teaching of ESP: An Evaluation Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although authentic materials are a very rich source for the selection of teaching materials in the field of ESP (English for Specific Purposes in general and of Business English in particular, the ultimate purpose should be authentic communication between the text (oral or written and its recipient as a result of the interpretation brought to the text by the latter. To speak of authenticity implies therefore a dual focus: that of “authentic material” and that of “authenticity”. The literature in the field is vast and deserves an in-depth analysis, as in many cases the previous terms are treated as synonyms. Thus, an original proposal for the evaluation of authenticity is called for, an aspect rarely considered in the evaluation of teaching materials. This proposal will build upon a review of the literature on authenticity, as well as on the most important proposals for the evaluation of teaching materials. The proposal set forth in this paper is completed with a checklist which integrates the consideration of the inherent characteristics in the material being evaluated, together with the teacher’s view on this score.

  13. Distribution of espM and espT among enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeloa, Ana; Blanco, Miguel; Moreira, Fabiana C.; Bulgin, Richard; López, Cecilia; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Blanco, Jesús E.; Mora, Azucena; Alonso, María Pilar; Mamani, Rosalia Ceferina; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Blanco, Jorge; Frankel, Gad

    2009-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) translocate dozens of type III secretion system effectors, including the WxxxE effectors Map, EspM and EspT that activate Rho GTPases. While map, which is carried on the LEE pathogenicity island, is absolutely conserved among EPEC and EHEC strains, the prevalence of espM and espT is not known. Here we report the results of a large screen aimed at determining the prevalence of espM and espT among clinical EPEC and EHEC isolates. The results suggest that espM, detected in 51 % of the tested strains, is more commonly found in EPEC and EHEC serogroups that are linked to severe human infections. In contrast, espT was absent from all the EHEC isolates and was found in only 1.8 % of the tested EPEC strains. Further characterization of the virulence gene repertoire of the espT-positive strains led to the identification of a new ζ2 intimin variant. All the espT-positive strains but two contained the tccP gene. espT was first found in Citrobacter rodentium and later in silico in EPEC E110019, which is of particular interest as this strain was responsible for a particularly severe diarrhoeal outbreak in Finland in 1987 that affected 650 individuals in a school complex and an additional 137 associated household members. Comparing the protein sequences of EspT to that of E110019 showed a high level of conservation, with only three strains encoding EspT that differed in 6 amino acids. At present, it is not clear why espT is so rare, and what impact EspM and EspT have on EPEC and EHEC infection. PMID:19528152

  14. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies.

  15. On the Possibility of ESP Data Use in Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Knopp, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to explore this image label database coming from the ESP game from the natural language processing (NLP) point of view. ESP game is an online game, in which human players do useful work - they label images. The output of the ESP game is then a database of images and their labels. What interests us is whether the data collected in the process of labeling images will be of any use in NLP tasks. Specifically, we are interested in the tasks of automatic corefere...

  16. Routine maintenance prolongs ESP time between failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, T.; Lannom, R.W.; Divine, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that routine maintenance of electric submersible motors (ESPs) significantly lengthened the mean time between motor failures (MTBF), decreased operating costs, and extended motor run life in the Sacroc Unit of the Kelly-Snyder field in West Texas. After the oil price boom of the early 1980s. rapidly eroding profit margins from producing properties caused a much stronger focus on reducing operating costs. In Sacroc, ESP operating life and repair costs became a major target of cost reduction efforts. The routine ESP maintenance program has been in place for over 3 years

  17. ESP Learners’ Needs Related Learning for the Workplace: A Pragmatic Study for Business School

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ahmed Liton

    2015-01-01

    Typically, an ESP course is designed to develop students’ communication skills not solely for the office, but also for useful in a specific workplace. Unfortunately, ESP for Schools of Business at some South-East Asian universities is not being very effective in promoting students’ performance in the workplace. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores learners’ pragmatic workplace learning practices that impact on their profession and have immediate applicability to their prof...

  18. The Impact of Mobile Learning on ESP Learners' Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alkhezzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners’ performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning vocabulary, and how this can affect the learner's’ ability to use grammar correctly and whether their writing skill is improved. The results showed that using mobile phone applications to teach a foreign language skill or subskill is fruitful and does impact learners’ comprehension of vocabulary and grammatical rules. The results specifically indicate that mobile phones can be used in many different ways to teach and learn technical and semi-technical vocabulary easily outside the classroom, however, to teach grammatical rules and writing it is recommended that certain strategies be used due to certain limitations.

  19. Generic Structure of Discussion Sections in ESP Research Articles across International and Iranian Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing literature reveals that identifying generic structure of research articles (RAs in different fields of study, especially ESP, has received much attention. The major purpose behind such trends of research has been raising researchers' awareness of the common conventions in writing RAs. Along with this universal trend, a lot of genre studies have been done in Iranian context; however, it seems that ESP RAs have not been paid due attention yet. Hence this study aimed at investigating the generic structure of ESP RAs in international and Iranian journals. Applying Kanoksilapatham's (2007 model to the compiled corpus, it was found that contextualizing the study (Move 1 and consolidating results (Move 2 were the obligatory moves in Discussion section of ESP RAs across international and Iranian journals. Evaluation of the findings was a new step found in international Discussion sections but absent in Iranian ones. Related discussion of these findings prepares the researchers for publishing in international and Iranian ESP journals. Keywords: ESP, Discussion section, Move, Step, Author presence, Generic structure

  20. The Literal Translation Hypothesis in ESP Teaching/Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the characteristics of specialized vocabulary usually replicates studies that deal with general words, e.g. they typically describe frequent terms and focus on their linguistic characteristics to aid in the learning and acquisition of the terms. We dispute this practise, as we believe that the basic characteristic of terms is that they are coined to restrict meaning, i.e. to be as precise and as specific as possible in a particular context. For instance, around 70% of English and Spanish accounting terms are multi-word terms, most of which contain more than three orthographic words that syntactically behave in a way that is very different from the syntactic behaviour of the node on which they are formed (Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp, forthcoming. This has prompted us to propose a research framework that investigates whether or not the literal translation hypothesis, which has been addressed in several areas of translation studies, can also be applied in ESP teaching/learning environments. If plausible, the assumptions on which this hypothesis is based can shed light on how learners disambiguate terms they encounter. Within this framework, this paper presents evidence that the literal translation hypothesis is possible in ESP; it offers the results of a pilot study that sheds light on how this hypothesis may work, and also discusses its usability in the context of ESP learning. In particular, this paper presents strategies for teaching multi-word terms that are different from those currently based on corpus data. We believe that exercises such as “cloze”, “fill in” and similar “guessing” exercises must be abandoned in ESP teaching/learning environments. Instead, we propose exercises that reproduce L1 teaching and learning activities, i.e., exercises that are typically used when acquiring specialised knowledge and skills in any domain, e.g. taking part in meetings and giving presentations in a business context.

  1. Krmiljenje DC motorja z mikrokrmilnikom ESP32

    OpenAIRE

    Pleterski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sodobni mikrokrmilniki z integriranimi brezžičnimi komunikacijskimi moduli omogočajo razvoj novih aplikacij interneta stvari (ang. Internet of Things), kjer do komunikacije pride brez neposrednega človeškega posredovanja. Cilj zaključne naloge je preizkusiti mikrokrmilnik ESP32 Thing, še posebej njegove nove zmožnosti brezžične povezave. Mikrokrmilnik je preizkušan s PID krmiljenjem DC motorja s programiranjem v programskih okoljih Arduino in ESP-IDF. Zaključno delo je osredotočeno predvse...

  2. ESP Learners’ Needs Related Learning for the Workplace: A Pragmatic Study for Business School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ahmed Liton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, an ESP course is designed to develop students’ communication skills not solely for the office, but also for useful in a specific workplace. Unfortunately, ESP for Schools of Business at some South-East Asian universities is not being very effective in promoting students’ performance in the workplace. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores learners’ pragmatic workplace learning practices that impact on their profession and have immediate applicability to their professional responsibilities. This article, in other words, addresses the gaps between what students learn in ESP class and what they need in real workplace. The data were collected through questionnaires from 30 ESP teachers. The data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The research results revealed that the current ESP in use fails to capture the learners’ needs and skills in workplace communication. It, therefore, suggests that ESP textbook has to adapt the practical workplace needs related materials as well as supplementing extra materials through teachers’ constant ‘needs analysis’.

  3. Metaphor in the ESP engineering context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roldán-Riejos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The explicit use of metaphor in the EFL classroom has been documented to enhance the communicative skills of learners (Cameron & Low, 1999; Cortazzi & Jin, 1999; Low, 1999; Littlemore & Low, 2006. ESP learners with a technical background, however, are not usually trained on the presence of metaphor in their knowledge field, or on its use. The aim of this paper is to analyze the unprompted use of metaphor in the verbal responses given by a group of Spanish civil engineering undergraduates when depicting visuals related to their area of expertise. The responses of the students were obtained from a questionnaire completed in the classroom which was later crosschecked with the answers given by a group of professional civil engineers. This was done to compare the occurrence of metaphor as a descriptive verbalizer in the academic and the professional contexts. The results confirm the use of general metaphor in both groups, and the use of field-specific metaphor particularly in the professional engineers (in order to avoid confusion with the engineer students group, which appears to suggest the evolving character of metaphor in the civil engineering discourse community. We conclude by highlighting the dynamicity of metaphor in the civil engineering context. From a pedagogic viewpoint, it would be advisable to concentrate on metaphor as a learning feature by considering three main dimensions: conceptual, linguistic and visual. This could be carried out by offering students corpora-driven examples of metaphor visibility in the different civil engineering genres, addressing non-verbal elements, such as sketches, drawings, designs and pictures where metaphor may be used. The theoretical framework for this study draws from conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual integration theory combined with a multimodal approach to metaphor (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Deignan, 2005; Steen, 2007; Fauconnier & Turner, 2008, Forceville, 2010; Kress, 2010.

  4. Formulacity in ESP Teaching: A Case of Doing a Balancing Act Between Form and Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutowska Urszula

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grammar teaching has never belonged to mainstream ESP teaching/ learning practices. However, this apparent lack of concern with grammar in ESP materials runs counter to both subjective and objective needs of ESP learners. The first part of the paper presents students′ views on deficiencies of coursebooks for teaching English for Medical Purposes (EMP as well as author’s reflective thinking on the needs of medical undergraduates of vocational schools in Poland. It is suggested that some of the deficiencies of the materials might be remedied and the students′ needs better taken care of if explicit teaching of formulaic language is introduced into ESP classroom environment. It is hypothesized that explicit teaching of formulaic language may stimulate grammar development in the long term and foster communicative competence of ESP learners in the short term. Therefore, the second part of the paper proposes pedagogically relavant classification of medical formulaic sequences motivated by the lexicogrammatical features of Medical English. The third part of the paper shows in what way the proposed classification of formulaic sequences might help teachers of medical English design tasks that are conducive to the development of formulaic competence of students of English for Medical Purposes.

  5. The Empirical Assessment of English for Specific Business Purpose (ESBP) among Export Development Bank of Iran (EDBI) Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzen, Ahmad; Hashemi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The present study has been conducted with the purpose of exploring the relationship between EDBI staff's General English proficiency and their technical English Writing as well as the way each ESBP and GE courses affect their writing skill. The kind of the study is quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test, being conducted among EDBI staff in…

  6. Revisiting the STEC Testing Approach: Using espK and espV to Make Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Detection More Reliable in Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D.; Ison, Sarah A.; Webb, Hattie E.; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of ‘false positive’ results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC s...

  7. Variação do teor de umidade e da densidade básica na madeira de sete espécies de eucalipto Variation of the moisture content and specific gravity in the wood of seven eucalypt species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As variações de umidade e da densidade do lenho das árvores são as principais causas dos defeitos de secagem, como o empenamento e fendilhamento das peças de madeira. Os tipos de madeira presentes em um tronco estão relacionados com as variações dessas duas importantes propriedades físicas. Os gradientes de umidade e da densidade da madeira de sete espécies de eucalipto foram avaliados nas direções radial e longitudinal do tronco de árvores recém-abatidas. Os resultados apontaram uma maior homogeneidade de distribuição de umidade dentro das árvores de E. paniculata e E. citriodora, indicada pelos coeficientes de variação e desvio-padrão. O diferencial de umidade da madeira nas regiões internas do tronco de E. paniculata e E. citriodora foi de 20% e de E. urophylla e E. grandis, de 80%. A densidade básica da madeira aumentou na direção radial do tronco, e cada espécie de eucalipto apresentou um modelo de variação.The occurrence of high moisture and density gradients inside of the tree is related with drying defects, especially those characterized by warp and split of the wood. The unequal behavior of wood pieces due to variation of these two properties can be attributed to differences within the wood that constitutes the log. Considering the importance of knowing the moisture and density gradients in eucalyptus trees, this work had as objective evaluating the variations of the moisture content and specific gravity in the radial and longitudinal directions of the trees of seven eucalypts species. Based on the results concerning the moisture distribution inside the tree, there was a great homogeneity in the species of E. paniculata and E. citriodora, sustained by the low values of variation coefficient and standard deviation. In these species, the moisture differential among the inner and outer parts of the log rarely reached 20%, while for the logs of E. urophylla and E. grandis, this diferencial reached 80%. In spite of

  8. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the specific purpose modules; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoto module ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the specific purpose modules for photovoltaic power generation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the feasibility survey on new application fields, it was clarified that photovoltaic power generation is applicable to extensive areas such as farmland, road, railway and public facility as latent demand sites. (2) On the optimum modules for various specific purposes, the structure, production method, cost estimation and issues of various modules were studied for desert, wasteland, coast, ocean, river, embankment, railway, road, mobile facility and arcade. (3) On the survey on new materials and material development, various conventional materials and materials promising for required performance were surveyed for every application. (4) On the survey on technology trends, the survey members participated in the first international photovoltaic energy conversion conference and the photovoltaic power generation workshop, while the members held the 1st-5th specific purpose module subcommittees. 1 tab.

  9. Goal-Setting and Self-Reflection to Enhance Learners' Interaction in an ESP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Velandia, Sergio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative action research study explored the interactions of young-adult learners carrying out self-reflection on their learning processes in an ESP (English for special purposes) course at an airline training-center in Bogotá, Colombia. Needs analysis revealed that learners had poor knowledge of technical English, and lacked strong…

  10. Safety Evaluation of the ESP Sludge Washing Baselines Runs. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical basis for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs. The Baseline runs are necessary: to ascertain the mechanical fitness of the equipment and modifications not operated since 1988 and to resolve technical questions associated with process control; i.e., sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, and temperature control. These issues need to be resolved prior to resumption of normal ESP operations. The equipment used for the Baseline runs are Tanks 42H and 51H and their associated equipment

  11. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H

  12. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-04-25

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H.

  13. Abbreviation as a Reflection of Terms Variability in Language for Specific Purposes: Translational Features (Terminology Case Study in German, English, Kazakh, and Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisembayeva, Gulshat Z.; Yeskindirova, Manshuk Z.; Tulebayeva, Samal A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of modern dynamic social changes, globalization of world powers' economic cooperation, acceleration of technocratic processes have widespread impact on term systems' variability in language, in particular, on terminological variability for specific purposes. This globalized extra-linguistic factor provokes avalanche growth of…

  14. Maritime English as a code-tailored ESP: Genre-based curriculum development as a way out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maritime English (ME, as a type of English for Specific Purposes (ESP, is somewhat different in that its instruction and research are founded on specific international legal procedures. Thus, it is vital to determine an ESP framework that bridges the code-tailored ME curriculum development with the communicative language teaching approach. This paper reports on the revision of the International Maritime Organization (IMO’s Model Course 3.17, Maritime English, where an integrated genre-based ESP framework helps to achieve the balance between language learning’s “wide-angled” quality and ME’s legal consistency. It is argued that code-tailored ME competences find expressions in maritime domain-specific genres; those are the typical sets of English communicative events that seafarers are involved in while achieving their maritime professional objectives. The curriculum can be designed as to integrate linguistic systems, professional motivation and behaviors, communicative skills and cultural awareness into the teaching process, which entails a process of learning Maritime English while taking maritime domain-specific action. Specifically, the principle of genre as social action apprises the two-stage syllabus mapping, that is, General Maritime English (GME and Specialized Maritime English (SME. In GME, the focus is placed on the linguistic content and how language tasks embedded in the maritime contexts are fulfilled; in SME, the focus is placed on the professional content and how the maritime workplace duties and identities are fulfilled through the English language. As such, syllabus mapping calculates the discursion-profession correlation and helps to ensure that code-tailored ME teaching is communicative performance-oriented. Thus, the multi-syllabus task design and content selection must consistently maintain the genre-based balance on the linguistic-communicative continuum. As a result, the English linguistic systems underlying the

  15. O espírito da paisagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS FERNANDO DE MOURA DELPHIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde a Antiguidade, a humanidade acredita que os sítios e paisagens, além de suas características físicas, seriam animados por presenças imateriais, o espírito dos lugares. A moderna preservação do patrimônio cultural reconhece a necessidade de se preservar, junto com os bens imateriais, essas entidades.

  16. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons

  17. Detergents enhance EspB secretion from Escherichia coli strains harboring the locus for the enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Noboru; Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ogura, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    The effects of detergents (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40) on the secretion of EspB from the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene-positive Escherichia coli strains were examined. Clinical isolates of eight EPEC strains and seven STEC strains were used to detect EspB after they had been cultivated in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing one of the detergents. When the bacteria were cultured in LB broth supplemented with one of the detergents, the amount of EspB produced was increased by 2-32-fold depending on the detergent and the strain used. EspB was detected in all strains when they were cultured in LB broth containing all of the detergents. The results obtained in this study can be applied to immunological diagnostic methods for detecting EspB and also to the production of EspB for research purposes. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ESP8266 WI-FI MODULE FOR MONITORING SYSTEM APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Gue Oh; Chung-Hyuk Yim; Gyu-Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    The ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is a self-contained system-on-chip (SOC) with integrated TCP/IP protocol stacks that can give any microcontroller access to a Wi-Fi network. In this paper, the interface between the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and arduino MCU is studied for monitoring system application. Through some experimental studies, we believe that the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is very useful for monitoring system application.

  19. Structure of EspB from the ESX-1 type VII secretion system and insights into its export mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonson, Matthew; Setiaputra, Dheva; Makepeace, Karl A T; Lameignere, Emilie; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Conrady, Deborah G; Bergeron, Julien R; Vuckovic, Marija; DiMaio, Frank; Borchers, Christoph H; Yip, Calvin K; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2015-03-03

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses the ESX-1 type VII secretion system to export virulence proteins across its lipid-rich cell wall, which helps permeabilize the host's macrophage phagosomal membrane, facilitating the escape and cell-to-cell spread of Mtb. ESX-1 membranolytic activity depends on a set of specialized secreted Esp proteins, the structure and specific roles of which are not currently understood. Here, we report the X-ray and electron microscopic structures of the ESX-1-secreted EspB. We demonstrate that EspB adopts a PE/PPE-like fold that mediates oligomerization with apparent heptameric symmetry, generating a barrel-shaped structure with a central pore that we propose contributes to the macrophage killing functions of EspB. Our structural data also reveal unexpected direct interactions between the EspB bipartite secretion signal sequence elements that form a unified aromatic surface. These findings provide insight into how specialized proteins encoded within the ESX-1 locus are targeted for secretion, and for the first time indicate an oligomerization-dependent role for Esp virulence factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site

  1. Structural and functional characterization of cleavage and inactivation of human serine protease inhibitors by the bacterial SPATE protease EspPα from enterohemorrhagic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weiss

    Full Text Available EspPα and EspI are serine protease autotransporters found in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. They both belong to the SPATE autotransporter family and are believed to contribute to pathogenicity via proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of different key host proteins during infection. Here, we describe the specific cleavage and functional inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins by EspPα and compare this activity with the related SPATE EspI. Serpins are structurally related proteins that regulate vital protease cascades, such as blood coagulation and inflammatory host response. For the rapid determination of serpin cleavage sites, we applied direct MALDI-TOF-MS or ESI-FTMS analysis of coincubations of serpins and SPATE proteases and confirmed observed cleavage positions using in-gel-digest of SDS-PAGE-separated degradation products. Activities of both serpin and SPATE protease were assessed in a newly developed photometrical assay using chromogenic peptide substrates. EspPα cleaved the serpins α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI, α1-antichymotrypsin, angiotensinogen, and α2-antiplasmin. Serpin cleavage led to loss of inhibitory function as demonstrated for α1-PI while EspPα activity was not affected. Notably, EspPα showed pronounced specificity and cleaved procoagulatory serpins such as α2-antiplasmin while the anticoagulatory antithrombin III was not affected. Together with recently published research, this underlines the interference of EspPα with hemostasis or inflammatory responses during infection, while the observed interaction of EspI with serpins is likely to be not physiologically relevant. EspPα-mediated serpin cleavage occurred always in flexible loops, indicating that this structural motif might be required for substrate recognition.

  2. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  3. The Impact of Mobile Learning on ESP Learners' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhezzi, Fahad; Al-Dousari, Wadha

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners' performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning…

  4. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal based sponge iron industries in India generate considerable quantity of solid waste, 40% of which is flue dust produced from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) connected to rotary kiln. This paper reports the dissolution of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Fe from the ESP dust using three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, ...

  5. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    temperature was lowered, indicating the native ability of ash to capture the mercury. Pulsed operation of the ESP with the SIR module provided a 2 to 3-fold reduction in emissions at the higher operating temperatures. In light of the positive results from Phase I, we propose proof of concept testing in the field in Phase II. The main objective of the Phase II testing would be to determine the ESP performance improvement as a function of flue gas temperature and humidity for a range of loW--sulfur coals being fired by utilities. Equally important will be the long-term evaluation of the risk of corrosion and plugging (due to acid condensation) associated with low temperature operation. The impact of higher flue gas velocities (lower SCA-specific collection area), compared to the laboratory pilot program, would also need to be evaluated. A secondary objective would be to examine mercury capture by the ESP at the different temperatures and with sorbent injection

  6. The Development of Professional Foreign Language Competence for ESP Students: Case of Kazakh National Agrarian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunanbayeva, Salima; Zhyltyrova, Zhanar

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper is determined by the needs of modern society for qualified specialists who will fulfill professional tasks in a foreign language society at various intercultural levels. The purpose of the research is studying the development of professional foreign language competence for ESP students. The methodology of the research…

  7. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de espécies florestais

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Juliano de Paulo dos; Davide,Antonio Claudio; Teixeira,Luis Antonio Fonseca; Melo,Ana Julia Santos; Melo,Lucas Amaral de

    2011-01-01

    Neste estudo, objetivou-se estudar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de 20 espécies florestais nativas. Dois experimentos distintos foram conduzidos. Em ambos, as estacas caulinares apresentavam em média de 15 a 20 cm de comprimento. No primeiro, estacas de nove espécies foram selecionadas em quatro classes de diâmetro, com média de 5,0; 9,0; 14,5 e 24 mm. No segundo, estacas de 20 espécies foram tratadas com ácido indolbutirico (AIB). Cada tratamento foi avaliado em quatro repe...

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Ajideh; Mohammad Zohrabi; Kazem Pouralvar

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are ...

  9. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIBOO

    Key words: Fungal leaching, sponge iron, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust, metal dissolution. INTRODUCTION ... ability of micro organisms to transform solid compounds ..... of metals from spent lithium ion secondary batteries using A.

  10. Estimating Supplies Program (ESP), Version 1.00, User's Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tropeano, Anne

    2000-01-01

    The Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) is an easy to use Windows(TM)-based software program for military medical providers, planners, and trainers that calculates the amount of supplies and equipment required to treat a patient stream...

  11. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura AlveBastos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE, the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups. Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups, or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE (Three-step/Methacrylate group (n = 6. The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm, and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min to perform microtensile testing. Results Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p < 0.05. However, it was not significantly different from Preetching/Silorane and Methacrylate groups. Conclusions Pre-etching increased bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin.

  12. Transferring Generic Features and Recontextualizing Genre Awareness: Understanding Writing Performance in the ESP Genre-Based Literacy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An

    2007-01-01

    Despite the impact of the ESP genre-based framework of teaching discipline-specific writing to L2 learners, especially to L2 graduate students, the writing performance of learners in such a framework is still not fully explored. In this paper, I analyze three article introductions written by a Chinese-speaking graduate student in electrical…

  13. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  14. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups). Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray), with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups), or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE) (Three-step/Methacrylate group) (n = 6). The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm), and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min) to perform microtensile testing. Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p adhesive system to dentin.

  15. Cambios en el porcentaje de sodio intercambiable (PSI) y la relación de absorción de sodio (RAS) de un suelo y su influencia en la actividad y biomasa microbiana Changes specific absortion rate (SAR) and exchange sodium percentaje (ESP) of a soil and its influence on microbial activity and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Gasca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar los cambios en el PSI, la RAS y su influencia en la actividad y biomasa microbiana del suelo, se aplicaron diversas concentraciones de vinaza como enmienda procedente de la industria de alcohol carburante, sobre un suelo afectado por sodicidad con severas limitaciones en las condiciones físicas, químicas y biológicas. Se aplicó un diseño en bloques completos al azar que incluye cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones, y muestreos de suelo al inicio y final del proceso a tres profundidades (0-20, 20-40 y 40-60 cm), cuyas variables de respuesta a medir fueron la respiración, C- biomasa microbiana, MO%, pH, CIC, CE, RAS y PSI. La actividad biológica (CO2) y el C-biomasa microbiana mostraron incrementos significativos en el rango ideal para el establecimento del cultivo de caña.To evaluate changes in ESP, SAR and its influence on the activity and soil microbial biomass, different concentrations of vinasse from the fuel ethanol industry as an amendment were applied on a soil affected by sodicity with strong physical, chemical and biological limitations. A randomized complete block design was used involving four treatments and three replications, which included soil sampling at the beginning and the end of the process at three different depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm). Variables measured were respiration, microbial biomass C, OM%, pH, CIC, EC, SAR and ESP. Biological activity (CO2) and microbial biomass, C showed a significant increase in the ideal range for planting of sugar cane crop.

  16. COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC AND ESP: USING METAPHOR AS A USEFUL DEVICE FOR TEACHING L2 BUSINESS ENGLISH LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Hendriyani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Linguistics is language essentially and inherently symbolic in nature. It means that all linguistic expressions such as; words, phrases and sentences, utterances, signs or writting are symbols of concept in a speaker’s mind. Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action that it does not literally denote in order to imply a resemblance. Many people have encountered them in literature and poetry, and most of us know that even when we talk casually, we may take advantage of such figurative language, perhaps especially when there are some evasive, hard-to-grasp emotions or thought that we want to communicate. We can find several metaphors in newspapers, literature or scientific articles, etc. Metaphor is a central issue in ESP teaching. The purposes of this paper are (1 to increase the students’ knowledge of technical and semi-technical business vocabulary. (2 to improve business reading fluency and (3 to enrich vocabulary in business texts or readings. Metaphor in a specific English language program can provide students with a useful device to raise awareness of key concepts, models and issues and to improve their reading in business. The term of Business English refers to a wide range of ESL (English for Specific Learning courses characterized by having sense of purpose, specific content and general. This frequent presence of metaphor in economic and business texts are for second language learners, to improve language learners’ specialized reading of business texts and to help them produce native-like discourse when they translate business texts.

  17. Self-Assessment of Vocabulary and Relevant Language Skills for Evaluation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Learner self-assessment of linguistic performance has been lately used due to its potential to activate the process of learning. Self-assessment raises learner awareness of language use and leads to developing learner responsibility and autonomy. However, usefulness of self-assessment for evaluation purposes has been scarcely researched. This paper examines some aspects of learners’ self-assessment for evaluation purposes at tertiary level. Research focuses on self-assessment of English for Specific Purposes (ESP vocabulary and some language skills relevant for vocabulary retention. Data on learner self-assessment are compared to actual results in tests. The analysis provided points to importance of self-evaluation in language acquisition and suggests practical implications of self-assessment for evaluation.

  18. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose...

  19. THE END OF THE OFF-BALANCE SHEET IN PROJECT FINANCE: A STUDY OF ACCOUNTING ASPECTS IN THE CONSOLIDATION OF SPECIFIC PURPOSE ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Szuster, Natan; Marques, José Augusto Veiga da Costa; Santos, Odilanei Morais dos; Hoory, Rafael; Amaral, Marco Aurélio; Alves, Claudio Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    With the objective of presenting the main characteristics of project finance and in order to discuss the principal effects of the consolidation of special purpose companies according to Brazilian, International and North-American rules, an exploratory-bibliographical study was carried out, focusing on Petrobras as a primary example. In compliance with CVM Instruction 408/04, public companies are obliged to include SPC in their consolidated financial statements whenever the essence of the rela...

  20. Good practice guide for ESP-r developers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report sets out to be a ‘good practice guide’ for researchers involved in the development of the ESP-r building and plant simulation environment, as this is currently under development at various research centres throughout Europe. After an introduction to the background for this work, the

  1. An ESP Project: Analysis of an Authentic Workplace Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. Pascal; Lewis, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    Reports an analysis of a 10-hour collection of conversations in a New Zealand factory office. Computer software was used to determine the content and vocabulary of the conversations. Discusses possible applications of the study for teachers of pre-employment English for specific purposes courses. (Author/VWL)

  2. American visceral leishmaniasis dissociated from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto,Israel de Souza; Santos,Claudiney Biral dos; Grimaldi Jr.,Gabriel; Ferreira,Adelson Luiz; Falqueto,Aloísio

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of American visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil has always been associated with the presence of the Lutzomyia longipalpis vector. The geographic distribution of this vector in this state is related to the presence of specific geoclimatic characteristics, such as a dry climate, low elevations (< 450m), steep slopes and rocky outcrops. The occurrence of human autochthonous cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in municipalities without these geoclimat...

  3. Revisão das espécies neotropicais de Empididae (Diptera descritas por Mario Bezzi: VII. As espécies descritas em Hilara Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As cinco espécies descritas em Hilara por Mario Bezzi estão sendo redescritas e ilustradas. Atualmente três espécies permanecem em Hilara: H. irritans, H. perplexa e H. perturbans e duas espécies em Hilarigona: H. aberrans e H. abnormis. Todos os tipos primários foram examinados e estão sendo designados lectótipos para as três espécies de Hilara.

  4. Learning by Translating: A Contrastive Methodology for ESP Learning and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Laviosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years applied linguists have explored the possibility of integrating the insights of second language acquisition theories, contrastive analysis, foreign language teaching methodologies, and translation studies with a view to enhancing current communicative models and techniques for L2 teaching and translator training (see for example Sewell and Higgins 1996; Laviosa-Braithwaite 1997; Campbell 1998; Malmkjær 1998; Laviosa 2000; Colina 2002. We intend to make a contribution to this interdisciplinary orientation by putting forward a translation-based methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and grammar through real life mediating communicative activities. With particular reference to the translation task itself, we endeavour to provide teachers of English for special purposes and translator trainers with a methodology for guiding their students in producing, to the best of their abilities, a target text which meets the quality criteria of terminological accuracy and stylistic fluency, and is also effective in terms of the communicative situation it is intended for. After outlining the rationale and main theoretical approaches underpinning our work, we will illustrate our methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and translation skills from a contrastive perspective, as in our book Learning by Translating (Laviosa and Cleverton 2003.

  5. Radiological and nuclear terrorism: within the framework of a re-thought planning system, specific tools are complementary to the general purpose instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, France engaged in the revision of its emergency planning system in order to improve its answer to a major crisis in the field of civil defence and protection. On one side, the Vigipirate, which deals with vigilance and prevention and the response plan of the Pirate family, and particularly Piratom, which is intended to answer the radiological or nuclear terrorist events, are specific and up-to-date tools to deal with the issues of hyper-terrorism. On the other side, the new ORSEC system, the last evolution of one of the main pillars of the global public protection against risks and threats of all kinds, provides the modern methods of emergency planning which allow to consider in the most pragmatic way the response to the risks and threats of our modern world. This coherent planning system establishes the general framework for the action of the responders including medical resources. (author)

  6. Authenticity in the Context of Technologically Enriched ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to determine student attitudes towards authenticity and the interrelation between authenticity and the use of ICT in the ESP learning context.Design/methodology/approach—the research conducted in autumn 2011 was aimed at comparative analysis of students of two study modes—full-time and part-time. It followed research focusing on Bachelor study programme student attitudes (Business Informatics and Finance Economics to authentic resources carried out in spring of 2010. The survey participants were Bachelor study cycle first year students from several faculties of MRU (Law, Politics and Management, Economics and Finance Management, Social Informatics, Social Policy. The paper discusses the ESP learning experience at Mykolas Romeris University and presents research findings obtained through the questionnaire survey.Findings—comparative analysis between full-time and part-time study mode student responses reveals similar learning patterns; however, certain differences can also be observed. The full-time students are motivated by more advanced authentic learning materials and they are more computer literate and able to access these materials, whereas the respondents from the part-time study mode appreciate more traditional Internet-based language learning tools.Research limitations/implications—the research sample was composed of first year Bachelor study programme students, therefore the results cannot be generalised and applied to Master level students.Practical implications—awareness of student needs and problems encountered in authentic learning environment may help improve ESP teaching methods.Originality/Value—gaining insight into student perception of authenticity in learning process and technological proficiency to access authentic resourcesKeywords: authenticity, student autonomy, ESP context, information communication technologies (ICT.Research type: research paper.

  7. Recharging the battery: placement tests for ESP students

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Azevedo Cunha; Márcia do Amaral Peixoto Martins; Inés Kayon de Miller; Lucia Pacheco de Oliveira; James Dean Brown

    2001-01-01

    This paper first reviews key concepts in language testing and discusses the use of the English Language Placement Test administered at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro to computer science students, who are required t o take one of the two ESP courses offered by the English program. The analysis of the scores on two versions of a test administered to two different groups of computer science students who took the examination in sequential semesters is presented. For the origin...

  8. Learner voice and agency in ESP nursing : A narrative exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Theron

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a narrative inquiry approach to investigating nursing undergraduate student goals and impressions of their first year English ESP course at the University of Toyama. The data informing this investigation is comprised of student reflective writing, completed as homework as part of their normal coursework, from the beginning and end of their first semester at university. The objective of this investigation is to base descriptions of students’ motivations, hopes and experiences ...

  9. Sur quelques espèces du genre Scarabaeus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillet, Joseph J.E.

    1909-01-01

    Dans une note insérée aux Annali del Museo Civico di storia naturale di Genova ¹), je rue suis occupé, entre autres choses, de la synonymie de quelques espèces de Scarabaeus; je désire revenir sur ce sujet et y ajouter les remarques que m’a suggérées l’examen du type de S. van der Kelleni LSBG. et

  10. Authenticity in the Context of Technologically Enriched ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to determine student attitudes towards authenticity and the interrelation between authenticity and the use of ICT in the ESP learning context. Design/methodology/approach—the research conducted in autumn 2011 was aimed at comparative analysis of students of two study modes—full-time and part-time. It followed research focusing on Bachelor study programme student attitudes (Business Informatics and Finance Economics to authentic resources carried out in spring of 2010. The survey participants were Bachelor study cycle first year students from several faculties of MRU (Law, Politics and Management, Economics and Finance Management, Social Informatics, Social Policy. The paper discusses the ESP learning experience at Mykolas Romeris University and presents research findings obtained through the questionnaire survey. Findings—comparative analysis between full-time and part-time study mode student responses reveals similar learning patterns; however, certain differences can also be observed. The full-time students are motivated by more advanced authentic learning materials and they are more computer literate and able to access these materials, whereas the respondents from the part-time study mode appreciate more traditional Internet-based language learning tools. Research limitations/implications—the research sample was composed of first year Bachelor study programme students, therefore the results cannot be generalised and applied to Master level students. Practical implications—awareness of student needs and problems encountered in authentic learning environment may help improve ESP teaching methods. Originality/Value—gaining insight into student perception of authenticity in learning process and technological proficiency to access authentic resources Keywords: authenticity, student autonomy, ESP context, information communication technologies (ICT. Research type: research paper.

  11. Nouvelle espèce des Syntomides (Lepidoptera Heterocera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, P.C.T.

    1886-01-01

    Quatre mâles frais et bien conservés de 58—64 millim. d’envergure. Cette nouvelle espèce, gigantesque pour une Syntomide, appartient au genre Automolis, tel qu’il a été défini par Herrich-Schäffer, dans son ouvrage »Sammlung aussereuropäischer Schmetterlinge” (p. 21); le nom est emprunté au bien

  12. Espécies vegetais indicadas na odontologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielda Q. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre plantas medicinais indicadas para afecções odontológicas, incluindo livros, artigos e sites científicos e populares. Os dados foram compilados em uma tabela contendo informações como nome científico, popular, família, parte utilizada e forma farmacêutica. Foram encontradas 132 espécies, distribuídas em 52 Famílias Botânicas citadas como úteis no tratamento de afecções odontológicas. As espécies mais citadas de acordo com a bibliografia consultada foram Punica granatum L. (10 citações, Althaea officinalis L.(8, Salvia officinalis L. (8, Calendula officinalis L.(8, Malva sylvestris L (7, Plantago major L. (6. O conjunto destes resultados deve permitir um perfil de espécies para uso em odontologia e contribuir para o direcionamento de pesquisas nesta área, culminando com o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos de qualidade e validados para uso odontológico, bem como permitindo a divulgação destes estudos para a população e profissionais afins.

  13. SAGD production optimization : combination of ESP and multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.G.; Guerra, E.; Drever, C. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial oil reservoirs in Canada are completed using electric submersible pumps (ESP) due to low reservoir pressures and extra heavy oils and bitumens. This paper presented details of an optimization process for steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells. The process used ESP and a multiphase flow meter (MFM) based on Vx technology. The MFM was based on a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter combination that was engineered to measure the steam phases during SAGD processes. The technology was designed to measure total mass or total volumetric flow rates as well as oil, water and gas in producing wells. Length fractions of oil, water, and gas were calculated based on the attenuation of Gamma-rays as they passed through the Venturi section. Production was optimized in real time using the frequency control of the pump to improve oil flow rates. The results of field tests showed that the optimization process resulted in longer life cycles for the ESP. It was concluded that use of the meter results in changes to lift system operating parameters at the well site as well as improved monitoring during the workflow process. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  14. Use of Quality Models and Indicators for Evaluating Test Quality in an ESP Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IEVA RUDZINSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods of assessment play a decisive role in education in general and in language learning in particular. The necessity to perform a qualitative assessment comes from both increased student competition in higher education institutions (HEIs, and hence higher demands for fair assessment, and a growing public awareness on higher education issues, and therefore the need to account for a wider circle of stakeholders, including society as a whole. The aim of the present paper is to study the regulations and laws pertaining to the issue of assessment in Latvian HEIs, as well as to carry out literature sources analysis about assessment in language testing, seeking to select criteria characterizing the quality of English for Specific Purposes (ESP tests and to apply the model of evaluating the quality of a language test on an example of a test in sport English, developed in a Latvian higher education institution. An analysis of the regulations and laws about assessment in higher education and literature sources about tests in language courses has enabled the development of a test quality model, consisting of seven intrinsic quality criteria: clarity, adequacy, deep approach, attractiveness, originality/similarity, orientation towards student learning result/process, test scoring objectivity/subjectivity. Quality criteria comprise eleven indicators. The reliability of the given model is evaluated by means of the whole model, its criteria and indicator Cronbach’s alphas and point-biserial (item-total correlations or discrimination indexes DI. The test was taken by 63 participants, all of them 2nd year full time students attending a Latvian higher education institution. A statistical data analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0. The results show that, although test adequacy and clarity is sufficiently high, attractiveness and deep approach should be improved. Also the reliability of one version of the test is higher than that of the other one

  15. NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND GENRE VARIATION. PRINTED AND ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION ESP' COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Fernandez Toledo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available New technologies are as present nowadays in university as they are in society in general, influencing all aspects OS the teaching-learning dynamics. Within this electronic environment new genre types have arisen which should be as familiar to students as computers themselves. In this chapter the impact of technologies on genre variation is discussed, especially in relation to aulthentic malerial as teaching support. This influence is shown in a specific ESP area, that OS English For Library and lnformation Science (LIS, examining the possibilities, based on the relationship between older and newer genres, that are brought into the classroom. An example of changes brought about by Information Technologies on a classroom project is given: this now involves using web sites as a resource for the construction of leaflets. Following this, some advantages derived from its implementation during two academic years are discussed. The conclusions point to the benefit that new genre exploration in the ESP classroom offers for the building of academic literacy at tertiary level.

  16. Myrtaceae da restinga no norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Giaretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae está entre as famílias mais ricas em espécies nas restingas do Espírito Santo. Este estudo objetivou fazer o inventário e a caracterização das espécies de Myrtaceae ocorrentes na vegetação de restinga no norte do Espírito Santo. Foram registradas 52 espécies distribuídas em 10 gêneros. O gênero mais representado foi Eugenia (19 espécies, seguido de Myrcia (12, Marlierea (6, Psidium (4, Myrciaria (3, Calyptranthes (2, Campomanesia (2, Neomitranthes (2, Blepharocalyx (1 e Plinia (1. Foram registradas duas  espécies endêmicas (Eugenia inversa e Myrcia limae. As formações vegetais  com maior número de espécies foram a florestal não inundável (40 espécies,  seguida da arbustiva fechada não inundável (19 e florestal inundável (19. São apresentadas chaves para identificação das espécies, descrições, comentários,  distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos caracteres diagnósticos.

  17. French for Specific Purposes: The Hawaiian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouis, Mustapha

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of and the reaction to a course in Business French at the University of Hawaii. Its success, coupled with its recognition by state and academic officials, brought about the initiation of similar courses in other languages and the development of French for travel industry management majors. (SED)

  18. FRENCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: THE GATEWAY TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Technologically also, France is one of the leading countries in technology today and so ... professional areas like Medicine, Engineering, Architecture, life and health sciences, .... manpower, resources and the management of those resources. ... The paper went on to suggest ways this project could be.

  19. [Zoological diagnostics of soils: imperatives, purposes, and place within soil zoology and pedology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordokovich, V G

    2013-01-01

    Zoological diagnostics of soils was conceived by M.S. Ghilarov as a part of soil zoology and intended to be closely related to pedology. He considered zoo-agents as an ecological factor, one among many others, of soil formation. Contemporary soil diagnostics pursues mostly utilitarian goals and is based on conservative properties of the stable part of soil substrate. However, it is admitted that these properties are generated by specific combinations of biological, chemical, and physical phenomena that are called "elementary soil processes" (ESP) and occur nowhere but in soils. Certain ESPs are associated with distinctive combinations of biota, including invertebrates. Pedobionts act as producers of detritus and contribute to humus formation, which is necessary for any ESP starting, thus being its active party. That is why animals, being the most complex and active part of the ESP system, may be treated not only as its indicators but also as its navigators. Monitoring and studying of ESPs in soil is complicated because of inevitable disturbance of soil profile natural composition. Zoo-agents, at the same time, can be registered without habitats changing. Taking into account ecological potency of soil invertebrates that participate in an ESP, spectra of their eco-groups, life forms, and results of their activity, it is possible to diagnose a soil state at different stages of certain ESPs development, with their different combinations, and in different regions or parts of natural environmental gradients.

  20. Utilisation des espèces du genre Aframomum ( Aframomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La génération des radicaux libres résultant de l'oxydation des lipides est l'un des problèmes associés à la perte des aliments et des maladies notamment celles liées au surpoids et à l'obésité. Les espèces oxygénées réactives telles que le radical hydroxyle et les hydroperoxydes sont généralement produites par des ...

  1. Patogenicidade de isolados de Corynespora cassiicola a diferentes espécies de plantas Pathogenicity of Corynespora cassiicola isolates on different host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola, relatado como um patógeno com ampla gama de espécies hospedeiras, tem causado danos em várias culturas de interesse comercial. Neste trabalho avaliou-se, em ambiente de casa-de-vegetação, a patogenicidade de 15 isolados de C. cassiicola originados de diferentes espécies hospedeiras, quando inoculados em 12 diferentes espécies vegetais. Os isolados de pepino foram os mais patogênicos. Além dos híbridos de pepino, estes infectaram outras seis espécies vegetais testadas. Já os isolados de trapoeraba e de alface foram os que apresentaram menor patogenicidade, pois além dos hospedeiros originais infectaram somente uma espécie hospedeira. A maioria dos isolados apresentou elevada inespecificidade. As espécies vegetais testadas reagiram de formas diferentes quando inoculadas com diferentes isolados. O mamoeiro apresentou maior suscetibilidade, sendo infectado por 12 dos 15 isolados. Contrariamente, a trapoeraba e o assa-peixe foram suscetíveis a três e dois isolados, respectivamente.Corynespora cassiicola, causes target leaf spot on a wide host range, including several economically important crops. This study investigated the pathogenicity of 15 C. cassiicola isolates on several hosts, in greenhouse. The fungal isolates were collected from several hosts. These isolates were inoculated on 12 different plant species. The isolates from cucumber showed the widest host range, infecting also six other hosts. The isolates from C. benghalensis and lettuce showed the narrowest host range, since they infected their host of origin and only another host plant. Most of the isolates lacked host specificity. Papaya plant, which showed the greatest susceptibility to the C. cassiicola isolates, were colonized by 12 of the 15 isolates tested. On the opposite, Vernonia sp. and C benghalensis were susceptible to only two and three C. cassiicola isolates, respectively.

  2. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Eggshell Powder (ESP as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mazizah Ezdiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to partially replace Ordinary Portland cement (OPC in concrete with palm oil fuel ash (POFA and eggshell powder (ESP. The mix proportions of POFA and ESP were varied at 10% of cement replacement and compared with OPC concrete as control specimen. The fineness of POFA is characterized by passing through 300 μm sieve and ESP by passing through 75 μm sieve. Compressive strength testing was conducted on concrete specimens to determine the optimum mix proportion of POFA and ESP. Generally the compressive strength of OPC concrete is higher compared to POFA-ESP concrete. Based on the results of POFA-ESP concrete overall, it shows that the optimum mix proportion of concrete is 6%POFA:4% ESP achieved compressive strength of 38.60 N/mm2 at 28 days. The compressive strength of OPC concrete for the same period was 42.37 N/mm2. Higher water demand in concrete is needed due to low fineness of POFA that contributing to low compressive strength of POFA-ESP concrete. However, the compressive strength and workability of the POFA-ESP concrete were within the ranges typically encountered in regular concrete mixtures indicating the viability of this replacement procedure for structural and non-structural applications.

  3. ESP and NOAH: computer programs for flood-risk analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Montague, D.F.; Rooney, J.J.; Fussell, J.B.; Baker, L.S.

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a computer program package that aids in assessing the impact of floods on risk from nuclear power plants. The package consists of two distinct computer programs: ESP and NOAH. The ESP program improves the efficiency of a flood analysis by screening accident sequences and identifying accident sequences that are potentially significant contributors to risk in the event of a flood. Input to ESP includes accident sequences from an existing risk assessment and flood screening criteria. The NOAH program provides detailed qualitative analysis of the plant systems identified by ESP. NOAH performs a qualitative flood simulation of the fault tree

  4. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Eggshell Powder (ESP) as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezdiani Mohamad, Mazizah; Mahmood, Ali A.; Min, Alicia Yik Yee; Nur Nadhira A., R.

    2018-03-01

    This study is an attempt to partially replace Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete with palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and eggshell powder (ESP). The mix proportions of POFA and ESP were varied at 10% of cement replacement and compared with OPC concrete as control specimen. The fineness of POFA is characterized by passing through 300 μm sieve and ESP by passing through 75 μm sieve. Compressive strength testing was conducted on concrete specimens to determine the optimum mix proportion of POFA and ESP. Generally the compressive strength of OPC concrete is higher compared to POFA-ESP concrete. Based on the results of POFA-ESP concrete overall, it shows that the optimum mix proportion of concrete is 6%POFA:4% ESP achieved compressive strength of 38.60 N/mm2 at 28 days. The compressive strength of OPC concrete for the same period was 42.37 N/mm2. Higher water demand in concrete is needed due to low fineness of POFA that contributing to low compressive strength of POFA-ESP concrete. However, the compressive strength and workability of the POFA-ESP concrete were within the ranges typically encountered in regular concrete mixtures indicating the viability of this replacement procedure for structural and non-structural applications.

  5. QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF EFFICIENCY OF TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPING ESP COMPETENCE IN STUDENTS MAJORING IN SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Микитинко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to identifying and diagnosing qualitative indicators of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences, namely: indicators of objective and subjective assessment  of students’ ESP competence, students’ motivation regarding professional choice, organizational features of professional training, its contents, the most popular learning activities, use of active methods of study in educational process. The paradigm of experimental research of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences has been defined. Based on the interpretation of the qualitative indicators the hypothesis of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences has been proven.

  6. ESP On-line Activities: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélvia Pereira Pinto Bastos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading electronic texts in a foreign language has become an important skill in most professional areas. Electronic literacy is a pedagogical activity which develops both the learner’s linguistic knowledge and his / her ability to communicate and do research on the Internet. This article shows the reasons and how this practice, based on sociocognitive principles and using reading guidelines given by the teaching of Languages for Specific Purposes, has been implemented in the English language programs at CEFET-Campos, RJ. Comments on different aspects of the experience are also provided.

  7. First phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus serotype 4 circulating in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, C R; Pannuti, C S; Urbano, P R; Felix, A C; Cerutti Junior, C; Herbinger, K-H; Fröschl, G; Romano, C M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to reconstruct the phylogeny of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) that was circulating in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014, and to discuss the epidemiological implications associated with this evolutionary hypothesis. Partial envelope gene of eight DENV-4 samples from Espírito Santo state were sequenced and aligned with 72 worldwide DENV-4 reference sequences from GenBank. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed through Bayesian Inference and the Time of the Most Recent Common Ancestor was estimated. The study detected the circulation of DENV-4 genotype II in Espírito Santo state, which was closely related to strains from the states of Mato Grosso collected in 2012 and of São Paulo sampled in 2015. This cluster emerged around 2011, approximately 4 years after the entry of the genotype II in Brazil through its northern states, possibly imported from Venezuela and Colombia. This is so far the first phylogenetic study of the DENV-4 circulating in Espírito Santo state and shows the importance of an internal route of dengue viral circulation in Brazil to the introduction of the virus into this state.

  8. Wet torrefaction of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 with microwave-assisted heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Quang-Vu; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Cheng; Sheen, Herng-Kuang; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A microwave-assisted heating system is used for wet torrefaction (WT) of microalga. • Microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 is adopted as the feedstock. • The ash content in the microalga is reduced after WT. • The calorific value of the microalga can be intensified up to 21% after WT. • At least 61.5% of energy in the biomass is retained after WT. - Abstract: Microalgae are a prime source of third generation biofuels. Many thermochemical processes can be applied to convert them into fuels and other valuable products. However, some types of microalgae are characterized by very high moisture and ash contents, thereby causing several problems in further conversion processes. This study presents wet torrefaction (WT) as a promising pretreatment method to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks coupled with microalgal biomass. For this purpose, a microwave-assisted heating system was used for WT of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 at different reaction temperatures (160, 170, and 180 °C) and durations (5, 10, and 30 min). The results show several improvements in the fuel properties of the microalga after WT such as increased calorific value and hydrophobicity as well as reduced ash content. A correlation in terms of elemental analysis can be adopted to predict the higher heating value of the torrefied microalga. The structure analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy reveals that the carbohydrate content in the torrefied microalgae is lowered, whereas their protein and lipid contents are increased if the WT extent is not severe. However, the protein and lipid contents are reduced significantly at more severe WT conditions. The thermogravimetric analysis shows that the torrefied microalgae have lower ignition temperatures but higher burnout temperatures than the raw microalga, revealing significant impact of WT on the combustion reactivity of the microalga. Overall, the calorific value of the microalga can be intensified up to

  9. A role for the budding yeast separase, Esp1, in Ty1 element retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina L Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Separase/Esp1 is a protease required at the onset of anaphase to cleave cohesin and thereby enable sister chromatid separation. Esp1 also promotes release of the Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus to enable mitotic exit. To uncover other potential roles for separase, we performed two complementary genome-wide genetic interaction screens with a strain carrying the budding yeast esp1-1 separase mutation. We identified 161 genes that when mutated aggravate esp1-1 growth and 44 genes that upon increased dosage are detrimental to esp1-1 viability. In addition to the expected cell cycle and sister chromatid segregation genes that were identified, 24% of the genes identified in the esp1-1 genetic screens have a role in Ty1 element retrotransposition. Retrotransposons, like retroviruses, replicate through reverse transcription of an mRNA intermediate and the resultant cDNA product is integrated into the genome by a conserved transposon or retrovirus encoded integrase protein. We purified Esp1 from yeast and identified an interaction between Esp1 and Ty1 integrase using mass spectrometry that was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Ty1 transposon mobility and insertion upstream of the SUF16 tRNA gene are both reduced in an esp1-1 strain but increased in cohesin mutant strains. Securin/Pds1, which is required for efficient localization of Esp1 to the nucleus, is also required for efficient Ty1 transposition. We propose that Esp1 serves two roles to mediate Ty1 transposition - one to remove cohesin and the second to target Ty1-IN to chromatin.

  10. AN EXPLORATION OF THE MAIN DIFFICULTIES, CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE ESP TEACHING SITUATION IN ALGERIA: THE CASE OF ESP TEACHERS AT ABOU BEKR BELKAID UNIVERSITY, TLEMCEN

    OpenAIRE

    MEBITIL, Nawal

    2011-01-01

    This current study seeks to shed light on the main issues our language teachers encounter in an ESP teaching situation when exploring the land of ESP, particularly at the level of Abou Bekr Belkaid University, with close reference to those teachers working at the three following faculties: faculty of Exact Sciences, faculty of Economics and Commercial Sciences and faculty of Law and Political Sciences. The strategies they adopt or adapt to overcome their difficulties while at practice. Th...

  11. O espírito da Arte Chinesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Mazza

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available Característica fundamental da' pintura chinesa é a calma harmoniosa. O pintor chinês é um sereno taoista, um homem que, antes de pintar, permaneceu longamente em comunhão com a natureza, contemplando-a do alto das montanhas. Na solidão de seus retiros, longe da mesquinhez citadina, o pintor chinês purifica seu coração, aprende a compreender a íntima essência e a grandiosa unidade dos aspectos naturais e a vitalidade que vibra nas miríades de formas viventes. Êste respiro de ar montanhês, scianlinci, emana de tôda a grande pintura chinesa, refletindo a calma atingida pelo espírito do artista, confundindo-se com a harmonia universal.

  12. ESP Teaching at the Institutions of Higher Education in Modern Russia: Problems and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudnikova, Nadezhda

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses ESP teaching at the institutions of higher education in modern Russia, explains the main problems and suggests the ways of their solving, details the quality control system of the students' progress improvement, presents the complex approach to interactive ESP teaching and views it as an integral part of up-to-date…

  13. Introducing Project-Based Instruction in the Saudi ESP Classroom: A Study in Qassim University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh; Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the impact of introducing an integrative pedagogical approach in the ESP classes on developing the English language vocabulary of Computer Science and Information Technology students in the College of Science, Qassim University. The study suggests a framework for an ESP course-design employing students' project…

  14. Heterothalamus rupestris, espécie nova de Asteraceae do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Paz Deble

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Na revisão botânica do gênero Heterothalamus Less., foi descoberta uma nova espécie, endêmica da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil que, a seguir, é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com sua espécie afim.

  15. The innovative viscoelastic CP ESP cervical disk prosthesis with six degrees of freedom: biomechanical concepts, development program and preliminary clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Aaron, Alain; Ricart, Olivier; Rakover, Jean Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The viscoelastic cervical disk prosthesis ESP is an innovative one-piece deformable but cohesive interbody spacer. It is an evolution of the LP ESP lumbar disk implanted since 2006. CP ESP provides six full degrees of freedom about the three axes including shock absorbtion. The prosthesis geometry allows limited rotation and translation with resistance to motion (elastic return property) aimed at avoiding overload of the posterior facets. The rotation center can vary freely during motion. The concept of the ESP prosthesis is fundamentally different from that of the devices currently used in the cervical spine. The originality of the concept of the ESP® prosthesis led to innovative and intense testing to validate the adhesion of the viscoelastic component of the disk on the titanium endplates and to assess the mechanical properties of the PCU cushion. The preliminary clinical and radiological results with 2-year follow-up are encouraging for pain, function and kinematic behavior (range of motion and evolution of the mean centers of rotation). In this series, we did not observe device-related specific complications, misalignment, instability or ossifications. Additional studies and longer patient follow-up are needed to assess long-term reliability of this innovative implant.

  16. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  17. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H

  18. JENDL special purpose file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-01-01

    In JENDL-3,2, the data on all the reactions having significant cross section over the neutron energy from 0.01 meV to 20 MeV are given for 340 nuclides. The object range of application extends widely, such as the neutron engineering, shield and others of fast reactors, thermal neutron reactors and nuclear fusion reactors. This is a general purpose data file. On the contrary to this, the file in which only the data required for a specific application field are collected is called special purpose file. The file for dosimetry is a typical special purpose file. The Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is making ten kinds of JENDL special purpose files. The files, of which the working groups of Sigma Committee are in charge, are listed. As to the format of the files, ENDF format is used similarly to JENDL-3,2. Dosimetry file, activation cross section file, (α, n) reaction data file, fusion file, actinoid file, high energy data file, photonuclear data file, PKA/KERMA file, gas production cross section file and decay data file are described on their contents, the course of development and their verification. Dosimetry file and gas production cross section file have been completed already. As for the others, the expected time of completion is shown. When these files are completed, they are opened to the public. (K.I.)

  19. O Espírito do Cristianismo e seu Destino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Friedrich Hegel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tradutor: Adilson Felício Feiler SJ., Doutorando em filosofia pela PUCRS, email de contato: feilersj@yahoo.com.br. Revisão de Agemir Bavaresco (PUCRS, email de contato: abavaresco@pucrs.br e Márcio Egídio Schäfer (PUCRS, email de contato: marcio_schafer@hotmail.com. A tradução do excerto que se segue, foi elaborada a partir da seguinte edição alemã: HEGEL, G. W. F. Frühe Schriften. Werk 1 Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft: Frankfurt am Main, 1994, p. 317-326. Nota do Tradutor: a tradução da obra O Espírito do Cristianismo e o seu Destino [Der Geist des Christentums und sein Schicksal] que ora segue constitui, no dizer de Dilthey, uma das mais belas passagens escritas por Hegel. No entanto, é questionável se a obra constitui um todo acabado, já que Hegel interrompeu várias vezes sua redação, deixando linhas em branco e reiniciando o parágrafo com uma nova linha de pensamento. Nohl juntou em um texto homogêneo um composto de cinco fragmentos separados (N, 243-60, 261-75, 276-301, 302-24, 325-42. Pelas pesquisas de G. Schüler e Ch Jamme a obra se desenvolve em duas fases distintas, tendo como ponto de partida o outono/inverno de 1798 para 1799, período de Frankfurt. É neste período que Hegel procura desvendar a origem da positividade das leis morais religiosas judaicas que o cristianismo procura superar pelo amor. Pelo espírito do cristianismo Hegel ensaia uma resposta à questão da unidade, que passa a ser veiculada pelos impulsos naturais da vontade. É, por isso, este um período hegeliano denominado: período anímico. Estão traduzidas apenas, em princípio, as páginas iniciais da obra em que Hegel apresenta Jesus como aquele que se levanta contra as leis judaicas.

  20. 78 FR 68101 - Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors Reviews... Environmental Issues Associated with New Reactors'' and draft ISG ESP/ COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance on...://www.regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2013-0212 for ESP/COL- ISG-026 or NRC-2013-0211 for...

  1. Planeamiento estratégico del espárrago en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Cuyuche Yupari, Lissete Alicia; Planas Rivarola, Juan Jorge Miguel; Salazar Oré, Fernando Alonso

    2017-01-01

    El cultivo del espárrago constituye una importante fuente generadora de trabajo y de ingresos para el Perú. El crecimiento del sector esparraguero y su expansión comercial, desde la década del 80, ha posicionado al país como el primer exportador mundial de espárragos. En el 2015, se alcanzaron ventas por US$ 589 millones, equivalente al 37% de las exportaciones mundiales de espárragos, lo cual contribuyó con el 1.8% de las exportaciones totales del país. Además, ubicó a esta ho...

  2. New species and records of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho; Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Salles, Frederico Falcão

    2017-06-01

    Two new species of the perlid genus Anacroneuria, A. rotunda n. sp and A. pitii n. sp are described from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Additionally, six species of Anacroneuria and four species of Kempnyia are reported for the first time from Espírito Santo State. Records are also provided for A. debilis, A. subcostalis, K. flava, K. gracilenta, and K. neotropica. An undetermined species of Macrogynoplax based on nymphs is also reported from Espírito Santo State.

  3. Leishmaniose visceral americana dissociada da presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Grimaldi Jr., Gabriel; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of American visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil has always been associated with the presence of the Lutzomyia longipalpis vector. The geographic distribution of this vector in this state is related to the presence of specific geoclimatic characteristics, such as a dry climate, low elevations (< 450m), steep slopes and rocky outcrops. The occurrence of human autochthonous cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in municipalities without these geoclimat...

  4. Constructivism in Teaching English for Special Purposes at Tertiary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Y. Polenova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at some principles of constructivism philosophy and the ways they are realized in ESP teaching at tertiary school. The purpose of this article is to describe constructivist teaching approach in enhancing students’ use of appropriate ESP learning strategies. Constructivism is a theory that emphasizes the active role of students in building understanding and making sense of the information. The constructivist teaching is learner-centered where students are actively involved in knowledge construction rather than passive listeners. Students construct knowledge by transforming, organizing, reorganizing previous knowledge through social interaction in construction of knowledge and understanding. The paper is an attempt to examine the principles of constructivist teaching and learning by providing analysis of features of constructivist theory and the organization of a constructivist classroom.

  5. Recharging the battery: placement tests for ESP students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Azevedo Cunha

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper first reviews key concepts in language testing and discusses the use of the English Language Placement Test administered at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro to computer science students, who are required t o take one of the two ESP courses offered by the English program. The analysis of the scores on two versions of a test administered to two different groups of computer science students who took the examination in sequential semesters is presented. For the original test, it em facility and it em discrimination were calculated, then overall test reliability was estimated. The statistics were carefully examined and a number of t he test items were eliminated, revamped or replaced in creating a revised version of the test. This modified and improved version of the test was then administered to a second group of students and the same statistics were applied once more. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of item analysis and revision for providing more consistent and accurate language testing instruments.

  6. Competencia, empresa y espíritu emprendedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En la escuela neoclásica el mercado es un supuesto. Sobre su existencia se construyen el equilibrio oferta–demanda y el precio como una condición ex ante. Un mercado teórico con estas características, en el cual los agentes cumplen su función a través de la búsqueda de la maximización de sus utilidades,no da lugar a un proceso de mercado en el que se parta del desequilibrio y se admita como fundamental la acción del empresario. Se busca exponer en este artículo que para que exista el mercado se debe comprender como proceso, con lo cual se salvaría la restricción neoclásica construida alrededor de la información completa o incompleta y con ello la estructura de racionalidad propia de los agentes. Entre estos conceptos, el relativo al espíritu emprendedor aparece trascendente por cuanto esta es la categoría que articula el proceso de mercado más allá del importante problema de la producción.

  7. STcontrol and NEWPORT Motion Controller Model ESP 301 Device

    CERN Document Server

    Kapanadze, Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used to detect particle tracks in LHC experiments. This kind of detectors are built with silicon semiconductor diodes. Ionizing particles create charge in the diode and the reverse bias voltage creates electric field in the diode which causes effective charge collection by the drift of electrons [1]. One of the main parameter of tracker detectors is efficiency. The efficiency as a function of position in the pixel matrix can be evaluated by scanning the matrix with red and infrared lasers. It is important to know what is happening between pixels in terms of efficiency. We perform these measurements to test new type of pixel detectors for the LHC future upgrade in 2023. New type of detectors are needed because the radiation level will be much higher [2]. For the measurements we need to control a stage motion controller (NEWPORT Motion Controller Model ESP 301) with the existing software STcontrol, which is used for readout data from pixel detectors and to control other devices like the lase...

  8. Diversidade de angiospermas e espécies medicinais de uma área de Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade vegetal de uma área de Cerrado em Prudente de Morais, MG, bem como suas indicações medicinais. Foram feitas nove excursões à reserva da Fazenda Experimental Santa Rita da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (FESR/EPAMIG (19°26’20”’ S e 44°09’15”’ W. O material vegetal coletado foi herborizado, identificado e incorporado ao acervo do Herbário PAMG/EPAMIG. O sistema de classificação utilizado foi o APG III. Após a identificação, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica buscando dados sobre a utilização medicinal das espécies. Coletaram-se 108 espécies pertencentes a 47 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, Myrtaceae com sete espécies, Asteraceae e Rubiaceae com seis espécies cada, Malpighiaceae e Solanaceae com cinco espécies cada, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com quatro espécies cada, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae e Sapindaceae com três espécies cada, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae e Primulaceae com duas espécies cada. Vinte e nove famílias foram monoespecíficas. Das 108 espécies, 39 são árvores (36%, 43 arbustos (40%, seis subarbustos (5,5%, 14 lianas (13% e seis são ervas (5,5%. Sessenta e seis (61% espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias (83% são utilizadas popularmente, para o tratamento de alguma doença. As famílias com maior número de espécies medicinais foram: Fabaceae com oito espécies; Rubiaceae com cinco espécies e Solanaceae com quatro espécies. As espécies que apresentaram mais finalidades terapêuticas foram: Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae, Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae, Cochlospermum regium (Mart. ex Schrank Pilg. (Bixaceae, Croton urucurana Bail. (Euphorbiaceae, Gomphrena officinalis Mart. (Amaranthaceae, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae, Lithrea molleoides (Vell. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

  9. Building ESP Content-Based Materials to Promote Strategic Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Barón Myriam Judith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project that proposes to improve the reading comprehension and vocabulary of undergraduate students of English for Specific Purposes–explosives majors, at a police training institute in Colombia. I used the qualitative research method to explore and reflect upon the teaching-learning processes during implementation. Being the teacher of an English for specific purposes course without the appropriate didactic resources, I designed six reading comprehension workshops based on the cognitive language learning approach not only to improve students’ reading skills but also their autonomy through the use of learning strategies. The data were collected from field notes, artifacts, progress reviews, surveys, and photographs. Este artículo informa sobre un proyecto de investigación cualitativa que propone mejorar la comprensión de lectura y el vocabulario de estudiantes universitarios de inglés que se especializan en temas relativos a explosivos en una escuela de policía, en Colombia. Por tratarse de un curso de inglés específico que carece de los recursos didácticos apropiados, diseñé seis talleres de comprensión de lectura basados en el enfoque del aprendizaje cognitivo de la lengua, para mejorar tanto su comprensión de lectura como su autonomía para usar estrategias de aprendizaje. Para la recolección de datos se emplearon notas de campo, artefactos, pruebas de progreso, encuestas y fotografías. 

  10. Structural and functional properties of chimeric EspA-FliCi filaments of EPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Valerie F; Martinez, Eric; Shaw, Robert K; Frankel, Gad; Daniell, Sarah J

    2008-04-18

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli utilise a filamentous type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host gut epithelial cells. The primary constituent of the extracellular component of the filamentous type III secretion system is EspA. This forms a long flexible helical conduit between the bacterium and host and has a structure almost identical to that of the flagella filament. We have inserted the D3 domain of FliCi (from Salmonella typhimurium) into the outer domain of EspA and have studied the structure and function of modified filaments when expressed in an enteropathogenic E. coli espA mutant. We found that the chimeric protein EspA-FliCi filaments were biologically active as they supported protein secretion and translocation [assessed by their ability to trigger actin polymerisation beneath adherent bacteria (fluorescent actin staining test)]. The expressed filaments were recognised by both EspA and FliCi antisera. Visualisation and analysis of the chimeric filaments by electron microscopy after negative staining showed that, remarkably, EspA filaments are able to tolerate a large protein insertion without a significant effect on their helical architecture.

  11. OLI/ESP Modeling Of The Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant For Estimate Of Campaigns I-IV Simulant Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARL, BARNES

    2004-01-01

    Four SIPP campaigns have been planned to investigate the effect of recycle streams on the RPP-WTP pretreatment process such as the filter flux rate and other areas of interest. This document describes OLI/ESP modeling work done in support of the planning and operation of the SIPP. An existing OLI/ESP steady-state model was expanded to represent the pretreatment system through to the TLP evaporator for the LAW train and the washed sludge for the HLW train. The model was used to investigate alternative operating scenarios, determine the optimum volumetric waste feed ratio of AP-101 to AY-102, and, for each campaign, estimate the simulant and input recycle volumes corresponding to the target glass production rates of 6MT/day HLW glass and 80MT/day LAW glass and scaled to the target of 140L of Campaign I washed sludge. It was designed to quickly achieve steady state and simulation results indicate this was accomplished by Campaign IV. The alternative operating scenarios modeled differed only in the point at which the AP-101 and AY-102 waste feed streams were introduced to the process. The results showed no difference in the production rate between the scenarios. Therefore, for these specific waste feeds the process should be operated to maximize the energy efficiency and minimize scaling in the evaporator by feeding the AY-102 waste feed to the ultra-filtration feed prep tank, bypassing the waste feed evaporator

  12. [Construction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains with espF gene deletion and complementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ying; Sun, Qi; Wang, Xiangyu; DU, Yanli; Shao, Na; Zhang, Qiwei; Zhao, Wei; Wan, Chengsong

    2015-11-01

    To construct enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strains with delection espF gene and its nucleotide fragment and with espF gene complementation. A pair of homologous arm primers was designed to amplify the gene fragment of kanamycin resistance, which was transformed into EHEC O157:H7 EDL933w strain via the PKD46 plasmid by electroporation. The replacement of the espF gene by kanamycin resistance gene through the PKD46-mediated red recombination system was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The entire coding region of espF along with its nucleotide fragment was amplified by PCR and cloned into pBAD33 plasmid, which was transformed into a mutant strain to construct the strain with espF complementation. RT-PCR was used to verify the transcription of espF and its nucleotide fragment in the complemented mutant strain. We established EHEC O157:H7 EDL933w strains with espF gene deletion and with espF gene complementation. Both espF and its nucleotide fragment were transcribed in the complemented mutant strain. The two strains provide a basis for further study of the regulatory mechanism of espF.

  13. Pentatomídeos (Hemiptera associados a espécies nativas em Itaara, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p91 Com o objetivo de determinar qualitativamente e quantitativamente os pentatomídeos associados a diferentes espécies botânicas nativas, no período de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006, foram coletados insetos em nove espécies: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, Schinus molle L. (aroeira, localizadas na barragem Rodolfo da Costa e Silva, município de Itaara, RS. Foram realizadas coletas quinzenais, com o auxílio de um funil cônico confeccionado com folha de flandres (2mm, com 70cm de diâmetro na maior abertura e 63cm de altura. Retirou-se uma amostra por espécie botânica por data de coleta, obtida através de dez sacudidas dos ramos sobre o funil. Realizadas as coletas, o material foi levado ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Departamento de Defesa Fitossanitária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, onde foi realizada a triagem e identificação do material. Foram identificadas nove espécies de Pentatomidae. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 foi à espécie com maior ocorrência, seguida de Thyanta humilis Bergroth, 1891. A espécie botânica S. mauritianum foi a que apresentou o maior número de espécies de Pentatomidae coletados, representando 26,9% do total.

  14. Violence against women, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2017-04-10

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with psychological, physical and sexual violence in women victims of intimate partner violence assisted in the primary care services. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 26 health units in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, from March to September 2014. We interviewed 991 women aged 20-59 years. To classify the psychological, physical and sexual violence, the World Health Organization instrument on violence against women was used and a questionnaire to investigate the sociodemographic, behavioral characteristics, and the women's family and life history was developed. The statistical analyzes used were Poisson regression, Fisher's exact test and Chi-square. The prevalence we observed were psychological 25.3% (95%CI 22.6-28.2); physical 9.9% (95%CI 8.1-11.9) and sexual 5.7% (95%CI 4.3-7.3). Psychological violence remained associated with education, marital status, maternal history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence in childhood and drug use, while physical assault was related to age, education, marital status and maternal history of intimate partner violence. Sexual violence occurred the most among women with low income, and victims of sexual violence in childhood. Psychological, physical and sexual violence showed highly frequency among women assisted by primary care services. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors, personal experiences, and maternal violence influence the phenomenon. Estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados às violências psicológica, física e sexual nas mulheres vítimas de violência perpetrada pelo parceiro íntimo atendidas nos serviços de atenção primária. Estudo transversal, realizado em 26 unidades de saúde do município de Vitória, no Espírito Santo, de março a setembro de 2014. Foram entrevistadas 991 usuárias de 20 a 59 anos. Para classificar as violências psicológica, física e sexual foi utilizado o instrumento da Organização Mundial de Sa

  15. Anatomia do lenho de cinco espécies comercializadas como 'Sucupira'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Felício Soares

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa da anatomia do lenho das espécies Bowdichia nitida Spruce ex Benth, Diplotropis brasiliensis (Tul. Benth., Diplotropis martiusii Benth., Diplotropis purpurea (Rich. Amshoff e Diplotropis racemosa (Hoehne Amshoff é descrita no presente trabalho, visando a determinar as principais características anatômicas necessárias à distinção dessas espécies. Qualitativamente, as características anatômicas mais importantes para a diferenciação do lenho dessas espécies foram: camadas de crescimento, estratificação dos raios, arranjo dos vasos e fileira marginal dos raios. Quantitativamente, a análise estatística mostrou que os parâmetros anatômicos mais importantes no agrupamento das espécies foram: diâmetro dos elementos de vasos, largura dos raios em micrometros, comprimento, espessura da parede e largura das fibras. Verificou-se que a anatomia do lenho pode ser utilizada como importante subsídio na identificação das espécies estudadas.

  16. Estudio de pertinencia de las carreras afines al área administrativa de la Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buenaño-Cabrera, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The change in the concept of education in Ecuador has caused the different actors of higher education seek new philosophical basis and a new legal framework that will enable this change. In these circumstances, the analysis of the relevance of the different careers with axes of state planning, development zones of the country and the growth prospects of Ecuador becomes vital. The purpose of this writing is to provide a guide for analyzing the appropriateness of the administrative career at the University of the Armed Forces - ESPE.

  17. American visceral leishmaniasis dissociated from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of American visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil has always been associated with the presence of the Lutzomyia longipalpis vector. The geographic distribution of this vector in this state is related to the presence of specific geoclimatic characteristics, such as a dry climate, low elevations (longipalpis. Sand flies were captured monthly from July 2006 to August 2007 using Shannon and CDC traps in two municipalities with records of autochthonous American visceral leishmaniasis and one with no record. We captured 13,112 sand flies, but no Lu. longipalpis was found. The absence of Lu. longipalpis and the possible role of another American visceral leishmaniasis vector in these localities were discussed.

  18. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  19. Espécies de Botryosphaeria em Quercus spp. e outros hospedeiros lenhosos: taxonomia e filogenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Artur Jorge da Costa Peixoto

    2006-01-01

    O género Botryosphaeria é bem conhecido devido ás espécies que causam doenças numa grande diversidade de plantas. A taxonomia deste género e seus géneros anamórficos, assim como das espécies tem sido algo confusa. Neste trabalho foram caracterizadas espécies de Botryosphaeria associadas a Quercus spp. e outros hospedeiros lenhosos, com base em características morfológicas e sequências nucleotídicas de um ou vários genes. A utilização desta abordagem permitiu a clarificação d...

  20. NEED ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING ESP MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL RECORD STUDENTS IN APIKES CITRA MEDIKA SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    and quantitative methods. The outcomesof this study showed the real necessities of students in learning English to prepare their future at the field of medical record and health information. Findings of the need analysis demonstrate that all four of the language skills were necessary for their academic studies and their target career. There are certain topics related to English for medical record such as medical record staff’ duties, ethical and legal issues in medical record, Hospital statistics, Medical record filling system, Health information system, and so on. Accordingly, this study proposes new ESP materials based on the stakeholders’ needs.It is suggested that textbook or handout of English for Medical Record will be made based on the Need Analysis by ESP designers and ESP lecturers involve actively recognizing the progressive needs of medical record students.

  1. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae): uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores

    OpenAIRE

    Melazzo,Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Oliveira,Paulo Eugênio

    2012-01-01

    Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beij...

  2. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  3. Transformação genética em espécies florestais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Studart-Guimarães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A transformação genética, que compreende a introdução de genes exógenos de forma controlada no genoma de uma célula vegetal e posterior regeneração da planta transgênica, tem contribuído com os programas de melhoramento genético de plantas pela obtenção de genótipos com novas características de interesse. O melhoramento de espécies florestais é limitado por características intrínsecas a tais espécies, como a altura dos indivíduos e o ciclo longo de vida. A transformação genética constitui, portanto, uma alternativa para a obtenção de espécies florestais com características desejáveis em um menor espaço de tempo. Plantas transgênicas com resistência a determinadas pragas, com melhor qualidade de madeira, maior produção de biomassa, tolerância a herbicidas, entre outras características de interesse, já foram obtidas para diferentes espécies florestais de importância econômica como álamo, eucalipto e pinheiros em geral. Este trabalho mostra a importância da transformação genética, associada a outras técnicas biotecnológicas no melhoramento de espécies florestais, as técnicas de transformação mais utilizadas e as características que já foram introduzidas nessas espécies pela transformação.

  4. Purpose and Professional Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1989-01-01

    Describes a protocol study of 10 professional writers which examined the meaning and influence of purpose on writers in the workplace. Explores the interactions of various purpose considerations derived from situation, reader, and text. Suggests that professional writers have a range of meanings in mind when they think about purpose. (MM)

  5. Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta, Naididae) como espécie-teste em bioensaios ecotoxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Haroldo Lobo dos Santos Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Estudos com oligoquetas aquáticos aplicados à ecotoxicologia são quase inexistentes no Brasil, embora diversas agências reguladoras já tenham demonstrado interesse na inclusão da espécie Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta, Naididae) em protocolos de monitoramento de ambientes aquáticos tropicais. Com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre o potencial de utilização desta espécie em ensaios ecotoxicológicos, efetuou-se ampla revisão bibliográfica entre 1950 e 2012, verificando-se discrepância...

  6. Pedagogical Application of Specialized Corpora in ESP Teaching: the case of the UVaSTECorpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to defining the concept of specialized corpora, reviews the rationale for using them instead of general corpora in teaching activities, and offers the state of art in both corpus-based and corpus-driven approaches to ESP teaching. It also explains some decisions taken regarding the compilation of the University of Valladolid Corpus of Written Scientific and Technical English and illustrates some uses of the corpus. In particular, it presents some tasks with concordances and defends that ESP students should be taught the niceties of lexical gender as it is a grammatical category with social and/or ideological implications.

  7. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  8. RAPHAEL SAMÚ: Experiências do muralismo no Espírito Santo

    OpenAIRE

    GONCALVES, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    A proposta deste estudo é investigar o processo de criação do artista plástico brasileiro Raphael Samú, tendo como recorte sua obra em mosaico mural, mais especificamente o mural presente na entrada da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo UFES, em Vitória - Espírito Santo. Para tal, investigaremos através dos pressupostos da Crítica Genética e da Crítica Inferencial quais foram os caminhos tomados pelo artista durante a confecção de tal obra, apontando assim a intencionalidade do projet...

  9. RAZVOJ IN IMPLEMENTACIJA BREZŽIČNE TEHTNICE NA PLATFORMI ESP8266

    OpenAIRE

    Prevolšek, Matic

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu opisujemo razvoj in implementacijo brezžične tehtnice na platformi ESP8266. Meritve zajemamo s pomočjo štirih merilnih celic in analogno-digitalnega pretvornika HX711. Uporabniku meritve prikazujemo v obliki spletne strani, ki gostuje na platformi ESP8266 in je dosegljiva znotraj lokalnega omrežja WiFi. Hkrati meritve pošiljamo na zunanji strežnik in jih zapisujemo v podatkovno bazo. S spletno aplikacijo na zunanjem strežniku grafično predstavimo meritve skozi čas.

  10. Towards a Mobile Ecogenomic sensor: the Third Generation Environmental Sample Processor (3G-ESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, J. M.; Pargett, D.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Preston, C. M.; Ussler, W.; Yamahara, K.; Marin, R., III; Hobson, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ryan, J. P.; Scholin, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly using one or more autonomous platforms to characterize ocean processes that change in both space and time. Conceptually, studying processes that change quickly both spatially and temporally seems relatively straightforward. One needs to sample in many locations synoptically over time, or follow a coherent water mass and sample it repeatedly. However, implementing either approach presents many challenges. For example, acquiring samples over days to weeks far from shore, without human intervention, requires multiple systems to work together seamlessly, and the level of autonomy, navigation and communications needed to conduct the work exposes the complexity of these requirements. We are addressing these challenges by developing a new generation of robotic systems that are primarily aimed at studies of microbial-mediated processes. As a step towards realizing this new capability, we have taken lessons learned from our second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (2G-ESP), a robotic microbiology "lab-in-a-can" and have re-engineered the system for use on a Tethys-class Long Range AUV (LRAUV). The new instrument is called the third-generation ESP (3G-ESP), and its integration with the LRAUV provides mobility and a persistent presence not seen before in microbial oceanography. The 3G-ESP autonomously filters a water sample and then either preserves that material for eventual return to a laboratory, or processes the sample in real-time for further downstream molecular analytical analyses. The 3G ESP modularizes hardware needed for the collection and preparation of a sample from subsequent molecular analyses by the use of self-contained "cartridges". Cartridges currently come in two forms: one for the preservation of a sample, and the other for onboard homogenization and handoff for downstream processing via one or more analytical devices. The 3G-ESP is designed as a stand-alone instrument, and thus could be deployed on a variety of

  11. Environmental impacts of incineration of livestock manure with the purpose of energy utilization. Scenario analysis for a specific catchment area; Miljoekonsekvenser ved afbraending af husdyrgoedning med sigte pae energiudnyttelse. Scenarieanalyse for et udvalgt opland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schou, J.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Levin, G. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Grant, R. [DMU, Afdeling for Ferskvandsoekologi (Denmark); Elmegaard, N. [DMU, Afdeling for Terrestrisk Oekologi (Denmark); Palmgren, F. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    The analyses demonstrate the environmental consequences of incineration of livestock manure in a specific catchment area where an unchanged animal production is presumed. The scenarios are carried out for the Vesthimmerland area, located in the north of the peninsula of Jutland (Denmark) where the agricultural production is characterised by a relatively intensive production of broilers and furred animals. It is assumed that half of the total production of manure from farms with broilers and mink is incinerated on incineration plants on farm level and decentralised CHP plants. This corresponds to an incineration of manure from 1.951 DE (one animal unit corresponds to a production of 100 kg N per year) at which 219 tonnes N, 54 tonnes P and 118 tonnes K are removed, corresponding to 5 % N, 5.5 % P and 3 % K, respectively. The estimated environmental consequences are summarized in Table 19 and the results are commented below. Assuming the effective N content of the incinerated manure is replaced with artificial fertiliser while not compensating for the removed P, it is estimated that the N leaching in the catchment area is reduced by 46.5 tonnes (approx. 2 %) while the P surplus is reduced from 200 tonnes to 146 tonnes (approx. 27 % reduction). Furthermore the incineration of manure will impact the emission of ammonia as the loss from storage and spreading is reduced. Thus there will be a reduction of ammonia emissions from storage facilities by 25.3 tonnes N while the reduction of emission from spreading is estimated to 17.2 tonnes N. All together a reduction of the ammonia emissions of 42.5 tonnes N is thus achieved. Furthermore, analyses of additional deposition of gaseous N compounds, especially N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from the air in the area close to an incineration plant have been carried out. The analyses presume that the amount of N emitted from incineration corresponds to the amount of N in manure. The analyses show that if the NO{sub X

  12. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  13. Tapping Technology in Creating Product Development Studies: Reflections on an ESP-Business Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a teacher's reflections on a technology-enhanced project-based learning approach to teaching an ESP-business lesson on product development, which is part of the curriculum for Conference English and Meetings Practice (CEMP), a business-track course for the Adult Continuing Education program at a private university in southern…

  14. Alimento ou medicamento?: Espécies vegetais frente à legislação brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Lima

    Full Text Available O uso de espécies vegetais como fonte terapêutica e alimentícia tem apresentado significativo crescimento nos últimos anos, em especial no território brasileiro que é dotado de grande biodiversidade. A regulamentação dessas categorias de produtos envolve uma vasta lista de legislações, o que gera dificuldades no entendimento regulatório. Este trabalho teve por objetivo diferenciar algumas das classes de alimentos e medicamentos baseados em espécies vegetais e expor as legislações pertinentes a cada caso. Foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico e documental com base no acervo regulatório brasileiro atual e os principais dados foram compilados em forma de tabela. Este trabalho permitiu visualizar uma parte do universo legal referente aos produtos de origem vegetal, o que é essencial para o enquadramento correto dessas espécies frente a legislação, bem como seu comércio, propaganda e uso regular e seguro. Isto é fundamental frente à valorização emergente das espécies vegetais dentro do sistema público de saúde brasileiro de acordo com as exigências regulatórias de cada categoria.

  15. Prototype Sistem Multi-Telemetri Wireless untuk Mengukur Suhu Udara Berbasis Mikrokontroler ESP8266 pada Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanum Shirotu Nida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telemetri wireless adalah proses pengukuran parameter suatu obyek yang hasil pengukurannya dikirimkan ke tempat lain melalui proses pengiriman data tanpa menggunakan kabel (wireless, sedangkan multi telemetri adalah gabungan dari beberapa telemeteri itu sendiri. Penelitian ini merancang prototype sistem multi-telemetri wireless untuk mengukur suhu udara dan kelembaban udara pada greenhouse dengan menggunakan sensor DHT11 dan data hasil dari pembacaan sensor dikirim dengan menggunakan modul WiFi ESP8266 ke server dengan menggunakan protokol HTTP. Dalam penelitian ini diuji nilai sensor DHT11, heap memory ESP8266, jarak atau jangkauan ESP8266, uji coba data missing handling dan kestabilan jaringan. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian diketahui bahwa sensor DHT11 memiliki rata-rata kesalahan ukur suhu 0.92 oC dan kelembaban 3.1%. Modul WiFi ESP8266 mampu menyimpan dan mengirim buffer hingga 100 data dan dapat melakukan pengiriman dalam jangkauan 50 meter. Data missing handling memanfaatkan buffer untuk menyimpan data selama server sedang tidak dapat diakses oleh sensor node agar data tidak hillang. Kestabilan pengiriman data atau koneksi sensor node dengan server dipengaruhi oleh jumlah access point yang sedang berkomunikasi disekitar access point server dengan menggunakan channel yang sama.

  16. 241 Culture de trois espèces fongiques sauvages comestibles du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    inflorescences mâles de palmier de palmier à huile trempés dans l'eau de distribution ... agricole par la mise en culture d'espèces fongiques comestibles par des ..... mycélienne est en rapport avec le rendement ou l'efficacité biologique.

  17. Bridging content and EFL: a one-day ESP workshop for flight instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This workshop allows an ESP provider with limited specialized knowledge in the field of aviation to train English-speaking flight instructors in basic EFL communication strategies. While the present workshop is based on a Canadian model of flight instruction, it can be easily adapted to other jurisdictions

  18. Bryophytes from restinga in Setiba State Park, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Visnadi, Sandra Regina; Vital, Daniel Moreira

    1995-01-01

    A total of 34 bryophyte species were identified (25 hepatics, 9 mosses) from restinga at Setiba State Park, Guarapari Municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Several species reported previously from restinga appear to be erroneous records, based on misidentification.

  19. Study on the Theoretical Foundation of Business English Curriculum Design Based on ESP and Needs Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature on ESP and needs analysis, this paper is intended to offer some theoretical supports and inspirations for BE instructors to develop BE curricula for business contexts. It discusses how the theory of need analysis can be used in Business English curriculum design, and proposes some principles of BE curriculum…

  20. Estabelecimento de Espécies Florestais Nativas Via Semeadura Direta no Rio Piauitinga - Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janisson Batista de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A técnica de semeadura direta vem se destacando nos projetos de recuperação florestal pela redução de custos na implantação e tem sido cada vez mais utilizada. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a emergência, sobrevivência e estabelecimento de espécies florestais nativas, por meio de sementes em áreas de mata ciliar no Rio Piauitinga, município de Lagarto, SE. As espécies utilizadas foram Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya (Benth. L. P. Queiroz, Cassia grandis L. f., Cecropia pachystachya Trec., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong e Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. O experimento em campo foi implantado em Delineamento em Blocos Casualizados (DBC com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial, testando-se as cinco espécies com e sem tratamento para superação de dormência. A semeadura direta mostrou-se uma técnica viável para a área de estudo apenas para as espécies L. ferrea var. leiostachya, E. contortisiliquum e Cassia grandis, utilizando-se sementes com e sem dormência.

  1. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  2. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas

  3. The purpose of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-10-06

    A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms.

  4. The Use of Digital Storytelling for ESP in a Technical English Course for Aerospace Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Pavón, Ana; Serra-Cámara, Belén; Gimeno-Sanz, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Digital Storytelling is a powerful pedagogical tool for both students and educators, which started to be used for teaching and learning purposes a few years ago, becoming more and more popular over time. The use of digital storytelling in non-specific language learning contexts has been widely explored, as shown in the literature. However, its use…

  5. Estudos ecotoxicológicos com as espécies Argyrodiaptomus furcatus e Notodiaptomus iheringi (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Tieme Okumura

    2011-01-01

    Os Copepoda constituem a maior classe de pequenos crustáceos, com mais de 8.500 espécies descritas. Dentre as cinco ordens de Copepoda de vida livre, as espécies pertencentes à ordem Calanoida apresentam um forte endemismo, com uma restrita distribuição geográfica. Além disso, os Copepoda Calanoida são particularmente sensíveis a contaminantes contidos na coluna de água devido ao seu hábito planctônico. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos ecotoxicológicos com duas espécies de Copepo...

  6. Uporaba platforme Arduino za izdelavo vozlišča IoT na vezju ESP8266

    OpenAIRE

    SELAN, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljena zasnova sistema za merjenje temperature in relativne vlage s pomočjo modula ESP8266 z brezžičnim spletnim dostopom do rezultatov meritev. Za merjenje temperature in vlažnosti skrbi digitalni merilni senzor DHT11, modul ESP8266 pa poleg osnovnih funkcij, potrebnih za prenos podatkov, zagotavlja tudi preprost strežnik za konfiguriranje. Sestavni deli naloge so analiza področja, modul ESP8266, serijski vmesnik FTDI, protokoli za povezovanje in ostala strojna op...

  7. The new active driving safety system ESP (Electronic Stability Program) developed by Mercedes Benz; Das neue aktive Fahrsicherheitssystem ESP (Elektronisches-Stabilitaets-Programm) von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Klinkner, W. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller, A. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The new electronic stability program (ESP) offered by Mercedes-Benz as a world novelty in March 1995 is the consequent further development of the anti-lock braking system and the anti-slip control. An improved assessment of the handling properties by a steering wheel sensor, a yaw velocity sensor, a brake pressure sensor and a hydraulic system that brakes each wheel individually and is controlled by a complex logic allow the supervision and the active control of the cross-dynamic handling properties up to limiting ranges. The handling of the vehicle in critical situations (e.g. strong oversteering or understeering) has been considerably improved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das neue elektronische-Stabilitaets-Programm (ESP), von Mercedes-Benz ab Maerz 1995 als Weltneuheit angeboten, stellt eine konsequente Weiterentwicklung des Antiblockier-Bremssystems (ABS) und der Antriebsschlupfregelung (ASR) dar. Eine erweiterte Fahrzustandserfassung durch Lenkradwinkel-, Giergeschwindigkeit- und Bremsdrucksensor, eine Hydraulik, die jedes Rad individuell abbremsen kann, angesteuert durch eine komplexe Regelungslogik, erlauben erstmals eine Ueberwachung und aktive Regelung des querdynamischen Fahrzustands bis in den Grenzbereich. Die Beherrschbarkeit des Fahrzeugs wird in kritischen Situationen (z.B. starkes Ueber- oder Untersteuern) entscheidend verbessert. (orig.)

  8. Transient cultivation and fallow land in forests. Measurements of the specific activity of the carbon in organic matter fractions for the purpose of studying the renewal of the store of organic matter in an equatorial forest environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turenne, J.F.; Rapaire, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Different conditions of forest-type fallow land and of clearings in the equatorial forests of the Amazon region provide a basis for determining the nature, the direction and the magnitude of the transformations of the organic matter of the soil when cultivated, using the variations in the specific activity of atmospheric carbon. Calculations of the renewal rates of surface horizon organic matter show that there are two groups of products, (a) humin, a labile fraction with a high renewal rate, and (b) humic and fulvic products with a lower renewal rate. The effect of clearing is generally to retard these renewal rates. The dynamics which become established in forest fallow land mainly involve the fulvic products, and the return to forest equilibrium can be considered to occur between 60 and 100 years after clearing. (author)

  9. Identification of male factor infertility using a novel semen quality score and reactive oxygen species levels Identificação de pacientes portadores do fator de infertilidade masculina através do cálculo de um novo escore de qualidade de sêmen e pela medida de espécies reativas de oxigênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran P. Nallella

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether patients with male factor infertility can be accurately identified by calculating a novel semen quality score and measuring levels of reactive oxygen species during routine infertility screening. METHODS: Semen samples from 133 patients and 91 healthy donors were evaluated with manual and computer-assisted semen analysis. A principal component analysis model was employed to calculate a semen quality score. In brief, this score was calculated by base 10 logarithms multiplied by varying weights given to 9 sperm parameters. Reactive oxygen species levels were measured using chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS: The semen quality score had a sensitivity of 80.45% and accuracy of 77% at a cutoff of 93.1 in identifying patients with male factor infertility. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the semen quality score was 84.28% (95% CI: 65.22%-100%. Reactive oxygen species levels [log10 (reactive oxygen species +1] were significantly higher in male factor infertility patients. Reactive oxygen species had a sensitivity of 83.47% and specificity of 60.52% with an accuracy of 75% at a cutoff of 1.25 in identifying male factor infertility patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for reactive oxygen species levels was 78.92% (95% CI: 72.60%-85.23%. semen quality scores were significantly and negatively correlated with reactive oxygen species levels in the donors and the male factor infertility patients. CONCLUSIONS: The semen quality score and reactive oxygen species levels in semen samples appear to be strongly associated with male factor infertility. Because both of these parameters are more sensitive than individual sperm parameters in identifying male factor infertility, they should be included in routine infertility screening.OBJETIVO: Determinar se pacientes portadores do fator de infertilidade masculina podem ser precisamente identificados através do cálculo de um

  10. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, Piauí, Brasil: novas espécies e novos registros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Três novas espécies são descritas do Piauí, em Cerambycinae: Compsibidion pictum, sp. nov. (Neoibidionini; em Lamiinae: Adetus differentis sp. nov. (Apomecynini e Mimasyngenes piauiensis sp. nov. (Desmiphorini. De 75 espécies procedentes do Riacho dos Bois (Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, 50 são novos registros para o Piauí. Três subfamílias são reconhecidas: uma espécie de Prioninae, 46 espécies de Cerambycinae e 28 espécies de Lamiinae.

  11. Improving the FGD absorber and ESP performance at Iskenderun power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaca, Guerkan [ISKEN Enerji Uretim A.S., Ceyhan-Adana (Turkey); Stratmann, Werner; Wortmann, Birgit [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The Iskenderun power plant is located at the bay of Iskenderun in the Province of Adana in the south of Turkey. Two units with a total output of 1,210 MW are operated. The annual fuel - imported coal from Colombia and South Africa - consumption amounts to about 3.3 million tonnes tce. To meet the SO{sub x} and particulate limits values it was necessary to improve the performance of the FGD scrubber and the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In the first step, the potential of a fluid flow optimisation of both the scrubber and the ESP was determined by simulating the 'as build' situation (reference cases) with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. In the second step, several possible variants of component modifications and structures were analysed and evaluated. In a last step the most improving modifications were proposed. (orig.)

  12. Estudo fitoquímico de espécies arbóreas do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Soares Godinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar os constituintes químicos dos extratos de folhas e cascas de sete espécies arbóreas do Cerrado, isto é, materiais vegetais compostos de folhas e cascas de plantas adultas de Brosimum gaudichauddi, Eugenia dysenterica, Astronium fraxinifolium, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum e Anacardium humile. Os procedimentos para extração e identificação dos constituintes químicos foram adotados em função da classe química. Assim, observaram-se resultados positivos para flavonóides, taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides, catequinas, saponinas, polissacarídeos, e ácidos orgânicos. A. humile foi a única planta a apresentar todas as substâncias analisadas. As espécies arbóreas estudadas apresentaram alto potencial medicinal e farmacológico.

  13. Hot stuff : ultra-high temperature ESP system installed in SAGD wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-10-15

    Ultra-temperature electrical submersible pumping (ESP) systems have been installed in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells for the first time at a thermal project in Christina Lake, Alberta. The Centrilift XP ESP production system that is being field tested can operate at fluid temperatures reaching 250 degrees C, higher than conventional systems, which is expected to result in an increase in production with a larger steam chamber and less viscous oil at higher steaming temperatures. The more robust system is expected to extend run life and lower operating costs. Years of research and development at specialized testing facilities went into creating the system. The unique testing facilities simulated the horizontal orientation and temperature cycling characteristics of SAGD wells and permitted the system to be tested at temperatures up to 300 degrees C. The new system is expected to lower infrastructure costs for SAGD wells that require high temperatures. 1 fig.

  14. Transformação genética em espécies florestais.

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Studart-Guimarães; Cristiano Lacorte; Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro

    2010-01-01

    A transformação genética, que compreende a introdução de genes exógenos de forma controlada no genoma de uma célula vegetal e posterior regeneração da planta transgênica, tem contribuído com os programas de melhoramento genético de plantas pela obtenção de genótipos com novas características de interesse. O melhoramento de espécies florestais é limitado por características intrínsecas a tais espécies, como a altura dos indivíduos e o ciclo longo de vida. A transformação genética constitui, po...

  15. Nova espécie de Bronia Gray, 1845, do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro-Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronia saxosa, sp. n., localidade tipo UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Estado do Tocantins, difere das demais espécies de Bronia Gray, 1865, principalmente por possuir nasais pequenas separadas pela rostral. A nova espécie possui 4 poros, 253-272 anéis corporais, 17-21 anéis caudais, 18-24/1621 segmentos em um anel no meio do corpo.Bronia saxosa, sp. n. from the state of Tocantins, Brasil, (Hydroelectric Dam Luis Eduardo Magalhães, 09°45'S, 48°21'W, a cerrado area, differs from the remainining species of the genus mainly by having small nasals scutes separated by the rostral. It has (82 specimens 4 preanal pores, 253-272 body annuli, 17-21 tail annuli and 18-24/16-21 segments to a midbody annulus.

  16. Erector spinae plane (ESP) block in the management of post thoracotomy pain syndrome: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Mauricio; Rajarathinam, Manikandan; Adhikary, Sanjib; Chin, Ki Jinn

    2017-10-01

    Post thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) remains a common complication of thoracic surgery with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Management usually involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes oral and topical analgesics, performing appropriate interventional techniques, and coordinating additional care such as physiotherapy, psychotherapy and rehabilitation. A variety of interventional procedures have been described to treat PTPS that is inadequately managed with systemic or topical analgesics. Most of these procedures are technically complex and are associated with risks and complications due to the proximity of the targets to neuraxial structures and pleura. The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block is a novel technique for thoracic analgesia that promises to be a relatively simple and safe alternative to more complex and invasive techniques of neural blockade. We have explored the application of the ESP block in the management of PTPS and report our preliminary experience to illustrate its therapeutic potential. The ESP block was performed in a pain clinic setting in a cohort of 7 patients with PTPS following thoracic surgery with lobectomy or pneumonectomy for lung cancer. The blocks were performed with ultrasound guidance by injecting 20-30mL of ropivacaine, with or without steroid, into a fascial plane between the deep surface of erector spinae muscle and the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae. This paraspinal tissue plane is distant from the pleura and the neuraxis, thus minimizing the risk of complications associated with injury to these structures. The patients were followed up by telephone one week after each block and reviewed in the clinic 4-6 weeks later to evaluate the analgesic response as well as the need for further injections and modification to the overall analgesic plan. All the patients had excellent immediate pain relief following each ESP block, and 4 out of the 7 patients experienced prolonged

  17. Euphorbiaceae Juss: espécies ocorrentes nas restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arline Souza de Oliveira

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relaciona as espécies da família Euphorbiaceae Juss. encontradas nas restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas no período de 1983 a 1988 em vários trechos do litoral fluminense, nas diferentes faixas de vegetação. Além da listagem contendo 31 espécies de 16 gêneros, aborda-se também a forma biológica (porte destes taxa, para uma melhor compreensão desta famflia na composição florística das restingas.This work presents a list of the species of the Euphorbiaceae Juss., which are signalled for the sandy coastal plains - restinga - of the Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The life-forms of the taxa are registred.

  18. Natural radionuclides present in the beach sands of Guarapari and Anchieta, EspÍrito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Victor J.; Takahashi, Laura C.

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactivity was determined in the Espírito Santo sands, in Brazil, in eight beaches from Anchieta and Guarapari. In the methodology, the sands of each beach were collected, sifted, dried in the oven, and conditioned in Marinellis. Its weight was measured on the scale, and stored for 30 days for their secular equilibrium. Then, the gamma spectrometry measurement was performed. The specific activities for each beach were calculated and the radioactive balance of the 238 U and 232 Th series was also studied. From the standard deviation of the estimated error (S), the chi-square distribution parameter (R 2 ), the coefficient of determination R 2 , R-sq, and the adjusted R 2 , R-sq (adj) was studied. In the results, a regression curve (fitted line plot) was performed on the quality adjustment with a 95% confidence interval for the values found in Neptune, Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches. The R 2 measured presented values close to 1. The beach Areia Vermelha presented a specific activity with a percentage of 98.41% in relation to the other beaches and very high activity compared to the world average. (author)

  19. Natural radionuclides present in the beach sands of Guarapari and Anchieta, EspÍrito Santo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Victor J.; Takahashi, Laura C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Fontainha, Críssia C.P.; Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: crissia@gmail.com, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The natural radioactivity was determined in the Espírito Santo sands, in Brazil, in eight beaches from Anchieta and Guarapari. In the methodology, the sands of each beach were collected, sifted, dried in the oven, and conditioned in Marinellis. Its weight was measured on the scale, and stored for 30 days for their secular equilibrium. Then, the gamma spectrometry measurement was performed. The specific activities for each beach were calculated and the radioactive balance of the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series was also studied. From the standard deviation of the estimated error (S), the chi-square distribution parameter (R{sub 2}), the coefficient of determination R{sub 2}, R-sq, and the adjusted R{sub 2}, R-sq (adj) was studied. In the results, a regression curve (fitted line plot) was performed on the quality adjustment with a 95% confidence interval for the values found in Neptune, Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches. The R{sub 2} measured presented values close to 1. The beach Areia Vermelha presented a specific activity with a percentage of 98.41% in relation to the other beaches and very high activity compared to the world average. (author)

  20. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  1. Uso popular de espécies medicinais da família Verbenaceae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.B. SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se realizar um levantamento bibliográfico acerca das espécies da família Verbenaceae utilizadas na medicina popular nas diversas regiões do Brasil. Os trabalhos acadêmicos utilizados para elaboração desta pesquisa foram extraídos de revistas indexadas junto ao Scielo publicadas no período de 2000 a 2012, sendo também realizada busca no Google acadêmico. Os dados foram compilados e organizados em ordem alfabética por espécies, seguidas do nome popular, forma de uso, parte usada, indicações e área de estudo. Foram encontrados um total de 85 publicações indicando 55 espécies distribuídas em oito gêneros. A espécie com maior número de citações foi Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br., com 56 registros. Das plantas descritas na literatura, a folha foi o órgão mais citado como parte usada e o chá, o modo de preparo mais utilizado. Dentre as categorias de indicações medicinais, as plantas que mereceram destaque foram às relacionadas ao tratamento das doenças do sistema respiratório e digestório. Constatou-se que o Rio de Janeiro foi o estado que contou com o maior número de publicações na área. O uso de plantas medicinais está cada vez mais presente entre as diversas comunidades. Com isso, as informações contidas neste trabalho servirão para auxiliar na elaboração de banco de dados sobre o modo de uso das plantas pertencentes à família Verbenaceae com potencial medicinal encontradas nos Estados brasileiros.

  2. Description d’une espèce nouvelle du genre Ectatorhinus (Coleoptera: fam. Curculionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, W.

    1890-01-01

    Monsieur Neervoort van de Poll ayant reçu récemment avec d’autres insectes une nouvelle espèce d’ Ectatorhinus, capturée dans l’intérieur de Bedagei (Deli, Sumatra orient.) par M. J. Z. Kannegieter, m’a invité de la décrire, ce que je fais avec d’autant plus de plaisir que j’avais décrit dans le

  3. TESTING OF ONLINE ESP COURSE FOR STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC SCHOOLS. FIRST FINDINGS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Vasilchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a detailed analysis of the Russian course-books for students of Economic Schools. The authoress exposes the discrepancies along with proposing the solutions. In the second part, the article possesses a brief description as well as highlights the advantages of the new online ESP course on Economics, Banking and Insurance for colleges. In conclusion, the authoress contemplates over the first findings the course appraisal suggests. 

  4. Évaluation de l'incidence des programmes de transferts en espèces ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les personnes qui reçoivent ces fonds doivent satisfaire à certaines conditions, comme envoyer les enfants à l'école et utiliser les services de santé de base. De récentes données laissent entendre que les transferts en espèces peuvent contribuer à une croissance favorable aux pauvres : -en servant d'outil efficace de ...

  5. Culture de trois espèces fongiques sauvages comestibles du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des essais de culture de trois souches de trois espèces de champignons lignicoles comestibles: Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller, Lentinus cladopus Lév. et Marasmius buzungolo Singer isolées sur milieu gélosé PDA et dont les mycéliums ont été repiqués sur substrats de semis de grains de maïs et de sciure de bois ont ...

  6. Combining purpose with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the

  7. Meaningful and Purposeful Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a graphic, designed by Clementi and Terrill, the authors of "Keys to Planning for Learning" (2013), visually representing the components that contribute to meaningful and purposeful practice in learning a world language, practice that leads to greater proficiency. The entire graphic is centered around the letter…

  8. Identificação das espécies de Staphylococcus presentes no leite ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Viana da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de leite ovino no Brasil é uma atividade relativamente nova, cuja produção está direcionada para a confecção de queijos, iogurtes e outros derivados. Com isso há uma defict de trabalhos científicos ligados a esta atividade. Considerado um excelente substrato, muitos micro-organismos patogênicos podem ser veiculados ao homem através do consumo de leite e seus derivados, entre eles Staphylococcus spp., um dos principais  agentes envolvidos em surtos de intoxicações alimentares. Dentro desta problemática, o presente estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de Staphylococcus isoladas de leite de origem ovina provenientes de propriedades rurais no Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco. Foram identificadas 13 espécies diferentes, sendo três do grupo Staphylococcus coagulase-positivo e 10 de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo e duas cepas identificadas apenas como SCN, destacando-se por sua frequência Staphylococcus aureus (29 seguida pelo S. chromogenes (15 e S. intermedius (9. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que esta espécie animal é mais uma fonte de infecção e veiculadora, através de seus produtos, de Staphylococcus potencialmente patogênicos para o homem.

  9. ESP's Tank 42 washwater transfer to the 241-F/H tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aponte, C.I.; Lee, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of the separation of the High-Level Liquid Waste Department into three separate organizations (formerly there were two) (Concentration, Storage, and Transfer (CST), Waste Pre-Treatment (WPT) and Waste Disposition (WD)) process interface controls were required. One of these controls is implementing the Waste the waste between CST and WPT. At present, CST's Waste Acceptance Criteria is undergoing revision and WPT has not prepared the required Waste Compliance Plan (WCP). The Waste Pre-Treatment organization is making preparations for transferring spent washwater in Tank 42 to Tank 43 and/or Tank 22. The washwater transfer is expected to complete the washing steps for preparing ESP batch 1B sludge. This report is intended to perform the function of a Waste Compliance Plan for the proposed transfer. Previously, transfers between the Tank Farm and ITP/ESP were controlled by requirements outlined in the Tank Farm's Technical Standards and ITP/ESP's Process Requirements. Additionally, these controls are implemented primarily in operating procedure 241-FH-7TSQ and ITP Operations Manual SW16.1-SOP-WTS-1 which will be completed prior to performing the waste transfers

  10. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Criste Massariol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.

  11. Experimental Study on EHD Flow Transition in a Small Scale Wire-plate ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrohydrodynamic (EHD flow induced by the corona discharge was experimentally investigated in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The ESP was a narrow horizontal Plexiglas box (1300 mm×60 mm×60 mm. The electrode set consisted of a single wire discharge electrode and two collecting aluminum plate electrodes. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV method was used to visualize the EHD flow characteristics inside the ESP seeded with fine oil droplets. The influence of applied voltage (from 8 kV to 10 kV and primary gas flow (0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s on the EHD flow transition was elucidated through experimental analysis. The formation and transition of typical EHD flows from onset to the fully developed were described and explained. Experimental results showed that the EHD flow patterns change depends on the gas velocity and applied voltage. EHD flow starts with flow streamlines near collecting plates bending towards the wire electrode, forming two void regions. An oscillating jet forming the downstream appeared and moved towards the wire electrode as voltage increased. For higher velocities (≥0.2 m/s, the EHD transition became near wire phenomenon with a jet-like flow structure near the wire, forming a void region behind the wire and expanding as voltage increased. Fully developed EHD secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating vortices appeared upstream with high applied voltage.

  12. A New Outlook on EAP Literacies: General and Specific English Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In designing an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) course it is necessary that we consider several factors: students' objectives, needs, levels and interests, course and institution's goals, and availability of resources. In this paper it is strived to elucidate the differences between EGP (English for General purposes) and ESP (English for…

  13. Preços de commodities e nível de atividade em uma pequena economia aberta: evidências empíricas para o estado do Espírito Santo Commodity prices and activity level in a small open economy: empirical evidence for the State of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    's economy compared to the national economy and other Brazilian states will also be measured. The results obtained reveal five distinct empirical patterns: (i given the state's high degree of openness, the impacts of commodity price fluctuations tend to be stronger when compared to Brazil and other Brazilian States; (ii Granger-causality test results show that commodity prices precede output levels both in the case of the State and the country; (iii a similar result occurs when a broad set of economic variables related to the State of Espírito Santo are considered; (iv a positive shock to commodity prices causes output to initially rise , followed by a contraction, with this variable displaying a permanently higher level in the long run; (v variance decomposition results show that, on average, the quantitative impacts of commodity price shocks are larger in the case of the State than the country. The results obtained are robust with regards to several specification issues, such as different stationary transformations of data, as well as distinct number of lags employed in Granger-causality tests. These results are important in the sense of providing a better understanding of the effects of commodity price variations on a small, open economy, as seems to be the case for the State of Espírito Santo.

  14. Transport and Purpose in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    spontaneously as an attribute of each part in such systems. The value of enlarging the scope of inquiry into transport and related features of anthropospheric dynamics (like infrastructure) beyond a study of classical physical processes and even beyond human purpose so as to include the role of anthropospheric purpose is the perspective that such an expanded approach brings to questions of importance for human well-being. Among the possibilities suggested by this line of thinking is that strategies to exert influence on the whole-earth system to safeguard or improve the human condition, such as those that aim to control carbon emissions by controlling the flux of fossil fuels, are not likely to succeed unless they satisfy anthropospheric as well as human purposes. Refs: PK Haff, 2010, Earth Surf. Proc. Landforms, doi: 10.1002/esp.1902; PK Haff, 2012, to appear in Beyond the Second Law: Entropy Production and Non-Equilibrium Systems, Springer.

  15. Recursos medicinais de espécies do Cerrado de Mato Grosso: um estudo bibliográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarim Neto Germano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A flora do Cerrado é de enorme riqueza, mas somente 1,5% de sua extensão é protegida por lei. Em vista disto, é preciso valorizar os recursos que ela oferece e que estão sob forte pressão de extinção, como as espécies medicinais. Assim, o presente estudo faz uma revisão bibliográfica aprofundada de trabalhos que indiquem as informações das espécies medicinais do cerrado mato-grossense, com intuito de se estabelecer uma base de dados regionais e, conseqüentemente, iniciar uma discussão em nível nacional. A revisão da flora medicinal constatou o total de 509 espécies, distribuídas em 297 gêneros e 96 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Asteraceae e Fabaceae (7% das espécies e os gêneros foram Hyptis e Tabebuia (oito espécies. As espécies com maior número de citações bibliográficas foram Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stelf. O predomínio foi de espécies arbóreas (31%. Os valores relatados superaram, em muito, estimativas anteriores e, em vista das áreas que ainda não foram cobertas por pesquisas mato-grossenses, acredita-se que o presente resultado poderá ser significativamente ampliado no futuro.

  16. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  17. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  18. Vitalism, purpose and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke

    2007-02-01

    Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.

  19. The purpose of astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Davoust, Emmanuel

    1995-01-01

    This is a presentation of the purpose of astronomy in the context of modern society. After exposing two misconceptions about astronomy, I detail its role in five domains, certified knowledge, incorporated abilities, innovations, collective goods, and popular science; with each domain is associated an institution, an incentive, and a method of evaluation. Finally, I point out the role of astronomy as a source of inspiration in other fields than science.

  20. Espécies da Caatinga como alternativa para o desenvolvimento de novos fitofármacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lécio Resende Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Grande parte do semiárido brasileiro encontra-se em avançado processo de degradação e poucos estudos direcionam seu desenvolvimento em consonância com essa realidade. Diante deste contexto, foi realizado um levantamento etnobotânico, a fim de subsidiar pesquisas sobre fitofármacos ocorrentes em espécies da Caatinga. Para tal, foram aplicados questionários a 256 famílias, visando a documentar o conhecimento local referente às espécies arbustivo-arbóreas utilizadas como medicinais pela população rural do município de Monteiro-PB. Procurou-se, por meio do levantamento florístico de um fragmento florestal, com aproximadamente 30 anos de conservação, verificar a distribuição das espécies citadas nas entrevistas. Constataram-se 37 espécies identificadas no fragmento florestal avaliado e 38 no levantamento etnobotânico, com 14 espécies em comum entre os levantamentos. As espécies Myracrodruon urundeuva, Sideroxylon obtusifolium, Amburana cearensis, Triplaris gardneriana, Anadenanthera colubrina, Hymenaea courbaril e Bauhinia cheilantha apresentaram-se promissoras para pesquisas voltadas à obtenção de fitofármacos.

  1. Caracterização comparativa do intestino das espécies da Ordem Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O sucesso na manutenção de uma espécie depende de vários fatores entre eles a eficiência digestiva, sendo assim parâmetros morfométricos do tubo digestório são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestivos dos alimentos no organismo animal além de indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Este trabalho visou descrever morfologicamente os intestinos delgado e grosso, órgãos do sistema digestório de representantes da ordem Xenarthra a fim de fornecer subsídios para a avaliação da dieta e realização de procedimentos clínicos nestes animais, sejam eles de vida livre ou de cativeiro. Foram utilizados 7 espécimes entre preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, tatu-verdadeiro (Dasypus novemcinctus e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. Todos as amostras foram processadas seguindo procedimentos de rotina efetuados nos laboratórios de Anatomia Animal e Histologia da FZEA/USP. Os intestinos de B. torquatus se apresentaram curtos e simples, enquanto que nos exemplares de D. novemcintus e M. tridactyla o intestino era longo e com algumas peculiaridades. No duodeno de todos os espécimes notamos a presença das glândulas de Brünner e estruturas para aumentar a superfície de absorção. Apenas em preguiças, o mesentério mantém o jejuno preso à parede dorsal da cavidade abdominal. O íleo representou a menor porção nas preguiças e tatus, exceto em tamanduáque apresentava o íleo como a maior parte depois do jejuno. O ceco em tatus e tamanduás apresentavam tamanho considerável e a presença de glândulas na mucosa, nestas espécies destacamos a funcionalidade do ceco, uma vez que este se apresentou repleto de restos alimentares. Na mucosa do cólon de todos os espécimes, haviam criptas de Lieberkühn, sendo mais numerosas em D. novemcinctus e M. tridactyla. Apenas em B. torquatus, o reto apresentou maior diâmetro e rigidez em relação ao cólon. No reto de todas as espécies estudadas, a

  2. An ESP Genre-based Approach to the Teaching of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Bambirra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the work done with a group of undergraduate students of ‘Technology in Normalization and Industrial Quality’ at CEFET/MG, during the first semester of 2005. The subject matter English for Specific Purposes was planned and taught within the theoretical principles provided by the Australian theories on textual genre. The main aspects considered were: the collective knowledge construction, the complete interrelation between texts and their social roles, and Halliday’s contributions related to the concepts of language and text (1978 and to the context of culture (1989. The learning assessment was socialized and continuous, carried out through several informal classroom activities and two formal written assignments. It seems that the students feel more motivated and show major progress in developing their reading skills at courses of English for Specific Purposes when these courses are taught using a textual genre approach.

  3. O conhecimento sobre morcegos (Chiroptera: Mammalia do estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario

  4. 7 CFR 3430.201 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Specialty Crop Research Initiative § 3430.201 Purpose. (a) Focus areas. The purpose of this program is to address the critical needs of the specialty crop industry by developing and disseminating science-based tools to address needs of specific crops and their regions...

  5. Multi purpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.K.; Sasidharan, K.; Sengupta, Samiran; Singh, Tej

    2006-01-01

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor

  6. Purpose of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the Workshop is to share the experience on emergency data management and to review various conceptual, technical, organisational and operational aspects and problems. The problems posed by hardware and software, the interplay of software developers and users/operators and the positive and negative experiences both from development and operation of data management systems are discussed. Emergency data management systems and their demonstrations are divided into four classes of possible applications: video games, training and simulation systems, 'history writing' = post-event analysis and documentation systems, real-time operational systems. (author)

  7. Morfologia dos tricomas das pétalas de espécies de Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae e seu significado taxonômico Morphology of trichomes in petals of Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae species and its taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Guedes de Carvalho-Sobrinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Pseudobombax Dugand apresenta cerca de 30 espécies, é restrito à região Neotropical e apresenta taxonomia complexa, com muitas de suas espécies mal circunscritas. Parte de seus problemas taxonômicos é conseqüência do fato de que suas espécies perdem as folhas na floração e, portanto, a maioria delas é representada apenas por flores nas coleções de herbário. Neste trabalho, investigou-se a morfologia dos tricomas presentes nas pétalas de oito espécies de Pseudobombax. O estudo utilizou microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura a partir de amostras obtidas de material de herbário e flores fixadas em etanol a 70%. Em todas as espécies de Pseudobombax analisadas, foram encontrados dois tipos principais de tricomas: (a tricomas 2-4-armados, sésseis, longos, flexíveis e com paredes finas, situados na face adaxial de todas as espécies; (b tricomas tufosos, sésseis, curtos, rígidos, com paredes espessas e lignificadas, situados na face abaxial. Os dados qualitativos e quantitativos obtidos mostraram-se de valor taxonômico para a resolução de problemas de identificação específica em Pseudobombax.Trichome morphology of the petals of Pseudobombax Dugand species was investigated. The eight species selected of Pseudobombax were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The study detected the existence of variation, both qualitative and quantitative, in morphology of trichomes in petals of species analyzed. In Pseudobombax petals, two kinds of trichomes were found: (a trichomes 2-4-armed, sessile, long, flexible and with thin walls, situated on the adaxial surface; (b tufted trichomes, sessile, short, rigid, with thick, lignified walls, on the abaxial surface of the petals. The qualitative and quantitative data were of taxonomic value for the resolution of problems of specific identification in the genus.

  8. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  9. Espécies de formigas que interagem com as sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae Interaction between ant species and seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As formigas, quando atraídas por um apêndice nutritivo, produzido na semente de certas plantas, podem exercer o papel de agente predador ou dispersor das sementes. No processo de dispersão, grande número desses insetos pode interagir com sementes de determinada planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de formigas em contato com sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. - uma espécie arbórea e colonizadora em áreas antrópicas no Brasil - e o tipo de interação desses insetos com as sementes, bem como determinar as espécies dispersoras. Foram realizadas coletas manuais de formigas em fragmentos de vegetação com alta densidade de M. fistulifera, no município de Viçosa, MG, no momento de sua visitação às sementes. As formigas capturadas foram triadas e identificadas por espécie. Além disso, durante as coletas foram feitas observações quanto ao tipo de comportamento das formigas que se associaram às sementes e ao cálculo da taxa de remoção destas, verificando-se que 16 espécies tiveram contato com estas. Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, Ectatomma edentatum, Pachycondyla sp.1 e Pheidole sp. 2 foram, de fato, dispersoras, já que transportaram efetivamente as sementes. Ac. subterraneus subterraneus, Camponotus rufipes, Ectatomma permagnum, Megalomyrmex sp.1, Pachycondyla sp. 1, Pachycondyla sp. 2, Pheidole sp. 4, Pheidole sp. 5 e Pogonomyrmex sp. são, pela primeira vez, relatadas interagindo com sementes. A taxa de remoção das sementes de M. fistulifera pelas formigas foi de 85 a 97%.Ants, when attracted by nutritious corpuscles produced by seeds of certain plant species, can act as predators or dispersing agents. During seed dispersal, a great number of ant species can interact with seeds of a particular plant species. The purpose of this study was to identify the ant species that interact with seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart., a pioneer tree species in anthropic disturbed

  10. 29 CFR 1926.406 - Specific purpose equipment and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—disconnecting means—(1) Motor-generator, AC transformer, and DC rectifier arc welders. A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit for each motor-generator arc welder, and for each AC transformer and DC rectifier arc welder which is not equipped with a disconnect mounted as an integral part of the...

  11. developing french for specific purposes in the nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    teaching FSP to students in the Bachelor's degree programme of various disciplines seen as trainees in ... Nigerian universities, cannot also yield the required result. A different .... PROBLEMS OF TEACHING FSP IN NON- .... Certificate.

  12. Languages for specific purposes in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Bárcena, Elena; Arús, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This book features the work of leading researchers who review state-of-the-art developments in computer-assisted language learning. It includes case studies as well as theoretical analysis of the links between CALL and natural language processing.

  13. Discourse Analysis and Terminology in Languages for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Fortanet Cervera, Inmaculada; Palmer Silveira, Palmer Silveira; Posteguillo Gómez, Santiago; Aguado Piñero, Rocío; Alcaraz Ariza, María Ángeles; Azevedo Pereira De Oliveira, María José; Bosch Abarca, Elena; Bovea Menero, Isabel; Bracho Lapiedra, Llum; Caballero Rodríguez, María del Rosario; Campoy Cubillo, María Carmen; Coll García, Joan Francesc; Correia Cardoso, Raquel; Curado Fuentes, Alejandro; Del Salz Rubio, Maria de los Milagros

    2001-01-01

    Aquest importantíssim recull conté estudis i reflexions sobre temes rellevants en la recerca sobre LSP: anglès mèdic, el llenguatge de la publicitat i periodístic, telecomunicacions i terminologia informàtica, llenguatge comercial i jurídic... Malgrat que gran part dels treballs aplegats es refereixen a l'anglès, també hi ha que tracten l'alemany, francès i altres llengües. Conté textos en anglès, francés, portuguès i castellà.

  14. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  15. TIMOC-ESP, Time-Dependent Response Function by Monte-Carlo with Interface to Program TIMOC-72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaarsma, R.; Perlando, J.M.; Rief, H.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TIMOC-ESP is an 'Event Scanning Program' to analyse the events (collision or boundary crossing parameters) of Monte Carlo particle transport problems. It is a modular program and belongs to the TIMOC code system. Whilst TIMOC-72 deals with stationary problems, the time-dependence is dealt with in ESP. TIMOC-ESP is primarily designed to calculate the time-dependent response functions such as energy-dependent fluxes and currents at interfaces. 2 - Method of solution: The output of TIMOC-72 is transferred to TIMOC-ESP using a data set which acts as an interface between the two programs. Time dependent transport events are sampled at each crossing of any specified boundary in TIMOC. TIMOC-72 provides the parameters for ESP which are: - time of the event; - neutron weight; - cosine of the angle between the flight direction and the normal to the surface; - the indices of both regions; - the history number. Fundamentally, three time options are permitted by ESP, which give the current, the angular flux and the time-integrated flux functions between two specified regions. An eventual extension to other quantities is simple and straight- forward - ESP will accept input data for other options such as the calculation of the point flux, the collision density and the flux derived from this estimator, but the coding required for these calculations has yet to be implemented (1977). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of parameters must be between 5 and 50. The number of time intervals is at most 50

  16. The genetic basis of constitutive and herbivore-induced ESP-independent nitrile formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Meike; Losansky, Anja; Müller, René; Plock, Antje; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Wittstock, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of thioglucosides that are components of an activated chemical defense found in the Brassicales. Plant tissue damage results in hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous thioglucosidases known as myrosinases. Spontaneous rearrangement of the aglucone yields reactive isothiocyanates that are toxic to many organisms. In the presence of specifier proteins, alternative products, namely epithionitriles, simple nitriles, and thiocyanates with different biological activities, are formed at the expense of isothiocyanates. Recently, simple nitriles were recognized to serve distinct functions in plant-insect interactions. Here, we show that simple nitrile formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia-0 rosette leaves increases in response to herbivory and that this increase is independent of the known epithiospecifier protein (ESP). We combined phylogenetic analysis, a screen of Arabidopsis mutants, recombinant protein characterization, and expression quantitative trait locus mapping to identify a gene encoding a nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) responsible for constitutive and herbivore-induced simple nitrile formation in Columbia-0 rosette leaves. AtNSP1 is one of five Arabidopsis ESP homologues that promote simple nitrile, but not epithionitrile or thiocyanate, formation. Four of these homologues possess one or two lectin-like jacalin domains, which share a common ancestry with the jacalin domains of the putative Arabidopsis myrosinase-binding proteins MBP1 and MBP2. A sixth ESP homologue lacked specifier activity and likely represents the ancestor of the gene family with a different biochemical function. By illuminating the genetic and biochemical bases of simple nitrile formation, our study provides new insights into the evolution of metabolic diversity in a complex plant defense system.

  17. Levantamento de espécies de cobertura vegetal nativas e exóticas encontradas no campus oeste da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desmatamento é o processo de desaparecimento de massas florestais, fundamentalmente causadas pela atividade humana, com a retirada da cobertura vegetal em determinada área para utilização comercial de madeira, implantação de projetos agropecuários e também na expansão urbana. Como em qualquer área que necessite de uma cobertura vegetal, a UFERSA também enfrenta uma problemática frequente, a replantação de árvores exóticas invasoras, ao invés de nativas da região. Dessa forma o presente trabalho tem como objetivo não somente avaliar e mapear a densidade da flora do local, mas também evidenciar possíveis problemas e disponibilizar soluções. Procurou-se dividir a vegetação em dois grupos: as nativas e as exóticas. Foi realizada a demarcação dos pontos de acordo com a localização das espécies, com a finalidade de identificar e quantificar as espécies de plantas nativas e exóticas. Dentre todas as espécies amostradas, 24 espécies (25,3% são representantes de espécies nativas e 71 espécies (74,7% são exóticas. A arborização da UFERSA segue o padrão observado na maioria das áreas verdes públicas das cidades brasileiras, com grande número de espécies exóticas em relação às nativas. Em vista de uma melhor estrutura física fica evidente a necessidade de uma maior arborização, tendo como incentivo o plantio de espécies nativas, que proporcionem sombra, alimento e sirvam de abrigo para a fauna local, não apenas na UFERSA, mas em toda a região que vem perdendo sua flora natural em favor de plantas exóticas. Survey of species of native and exotic vegetation coverage found in the campus of Federal Rural University west of the Semi-arid regionAbstract: Deforestation is the process of disappearance of forest masses, basically caused by human activity, with the withdrawal of the vegetation cover in particular area for commercial use of wood, deployment of agricultural projects and also in urban expansion

  18. Levantamento das espécies exóticas arbóreas e seu impacto nas espécies nativas em áreas adjacentes a depósitos de resíduos domiciliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n4p29 Os objetivos deste trabalho, em áreas adjacentes à deposição de resíduos domiciliares, foram: i realizar o levantamento das espécies exóticas, ii verificar o seu impacto nas espécies nativas arbóreas de Cerrado, e iii comparar os resultados com áreas controles. Vinte e duas espécies exóticas foram encontradas nas parcelas estudadas próximos aos depósitos de resíduos domiciliares, distribuídas entre treze famílias. Apenas duas espécies foram encontradas nas áreas controle. A presença de depósitos de resíduos domiciliares aumenta a incidência de espécies exóticas arbóreas, causando um gradiente na distribuição de seus indivíduos, padrão não observado nas áreas controles.

  19. Planeamiento estratégico del espárrago en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Díaz, Jorge Luis; Solórzano Ramos, Javier Enrique; Soldevilla Canales, Roger Antonio

    2013-01-01

    xxi, 123 h. : il. ; 30 cm. El Perú es el primer exportador de Espárrago del Mundo, se comercializa principalmente al mercado americano y europeo por su alta calidad; la variedad de microclimas permite que esta hortaliza se coseche durante todo el año, lo que constituye que el Perú sea considerado un país con ventajas de abastecimiento, respecto de otros países. Para alcanzar la Visión al 2023, se deben lograr los siguientes objetivos de largo plazo: (a) Las exportaciones per...

  20. The Trade Fair: Introducing ESP Multimedia at a Technical University in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chiao Tsai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This discussion provides an overview of steps in developing and assessing ESP multimedia courseware at a technical university in Taiwan. The courseware is designed to expand language skills that foster Chinese learners of English as they develop communicative skills for international business. Student evaluations of the prototype for its Trade Fair component suggests that it is useful for situating the learning process and simulating social cues, which in turn supports building the communicative skills needed for the kinds of interaction demanded by tourism, travel, hospitality, and similar areas of international business.

  1. Contribution à l'inventaire et à la domestication des espèces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... de nombreuses espèces végétales ont disparu ou se sont raréfiées, essentiellement ..... Tableau 4 : Durée de séjour en pépinière des essences en fonction du matériel végétal utilisé. Durée de séjour. Durée courte (3-6 ... conscience sur l'importance socioéconomique de ces produits et les désagréments ...

  2. Atividade antioxidante de três espécies de Eugenia (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Magina, Michele A.; Gilioli, Andressa; Moresco, Henrique H.; Colla, Guilherme; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2010-01-01

    A atividade antioxidante dos extratos vegetais de Eugenia brasiliensis, E. beaurepaireana e E. umbelliflora foi avaliada usando diferentes métodos: Determinação da ação sequestrante de radicais livres usando DPPH, determinação do potencial redutor e determinação do potencial inibidor da peroxidação lipídica. Foi correlacionado também a o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e de flavonóides contidos nestes extratos e frações com a atividade antioxidante. As espécies E. brasiliensis e E. beaurepairean...

  3. La procesión del Espíritu Santo en Gregorio de Nisa

    OpenAIRE

    Brugarolas, M. (Miguel)

    2012-01-01

    La teología de las procesiones divinas desarrollada por Gregorio de Nisa en las últimas décadas del s. IV fue esencial para la afirmación definitiva del dogma pneumatológico y para la superación del subordinacionismo trinitario. Siguiendo el camino emprendido por Atanasio, Basilio y Gregorio de Nacianzo, Gregorio de Nisa se adentra en la consideración de las propiedades personales del Espíritu Santo, que describe –y esto es lo verdaderamente sugerente– en torno a su origen en el Padre «a trav...

  4. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. ...

  5. Espíritu emprendedor, una verdadera inspiración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Guerrero Alvarez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado de las condiciones económicas del país surge el grupo de los microempresarios y pequeñas empresas familiares, que a pesar de carecer de condiciones ortodoxas de planeación, mercadeo, organización y control de operaciones, hacen valiosos aportes a la economía: son emprendedores colombianos que concibieron una idea, la forjaron y la hicieron realidad. Se presentan algunas historias reales que muestran el espíritu emprendedor

  6. The punishment's purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe DIACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The repressive reaction involves, as any human action, a certain finality. As the punishment's essence is the suffering, then, in the course of time it has been arisen the question regarding the goal for which the society utilizes the suffering and for what the society punishes. According to the classic penal doctrine that bases on the idea of retribution, the repressive reaction was limited to a simple revenge and it didn't existed any concern in order to influence the doer's future behaviour. In the positivist conception, the punishment's purpose was to shelter the society against the offender's new attacks. Going up to an extreme point with this idea, the positivists equated the punishment with the curative treatment at which the patients in the hospitals were submitted and which it was adequate to each category of offender. For the positivists, the penal sanction, it was meant to combat the organic or the psychological anomalies or the dysfunctions of the social environment that have influenced the offender and that determined him to commit antisocial deeds. In the modern vision, the punishment cannot have a goal on its own and that is to answer to bad with bad because it doesn't come from an abstract desire for revenge, but from a concrete necessity of hindering the repetition of the antisocial deeds and of defending the fundamental social values.

  7. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  8. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at implementing Fit-For-Purpose land administration solutions at county level. This will require a country specific strategy drawing from the recent GLTN publication on “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration – Guiding Principles for Country Implementation”. The Fit...... administration; 4) Designing the country specific FFP spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 5) Capacity development; 6) Country specific instruction manuals; and 7) Economic benefits analysis. Finally, the paper presents some experiences and reflections from a case study on implementing the FFP approach...

  9. Crenicichla tigrina, Une nouvelle espèce de cichlidae (Pisces, Perciformes) du Rio Trombetas, Pará, Brésil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, Alex; Jégu, Michael; Ferreira, Efrem

    1991-01-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Cichlidae, Crenicichla tigrina, est décrite et illustrée. La coloration sur le vivant et quelques remarques relatives à l’Pecologie de cette espèce sont présentée. Les relations de C. tigrina avec les autres espèces de Crenicichla à petites écailles et le mode de distribution

  10. Multi-purpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Multi-Purpose-Reactor (MPR), is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. Its main feature is plant safety and reliability. Its power is 22MW t h, cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium. It has platetype fuel elements (MTR type, approx. 20%. enriched uranium) clad in aluminium. Its cobalt (Co 60 ) production capacity is 50000 Ci/yr, 200 Ci/gr. The distribution of the reactor core and associated control and safety systems is essentially based on the following design criteria: - upwards cooling flow, to waive the need for cooling flow inversion in case the reactor is cooled by natural convection if confronted with a loss of pumping power, and in order to establish a superior heat transfer potential (a higher coolant saturation temperature); - easy access to the reactor core from top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power, in order to facilitate actual implementation of experiments. Consequently, mechanisms associated to control and safety rods s,re located underneath the reactor tank; - free access of reactor personnel to top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power. This aids in the training of personnel and the actual carrying out of experiments, hence: - a vast water column was placed over the core to act as radiation shielding; - the core's external area is cooled by a downwards flow which leads to a decay tank beyond the pool (for N 16 to decay); - a small downwards flow was directed to stream downwards from above the reactor core in order to drag along any possibly active element; and - a stagnant hot layer system was placed at top of pool level so as to minimize the upwards coolant flow rising towards pool level

  11. Estudio de los hábitos de consumo de espárragos de los consumidores de la zona productora y de Pamplona

    OpenAIRE

    Garde Adrián, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Actualmente la situación del “Espárrago de Navarra” atraviesa un mal momento debido a la intrusión en el mercado español de espárragos procedentes de países como China y Perú, que debido a sus bajos precios de coste han provocado que la demanda del “Espárrago de Navarra” disminuyera, hasta el punto de que muchos agricultores se vieran obligados a abandonar sus esparragueras. En el presente trabajo se va reflejar exactamente la situación actual del “Espárrago de Navarra” e...

  12. Efectivitat de la hipoteràpia en nens amb paràlisi cerebral espàstica. Una revisió sistemàtica

    OpenAIRE

    Tarragó Coletas, Mariona

    2017-01-01

    PREGUNTA DE LA REVISIÓ. És efectiva la hipoteràpia en nens amb paràlisi cerebral espàstica? OBJETIUS. General: Revisar i avaluar l’efectivitat de la hipoteràpia en el tractament de PCI espàstica. Específics: Realitzar una recerca bibliogràfica dels beneficis que aporta la hipoteràpia com a tractament de la PCI espàstica. Avaluar si existeix una millora de la qualitat de vida utilitzant la hipoteràpia com a tractament de la PCI espàstica. Determinar com afecta el tractament sobre la funcion...

  13. Contribuição para o estudo dos Rhinotragini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae: VIII. Transferências e nova espécie em Clepitoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro espécies são transferidas para Clepitoides Clarke, 2009: Odontocera crocata Bates, 1873; O. virgata Gounelle, 1911; Eclipta picturata (Gounelle, 1911; E. pallidicornis (Zajciw, 1966. As fêmeas de O. crocata e O. pallidicornis são redescritas e uma nova espécie é descrita do Brasil e da Argentina. As cinco espécies são figuradas. Adicionalmente é fornecida nova chave para as espécies de Clepitoides.

  14. Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae host-plant specialists? Espécies de moscas galhadoras (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são especialistas em plantas hospedeiras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the speciose fauna of gall-inducing insects in the Neotropical region, little is known about their taxonomy. On the other hand, gall morphotypes associated with host species have been extensively used as a surrogate of the inducer species worldwide. This study reviewed the described gall midges and their galls to test the generalization on the use of gall morphotypes as surrogates of gall midge species in the Brazilian fauna. We compiled taxonomic and biological data for 196 gall midge species recorded on 128 host plant species. Ninety two percent of those species were monophagous, inducing galls on a single host plant species, whereas only 5.6% species were oligophagous, inducing galls on more than one congeneric host plant species. Only four species induced galls on more than one host plant genus. We conclude that gall morphotypes associated with information on the host plant species and attacked organs are reliable surrogates of the gall-inducing species.Apesar do elevado número de espécies da fauna de insetos indutores de galhas na região Neotropical, muito pouco espécies foram descritas. Por outro lado, o morfotipo da galha associado com a espécie da planta hospedeira é em todo o mundo amplamente utilizado como um indicador da espécie de inseto indutor. Este estudo revê as espécies de cecidommídeos descritos e suas galhas para verificar a generalização do uso da morfologia da galha como indicador da espécie de cecidomíideo na fauna brasileira. Nós compilamos dados biológicos e taxonômicos de 196 espécies de cecidomiídeos em 128 espécies de plantas no Brasil. Noventa e dois porcento destas espécies foram monófagas, induzindo galhas em uma única espécie de planta hospedeira, enquanto somente 5,6% das espécies foram oligófagas, induzindo galhas em mais de uma espécie de planta do mesmo gênero. Somente quatro espécies induzem galhas em espécies de plantas de gêneros diferentes. Nós concluímos que o morfo

  15. Freshwater gastropods in the Northern littoral mesoregion of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Andrade de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the distribution of molluscs in Brazilhave been conducted since the beginning of the twentieth and the knowledge of the species distributed in the country represent important findings, which contribute to the understanding of human diseases and those of veterinary importance, transmitted by them. In order to verify the distribution of freshwater gastropods in Espírito Santo, a malacological surveywas carried out in nine municipalities that comprise the Northern mesoregion of the State, between January 2010 and February 2015. Initially the water collections occurring in the municipality were verified and the lotic systems at different levels of use and conservation were determined. Molluscs were collected monthly using a hand net adapted to a stick steel. An individual sample effort of 30 minutes was applied, by scanning, at about ten meters in each one of the selected habitats. A total of 6,000 specimens were collected, represented by genera Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria and Pomacea. Among the molluscs, some specimens were positive for flatworm larvae of medical and veterinary importance. The results contributed to the knowledge of the current distribution of freshwater gastropods in the Northern region of Espírito Santo whose the only record for the region dates back to 1983.

  16. Mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lofego Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To study mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we reviewed death certificates (DC from 2000-2010 and medical records of deceased patients with investigation of alcoholism and hepatitis B or C. From a total of 218,410 DC, 3,554 deaths from liver cirrhosis were retrieved. The annual mortality rate was 19.8/100,000 for men and 4.31/100,000 for women, without significant changes after correction for ICD-R98 and R99 and without a significant increase in the annual percentage change. In 49% of death certificates, the aetiology of cirrhosis was defined: of these alcoholism in 81.5% of cases and viral hepatitis in 15.7%. Aetiology was confirmed in 262 reviewed records, including alcoholism (40.5%; hepatitis B or C (26.7%; other (3.8%; and cryptogenic (10.6%. The mean annual potential years of life lost were 5,946 years and 1,739 years for men and women respectively. The mortality rate from cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State is intermediate in relationship to worldwide data; alcoholism and hepatitis B or C were the main aetiologies; probably alcoholism is overestimated and hepatitis B and C viruses are underestimated as causes of cirrhosis registered on death certificates.

  17. The physiology and pathology of mind (1867. El espíritu y el sistema nervioso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maudsley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La afirmación de que el cerebro segrega el pensamiento como el hígado segrega la bilis, enunciada en toda su rudeza, ha sido ridiculizada por unos y recibida por otros con desaprobación y disgusto. Seguramente que no es la expresión exacta de los hechos; puede admitirse desde luego que el cerebro es el órgano principal del espíritu, sin aceptar por eso la defectuosa comparación que asimila las funciones del cerebro a una secreción material. La confusión depende en este caso, como en los demás casos, del doble uso de la palabra secreción para designar el acto secretorio y su producto, o lo que es lo mismo, los cambios moleculares e insensibles y sus resultados materiales. Comenzaremos por manifestar con la mayor claridad posible lo que entendemos por alma o espíritu.

  18. Panorama da fruticultura no Espírito Santo – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Marques Teixeira Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A fruticultura é um mercado que vem já há alguns anos com um grande potencial tanto nacional quanto capixaba. Diante da situação, este trabalho tem o objetivo de apresentar um panorama da fruticultura no Espírito Santo, posicionando-a no cenário nacional. A partir do estudo da produção científica e de informações sobre o assunto, foi elaborada uma revisão bibliográfica a respeito do desenvolvimento da fruticultura capixaba. O setor de fruticultura está entre os principais geradores de renda, emprego e de desenvolvimento rural do estado. Na fruticultura agroecológica, tem-se como futuro desejável a expansão e a diversificação da atividade no Espírito Santo, com qualidade e competitividade. Contudo, a plena realização do potencial produtivo e social da fruticultura depende de uma melhor organização do setor, da modernização da comercialização e de incentivos para a inovação tecnológica e agregação de valor.

  19. Discipline and gender variation in ESP learners’ use of metacognitive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Seifoori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition involves conscious thinking about one’s learning and is implemented in language learning when learners set goals and evaluate their performance, plan their studies, use their language knowledge, attend to the input, search speaking and reading opportunities and ways of enhancing their learning outcomes and focus on their errors. This study sought to measure the use of metacognitive strategies by eight groups of Iranian ESP freshmen in four different disciplines and to detect probable discipline and gender variations. Having assessed the initial homogeneity of the groups via Analysis of Variance of the scores obtained from a Key English Test (KET, the researcher administered the Metacognitive section of Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL (1985. The Between-subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA of the research data revealed that the participants studying Mechanical Engineering and Computer outperformed those studying Management and Psychology. Gender variation, however, was observed only in the participants’ use of self-evaluation strategy where males reported a more frequent use. The findings revealed the ESP learners’ need for metacognitive training particularly across gender and major.

  20. Variations in EUV Irradiance: Comparison between LYRA, ESP, and SWAP Integrated Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sarp Yalim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Watcher Using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing (SWAP telescope and Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA are the two Sun observation instruments on-board PROBA2. SWAP extreme ultraviolet images, if presented in terms of the integrated flux over solar disk, in general, correlate well with LYRA channel 2–4 (zirconium filter and channels QD and 18 of EVE/ESP on-board SDO between 2010 and 2013. Hence, SWAP can be considered as an additional radiometric channel. We compare in detail LYRA channel 2–4 and SWAP integrated flux in July 2010 and in particular during the solar eclipse that occurred on July 11, 2010. During this eclipse, the discrepancy between the two data channels can be explained to be related to the occultation of active region 11087 by the Moon. In the second half of July 2010, LYRA channel 2–4 and SWAP integrated flux deviate from each other, but these differences can also be explained in terms of features appearing on the solar disk such as coronal holes and active regions. By additionally comparing with timeline of EVE/ESP, we can preliminarily interpret these differences in terms of the difference between the broad bandpass of LYRA channel 2–4 and the, relatively speaking, narrower bandpass of SWAP.

  1. The Most Frequent Metacognitive Strategies Used in Reading Comprehension among ESP Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading strategies are plans for solving problems encountered during reading while learners are deeply engage with the text. So, comprehension is not a simple decoding of symbols, but a complex multidimensional process in which the leaner draws on previous schemata applying strategies consciously. In fact, metacognitive strategies are accessible versatile vehicles if the readers are aware and cognizant of their applications. This paper studied the most frequent used strategies by Iranian ESP students. Fifty six students completed 30-item questionnaire of MARSI (2002. It included three strategy categories: Problem Solving strategies (PROB, Global Reading strategies (GLOB, and Support strategies (SUP. Results indicated that students at the highest level perceived PROB strategies up to 58.93%, SUP strategies up to 32.14%, and GLOB strategies up to 30.37%. Ranking the individual strategies represented that the highest used strategies are strategy 8 (overall mean= 3.51, strategy 20 (overall mean=3.52 and strategy 11 (overall mean=3.77. Keywords: ESP, Metacognitive strategies, Problem Solving strategies, Global Reading strategies, Support strategies

  2. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.

  3. Design and Simulation of the Robust ABS and ESP Fuzzy Logic Controller on the Complex Braking Maneuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Aksjonov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Automotive driving safety systems such as an anti-lock braking system (ABS and an electronic stability program (ESP assist drivers in controlling the vehicle to avoid road accidents. In this paper, ABS and the ESP, based on the fuzzy logic theory, are integrated for vehicle stability control in complex braking maneuvers. The proposed control algorithm is implemented for a sport utility vehicle (SUV and investigated for braking on different surfaces. The results obtained for the vehicle software simulator confirm the robustness of the developed control strategy for a variety of road profiles and surfaces.

  4. Explorative Solid-Phase Extraction (E-SPE) for Accelerated Microbial Natural Product Discovery, Dereplication, and Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Gram, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Microbial natural products (NP) cover a high chemical diversity, and in consequence extracts from microorganisms are often complex to analyze and purify. A distribution analysis of calculated pK(a) values from the 34390 records in Antibase2008 revealed that within pH 2-11, 44% of all included......-phase extraction" (E-SPE) protocol using SAX, Oasis MAX, SCX, and LH-20 columns for targeted exploitation of chemical functionalities. E-SPE provides a minimum of fractions (15) for chemical and biological analyses and implicates development into a preparative scale methodology. Overall, this allows fast extract...

  5. Implicaciones a México a Bloques Comerciales en el Mercado Mundial del Espárrago

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón G. Guajardo Quiroga; Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo estudia el impacto de la formación de bloques comerciales en el comercio mundial del espárrago (NAFTA y TLCUEM). Se construyó un modelo de equilibrio espacial con precios endógenos y se diseñaron varios escenarios, de los cuales se presentan cuatro, con diversos grados de apertura comercial. Los resultados muestran que los productores mexicanos de espárragos resultan favorecidos con la integración de estos bloques. Sin embargo, en el escenario que modela la eliminación total de ...

  6. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Rafael Y.O.; Arruda,Mara S.P.; Arruda,Alberto C.; Santos,Lourivaldo S.; Müller,Adolfo H.; Guilhon,Giselle M.S.P.; Santos,Alberdan S.; Terezo,Evaristo

    2006-01-01

    O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae), através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o o...

  7. Espécies da Caatinga como alternativa para o desenvolvimento de novos fitofármacos

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Lécio Resende; Andrade, Alberício Pereira de; Araújo, Kallianna Dantas; Barbosa, Alex da Silva; Barbosa, Francisca Maria

    2014-01-01

    Grande parte do semiárido brasileiro encontra-se em avançado processo de degradação e poucos estudos direcionam seu desenvolvimento em consonância com essa realidade. Diante deste contexto, foi realizado um levantamento etnobotânico, a fim de subsidiar pesquisas sobre fitofármacos ocorrentes em espécies da Caatinga. Para tal, foram aplicados questionários a 256 famílias, visando a documentar o conhecimento local referente às espécies arbustivo-arbóreas utilizadas como medicinais pela populaçã...

  8. Plan de negocios para el ingreso a la exportación del espárrago congelado

    OpenAIRE

    Bengoa Medina, Paul; Ramos Montalvo, Margot; Shimabukuro Goto, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    El presente plan de negocios tiene como objetivo evaluar la posibilidad de exportar espárragos congelados para lo cual se crearía la empresa Peruvian Frozen Food (PFF). El reto principal del presente proyecto es demostrar a los directores del Grupo Matta (GM), propiedad de la familia Matta Curotto, que el incursionar en la exportación de espárragos congelados será rentable y sostenible en el tiempo por sí sola, es decir, sin necesidad de apalancarse en el know how y reconocimiento internacion...

  9. Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zago, Augusto M; Donatele, Dirlei M; Caliari, Késia M; Yoshinari, Natalino H

    2009-08-26

    From May 2007 to March 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. In addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. A mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify fragments of the 18S rDNA gene of Babesia spp or Hepatozoon spp revealed amplicons of the expected size in 20 (21.7%) dogs for Babesia, and 54 (58.7%) dogs for Hepatozoon. All Babesia-positive dogs were also Hepatozoon-positive. Among the 21 households, 15 (71.4%) from 3 counties had at least one PCR-positive dog, including 13 farms (rural area) and 2 homes (urban area). A total of 40 PCR products from the Hepatozoon-PCR, and 19 products from the Babesia-PCR were submitted to DNA sequencing. All generated sequences from Hepatozoon-PCR were identical to each other, and to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Surprisingly, all generated sequences from the Babesia PCR were also identical to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Dogs from 10 rural and 2 urban households were found infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Immature of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were found in dogs from only 4 rural households (also infested by R. sanguineus). All but one household with R. sanguineus-infested dogs had at least one Hepatozoon-infected dog. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ticks (i.e. R. sanguineus) infesting dogs in the households was significantly (P0.05) between PCR-positive dogs and urban or rural households. Canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis is a high frequent infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is possibly vectored by R. sanguineus. Since all infected dogs were found apparently healthy, the pathogenicity of H. canis for dogs in Espírito Santo is

  10. Estudo comparativo entre espécies de agave Field trial on agave species

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    Dirceu Ciaramello

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Agave sisalana e A. fourcroydes, responsáveis pela produção de praticamente 90% das fibras duras consumidas no mundo, foram estudadas comparativamente em relação a A. amaniensis, A. letonae, A. zapupe e A. sisalana f. marginata, de 1965 a 1974, em experimento conduzido na E.E. de Tatui, do Instituto Agronômico. Ao completar nove anos de plantio no campo, a espécie A. fourcroydes ainda se encontrava com todas as plantas em produção, tendo as demais espécies concluído o ciclo vegetativo em períodos que variaram de quatro a oito anos. A. fourcroydes produziu a maior quantidade total de fibras por planta, com 5.044 gramas, enquanto A. sisalana apresentou a maior produção média anual, com 582 gramas de fibras secas por planta. Agave sisalana, tanto em sua forma normal como na variegada, deu, aproximadamente, o mesmo número de folhas que o obtido, até ao presente, para A. fourcroydes; as demais espécies produziram menor número de folhas.A trial designed to compare the fiber production of Agave sisalana, A. fourcroydes, A. amaniensis, A. letonae, A. zapupe, and A. sisalana f. marginatawas conducted from 1966 to 1974, at the Tatui Experimental Station, of the Instituto Agronômico, S. Paulo State, Brazil. A. zapupe was the first to pole, at the fourth year, being followed by A. letonae, A. amaniensis, A. sisalana, and A. sisalana f. marginata. A. fourcroydesdid not pole until the ninth year. The spacing adopted was 3 m x 1 m and each species produced per plant respectively: 2 kg for A. zapupe, 3 kg for A. amaniensis and A. letonae, 4 kg for A. sisalana and A. sisalana f. marginata, and 5 kg for A. fourcroydes of dried fiber. Considering the poling age A. sisalana gave the highest production, with the average of 582 g of dried fibers per year by plant.

  11. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Geisa Fregona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis – from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. RESULTS In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24–14.05 and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81–8.43], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98–7.79, and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15–8.99. CONCLUSIONS The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo.

  12. Bullying: an analysis of proceeddings by the regional labor court of Espírito Santo Asedio moral: un análisis de las sentencias del tribunal regional del trabajo del Estado de Espírito Santo Assédio moral: uma análise dos acórdãos do tribunal regional do trabalho do Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed and analyzed legal cases of moral harassment in the state of Espírito Santo. For this purpose, all cases brought to trial in the Regional Labor Court of ES were analyzed for content of judgments. It was possible, therefore, to describe characteristics of lawsuits as well as to group variables according to their nature. For this purpose, we documented content analysis for a better understanding of the facts and incidence of absolute and relative values. As such, a characterization was obtained for all cases from the entire state of Espírito Santo and variables involved were identified, such as jurisdiction of the proceedings, duration of each case, appraisal of lawsuit merits, levels of court decisions, type of company where harassment had occurred, method of aggression, gender of both aggressor and victim, and meaning of bullying. It was also noted that many doubts exist about legal procedures for those who consider themselves victims of bullying in organizationsEste estudio tuvo por objetivo central inventariar y describir las características de los procesos de asedio moral en el Estado de Espírito Santo. Para eso fueron analizados todos los procesos tramitados en juzgado en el Tribunal Regional del Trabajo en ES. Los contenidos de las sentencias fueron el objeto de análisis. A partir de ellos fue posible describir las características de los procesos, como también agrupar las variables de acuerdo con su naturaleza. Para tal intento, se utilizó el análisis del contenido, registrándose, para mejor comprensión de los hechos, las incidencias en valores absolutos y relativos. Al final, fue posible obtener una caracterización de los procesos en todo el Estado de Espírito Santo e identificar las variables que los componen, tales como: las jurisdicciones en las cuales los procesos tramitaron; la duración de cada proceso; el juzgamiento de la procedencia del pleito; los niveles de decisión judicial; el tipo de empresa

  13. Uso de álcool e tabaco entre estudantes de Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Alcohol and tobacco use among Psychology students at the Federal University of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Ferreira dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil do uso de álcool e tabaco entre universitários do curso de graduação em Psicologia do Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal, com abordagem quantitativa. A população estudada foi de alunos matriculados no referido curso no segundo semestre do ano de 2010, constituindo uma amostra de 221 estudantes. O questionário utilizado foi o mesmo utilizado no I Levantamento Nacional entre Universitários, proposto pela Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos estudantes era solteira (90,1%, do sexo feminino (81%, estava na faixa etária de 18 a 24 anos (81%, era da raça/cor caucasoide/branca (57,5% e 55% referiram pertencer às classes econômicas B1 e B2. Encontrou-se maior prevalência de álcool (85,07% e tabaco (33,07% na frequência uso na vida, sendo o uso de álcool maior que na população geral. As substâncias associadas ao uso de álcool na vida foram a maconha (p-valor = 0,007, os tranquilizantes (p = 0,011 e os anfetamínicos (p = 0,045. Já para o uso de tabaco na vida, as substâncias mais associadas foram a maconha (p = 0,0001, os inalantes (p = 0,0001, os alucinógenos (p = 0,0001 e os anfetamínicos (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: É necessária maior abordagem nos currículos de graduação, especialmente da Psicologia, sobre o consumo de substâncias psicoativas e seus impactos para o indivíduo, a família e a sociedade, bem como a criação de programas preventivos específicos para estudantes universitários.OBJECTIVE: Profiling the use of alcohol and tobacco among the undergraduate students of Psychology at the Center for Human and Natural Sciences of Federal University of Espírito Santo. METHODS: The study population were students enrolled in the second semester of 2010 in the psychology undergraduate, comprising a sample of 221 students. The questionnaire used was the same

  14. Brake hydraulics simulation with real-time capability. From hydraulics plan to implementation: the Bosch ESP 5.7 as an example; Echtzeitfaehige Bremshydrauliksimulation. Vom Hydraulikplan zur Implementierung am Beispiel des Bosch ESP 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc, E.; Oliver, P.; Thies, W. [Tesis Dynaware (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    For the development and testing of ABS/ESP control units, both the detailed simulation of the vehicle and drive train dynamics as well as the dynamic behaviour of the hydraulic system are important. The signals coming from the control unit that control the valves in the brake hydraulic system cause pressure changes in the brake system and thus affect the braking torque. In turn, the changes in the speed of the wheels are fed back to the control unit via sensors. The objective of an ABS control strategy is to prevent the wheels from locking during braking in order to ensure and maintain the steerability of the vehicle, while the ESP action also attempts to achieve a stabilization of the yawing motion by means of active braking. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Entwicklung und den Test von ABS/ESP-Steuergeraeten ist neben der detaillierten Simulation von Fahr- und Antriebsstrangdynamik auch das dynamische Verhalten des hydraulischen Systems wichtig. Die vom Steuergeraet kommenden Signale zur Ansteuerung der Ventile in der Bremshydraulik bewirken Druckaenderungen im Bremssystem und somit der Bremsmomente. Die Aenderungen der Raddrehzahlen werden wiederum ueber Sensoren dem Steuergeraet zurueckgemeldet. Ziel einer ABS-Regelstrategie ist das Verhindern des Blockierens der Raeder beim Bremsen, um die Lenkbarkeit des Fahrzeugs zu erhalten, waehrend bei einem ESP-Eingriff durch aktives Bremsen zusaetzlich eine Stabilisierung der Gierbewegung erfolgen soll, wie der folgende Beitrag von Tesis Dynaware zeigt. (orig.)

  15. Espécies de cigarrinhas em cultivo de café no Município de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As cigarrinhas da subfamília Cicadellinae são importantes vetores de patógenos de plantas cultivadas, dentre eles, a bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, que, no Brasil, ataca cultivos de citros, café e também de ameixa. Pouca informação é conhecida sobre a ocorrência, distribuição e biologia de cicadelíneos em plantações de café. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de 141 espécimes, coletados em meses alternados, no período entre junho de 2009 e abril de 2010, em plantação de café no Município de Santa Teresa no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Esses espécimes estão distribuídos em 16 gêneros e 21 espécies pertencentes às duas tribos de Cicadellinae: Cicadellini e Proconiini. Dentre os Cicadellini listados, o gênero Graphocephala é, pela primeira vez, registrado para o Brasil.

  16. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/S...

  17. Comparison of Engine/Inlet Distortion Measurements with MEMS and ESP Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Hector L.; Hernandez, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    A study of active-flow control in a small-scale boundary layer ingestion inlet was conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART). Forty MEMS pressure sensors, in a rake style configuration, were used to examine both the mean (DC) and high frequency (AC) components of the total pressure across the inlet/engine interface plane. The mean component was acquired and used to calculate pressure distortion. The AC component was acquired separately, at a high sampling rate, and is used to study the unsteady effects of the active-flow control. An identical total pressure rake, utilizing an Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) system, was also used to calculate distortion; a comparison of the results obtained using the two rakes is presented.

  18. Evaluation of intense rainfall parameters interpolation methods for the Espírito Santo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intense rainfalls are often responsible for the occurrence of undesirable processes in agricultural and forest areas, such as surface runoff, soil erosion and flooding. The knowledge of intense rainfall spatial distribution is important to agricultural watershed management, soil conservation and to the design of hydraulic structures. The present paper evaluated methods of spatial interpolation of the intense rainfall parameters (“K”, “a”, “b” and “c” for the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Were compared real intense rainfall rates with those calculated by the interpolated intense rainfall parameters, considering different durations and return periods. Inverse distance to the 5th power IPD5 was the spatial interpolation method with better performance to spatial interpolated intense rainfall parameters.

  19. Arquitetura residencial urbana: Espírito Santo do Pinhal, 1880-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Corsi Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Estuda a arquitetura residencial urbana em Espírito Santo do Pinhal, região paulista de economia cafeeira. Insere-se no contexto de produção de casarões urbanos patrocinados pela riqueza acumulada pelo café, edificados no final do século XIX e início do século XX, constituindo importante acervo arquitetônico do ecletismo e da história do ciclo cafeeiro no estado de São Paulo. A abordagem teórica apóia-se especialmente em autores como Maria Cecília N. Homem; Nestor Goulart Reis Filho; Carlos L...

  20. Diseaes of the Mind Doenças do espírito

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    Carmen Junqueira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the idea of disease in the native culture of the Kamaiurá, in which the idea of being healthy means necessarily being able of moving around, working – being alive means being healthy, free from something exterior that can cause harm to the body. Keywords: Diseases. Health. Culture. Nature. Life. Soul. Spirit. O texto discute a noção de doença na cultura indígena Kamaiurá, onde a idéia de saúde vincula-se estreitamente à qualidade de poder se movimentar, trabalhar – estar vivo é estar com saúde, livre de algo exterior que venha causar distúrbio no organismo. Palavras-chave: Doenças. Saúde. Cultura. Natureza. Vida. Alma. Espírito.

  1. Pedagogía como naturaleza y como espíritu

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Villegas, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Con decir que la pedagogía era el arte de enseñar y educar a losniños no se había hecho otra cosa que traducir al español una etimología griega.  Bien pueril y, por lo mismo difícil, resultaba así recuperar el espíritu de una ciencia eminente porque no se trataba solamente de enseñar y educar sino de saber qué se enseña y cómo se educa, por qué se enseña y para qué se educa.

  2. Some Aspects of Culture Teaching in Foreign Language and ESP Classes: Cultural Scripts and Small Talk

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    Ivona Baranovskaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of teaching culture in the foreign language classes at all levels of education. Cultural studies should not be separated from the language syllabus and foreign language learning should not be limited to formal learning of systems of sounds, words, and syntactic structures, but should also include learning the culture of the target language. Success in intercultural communication depends greatly on the understanding of a number of cultural features. The article emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning target culture, as well as introduces the analysis of cultural scripts and small talk in English, Russian and Polish languages. Understanding the cultural differences will benefit and facilitate cross-cultural communication under diverse circumstances. Thereby, this issue is relevant to foreign language and ESP classes focusing on the improvement of both students’ language and cultural skills.

  3. Implementación de WPS en el firmware NodeMCU para el ESP8266

    OpenAIRE

    Candelario Elías, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en el system on chip ESP8266, más en concreto en añadir el estándar WPS al firmware de NodeMCU. Para llevar a cabo este trabajo se han estudiado las características de este SOC y su funcionamiento, así como el estándar WPS y sus distintos modos de funcionamiento. Se ha creado un módulo nuevo en el NodeMCU que permite el uso de las funciones de la librería “libwps.a” proporcionada por la compañía Espressif en su sdk, las cuáles permitirán al NodeMCU hacer ...

  4. Micromorfologia de horizontes espódicos nas restingas do Estado de São Paulo

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    Maurício Rizzato Coelho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Os solos de restinga são pouco estudados e conhecidos no Brasil. Neste trabalho, a micromorfologia de horizontes espódicos foi investigada em quatro locais do litoral do Estado de São Paulo (Bertioga, Ilha de Cananeia, Ilha do Cardoso e Ilha Comprida. A técnica possibilitou caracterizar as diferentes formas da matéria orgânica, e, juntamente com a descrição morfológica de oito perfis de solos representativos das restingas do Estado de São Paulo, objetivou-se discutir os mecanismos envolvidos na gênese dos horizontes espódicos desses ambientes. Entre os resultados alcançados, destaca-se: a presença de revestimentos orgânicos monomórficos na superfície dos constituintes grossos da maioria dos horizontes analisados, bem como o preenchimento quase completo da porosidade entre grãos de alguns horizontes cimentados e brandos, são evidências de que a clássica teoria da mobilização, transporte e precipitação de complexos organometálicos é válida para os solos estudados. No entanto, matéria orgânica polimórfica e, ou, resíduos vegetais em diferentes estádios de decomposição foram as principais pedofeições observadas em horizontes espódicos mal drenados e sotopostos a horizontes hísticos. Nesses, a decomposição pela mesofauna e microbiológica das raízes in situ é um importante mecanismo de acumulação de matéria orgânica em profundidade e formação dos horizontes espódicos. A atuação das raízes na formação desses horizontes, no entanto, vai além da sua decomposição: a fábrica e as feições da matéria orgânica de um horizonte cimentado, incluindo remanescentes radiculares, indicaram que as raízes podem atuar na imobilização da matéria orgânica por meio de seu mecanismo de absorção seletiva. Nesse processo, a solução do solo rica em carbono orgânico dissolvido é absorvida seletivamente pelas raízes, segregando parte do carbono complexado em sua superfície e no entorno destas

  5. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Quality of Dying and Death Questionnaire (QODD-ESP) in a Home-Based Cancer Palliative Care Program and Development of the QODD-ESP-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Pedro E; Padilla Pérez, Oslando; Bonati, Pilar; Thomsen Parisi, Oliva; Tupper Satt, Laura; Gonzalez Otaiza, Marcela; Ceballos Yáñez, Diego; Maldonado Morgado, Armando

    2017-06-01

    Improving quality of death (QOD) is a key goal in palliative care (PC). To our knowledge, no instruments to measure QOD have been validated in Spanish. The goals of this study were to validate the Spanish version of the quality of dying and death (QODD) questionnaire and to develop and validate a shortened version of this instrument by phone interview. We enrolled caregivers (CGs) of consecutive deceased cancer patients who participated in a single PC clinic. CGs were contacted by phone between 4 and 12 weeks after patients' death and completed the Spanish QODD (QODD-ESP). A question assessing quality of life during last week of life was included. A 12-item QODD (QODD-ESP-12) was developed. Reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity were estimated for both versions. About 150 (50%) of 302 CGs completed the QODD-ESP. Patient's mean age (SD) was 67 (14); 71 (47%) were females, and 131 (87%) died at home. CGs' mean age (SD) was 51 (13); 128 (85%) were females. Mean QODD-ESP score was 69 (range 35-96). Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.322, not supporting the use of factorial analysis to assess the existence of an underlying construct. Mean QODD-ESP-12 score was 69 (range 31-97). Correlation with last week quality of life was 0.306 (P < 0.01). Confirmatory factorial analysis of QODD-ESP-12 showed that data fitted well Downey's four factors; Chi-square test = 6.32 (degrees of freedom = 60), P = 0.394 comparative fit index = 0.988; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.987, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.016 (95% CI 0-0.052). QODD-ESP-12 is a reliable and valid instrument with good psychometric properties and can be used to assess QOD in a Spanish-speaking cancer PC population by phone interview. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation system for pesticides (ESPE) 2. Non-agricultural pesticides. To be incorporated into the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Emans HJB; Poel P van der; Linders JBHJ

    1993-01-01

    After the presentation of the Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE) 1. Agricultural pesticides (Emans et al. 1992) this present report is describing the logical successor ESPE 2: non-agricultural pesticides. Starting with an extensive emission analysis of the different types

  7. Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media. Methodology Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011–2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists’ reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics. Principal Findings Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms. Conclusions Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing

  8. Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Emerich, Tatiana Breder; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; dos Santos-Neto, Edson Theodoro; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media. Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011-2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists' reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics. Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms. Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing various realities. Therefore, we propose that the health

  9. Natural radioactivity dose assessment in beach sands of the Espírito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Santos, T.O.; Aguilar, V.J.C.; Takahashia, L.C.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of natural radionuclide contributes significantly to the environmental dose levels that the human being receives, being important to be aware of the distribution, composition and the background of these soils. In this work, the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was determined by gamma spectrometry from the sands of eight beach from Anchieta e Guarapari, in the Espírito Santo, Brazil. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was expressed by radio equivalent activity (R aeq ), which takes into account the associated radiological risk. From these data, the annual effective dose rate for external environment (H eout ) and the radiation risk indexes (H ex ) were calculated. In the sands of Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches the R aeq values ranged from 771.9 to 8743.3 Bq.kg -1 , while H ex ranged from 1.0 to 11.4 Bq.kg -1 and H eout ranged from 0.6 to 6.0 mSv.year -1 , with the lowest values being from Além and the larger ones from Padres. The Areia Vermelha beach presented higher values the others, with R aeq of 152.6 kBq.kg -1 , H ex of 2.1 Bq.kg -1 and H eout 1.0 Sv.year -1 . This evaluation is a favorable tool for radiological protection because it allows to chart the natural radioactivity to the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. (author)

  10. Caracterização da madeira de quatro espécies florestais

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    Javan Pereira Motta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das relações existentes entre a estrutura anatômica da madeira com suas propriedades físicas ou mecânicas é importante para seu uso adequado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a anatomia microscópica e propriedades físicas da madeira de quatro diferentes espécies florestais. A madeira estudada foi proveniente das seguintes espécies: Cedrela fissilis (Cedro, Híbrido clonal Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis (Eucalipto urograndis, Hovenia dulcis (Uva do Japão e Gallesia integrifolia (Pau d'alho. Para a determinação da retratibilidade, utilizou-se a norma MB26/40 da ABNT (1940; as dimensões lineares foram obtidas com palmer, precisão de 0,001mm. O estudo da anatomia da madeira seguiu as recomendações da norma de procedimento em estudos de anatomia de madeira, da COPANT (1974 e também da IAWA (1989. Os caracteres anatômicos avaliados foram: diâmetro tangencial (µm e frequência de vasos (nomm-2; comprimento de fibra (µm, diâmetro de lume (µm e espessura de parede de fibra (µm; altura (µm, largura (µm e frequência de raios (nomm-1. Os valores do coeficiente anisotrópico foram de 1,16; 1,77; 1,81 e 1,84 para a madeira de C. fissilis, H. dulcis, Híbrido clonal e G. integrifolia, respectivamente, demonstrando que a madeira de C. fissilis possui elevada estabilidade dimensional e as demais madeiras, valores aceitáveis para esse coeficiente.

  11. Natural radioactivity dose assessment in beach sands of the Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Santos, T.O.; Aguilar, V.J.C.; Takahashia, L.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Rocha, Z., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The presence of natural radionuclide contributes significantly to the environmental dose levels that the human being receives, being important to be aware of the distribution, composition and the background of these soils. In this work, the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was determined by gamma spectrometry from the sands of eight beach from Anchieta e Guarapari, in the Espírito Santo, Brazil. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K was expressed by radio equivalent activity (R{sub aeq}), which takes into account the associated radiological risk. From these data, the annual effective dose rate for external environment (H{sub eout}) and the radiation risk indexes (H{sub ex}) were calculated. In the sands of Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches the R{sub aeq} values ranged from 771.9 to 8743.3 Bq.kg{sup -1}, while H{sub ex} ranged from 1.0 to 11.4 Bq.kg{sup -1} and H{sub eout} ranged from 0.6 to 6.0 mSv.year{sup -1}, with the lowest values being from Além and the larger ones from Padres. The Areia Vermelha beach presented higher values the others, with R{sub aeq} of 152.6 kBq.kg{sup -1}, H{sub ex} of 2.1 Bq.kg{sup -1} and H{sub eout} 1.0 Sv.year{sup -1}. This evaluation is a favorable tool for radiological protection because it allows to chart the natural radioactivity to the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. (author)

  12. Efeito do alumínio sobre o crescimento de duas espécies florestais

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    A. N. Beutler

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito do Al no crescimento inicial de duas espécies florestais, foi instalado um experimento em novembro de 1998, em solução nutritiva, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Após duas semanas em solução nutritiva diluída a 1/3 e sem Al, duas plantas de Moringa (Moringa oleifera e duas de Angico (Anandenantha peregrina foram transplantadas para vasos de 1,5 L e crescidas em solução nutritiva. Os teores de Al utilizados foram de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; e 10,0 mg L-1, com pH 4,0 ± 0,2, ajustado diariamente durante 70 dias. Após este período, foi determinada a altura das plantas, as quais, posteriormente, foram divididas em parte aérea e raiz, para determinação da matéria seca e dos teores de N e P. Os teores crescentes de Al reduziram progressivamente a altura das plantas e a produção de matéria seca das raízes nas duas espécies e da parte aérea no Angico. O teor de nitrogênio na Moringa diminuiu com o incremento nos teores de Al. O teor de fósforo na parte aérea da Moringa e do Angico diminui a partir de 5 mg L-1 de Al na solução nutritiva.

  13. Catalogue of type specimens of the Collection of Invertebrates of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of the type specimens of Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Zoraptera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to December, 2007. A total of eight holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of nine species of Isoptera; three holotypes and one paratype of three species of Mantodea; five holotypes and five lots of paratypes of five species of Mecoptera; eight holotypes and five lots of paratypes of eleven species of Orthoptera; three holotypes, three neotypes and two lots of paratypes of seven species of Plecoptera; six holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of ten species of Trichoptera; and two holotypes and three lots of paratypes of three species of Zoraptera, are listed. Specific names are listed alphabetically within the family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data and remarks when appropriate.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até dezembro de 2007. É relacionado um total de sete holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Isoptera; três holótipos e um parátipo de três espécies de Mantodea; cinco holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de cinco espécies de Mecoptera; oito holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Orthoptera; três holótipos, três neótipos e dois lotes de parátipos de sete espécies de Plecoptera; seis holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de dez espécies de Trichoptera; e dois holótipos e três lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Zoraptera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do

  14. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-04-27

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis - from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24-14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81-8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98-7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15-8.99). The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose resistente

  15. Novas espécies de Prioninae e de Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae) da Região Neotropical

    OpenAIRE

    Galileo,Maria Helena M.; Martins,Ubirajara R.

    2010-01-01

    Novas espécies descritas: Hovorelus adiectus sp. nov. (Anacolini) da Costa Rica; Stenoeme aguilari sp. nov. do Paraguai e Placoeme wappesi sp. nov. da Bolívia (Oemini); da Bahia, Brasil: Coeloxestia spinosa sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Sphallotrichina); Stizocera debilis sp. nov., Anelaphus bravoi sp. nov. (Elaphidionini) e Chydarteres formosus sp. nov. (Trachyderini).

  16. Crescimento de espécies forrageiras tropicais submetidas a diferentes períodos de alagamento

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    Haddade Ismail Ramalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no período de janeiro a julho de 1996, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento de três espécies forrageiras (Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria mutica e Setaria anceps cultivadas em vasos, sob duas situações de manejo (com e sem o corte anterior aos tratamentos e seis diferentes condições (10, 20 e 30 dias, com e sem alagamento. Para as avaliações de crescimento, foram analisadas as produções de matéria seca de folhas, caule e material morto, em dois cortes, referentes ao primeiro crescimento e à rebrota das plantas nos vasos. Durante o período experimental, foram medidos os comprimentos dos perfilhos principais (Oliveira,1989, além do número de folhas presentes, em medições a cada sete dias, em duas plantas por vaso. Os resultados não foram diferentes nas duas situações, encontrando-se algumas diferenças para a S. anceps (espécie cespitosa. A B. mutica foi a espécie mais adaptada, não tendo modificado seu crescimento, mesmo nos maiores períodos de inundação. Essas duas espécies foram superiores à B. decumbens, pouco adaptada às inundações.

  17. Two new species of Leandra s.str. (Melastomataceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reginato, M.; Goldenberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Two species of Leandra that occur in the Atlantic Forest, in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil, are described and illustrated here. Leandra cristata has been found in the understory of montane rain forest, and can be recognized by the distinct nodal ridges on the young branches, by the

  18. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por esp

  19. Atualização da nomenclatura de espécies do gênero Heliconia (Heliconiaceae.

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    Carlos Eduardo Ferreira de Castro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As helicônias constituem um grupo de plantas cujo cultivo vem se intensificando devido ao crescente mercado. Porém, o uso incorreto da denominação para as espécies que vêm sendo cultivadas tem ocasionado alguns problemas ao produtor, como a decisão sobre adequadas técnicas de cultivo e manejo fitossanitário a serem adotadas, uma vez que o grupo é muito extenso e as exigências de nutrição mineral, espaçamento, condições de cultivo e ocorrência de pragas e doenças variam conforme a espécie considerada. Essa incorreção tem também ocasionado alguns entraves referentes às relações comerciais que envolvem a venda de mudas. Muitas vezes, seguindo nomenclaturas inadequadas ou nomes populares e/ou de variedades, o produtor rural pensa estar adquirindo mudas de determinada espécie, adaptada à sua região de cultivo e recebe um outro produto que poderá não ter uma produção satisfatória, ocorrendo prejuízos. O estudo baseou-se principalmente em informações obtidas em trabalhos originais publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais e livros sobre helicônias publicados entre 1880 e 2002 com descrições de espécies de helicônias. A interpretação dos dados compilados permitiu estipular 176 espécies de helicônias, de ocorrência na região neotropical e seis espécies nas Ilhas do Pacífico, perfazendo 182 espécies. O maior número de espécies e subespécies descritas tem ocorrência natural na Colômbia (94, seguindo em ordem decrescente Equador (60 Panamá (56, Costa Rica (47, Brasil (37, Peru (32, Venezuela (26, Nicarágua (22, Guatemala (16, Bolívia (15, Honduras e México (14 e Suriname (13. Das 182 espécies elencadas, 94 são registradas como endêmicas de determinada região, o que aponta uma grande fragilidade do gênero com relação à conservação de germoplasma. Face ao elevado grau de endemismo recomenda-se urgência no estabelecimento de um programa nacional/internacional que vise à coleta e

  20. 44 CFR 334.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 334.1 Section 334.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... proceed with specific responses to an identified crisis or emergency. (c) Provides guidance to the Federal...

  1. Introductions de nouvelles espèces de poissons dans les eaux douces tropicales : objectifs et conséquences

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    LÉVÊQUE C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les introductions d'espèces dans les milieux aquatiques tropicaux ont d'abord eu pour motivation de développer la pêche sportive pour les émigrants européens. Actuellement, les principaux objectifs sont d'améliorer la pêche artisanale locale et de développer l'aquaculture. L'introduction de poissons pélagiques de la famille des clupéidés dans divers lacs naturels ou de barrage apparaît comme un succès, car elle a permis de développer la pêche de manière significative, sans dommages apparents pour la faune indigène. Par contre, l'introduction de prédateurs a toujours eu des conséquences négatives sur la faune autochtone, et divers exemples sont donnés dont la truite (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 en Australie et dans le lac Titicaca, et le capitaine (Lates niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 dans le lac Victoria. Les introductions de tilapias donnent lieu à des bilans plus mitigés, généralement positifs lorsque les cichlidés sont introduits dans des milieux pauvres en espèces autochtones, alors que des disparitions d'espèces ont été constatées pour les introductions réalisées dans les milieux déjà riches en espèces. L'exemple des lacs malgaches montre les conséquences d'introductions successives de diverses espèces sur la faune ichtyologique et la pêche.

  2. Insect galls from Atlantic Forest areas of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil: characterization and occurrence

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Galhas de insetos de areas de Mata Atlântica de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil: caracterização e ocorrência. Três áreas protegidas de Mata atlântica foram investigadas em  Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, de junho de 2007 a agosto de 2009: Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi e Parque Natural Municipal São Lourenço. A vegetação local foi examinada à procura de galhas de insetos. Foram encontrados 265 morfotipos de galhas em 141 espécies de plantas (104 gêneros e 49 famílias. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae e Rubiaceae foram as famílias de planta com maior riqueza de galhas. Os gêneros super-hospedeiros foram Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae, Myrcia DC. ex. Guill. (Myrtaceae e Inga Mill. (Fabaceae. A espécie super-hospedeira foi Guapira opposita (Vell. Reitz. (Nyctaginaceae. As galhas foram encontradas em folhas, caules, botões, raízes e gavinhas. As folhas foram o órgão vegetal mais galhado, seguidas pelos caules e botões. Os indutores pertencem a quatro ordens de insetos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera e Thysanoptera, sendo Cecidomyiidae (Diptera os mais frequentes e diversificados galhadores. Inquilinos foram obtidos de seis morfotipos de galhas, estando representados por Cecidomyiidae and Muscomorpha. Nove species galhadoras são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado do Espírito Santo, e Cordiamyia globosa Maia, 1996 é assinalada pela primeira vez para o município de Santa Teresa. O presente estudo indica Santa Teresa (ES como a área de Mata Atlântica com maior riqueza de galhas de insetos.

  3. The EspF N-Terminal of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933w Imparts Stronger Toxicity Effects on HT-29 Cells than the C-Terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Du, Yanli; Hua, Ying; Fu, Muqing; Niu, Cong; Zhang, Bao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 EspF is an important multifunctional protein that destroys the tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells and promotes host cell apoptosis. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We knocked out the espF sequence (747 bp, Δ espF ), N-terminal sequence (219 bp, Δ espF N ), and C-terminal sequence (528 bp, Δ espF C ) separately using the pKD46-mediated λ Red homologous recombination system. Then, we built the corresponding complementation strains, namely, Δ espF/pespF , Δ espF N /pespF N , and Δ espF C /pespF C by overlap PCR, which were used in infecting HT-29 cells and BALB/C mice. The level of reactive oxygen species, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, inflammatory factors, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and animal mortality were evaluated by DCFH-DA, double staining of Annexin V-FITC/PI, JC-1 staining, ELISA kit, and a mouse assay. The wild-type (WT), Δ espF , Δ espF/pespF , Δ espF C , Δ espF C /pespF C , Δ espF N , and Δ espF N /pespF N groups exhibited apoptotic rates of 68.3, 27.9, 64.9, 65.7, 73.4, 41.3, and 35.3% respectively, and mean TNF-α expression levels of 428 pg/mL, 342, 466, 446, 381, 383, and 374 pg/mL, respectively. In addition, the apoptotic rates and TNF-α levels of the WT, Δ espF/pespF , and Δ espF C were significantly higher than that of Δ espF , Δ espF N , Δ espF C /pespF C , and Δ espF N /pespF N group ( p < 0.05). The N-terminal of EspF resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, TNF-α secretion, ROS generation, mitochondria apoptosis, and pathogenicity in BalB/c mice. In conclusion, the N-terminal domain of the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 EspF more strongly promotes apoptosis and inflammation than the C-terminal domain.

  4. The EspF N-Terminal of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933w Imparts Stronger Toxicity Effects on HT-29 Cells than the C-Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 EspF is an important multifunctional protein that destroys the tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells and promotes host cell apoptosis. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We knocked out the espF sequence (747 bp, ΔespF, N-terminal sequence (219 bp, ΔespFN, and C-terminal sequence (528 bp, ΔespFC separately using the pKD46-mediated λ Red homologous recombination system. Then, we built the corresponding complementation strains, namely, ΔespF/pespF, ΔespFN/pespFN, and ΔespFC/pespFC by overlap PCR, which were used in infecting HT-29 cells and BALB/C mice. The level of reactive oxygen species, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, inflammatory factors, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER, and animal mortality were evaluated by DCFH-DA, double staining of Annexin V-FITC/PI, JC-1 staining, ELISA kit, and a mouse assay. The wild-type (WT, ΔespF, ΔespF/pespF, ΔespFC, ΔespFC/pespFC, ΔespFN, and ΔespFN/pespFN groups exhibited apoptotic rates of 68.3, 27.9, 64.9, 65.7, 73.4, 41.3, and 35.3% respectively, and mean TNF-α expression levels of 428 pg/mL, 342, 466, 446, 381, 383, and 374 pg/mL, respectively. In addition, the apoptotic rates and TNF-α levels of the WT, ΔespF/pespF, and ΔespFC were significantly higher than that of ΔespF, ΔespFN, ΔespFC/pespFC, and ΔespFN/pespFN group (p < 0.05. The N-terminal of EspF resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, TNF-α secretion, ROS generation, mitochondria apoptosis, and pathogenicity in BalB/c mice. In conclusion, the N-terminal domain of the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 EspF more strongly promotes apoptosis and inflammation than the C-terminal domain.

  5. Óleos essenciais de folhas de diversas espécies: propriedades antioxidantes e antibacterianas no crescimento espécies patogênicas

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    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga Miranda

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os óleos essenciais apresentam possibilidade de serem empregados nas indústrias de alimentos, bebidas, produtos de higiene pessoal e cosméticos para evitar ou reduzir a deterioração lipídica e a contaminação por micro-organismos. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar as propriedades funcionais antimicrobianas e antioxidantes de óleos essenciais de folhas frescas de Coniza bonariensis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Tithonia diversifolia, Ambrosia polystachya, Hedychium coronarium e Baccharis dracunculifolia, extraídos por hidrodestilação. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado pelas metodologias do consumo do radical DPPH e da inibição da oxidação do sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A sensibilidade das bactérias Salmonella Cholerasuis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli frente aos óleos essenciais foi determinada pela utilização do método de difusão em cavidade ágar. Os óleos essenciais destacaram-se pelo elevado conteúdo de terpenoides. Todos os óleos essenciais avaliados pela metodologia do sequestro do radical DPPH não apresentaram CI50 significativos. Pela metodologia do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico, os óleos essenciais de T. diversifolia e H. coronarium não apresentaram atividades significativas e os de C. bonariensis, P. hysterophorus, A. polystachya, e B. dracunculifolia apresentaram CI50 superiores a maior concentração avaliada. Os óleos essenciais das espécies C. bonariensis, T. diversifolia, H. coronarium e de B. dracunculifolia apresentaram atividade antibacteriana para bactérias Gramnegativas e Gram-positivas, com exceção do óleo volátil de P. hysterophorus, que não impediu o crescimento de nenhuma das cepas bacterianas testadas. O óleo essencial de A. polystachya apresentou potencial antibacteriano apenas nas cepas de S. aureus.

  6. El trabajo asalariado: La mecanización del espíritu El trabajo asalariado: La mecanización del espíritu

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    Olga Lucía Garcés Uribe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wage labor has not been a novelty in the development of Western history. However, this category has become more and more important over the last two centuries, generating contradictory intellectual positions. Embodied in different authors, these positions materialized in speeches, sometimes apologetic and some others decidedly critical, in which the social, cultural and human consequences of a society shaped around wage labor and the industrialization process where it flourished, are denounced. Some characteristics of work and the conditions of its possibility emerged with modern Western society and converged in the development of the industrialized world, giving wage labor a privileged status in the economic and administrative reflection. This article explores the situation described above, denouncing the mechanization of the spirit of the employee when trying to be efficient; understanding efficiency as the engine of the ideal of progress over the last one hundred years.El trabajo asalariado no ha sido una novedad en el desarrollo de la historia deOccidente. Sin embargo, tal categoría ha tomado fuerza y desplegado contradictoriasposiciones intelectuales en los dos últimos siglos, las cuales, encarnadas endistintos autores, se han materializado en discursos, unas veces apologéticos yotras, decididamente críticos, en los que se denuncian las consecuencias sociales,culturales y humanas de una sociedad configurada en torno al trabajo asalariado yal proceso de industrialización en cuyo seno se potenció. Algunas características deltrabajo y las condiciones de su posibilidad suscitadas en el proceso del Occidente moderno, confluyeron en el desarrollo del mundo industrializado y otorgaronal trabajo asalariado su carácter privilegiado en la problemática económica yadministrativa. El presente documento explora tal situación a la vez que la reflexiónse inscribe en la denuncia de la mecanización a la que ha sido sometido el esp

  7. Análise linguístico-discursiva do genero introdução de artigo de pesquisa (para fins específicos: Teste ANPAD A linguistic-discursive analysis of the genre research article introduction (to specific purposes: ANPAD Test

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    Juliana Guimarães Rodrigues Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um recorte de um estudo que analisou o gênero textual `introdução de artigo de pesquisa' sob a ótica retórico-discursiva. Os princípios teórico-metodológicos que orientaram esta pesquisa foram: inglês instrumental, leitura e gêneros textuais. A pesquisa realizada é de natureza descritiva focalizada (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991, e o corpus utilizado é formado por introduções de artigo de pesquisa da prova de inglês do teste ANPAD. Neste artigo, será apresentada uma análise linguístico-discursiva das introduções desse corpus. Os resultados mostraram que as evidências linguísticas nem sempre correspondem a um determinado movimento retórico (SWALES, 1990 presente nos textos das introduções analisadas. O estudo teve finalidade pedagógica, pois evidenciou os marcadores linguísticos e as estruturas verbais que realmente ocorrem nesse gênero.This article is part of a study which analyzed the textual genre `research article introduction' from the perspective of rhetorical-discursive analysis. The theoretical-methodological principles which guided this research were: English for specific purposes, reading and textual genre. This research was a focused description (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991, and the corpususedwas composed by research article introductions from the ANPAD English test (ANPAD is a test for postgraduate courses. This article presents the linguistic-discursive analysis of the introductions that comprise the corpusused in the studyof the original study. The results showed that the linguistic evidence not always corresponded to a specific rhetorical movement (SWALES, 1990 in the introductions. The study had a pedagogical purpose because it highlighted the linguistic marks and the verbal structures that really occur in this genre.

  8. O Espírito do Cristianismo e o seu Destino

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    G. W. F. Hegel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tradutor: Adilson Felício Feiler, SJ, Doutorando em Filosofia pela PUCRS. E-mail: feilersj@yahoo.com.br. Revisão de Agemir Bavaresco (PUCRS, Jozivan Guedes (PUCRS e Paulo Roberto Konzen (UFRGS. A tradução de O Espírito do Cristianismo e o seu Destino (Der Geist des Christentums und sein Schicksal, que ora segue, constitui, no dizer de Dilthey, uma das mais belas passagens escritas por Hegel. No entanto, é questionável se a obra constitui um todo acabado, já que Hegel interrompeu várias vezes sua redação, deixando linhas em branco e reiniciando o parágrafo com uma nova linha de pensamento. Mas, Nohl juntou em um texto homogêneo um composto de cinco fragmentos separados (N, 243-60, 261-75, 276-301, 302-24, 325-42. Pelas pesquisas de G. Schüler e Ch. Jamme, a obra se desenvolve em duas fases distintas, tendo como ponto de partida o outono/inverno de 1798 para 1799, em Frankfurt. É neste período que Hegel procura desvendar a origem da positividade das leis morais religiosas judaicas que o cristianismo procura superar pelo amor. Pelo espírito do cristianismo, Hegel ensaia uma resposta à questão da unidade, que passa a ser veiculada pelos impulsos naturais da vontade. É, por isso, este um período hegeliano denominado de período anímico. A tradução é da seguinte edição alemã: HEGEL, G. W. F. Frühe Schriften. Werk 1. Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft: Frankfurt am Main, 1994, p. 397-418. Esta quinta e última parte da tradução consiste em mostrar o esforço de Jesus de Nazaré na luta contra as divisões que conduza à fé no Reino de Deus. Tal esforço se dá pela liberdade, por um sinal do destino, desenvolvendo-se relações que estão para além daquelas do mundo, do Estado e da religião. Estas relações privilegiam a unidade no amor, como não passividade ao destino.

  9. O Espírito do Cristianismo e seu Destino (Continuação

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    G. W. F. Hegel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tradutor: Adilson Felício Feiler, SJ, Doutorando em Filosofia pela PUCRS. E-mail: feilersj@yahoo.com.br. Revisão de Agemir Bavaresco (PUCRS, Francisco Jozivan Guedes (PUCRS e Paulo Roberto Konzen (UFRGS. A tradução de O Espírito do Cristianismo e o seu Destino (Der Geist des Christentums und sein Schicksal, que ora segue, constitui, no dizer de Dilthey, uma das mais belas passagens escritas por Hegel. No entanto, é questionável se a obra constitui um todo acabado, já que Hegel interrompeu várias vezes sua redação, deixando linhas em branco e reiniciando o parágrafo com uma nova linha de pensamento. Mas, Nohl juntou em um texto homogêneo um composto de cinco fragmentos separados (N, 243-60, 261-75, 276-301, 302-24, 325-42. Pelas pesquisas de G. Schüler e Ch. Jamme, a obra se desenvolve em duas fases distintas, tendo como ponto de partida o outono/inverno de 1798 para 1799, em Frankfurt. É neste período que Hegel procura desvendar a origem da positividade das leis morais religiosas judaicas que o cristianismo procura superar pelo amor. Pelo espírito do cristianismo, Hegel ensaia uma resposta à questão da unidade, que passa a ser veiculada pelos impulsos naturais da vontade. É, por isso, este um período hegeliano denominado de período anímico. Estão traduzidas, em princípio, apenas as páginas iniciais da obra, em que Hegel apresenta Jesus como aquele que se levanta contra as leis judaicas. A tradução é da seguinte edição alemã: HEGEL, G. W. F. Frühe Schriften. Werk 1. Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft: Frankfurt am Main, 1994, p. 346-369. Esta terceira parte da tradução apresenta a crítica de Hegel à positividade da religião judaica. Tal positividade vem expressa através da lei, que coloca o humano numa posição de subserviência e passividade. Diante desta situação Hegel reconhece a atuação de Jesus de Nazaré, aquele que se levanta frente às incoerências do judaísmo.

  10. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

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    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  11. Estudo de caso de três espécies de plantas bioindicadoras de solos salinos

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    Mercia Fonseca Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioindicadores, de uma maneira geral, são seres vivos de natureza diversa, vegetais ou animais, utilizados para analisar a qualidade de um determinado ambiente. A degradação ambiental do solo pela salinidade é um problema muito antigo e de extensão mundial, geralmente, mais pronunciado nas regiões áridas e semi-áridas. As plantas que se desenvolvem em áreas com elevadas concentrações de sais são chamadas de halófitas, e algumas delas são usadas na recuperar desses solos. O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar três espécies de plantas resistentes ao estresse salino gerar recomendações a respeito das mesmas, disponibilizando uma indicação de espécie que possa recuperar o ambiente salinizado. Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente três espécies de plantas resistentes a salinidade Copernicia prunifera, Atriplex nummularia L. e Gossypium hirsutum L, as mesmas foram analisados por uma planilha com características que identificam um bioindicador ideal e em seguida as espécies foram avaliadas de acordo com sua fisiologia e etiologia. Embora as propriedades da espécie A. nummularia tenha se destacado por recuperar os solos salinizados a espécie Copernicia prunifera foi considerada como um bioindicador ideal. Recomendam-se ainda estudos mais aprofundados acerca desse assunto.Case study of three species of saline soil bioindicatorsAbstract: Bioindicators, in general, living organisms are diverse in nature, plant or animal used to assess the quality of a given environment. Environmental degradation by soil salinity is a very old problem and expanse world generally more pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions. Plants that thrive in areas with high concentrations of salts are called halophytes, and some of them are used in recovering these soils. The aim of this work is to analyze three species of plants resistant to salt stress generate recommendations regarding the same, providing an indication of species that can restore the

  12. Crescimento e composição química de dez espécies de microalgas marinhas em cultivos estanques Growth and chemical composition of ten species of marine microalgae in batch cultures

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    Viviane Borges-Campos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgas apresentam diversas aplicações econômicas consagradas, como usos na aquicultura e na indústria de alimentos, havendo buscas por novos usos, como a geração de biomassa para produção de biodiesel. As possíveis aplicações estão diretamente relacionadas à taxa de crescimento e ao perfil químico das espécies. Assim, a seleção de condições que promovam o aproveitamento da biomassa algácea é fundamental para sua utilização econômica. Neste estudo, 10 espécies de microalgas marinhas foram cultivadas e comparadas quanto ao crescimento e à composição química. Foram observadas diferenças na velocidade de crescimento, com espécies de células menores crescendo mais rapidamente que microalgas maiores. Teores de proteínas, carboidratos, lipídeos e pigmentos fotossintetizantes variaram amplamente entre as espécies, sendo as proteínas as substâncias mais abundantes. Todas as espécies apresentaram concentrações de ácidos aminados semelhantes, sendo os ácidos aspártico e glutâmico os mais abundantes. Algumas espécies apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos de importância econômica, como os ácidos eicosapentaenoico e linoleico. O balanço dos resultados indica que há poucas tendências gerais relacionadas a grandes grupos taxonômicos.Microalgae show several economic applications, such as uses in aquaculture and in food industry, and there is a search for new uses, such as the biomass production to convert into biodiesel. All possible applications are directly linked to growth rate and the chemical profile of the species. Thus, the selection of conditions to promote a better use of algal biomass is fundamental for economic purposes. In this study, 10 species of marine microalgae were cultured and compared for growth and chemical composition. Remarkable differences of growth performance have been observed, with species with small cell volumes growing faster than species with large cell volumes

  13. Uma nova espécie de Bacopa Aubl. (Scrophulariaceae da América do Sul A new species of Bacopa Aubl. [Scrophulariaceae] from South America

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    Vinicius Castro Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Bacopa (Scrophulariaceae do Brasil e Argentina é descrita. Ilustração e descrição desta espécie são apresentadas, além de uma comparação com espécies afins do gênero.A new species of Bacopa (Scrophulariaceae from Brazil and Argentina is described. Description and illustration are included and a comparison with related species is presented.

  14. Lista das espécies de Ropalomeridae, Sphaeroceridae e Ulidiidae (Diptera, Acalyptratae do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Karla Pessôa Tepedino

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de espécies de Ropalomeridae, Sphaeroceridae e Ulidiidae registradas no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Ropalomeridae é representada por oito espécies distribuídas em quatro gêneros: Dactylissa Fischer (1, Kroeberia Lindner (1, Ropalomera Wiedemann (5 e Willistoniella Mik (1. Apenas uma espécie de Sphaeroceridae possui registro para o estado: Neosphaerocera flavicoxa (Malloch, 1925, assim como de Ulidiidae: Notogramma cimiciforme Loew, 1868.

  15. Isolamento de microssatélites de espécies madeireiras no contexto da sustentabilidade genética no manejo florestal

    OpenAIRE

    VINSON, Christina Cleo

    2004-01-01

    Aborda isolamento de microssatélites de espécies madeireiras no contexto da sustentabilidade genética no manejo florestal com o objetivo de isolar e caracterizar uma bateria de marcadores microssatélites para espécies arbóreas da Floresta Amazônica: Jacaranda copaia, Bagassa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata. Estes estudos vem sendo realizados como parte do projeto Dendrogene, e as análises genéticas populacionais posteriores fornecerão subsídios para conservação e manejo sustentável destas espéc...

  16. O Centro Espírita Redemptor e o tratamento de doença mental, 1910-1921 The Centro Espírita Redemptor and the treatment of mental illness, 1910-1921

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    André de Faria Pereira Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O espiritismo é uma doutrina religiosa que surgiu na França durante o século XIX por meio da obra de Allan Kardec. No Brasil, assumiu certa originalidade: o espiritismo racional e científico cristão, liderado por Luiz de Mattos, foi uma de suas vertentes doutrinárias nacionais. Luiz de Mattos criou o Centro Espírita Redemptor onde, durante alguns anos, acompanhou o tratamento dos doentes mentais. O artigo analisa as características do tratamento espírita racional e científico cristão à doença mental e as estratégias que Luiz de Mattos adotou para defender sua forma de tratamento. Apresenta ainda algumas semelhanças e diferenças entre o tratamento espírita e o médico.Spiritism is a religious doctrine originated in France during the nineteenth century through the works of Allan Kardec. In Brazil, it assumed an original configuration: rational and scientific Christian spiritism, pioneered by Luiz de Mattos, was one of the national doctrinal variants. Luiz de Mattos created the Centro Espírita Redemptor where, for some years, he monitored the treatment of the mentally ill. The article analyzes the characteristics of rational and scientific Christian spiritism treatment applied to mental illness and the strategies that Luiz de Mattos adopted to defend his form of treatment. Some similarities and differences between spiritist and medical treatment are also outlined.

  17. Hepatitis C in prisoners and non-prisoners in Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Tânia Cristina Falquetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare hepatitis C prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors between prisoners and non-prisoners in the city of Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved approximately 1,600 residents and 730 prisoners, all of whom were living in Colatina. The percentage of individuals who tested positive for anti-HCV was 0.1% (2/1,600 in the non-prisoner group and 1.0% (7/730 in the prisoner group, confirming a higher risk of hepatitis C in the latter group. The percentage of subjects who progressed to HCV-RNA negative was 11.1% (1/9, confirming the high probability of evolution to chronicity. Genotype 1 was the most predominant genotype found. Factors associated with increased risk of hepatitis C were being male, being institutionalized, having an income of less than three minimum wages, having low educational attainment, and using injected drugs. Alcohol use, pain in the liver, migraine, and reported history of hepatitis were markedly associated with hepatitis C. The prison population tested positive for anti-HCV at a higher rate than the non-prison population.

  18. Georgian Welfare State: Preliminary Study Based on Esping-Andersen’s Typology

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    Magda Asatiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the welfare state of Georgia according to the Esping-Andersen’s typology and to justify the theory of “(instable welfare states”. This article analyses different aspects of wellbeing (pension and healthcare systems, labour-market policy and family benefits in Georgia during the period of 1991-2013. The research shows the diversity of policies in different fields of social care. The results revealed that Georgian health and labour-market policies can be classified as liberal ones, while the pension system – as a social-democratic one, and finally the family benefits policy – as a conservative one. Thus, the theory of (instable welfare state can be justified in this case and Georgian state overall can be qualified as a country with a hybrid and instable social policy. However, further research is needed for the final confirmation (or rejection of this theory, once the current policy reforms, started back in 2013, would be fully implemented.

  19. Espírito e liberdade na obra de Viktor Frankl

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    Ivo Studart Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente trabalho tem o propósito de expor e analisar o primeiro dos três fundamentos básicos relativos à logoterapia de Viktor Frankl: o problema da liberdade humana. Iniciamos nosso esforço argumentativo por meio da discussão a respeito do significado da categoria "espírito" enquanto conceito antropológico e sua intrínseca relação com o tema da liberdade humana. Num segundo momento, discute-se como essa visão de liberdade se relaciona com aquilo que Frankl entendeu como os três complexos básicos de determinação aos quais o homem está submetido sob a forma dos "destinos" biológico, psicológico e sociológico. Analisamos o argumento afirmativo da liberdade espiritual no contexto de cada um desses domínios.

  20. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal

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    Candido Regina Celia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.

  1. Structural analysis of DNA–protein complexes regulating the restriction–modification system Esp1396I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Richard N. A.; McGeehan, John E.; Ball, Neil J.; Streeter, Simon D.; Thresh, Sarah-Jane; Kneale, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of bound and unbound DNA in protein–DNA co-crystal complexes reveals insights into controller-protein binding and DNA distortion in transcriptional regulation. The controller protein of the type II restriction–modification (RM) system Esp1396I binds to three distinct DNA operator sequences upstream of the methyltransferase and endonuclease genes in order to regulate their expression. Previous biophysical and crystallographic studies have shown molecular details of how the controller protein binds to the operator sites with very different affinities. Here, two protein–DNA co-crystal structures containing portions of unbound DNA from native operator sites are reported. The DNA in both complexes shows significant distortion in the region between the conserved symmetric sequences, similar to that of a DNA duplex when bound by the controller protein (C-protein), indicating that the naked DNA has an intrinsic tendency to bend when not bound to the C-protein. Moreover, the width of the major groove of the DNA adjacent to a bound C-protein dimer is observed to be significantly increased, supporting the idea that this DNA distortion contributes to the substantial cooperativity found when a second C-protein dimer binds to the operator to form the tetrameric repression complex

  2. Notas e novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Hypsioma carioca sp. nov. (Rio de Janeiro e Hesychotypa maraba sp. nov. (Pará; do Equador: Sternycha ecuatoriana sp. nov. (Pichincha; da Bolívia (Santa Cruz: Hesychotypa magnifica sp. nov., Tibiosioma maculosa sp. nov. e Alexera secunda sp. nov. Transfere-se Hesycha strandi (Breuning, 1943 para o gênero Cacostola Fairmaire & Germain, 1859. Hesychotypa archippa Dillon & Dillon, 1946 é considerada sinônima de H. miniata Thomson, 1868. Novo registro (Trinidad e figura são dados para Trachysomus surdus.Notes and new species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. New species described from Brazil: Hypsioma carioca sp. nov. (Rio de Janeiro and Hesychotypa maraba sp. nov. (Pará; from Ecuador: Sternycha ecuatoriana sp. nov. (Pichincha; from Bolivia (Santa Cruz: Hesychotypa magnifica sp. nov., Tibiosioma maculosa sp. nov. and Alexera secunda sp. nov. Hesycha strandi (Breuning, 1943 is transferred to the genus Cacostola Fairmaire & Germain, 1859. Hesychotypa archippa Dillon & Dillon, 1946 is considered a synonym of H. miniata Thomson, 1868. New record (Trinidad and figure for Trachysomus surdus Dillon & Dillon, 1946 are given.

  3. Alelopatia de Joanesia princeps Vell. e Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

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    Rafael Aguiar Capobiango

    Full Text Available Metabólitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de folhas de Joanesia princeps e Casearia sylvestris na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Brassica oleracea cv. capitata, Lactuca sativa cv. grand rapids e Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram testadas seis concentrações de cada extrato (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100% além do controle água destilada. Os extratos aquosos de J. princeps e C. sylvestris reduziram e, ou inibiram significativamente o percentual de geminação das sementes, o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas as espécies cultivadas e causaram severas anormalidades nas plântulas. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de J. princeps e C. sylvestris.

  4. A comparison between averaged spikes and individual visually-analyzed spikes in rolandic epileptiform discharges Comparação por análise visual entre as espículas promediadas e as espículas individuais nas descargas epileptiformes rolândicas

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    Nadia I.O. Braga

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:This study compared some morphological features of individual rolandic epileptiform discharges, used to obtain an averaged estimate, with those of the resulting estimate. METHOD: Twenty-four averaged discharges from EEGs of 24 children showing rolandic spikes were compared with 480 individual discharges used in the averaging. The analysis was based on the occurrence of tangential dipole and "double spike" patterns. RESULTS: In 15 averaged discharges the tangential dipole pattern was found. Individual spikes used in the averaging process displayed the same pattern in 35-100% of them; in the remaining 9 averaged discharges, up to 20% of the individual spikes showed the same pattern, although this was not found in the averaged waveforms. "Double spike" pattern was found in 11 of the averaged waveforms and was recognized in 50-100% of its individual discharges, whereas up to 45% of individual spikes showed this pattern without expression in the averaged waveform. CONCLUSION: When visually analyzing an EEG with rolandic spikes, caution should be exercised in characterizing these patterns, since a few discharges showing them may not be expressed in the averaged waveform and the clinical correlations proposed for these patterns may not apply.OBJETIVO: Comparar as características morfológicas das descargas epileptiformes rolândicas individuais usadas para se obter uma descarga promediada com a resultante promediada. MÉTODO: Vinte e quatro descargas promediadas dos EEG de 24 crianças com descargas epileptiformes rolândicas foram comparadas com as 480 descargas individuais utilizadas na promediação. A análise foi baseada na ocorrência de dipolo tangencial e "dupla espícula". RESULTADOS: Em 15 descargas promediadas o dipolo tangencial estava presente. As espículas individuais usadas na promediação mostraram o mesmo padrão em 35-100% das descargas. Nas 9 descargas promediadas restantes, até 20% das descargas individuais apresentavam

  5. Caracterização farmacognóstica da espécie Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Eustáquio Almeida

    Full Text Available Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida popularmente no Brasil pelos nomes de mulungu, sapatinho-de-judeu, corticeira-da-serra, muchoco, é usada pela população como planta medicinal indicada como sedativo, ansiolítico ou para doenças do aparelho respiratório. Seu uso indiscriminado, no entanto, pode trazer consequências graves à saúde, devido à forte presença de alcaloides, particularmente nas sementes e na casca. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudos fitoquímicos para identificação dos principais grupos de substâncias existentes na espécie, além de estudos morfológicos e histológicos para diferenciação entre outras espécies do gênero.

  6. Nesting of Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines, Dermochelyidae in the city of Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Silva Pereira Mayorga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea is seriously threatened with extinction, especially due to accidental catches by amateur and professional fisherman. In Brazil, the only recurrent breeding sites for this species are located along the northern coast of the state of Espírito Santo, although spawning has been occasionally recorded in other states. In February 2010, a nest of D. coriacea was found in Vila Velha, Espírito Santo (20º28’30”S, 40º20’48”W, which contained 132 eggs and a stillborn. Four dead hatchlings were also found scattered within five meters of the nest. The coast of Vila Velha is not considered a breeding site for this species.

  7. Field experience with the application and operation of permanent magnet motors in the ESP Industry: success stories and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagalovskiy, A.; Gorshenin, K. [Borets Company, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Over the past 7 years Borets Company has commercialized a permanent magnet motor (PMM) with a specialized controller that is capable of replacing the traditional motor used in ESP systems. Since 2006 more than 1400 Borets Company PMM systems have been installed by oil companies. This paper will provide an overview of the application environment covered by these installations and contrast the performance for the PMM system versus the traditional 2- pole, 3-phase ESP systems that were replaced. Results will include the lessons learned, best practices developed, and benefits realized by the operator. The PMM practice will be of value to new operators as this technology is introduced to other regions of the globe as well as the expansion of this technology into the ESPCP-PMM market. (author)

  8. Checklist das espécies de Lauxaniidae (Insecta, Diptera do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Cristina Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Lauxaniidae é uma das maiores famílias de Diptera Schizophora, com distribuição mundial, muito abundante nas áreas tropicais. A família está composta por cerca de 1.550 espécies. Os adultos apresentam o corpo pequeno a relativamente grande (2-11 mm, com coloração variada, muitas vezes com marcas, manchas, listras ou padrões reticulados. As larvas são conhecidas como saprófagas, alimentando-se em uma variedade de matéria vegetal em decomposição e mesmo em capítulos de flores. Adultos são raspadores de fungos em folhas. A fauna brasileira de Lauxaniidae compreende, até o momento, 74 espécies das quais 8 possuem registro assinalado para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

  9. Implicaciones a México a Bloques Comerciales en el Mercado Mundial del Espárrago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón G. Guajardo Quiroga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia el impacto de la formación de bloques comerciales en el comercio mundial del espárrago (NAFTA y TLCUEM. Se construyó un modelo de equilibrio espacial con precios endógenos y se diseñaron varios escenarios, de los cuales se presentan cuatro, con diversos grados de apertura comercial. Los resultados muestran que los productores mexicanos de espárragos resultan favorecidos con la integración de estos bloques. Sin embargo, en el escenario que modela la eliminación total de los aranceles a nivel mundial los resultados muestran que Perú es el más beneficiado, ya que incrementa substancialmente su producción y sus exportaciones.

  10. Barreras en el desarrollo de la agroindustria del espárrago en la Región Ica

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Ventura, Jesús Eliberto; Gaona Abad, Linda Sue; Uculmana Villagómez, Luisa Margarita; Vilca Antezana, Shaska Helena Isabel

    2015-01-01

    ix, 135 h. : il. ; 30 cm. En los últimos años, el espárrago ha tenido una importante y creciente participación en la actividad económica para la región Ica, representando al 2013 el 39.85% de la producción nacional (Series Históricas de Producción Agrícola – Compendio Estadístico, 2013). Asimismo, desde el 2011 hasta el 2013 Ica ha sido la primera región agroexportadora de espárrago, contribuyendo en el 2013 con el 42.68% del total de toneladas comercializadas a nivel nacional, según el Si...

  11. Bats from the Restinga of Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bat richness and diversity in coastal sand dunes (‘restinga’ are still scarce. Therefore, the objectives of thepresent study were to estimate bat richness in the restinga of Praia das Neves (state of Espírito Santo, southeasternBrazil and to analyze species abundance. Ten sampling nights were carried out in May and July 2008, resulting in asampling effort of 21,847.5 h.m2. We captured 125 individuals from 17 bat species. In this study, Tonatia saurophilawas recorded for the first time not only in the state of Espírito Santo but also in the restinga ecosystem. The mostabundant species was Artibeus lituratus with 32% of all captures. Surveys in coastal restingas are urgently needed inorder to obtain more information about the bats living in this environment.

  12. Communicative Purpose as Genre Determinant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Through the years researchers and LSP teachers alike have used various parameters for classifying texts. This article sets out to discuss the notion of "communicative purpose" as a means for classifying text. It points to some of the difficulties associated with the functional approaches to genre...... classification in general and the notion of "communicative purpose" in particular.......Through the years researchers and LSP teachers alike have used various parameters for classifying texts. This article sets out to discuss the notion of "communicative purpose" as a means for classifying text. It points to some of the difficulties associated with the functional approaches to genre...

  13. Novo registro e novas espécies de Cerambycinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae de Trinidad and Tobago e da Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas de Trinidad and Tobago: Plocaederus dozieri sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Cerambycina, Anelaphus trinidadensis sp. nov. (Elaphidionini, Piezocera rufula sp. nov. (Piezocerini, Assycuera marcelae sp. nov. and Ceralocyna venusta sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Ancylocerina. Neocompsa pallida sp. nov. (Ibidionin é descrita de Trinidad and Tobago e da Venezuela. Ommata (O. gallardi Peñaherrera & Tavakilian, 2004 (Rhinotragini, descrita originalmente da Guiana Francesa, é registrada para Trinidad and Tobago.

  14. Outbreaks of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in tomato plantations in Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Santos Andrade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has been reported in various crops in recent years in Brazil. The outbreaks of S. eridania were observed in regions of tomato production in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The chemical control used as the main method of control pests, without the agronomic observations of integrated pest management, is a probable cause of such outbreaks in tomato in these regions.

  15. Quelques espèces nouvelles d’hispides de Sumatra appartenant au Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestro, R.

    1897-01-01

    Sur le point d’entreprendre l’étude des Hispides recueillies à Sumatra par M. le Doct. E. Modigliani, j’ai demandé à M. Ritsema, le savant conservateur de la collection d’insectes du Musée de Leyde, la communication de quelques espèces dans le but de faciliter mon travail. Mon aimable collègue a

  16. Estudo comparativo dos óleos voláteis de algumas espécies de Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.O. Mesquita

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a análise comparativa dos óleos voláteis de espécies da família Piperaceae. As espécies estudadas foram as seguintes: Piper aduncum, P. amalago, P. arboreum, P. cernuum, P. hispidum, P. regnelii, P. submarginalum, P. vicosanum e Pothomorphe umbellata. A análise dos óleos voláteis foi efetuada pela combinação de técnicas de Cromatografia de Fase Gasosa (CG e de Cromatografia de Fase Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massa (CG/EM. A porcentagem de identificação dos constituintes nas análises dos óleos voláteis de Piper aduncum, P. amalago, P. vicosanum, P. submarginalum e Pothomorphe umbellata, atingiu valores superiores a 80%. Houve predominância de compostos de natureza sesquiterpênica nas composições químicas das espécies analisadas, com exceção de P. hispidum, P. submarginalum e P. vicosanum onde a predominância na composição foi de monoterpenos. Pelos dados apresentados observou-se que, dentre os compostos majoritários, os mais freqüentes, nas 9 espécies estudadas, foram beta-pineno (9/9 e espatulenol (9/9, seguidos por E-cariofileno (8/9, óxido de cariofileno (8/9, germacreno D (7/9, alfa-pineno (7/9 e limoneno (6/9. Pela primeira vez se relata a composição dos óleos voláteis de P. submarginalum e P vicosanum.

  17. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  18. Multi-purpose canister project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation, the author lists the approved and proposed dry storage technologies. He discusses the compatibility of dry storage systems with waste management systems. Historical aspects, recent history, key features of the program approach, benefits, specifications, acquisition and potential utility use of the multi-purpose canister (MPC) are covered. The MPCs provide standardization in the waste management system and a cost savings to utilities and government. MPC will be developed to the same level as existing dry storage systems

  19. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  20. Human sporotrichosis beyond the epidemic front reveals classical transmission types in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Mariceli L; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Fernandes, Geisa F; de Camargo, Zoilo P; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-08-01

    Sporotrichosis has emerged as the main subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals around the world. With particular differences in frequency, the major species includes Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. In Brazil, the main aspect of this epidemic is based on the zoonotic transmission through the scratches and bites of diseased cats contaminated with S. brasiliensis. Areas free of feline sporotrichosis are poorly characterised in Brazil. We investigated by molecular tools the epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in the Espírito Santo (ES) state, an area adjacent to Rio de Janeiro where is the epicentre of the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. The human cases in the ES state reveal the prevalence of classical transmission types where subjects are mainly infected by accidental traumatic inoculation during manipulation of contaminated plant material. In agreement with an environmental source, Sporothrix schenckii was the major aetiological agent in the classical transmission. Unlike Rio de Janeiro, this study shows that cat-transmitted epidemic in Espírito Santo is still scanty, although the geographic proximity and similar climatic features. Sporothrix brasiliensis was the agent in the feline-transmitted cases. Sporothrix globosa was isolated from a patient with fixed cutaneous lesions that did not report any contact with diseased animals. In conclusion, beyond the borders of Rio de Janeiro epidemic, agents of sporotrichosis in Espírito Santo show a scattered occurrence with high species diversity. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Atividade elicitora de fitoalexinas em Soja e Sorgo por extratos e tinturas de espécies medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matiello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A verificação da capacidade indutora de fitoalexinas a partir de extratos e tinturas de espécies vegetais pode representar uma forma potencial de controle de doenças em plantas cultivadas. O objetivo foi verificar a capacidade de indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de Soja e mesocótilos de Sorgo a partir de extratos brutos aquosos (EBAs e tinturas de espécies medicinais. As espécies utilizadas foram as plantas medicinais Arruda (Ruta graveolens, Manjerona (Origanum majorana e Carqueja (Baccharis trimera. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os EBAs são eficientes na indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de Soja. Em mesocótilos de Sorgo os EBAs das plantas medicinais Carqueja e Manjerona induzem a produção de fitoalexinas em concentrações elevadas (15, 20, 25 e 50%. As tinturas são capazes de induzir a produção de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de Soja nas concentrações de 10 e 15%, porém, não são capazes de induzir acúmulo de fitoalexinas em mesocótilos de Sorgo.

  2. Uma nova espécie do gênero Temnomastax (Temnomastacinae, Eumastacidae, Orthoptera da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan S. Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Temnomastax apresenta atualmente sete espécies, sendo amplamente distribuídas pelo domínio Cerrado, na América do Sul. Neste trabalho, uma oitava espécie, Temnomastax spielmanni sp. nov., é descrita para a região Amazônica brasileira. A diagnose da nova espécie baseia-se em caracteres do complexo fálico e em características morfológicas externas. Temnomastax spielmanni sp. nov. apresenta semelhança com Temnomastax beni Rehn & Rehn, 1942, que ocorre em território boliviano, mas pode ser diferenciada por alguns caracteres externos. O complexo fálico de T. spielmanni sp. nov. apresenta caracteres ainda não descritos em Temnomastacinae; tal fato reforça a necessidade da revisão taxonômica dessa subfamília, o que poderá esclarecer as relações filogenéticas existentes.

  3. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  4. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ESP Courses in Enhancing Technical Translation Proficiency: A Case Study of ESP Course for Mechanical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…

  5. A new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek 1909 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil and comments on additional species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras DA Conceição; Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho

    2016-12-14

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil were studied. A new species, Anacroneuria ruschii n. sp. is described. Brief remarks on A. debilis (Pictet) and Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson & Bianchi) are also presented.

  6. CT ESP for Yme, Converting the Yme field offshore Norway from a conventional rig-operated field to CT-operated for workover and drilling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baklid, A.; Apeland, O. J.; Teigen, A. S. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    Conventional tubing deployed electrical submersible pump (ESP) was the original choice as the artificial lift method for the Yme field offshore Norway. Several operational problems experienced over the past two years, such as formation damage, complicated and costly workovers and limited access to the reservoir, combined with revised field requirements and a reevaluation of artificial lift methods resulted in a change in completion philosophy. Following these reassessments coiled tubing ESPs utilizing internal power cable were installed and became the preferred method. This paper provides an assessment of the value of installing CT-ESP in a live well, and describes the system design for a true underbalanced CT-ESP installation. Well control and barrier philosophy during installation, production and workover mode is also evaluated. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Inorganic Species Behaviour in Thermochemical Processes for Energy Biomass Valorisation Comportement des espèces inorganiques dans les procédés thermochimiques de valorisation énergétique de la biomasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froment K.

    2013-09-01

    difficulties (corrosion, fouling, etc.: a detailed summary of the specific behaviour of the inorganic compounds in biomass thermal conversion facilities will be given, going from the description of inorganic species included in biomass up to the prevention and the solution, as far as possible. The following topics will therefore be developed: inventory of inorganic species in different biomasses; general review of the inorganic speciation during thermal conversion processes; technological barriers to overcome for economic and technological process improvements; specific aspects related to inorganic species behaviour investigated at CEA: inorganic species release and condensation; aerosol behaviour and deposits; hot particles filtration; slag formation and interactions with reactor wall. Les espèces inorganiques de la biomasse (bois, déchets agricoles, déchets ménagers voire boues d’épuration présentent un large spectre en compositions et quantités, dépendant de l’origine de la biomasse (nature, lieux et conditions de sa croissance, etc.. Les différents procédés de conversion (combustion, pyrolyse, gazéification, etc. et les différentes technologies associées (fours à grille, lits fixes ou fluidisés, réacteurs à flux entraînés, etc. utilisant l’énergie de la biomasse, fournissent des conditions opératoires très variées en atmosphère, température, pression, etc. Au cours de chacun de ces procédés thermiques de conversion, en fonction de la composition initiale de la biomasse, de l’atmosphère et la température du procédé (la pression est un paramètre de second ordre par rapport aux précédents, certaines espèces inorganiques réagissent pour former des composés liquides ou gazeux, seuls ou combinés à d’autres espèces : celles-ci peuvent être soit piégées à différents endroits dans le procédé, soit relâchées avec le gaz. Les interactions potentielles de ces espèces inorganiques avec les parois des réacteurs, les mat

  8. Aglutininas anti-leptospira em hemosoro de animais domésticos de diferentes espécies, no Estado da Bahia, 1997/1999

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, S. A. R. A.; Caldas, E. M.; Oliveira, E. M. de D.

    2001-01-01

    p. 1-6 Dando continuidade a trabalhos anteriores, foram investigados hemosoros de animais domésticos das espécies bovina, equina, canina, felina, ovina e caprina, no total de 836, no período de 03 de janeiro de 1997 à 30 de junho de 1999, identificando-se os sorotipos mais freqüentes nas espécies estudadas. Os títulos variaram de 1: 100 a 1: 3200.

  9. The roles of gene duplication, gene conversion and positive selection in rodent Esp and Mup pheromone gene families with comparison to the Abp family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Three proteinaceous pheromone families, the androgen-binding proteins (ABPs), the exocrine-gland secreting peptides (ESPs) and the major urinary proteins (MUPs) are encoded by large gene families in the genomes of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. We studied the evolutionary histories of the Mup and Esp genes and compared them with what is known about the Abp genes. Apparently gene conversion has played little if any role in the expansion of the mouse Class A and Class B Mup genes and pseudogenes, and the rat Mups. By contrast, we found evidence of extensive gene conversion in many Esp genes although not in all of them. Our studies of selection identified at least two amino acid sites in β-sheets as having evolved under positive selection in the mouse Class A and Class B MUPs and in rat MUPs. We show that selection may have acted on the ESPs by determining K(a)/K(s) for Exon 3 sequences with and without the converted sequence segment. While it appears that purifying selection acted on the ESP signal peptides, the secreted portions of the ESPs probably have undergone much more rapid evolution. When the inner gene converted fragment sequences were removed, eleven Esp paralogs were present in two or more pairs with K(a)/K(s) >1.0 and thus we propose that positive selection is detectable by this means in at least some mouse Esp paralogs. We compare and contrast the evolutionary histories of all three mouse pheromone gene families in light of their proposed functions in mouse communication.

  10. Investigação das atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no bioma caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rogério Santos Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O bioma caatinga é um bioma brasileiro predominante e único no Nordeste do Brasil. Esse bioma abriga uma impressionante biodiversidade florística com espécies ricas em moléculas bioativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies vegetais arbóreas ocorrentes na caatinga. Nos ensaios de atividade antioxidante dos extratos etanólicos da casca do caule das espécies Leucaena leucocephala e Cnidoscolus quercifolius foram avaliados o teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante pelos métodos de captura dos radicais livres DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. A atividade antimicrobiana desses extratos foi avaliada frente às espécies bacterianas Enterococcus faecales (ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619 e Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, através do ensaio de difusão em poço e determinação de Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM.   Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados na espécie L. leucocephala exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, resultado não observado na espécie C. quercifolius.  Foi observado existir uma correlação direta entre a quantidade de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante das espécies testadas. Nenhuma das espécies apresentou atividade antimicrobiana significativa.

  11. Espécies de pescado subexplotadas e seu potencial para elaboração de subprodutos com valor agregado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Regis Pires

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O pescado é um alimento conhecido por seu elevado valor nutricional, sendo uma das principais fontes de proteína de origem animal utilizadas na alimentação humana. A produção de pescado proveniente da pesca extrativa encontra-se estagnada há décadas em níveis mundial e nacional. Da mesma forma, as espécies mais visadas economicamente tanto no mercado externo como no interno encontram-se em sobrepesca. Por outro lado, tem ocorrido aumento no descarte das espécies oriundas da fauna acompanhante da captura do camarão, classificadas como subutilizadas de baixo e/ou sem valor econômico. Muitas destas espécies poderiam ser desembarcadas e utilizadas para a produção de subprodutos de alto valor agregado para o consumo humano. O aproveitamento destas espécies oriundas da fauna acompanhante do camarão e das espécies de menor valor comercial em nosso país, como as do peixe bagre (uma das onze espécies mais capturadas no país, que apresentam potencial pesqueiro para a explotação, poderia reduzir o esforço de pesca sobre as espécies mais exploradas, aumentar a produção e consequentemente o consumo per capita de pescado no Brasil. Além de oferecer ao consumidor um produto nutritivo e com um prazo de vida útil maior. Desta forma, seria dado um destino mais nobre a estas espécies, o que permitiria que a atividade pesqueira fosse praticada de forma sustentável.

  12. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Serapio-Palacios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS, but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v caspase-9 activation, (vi cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii PARP proteolysis, and (ix nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC.

  13. Oyster spat recruitment in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, using recycled materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosebel C. Nalesso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effectiveness of four types of oyster spat collectors, made with recycled materials, in the recruitment of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea spp. at five sites in the Benevente river estuary, Anchieta District and on two islands in Piúma District, both in Espírito Santo State. The collectors were made of: 1- oyster shells, 2- PET bottles, 3- car tires and 4- tiles, all of them suspended by ropes and tied to roots of Rhizophora mangle or mussel long-lines. The number of spat recruited on each collector and their shell lengths were registered bimonthly, as well as the physico-chemical-trophic parameters of the water: salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, particulate organic matter and chlorophyll a, which were correlated (by Spearman's correlation with the number of spat recruited. Spat settlement was significantly higher on oyster shell, tile and tire collectors, mainly at points with higher salinities, such as Praia do Coqueiro in Anchieta and on Meio and Cabrito Islands in Piúma (Kruskal-Wallis: H= 10.01; 3 d.f.; p 0.05. The number of oyster spat was positively correlated with the salinity (ρs= 0.331; p Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência de quatro tipos de coletores de sementes no recrutamento de ostras Crassostrea sp., em cinco pontos do estuário do Rio Benevente, município de Anchieta, e em duas ilhas no município de Piúma, estado do Espírito Santo. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de coletores: 1-conchas de ostras, 2- garrafas PET, 3-tiras de pneu e 4- telhas, todos suspensos por cordas e amarrados em rizóforos de Rhizophora mangle ou em "long-lines" de mexilhões. Bimensalmente, as sementes recrutadas foram contadas e medidas quanto à altura, determinando-se os parâmetros físico-químicos-tróficos da água: salinidade, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, matéria orgânica particulada e clorofila-a, que foram correlacionados com o número de sementes nos coletores (através de correlações de Spearman

  14. Desenvolvimento de espécies de pimentas sobre efeito de doses urina de vaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda do mercado de pimentas tem impulsionado o aumento da área cultivada no Brasil anualmente, no Nordeste brasileiro esse cultivo vem sendo feito não apenas em hortas caseiras para o consumo doméstico, como também em áreas comerciais que abastecem o mercado local e externo. Diante disso objetivou-se verificar os efeitos da utilização da adubação orgânica no cultivo de espécies de pimenta no intuito de possibilitar aos agricultores desenvolverem sua produção utilizando-se de práticas onde produtos alternativos e de baixo custo econômico e ambiental disponíveis em suas propriedades como é o caso da urina de vaca que pode ser utilizados como fertilizante além de possuir outras propriedades favoráveis a este cultivo. Foram usadas as espécies Cambuci, Dedo-de-moça, Bode Amarela e as proporções de urina de vaca utilizadas nas pulverizações foram de 1 a 5%. As variáveis analisadas foram à altura, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca do caule das plantas após a semeadura. A dosagem de urina nas concentrações a partir de 2%, 4% e 5% obtiveram médias maiores de alturas que nas demais concentrações exercendo maior influência sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas. No diâmetro do caule verificou-se um desenvolvimento maior nas aplicações com concentração de urina aplicada a 4%, 5%. E na matéria seca os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas plantas que receberam adubação com urina a 3 a 5% na maioria das amostras indicando que os melhores efeitos foram atingidos nas maiores concentrações. Development of pepper species on effect of doses of cow urineAbstract: The growing demand of the peppers market has driven the increase of cultivated area in Brazil annually, in the Brazilian Northeast this cultivation has been done not only in home gardens for domestic consumption, as well as in commercial gardens that supply the local and foreign markets. Therefore, it was decided to observe the effects of the use of

  15. Parasitismo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em espécies de myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Suely Semen Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose da goiabeira, causada por M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis, é hoje considerado o principal problema fitossanitário desta cultura em todo o País, pois sua incidência resulta em acentuada queda de produtividade e, na maioria das vezes, a morte das plantas em médio prazo. Visando a seu controle, objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar fontes de resistência em goiabeira Psidium guajava L e araçazeiro Psidium sp.. Foram avaliados onze genótipos oriundos do Câmpus da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA e de regiões próximas ao município de Lavras (MG. As sementes foram coletadas de frutos fisiologicamente maduros e germinadas em piscinas hidropônicas. Ao atingirem 12 cm de altura, foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em vasos individuais, e mantidas a temperatura entre 18-38°C. Após quinze dias, foram inoculados individualmente com suspensão de 10.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. enterolobii e avaliadas após 120 dias. As reações dos hospedeiros foram enquadradas nos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo fator de reprodução FR, estimado pelo quociente Pf/Pi, em que Pf representa a população final e Pi a população inicial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 genótipos, uma espécie de nematoide e seis repetições, sendo duas plantas em cada genótipo adicionadas como controle. Quatro meses depois, foram avaliados os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes e o grau de infecção de cada genótipo. A produção média de ovos e J2 de M. enterolobii variou de 200 a 428.146,1, e os fatores de reprodução (FR médios variaram de 0,02(ALU1 a 42,81(A-PASTO. Os genótipos de araçazeiro (Psidium spp. AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 e APASTO e os genótipos de goiabeira (P. guajava G-ROXA e G-AMAR foram considerados suscetíveis. Os genótipos de araçazeiro ALU1, ALU2, ALU3, AROXO-C e AROXO-U mostraram-se resistentes, reforçando a necessidade de trabalhos complementares com

  16. La fuerza del espíritu (fe en el camino (ancestral indígena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Pérez Gil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El mundo de hoy se encuentra encerrado en la visión reduccionista y enajenada que ha sido imperante a lo largo de la historia, el valor del consumo, la ambición y el individualismo han enterrado los valores fundantes de sencillez, humildad y honestidad. La profunda necesidad de volver la mirada al conocimiento y psicología propios, ha hecho que retornemos a la sabiduría de las plantas, los abuelos, lugares sagrados, costumbres y mitos para abandonar la ilusión racionalista que todo lo divide, todo lo niega y nada lo contempla. El camino recorrido en el fuego, la montaña, Sie, el chunsúa, las cansamarias, permite mirar, recordar y recuperar lo fundamental en la existencia humana: su propia fuerza, la fe. Esa que sostiene la vida, que va más allá de verificación o comprobación alguna, que es cultivada en la palabra dulce, el tejido sentido y la esencia misma. Conectando al humano en sus diferentes niveles, a su psiquismo, conectándolo al amor. Por ello, la importancia de vivenciar a Sue, Chía, en y con la Hytcha Guaia, vivenciar al Espíritu en su expresión más latente, aceptar al ego como uno de los maestros para comprender el ser, integrar la materia y lo trascendente, entregarse a la ley de los abuelos, a lo sagrado propio, a la conciencia profunda, al guerrero interno, a la vida misma.

  17. Revisão bibliográfica sobre espécies do genero Podophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Júnior

    Full Text Available As espécies Podophyllum peltatu. L. (ou Podophyllum callicarpu. Rafin, nativa da America do Norte, Podophyllum emod. Wall. (ou Podophyllum hexandru. Royle, nativa de alguns pontos da Ásia e Podophyllum emod. Wall. var. Chinensi. Sprague,do Extremo Oriente, da família das Berberidacea. tem sido exaustivamente estudadas por causa dos múltiplas propriedades e ações farmacológicas importantes e intensas de raízes e rizomas das mesmas. Esses conhecimentos levaram ao uso antineoplásico, anti-reumático, imunossupressor e sobre disfunções do aparelho digestivo principalmente. A podofilina, resina extraída de tais drogas, vem sendo utilizada sob a forma de extratos fluidos, balsamos, pomadas compostas com outros fármacos e soluções aquosas de alguns glicosideos podofiloderivados. Os principais componentes ativos da podofilina detectados até então foram a podofilotoxona (encontrada em maiores proporções é responsável por grande parte dos efeitos das drogas do gênero, α- e β-peltatinas, podofilotoxona, isopicropodofilona, desox-ipodofilotoxina, desidropofilina, 4'-desmetilpodofilotoxina, 4'desmetilpodofi Zotoxona, 4'-desmetildesoxipodofilotoxina, 4'-desmetilisopicropodofilona e os respectivos a-D-glicosideos. Além disso, foi constatada a presença de alcalóides, compostos nitrogenados, flavonóides, Mg, Mb, Mn, Se e Zn. O levantamento bibliográfico enfoca os estudos relacionando as pesquisas com novos possíveis usos terapêuticos.

  18. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): design, construction and monitoring of a full-scale shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Martino, J.; Kim, C.S.; Holowick, B.; Kwong, G.; Jonsson, E.; Palonen, E.; DeCombarieu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) consists of instrumenting and monitoring a full-scale shaft seal installed to permanently close the access shaft for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the intersection of an ancient low dipping thrust fault. The URL was built to provide a facility where concepts for long-term management of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep geological repository could be studied. Operated since the early 1980's, this facility provided much of the technical information used in developing the deep geological repository concept submitted by AECL to the Government of Canada in 1994 and continued to provide valuable technical data after that submission. In 2003, a decision was made to discontinue operation of the URL and ultimately decommission and permanently close the underground portion of this facility. As part of the Nuclear Legacy Liability Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), facilities including the URL that are no longer part of AECL's mandate or operations are being decommissioned. Included in this work is the installation of seals at the intersection of the access shaft and ventilation raise with a deep fracture zone in order to limit the potential for mixing of deeper saline and shallower less saline groundwater. The funding available from NRCan was limited to the seal installation, with no mandate to provide any more than basic hydrological monitoring of the rock mass at a considerable distance from these seals, and so the opportunity to monitor a full-scale shaft seal similar to one for a deep geological repository would have been lost. The ESP arose from the recognition by a number of organizations that the URL closure presented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of a full-scale repository-type shaft seal in a very well-characterized and otherwise undisturbed rock mass. As

  19. Espécies de plantas visitadas por Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae na Chapada dos Veadeiros, durante a estação chuvosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-06-01

    Os hábitos alimentares do beija-flor Heliactin bilophus ainda são pouco conhecidos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar as espécies de plantas mais visitadas por H. bilophus com finalidades de alimentação (consumo de néctar durante a estação chuvosa no Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, em Goiás. as observações foram realizadas em duas estações chuvosas (janeiro de 2006 e fevereiro de 2008. A metodologia baseou-se em percorrer trilhas em duas áreas de campo sujo e em duas de campo rupestre. Todo registro de um indivíduo consumindo néctar de uma planta em flor foi considerado como uma visita. Foram observadas 296 visitas, compreendendo oito espécies de plantas dos estratos arbustivo e herbáceo. as espécies mais frequentemente visitadas foram Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae e Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae em campo sujo, e Lychnophora ericoides (asteraceae, em campo rupestre. Essas três espécies foram comumente encontradas nos locais de estudo. Nas duas fisionomias, Heliactin bilophus consumiu néctar de poucas espécies de plantas. as espécies mais frequentemente visitadas apresentavam flores em abundância.

  20. Espécies novas de Myrcia DC. e Marlierea Cambes. (Myrtaceae New species of Myrcia DC. and Marlierea Cambes. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Maciel Barroso

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata de espécies novas de Myrcia DC. e Marlierea Cambes., dois gêneros de Myrtaceae da sub tribo Myrciinae, da Reserva Florestal de Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Na área são conhecidas 18 espécies de Myrcia, 5 das quais são agora descritas. O gênero Marlierea está representado por 12 espécies, uma das quais é descrita como nova. Os novos taxa são ilustrados, e feitos comentários sobre relacionamento entre espécies afins.This paper deals with new species of Myrcia DC. and Marlierea Cambes., two genera of Myrtaceae subtribus Myrciinae, from the Reserva Florestal of Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil. From this area, 18 species of Myrcia are known, 5 of which are new to science and described here. Marlierea is not as rich in species as Myrcia but it is represented by 12 species, one here described as new. The new species are illustrated and some remarks are made about their relationships.

  1. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de libera

  2. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  3. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  4. Contagens cromossômicas em espécies brasileiras de Paspalum L. (Gramineae Chromosome counts in brazilian species of Paspalum L. (Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Toniolo Pozzobon

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de coletas de germoplasma de espécies de Paspalum, realizadas nas cinco regiões do Brasil, e subseqüentes análises citológicas em mitose ou meiose, reportam-se os números de cromossomos de 107 acessos, distribuídos por 33 espécies, representativas de 13 dos grupos taxonómicos informais em que o gênero é tradicionalmente subdividido. No grupo Plicatula, sob intensa revisão taxonómica, 27 acessos são citados ainda sem identificação específica. A região sul é muito bem representada, com 65 acessos, seguida pela região centro-oeste, com 33. Os números cromossômicos de P filifolium (2n = 20, P hartwegianum (2n = 60, P. rhodopedum (2n = 40 e P wettsteinii (2n = 40 e 60 são relatados pela primeira vez. Também são novas as contagens de 2n = 50 para P. plenum e para uma forma de P dílatatum com anteras amarelas. Encontrou-se um novo acesso diplóide (2n = 20 de P pllcatulum e mais um acesso de P mandiocanum com 2n = 50, que discrepa do nível hexaplóide, mais freqüente na espécie. Outras contagens confirmam os números já conhecidos, estendendo sua representatividade geográfica.Germplasm accessions obtained in collecting missions covering all the five regions of Brazil were submitted to cytological analysis, either in mitosis or meiosis. Chromosome numbers are reported from 107 accessions of 33 species, representative of 13 of the informal taxonomic groups, in which the genus is traditionally divided. In the Plicatula group, under intensive taxonomic investigation, 27 accessions are mentioned without any specific identification. The Southern region is very well represented, with 65 accessions, followed by the West Central region, with 33. The chromosome numbers of P. fillfolium (2n = 20, P hartwegianum (2n = 60, P. rhodopedum (2n = 40 and P. wettsteinii (2n - 40 and 60 are reported for the first time. Also new are the reports of 2n = 50 for P. plenum and for a yellow-anthered form of P dilatatum. The new findings

  5. Analytical purpose electron backscattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.; Padron, I.; Laria, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

  6. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  7. supplementary foods for weaning purposes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The paper focuses on complementary and supplementary foods for weaning purposes. While ... decision, which guides when to introduce semi-solid foods to infants. It considers the .... readiness of many healthy infants. ... foods. However, caution should be exercised .... Attitudes and practices of infants.

  8. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  9. Purposes and Effects of Lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    Three exploratory studies were aimed at describing the purposes of lies and the consequences of lying. Data were collected through a partly open-ended questionnaire, a content analysis of several tape-recorded interviews, and a large-scale survey. The results showed that two of every three lies were told for selfish reasons, while three of every…

  10. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  11. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil Parasitos intestinais em comunidade quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitos intestinais em população quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo. Descendentes de escravos que chegaram ao Brasil a partir do século XVI, essa população estabeleceu-se no município de São Mateus no ano de 1858. Entre agosto de 2009 e julho de 2010, amostras fecais de 82 indivíduos que aceitaram participar do trabalho foram coletadas, a fresco, e, imediatamente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo da

  12. A new species and redescriptions of three species of Atractosomus Lacordaire from Brazil (Elateridae, Elaterinae Uma espécie nova e redescrições de três espécies de Atractosomus Lacordaire do Brasil (Elateridae, Elaterinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Atractosomus amazonicus sp. nov. is described and three species, A. robustus Candèze, 1859, A. carinatus Candèze, 1859 and A. conicicollis Candèze, 1859 are redescribed and illustrated. A comparison among these species and with the type-species, A. flavescens (Germar 1839 is presented. A.amazonicus sp. nov. and A. robustus belong to group of species with 3rd and 4th antennomeres equal in size and the other studied species, to group with 3rd antennomere smaller than 4th.Uma espécie nova, Atractosomus amazonicus sp. nov. é descrita e três espécies, A. robustus Candèze, 1859, A. carinatus Candèze, 1859 e A. conicicollis Candèze, 1859 são redescritas e ilustradas. É apresentada a comparação entre essas espécies e com a espécie-tipo do gênero, A. flavescens (Germar 1839. A.amazonicus sp. nov. e A. robustus pertecem ao grupo de espécies com 3º e 4º antenômeros iguais em comprimento e as demais espécies estudadas, ao grupo de espécies com 3º antenômero menor que o 4º.

  13. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2013 rates; hospitals' resident caps for graduate medical education payment purposes; quality reporting requirements for specific providers and for ambulatory surgical centers. final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of the changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act) and other legislation. These changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2012, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits will be effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2012. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes made by the Affordable Care Act. Generally, these changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2012, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. In addition, we are implementing changes relating to determining a hospital's full-time equivalent (FTE) resident cap for the purpose of graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revised requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs)) that are participating in Medicare. We also are establishing new administrative, data completeness, and extraordinary circumstance waivers or extension requests requirements, as well as a reconsideration process, for quality reporting by ambulatory surgical centers

  14. Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils Potencial de onze espécies de eucalipto para a produção de óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aiming to increase the availability of commercial species and the relationship between oil production and climatic conditions. Eucalyptus leaves were seasonally sampled (three months interval for distillation and determination of productivity and chemical composition of oil - contents of oils main components. Eucalyptus viminalis showed the highest potential for cineol, and standed out among the species not yet used commercially. Influenced by soil moisture contents and air temperature, the lowest and the highest oil production happened respectively in Spring and Summer. Water deficiency in Spring caused the lowest oil production. In the Summer, on the other hand, the highest oil production was observed when temperatures were higher and no water deficiency registered. There was no climatic influence on the main oil chemical component.A maioria das plantações de Eucalyptus brasileiras tem como objetivo a produção de papel e carvão, mas o uso das espécies para madeira, construção e extração de óleo essencial tem aumentado. Neste trabalho foram estudadas onze espécies de eucalipto quanto ao potencial para a obtenção de óleo essencial. Entre as espécies estudadas, nove não têm sido utilizadas na obtenção comercial de óleo. Para efeito comparativo, avaliou-se também duas outras espécies, o Eucalyptus citriodora e o Eucalyptus globulus, as quais são amplamente utilizadas, respectivamente, para a obtenção de óleo aromatizante e óleo para

  15. Micromorfologia Foliar de Espécies de Sida spp. (guanxumas Leaf Micromorphology of Sida spp. Species (prickly sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.B. Albert

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia dos herbicidas aplicados à folha é influenciada pela morfologia da superfície foliar que recebe a calda. A topografia da superfície foliar, o grau e o tipo da formação da cera epicuticular e a presença, tipo e distribuição de tricomas são características que influenciam a distribuição da calda pulverizada sobre a superfície foliar e, conseqüentemente, a eficácia do controle da planta daninha. Diante desses fatos, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer morfologicamente a superfície foliar de três espécies de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia , Sida glaziovii e Sida cordifolia . A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Núcleo de Apoio à Pesquisa em Microscopia Eletrônica Aplicada à Pesquisa Agropecuária (NAP/MEPA, instalada na ESALQ/USP-Piracicaba/SP. As amostras biológicas foram fixadas, posteriormente desidratadas, secas ao ponto crítico e recobertas com ouro. Após a evaporação com metal, as amostras das folhas foram observadas em microscópio eletrônico de varredura Zeiss, operando entre 5 e 15 kV. Verificou-se que a superfície adaxial das espécies S. rhombifolia e S. glaziovii apresentou tricomas estelares e simples (não-ramificados, tanto curtos como longos, e também glandulares simples, tanto curtos como longos; S. glaziovii apresentou a maior quantidade destes. A espécie que apresentou maior presença de ceras epicuticulares foi S. rhombifolia, cuja aparência é estriada e a orientação aleatória. Das três espécies, S. cordifolia foi a que mostrou menor quantidade de tricomas, possuindo na superfície adaxial predominantemente tricomas simples e/ou com duas ramificações e também tricomas glandulares simples e curtos. A cutícula apresentou superfície plana e lisa, sem o aspecto estriado das outras duas espécies analisadas. Todas as espécies são anfiestomáticas, com predominância do tipo anomocítico, que é característico da família Malvaceae.The efficacy of leaf - applied herbicides is

  16. Educational Purpose Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGHICIU Nicolae

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of computers and other sciences we can use in our personal projects complex structures built with microcontrollers. They miniaturise and simplify the final project, instead they depend/rely on the computer, through the programming of the microcontroller/s/them. This project presents the application of electronics in order to achieve a resuscitation mannequin for didactic purpose, using Arduino Prototyping Platform.

  17. Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs are released. Nitric oxide (NO and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of S. mansoni ESPs on NO production in defence cells (haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and schistosome-resistant B. glabrata strains. As S. mansoni ESPs have previously been shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (activation in haemocytes from susceptible, but not resistant, B. glabrata the regulation of NO output by ERK in these cells was also investigated. Results Haemocytes from resistant snails challenged with S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml over 5 h displayed an increase in NO production that was 3.3 times greater than that observed for unchallenged haemocytes; lower concentrations of ESPs (0.1–10 μg/ml did not significantly increase NO output. In contrast, haemocytes from susceptible snails showed no significant change in NO output following challenge with ESPs at any concentration used (0.1–20 μg/ml. Western blotting revealed that U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM blocked the phosphorylation (activation status of ERK in haemocytes from both snail strains. Inhibition of ERK signalling by U0126 attenuated considerably intracellular NO production in haemocytes from both susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains, identifying ERK as a key regulator of NO output in these cells. Conclusion S. mansoni ESPs differentially influence intracellular NO levels in susceptible and resistant B. glabrata haemocytes, possibly through modulation of the ERK signalling pathway. Such effects might facilitate survival of S. mansoni in its intermediate host.

  18. Predicting mercury retention in utility gas cleaning systems with SCR/ESP/FGD combinations or activated carbon injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Balaji; Naik, Chitralkumar V.; Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Fujiwara, Naoki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Chiba (Japan). Coal and Environment Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validations of the Hg speciation predicted by NEA's MercuRator trademark package with an American field test database for 28 full-scale utility gas cleaning systems. It emphasizes SCR/ESP/FGD combinations and activated carbon injection because these two applications present the best long- term prospects for Hg control by coal-burning utilities. Validations of the extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation across SCRs and of Hg retention in wet FGDs gave correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 for both units. A transport-based FGD analysis correctly assessed the potential for Hg{sup 0} re-emission in one limestone wet FGD. Among the ten stations in the SCR/ESP/FGD validations, the simulations correctly identified 3 of 4 of the relatively high Hg emissions rates; all four of the sites with moderate emissions rates; and both sites with the lowest emission rates. The validations for ACI applications demonstrated that Hg removals can be accurately estimated for the full domain of coal quality, LOI, and ACI rates for both untreated and brominated carbon sorbents. The predictions for ACI depict the test-to-test variations in most cases, and accurately describe the impact of ACI configuration and sorbent type. ACI into FFs is the most effective configuration, although ACI into ESPs often removes 90% or more Hg, provided that there is sufficient residence time and Cl in the flue gas. Brominated sorbents perform better than untreated carbons, unless SO{sub 3} condensation inhibits Hg adsorption.

  19. The Genetic Basis of Constitutive and Herbivore-Induced ESP-Independent Nitrile Formation in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Meike; Losansky, Anja; Müller, René; Plock, Antje; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Wittstock, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of thioglucosides that are components of an activated chemical defense found in the Brassicales. Plant tissue damage results in hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous thioglucosidases known as myrosinases. Spontaneous rearrangement of the aglucone yields reactive isothiocyanates that are toxic to many organisms. In the presence of specifier proteins, alternative products, namely epithionitriles, simple nitriles, and thiocyanates with different biological activities, are formed at the expense of isothiocyanates. Recently, simple nitriles were recognized to serve distinct functions in plant-insect interactions. Here, we show that simple nitrile formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia-0 rosette leaves increases in response to herbivory and that this increase is independent of the known epithiospecifier protein (ESP). We combined phylogenetic analysis, a screen of Arabidopsis mutants, recombinant protein characterization, and expression quantitative trait locus mapping to identify a gene encoding a nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) responsible for constitutive and herbivore-induced simple nitrile formation in Columbia-0 rosette leaves. AtNSP1 is one of five Arabidopsis ESP homologues that promote simple nitrile, but not epithionitrile or thiocyanate, formation. Four of these homologues possess one or two lectin-like jacalin domains, which share a common ancestry with the jacalin domains of the putative Arabidopsis myrosinase-binding proteins MBP1 and MBP2. A sixth ESP homologue lacked specifier activity and likely represents the ancestor of the gene family with a different biochemical function. By illuminating the genetic and biochemical bases of simple nitrile formation, our study provides new insights into the evolution of metabolic diversity in a complex plant defense system. PMID:18987211

  20. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.

  1. Novas espécies de Adetus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini New species of Adetus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da descrição de novas espécies de Adetus LeConte, 1852, provenientes da Bolívia (Santa Cruz: Adetus cacapira sp. nov. e A. cecamirim sp. nov.; do Peru (Cuzco e da Bolívia (Santa Cruz: A. inca sp. nov. e do México (Veracruz: A. catemaco sp. nov.The following species of Adetus LeConte, 1852 are described: from Bolivia (Santa Cruz, A. cacapira sp. nov. and A. cecamirim sp. nov.; from Peru (Cuzco, and Bolívia (Santa Cruz, A. inca sp. nov.; from Mexico (Veracruz, A. catemaco sp. nov.

  2. O potencial do DNA barcode na identificação de espécies de aves neotropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Fernanda Mussi Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi organizado em cinco capítulos. No primeiro é apresentada uma breve revisão da bibliografia relacionada ao DNA barcode, apontando as aplicações e os limites desse marcador. Os resultados obtidos são apresentados nos três capítulos subsequentes. O segundo capítulo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial do método de DNA barcoding na distinção de 783 amostras de 228 espécies diferentes de aves neotropicais de 16 ordens baseado na diferença dos valores de divergências intra...

  3. Desenvolvimento dos frutos nas espécies selvagens de amendoim (Arachis spp. Fruit development in wild species of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes Conagin

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies selvagens de amendoim apresentam frutos completamente diferentes dos frutos do amendoim cultivado (Arachis hypogaea L.. Nesta espécie os frutos têm duas a cinco sementes justapostas dentro de uma única loja; externamente são observadas constrições na casca do fruto as quais em alguns casos se acentuam não chegando, entretanto, a produzir unia separação entre as sementes. Nas espécies selvagens os frutos apresentam duas sementes apenas, completamente separadas uma da outra por uma constrição muito profunda ou mesmo por um istmo de comprimento variável. Para êsses frutos foi adotada a denominação de "frutos catenados" e o estudo de seu desenvolvimento foi feito nas espécies Arachis monticola Krapovickas et Rigoni e A. villosa Benth. var. correntina Burk. O ovário, unilocular, tem normalmente dois óvulos. A futura separação das duas sementes se origina num tecido intercalar que se forma em ovários ainda jovens e que separa em duas a cavidade inicial única. Êste tecido tem a estrutura de um "peg" e, como êle, desidrata-se durante o processo de amadurecimento do fruto, tomando-se sêco e quebradiço; por essa razão, ao colhêr os frutos, a maioria dêles se apresenta unisseminado. Em 50% dos casos os óvulos se desenvolvem igualmente, conduzindo à formação de frutos com duas sementes. Quando os dois óvulos não se desenvolvem ao mesmo tempo, é mais freqüente o colapso do óvulo apical, cujo crescimento é paralisado cm diversos estados de desenvolvimento; isto conduz à formação de frutos com apenas uma semente ou com uma semente abortada. Além dessas duas, as seguintes espécies apresentam frutos catenados: Arachis Diogoi Hoehne f. typica Hoehne, A. glabrata Benth., A. pusilla Benth., A. marginata Gardn. (segundo Burkart, A. prostrata Benth. (segundo Burkart, e mais três espécies ainda não identificadas, mas que constam da coleção da Seção de Citologia como V. 44, V. 82 e V. 85. A V. 44 deve

  4. Estudo quimiossistemático de espécies de Hortia (Rutaceae) e busca de fungicidas à Guignardia citricarpa

    OpenAIRE

    Samya Danielle Lima de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    A classificação do gênero Hortia dentro da família Rutaceae é duvidosa. Hortia, que já foi posicionada em Cusparieae por De Candolle em 1824, na mais recente classificação morfológica de Engler em 1931 pertence a Toddalieae. Mais recentemente da Silva e colaboradores voltam a propor Hortia em Cusparieae. Contudo, o estudo fitoquímico das espécies do gênero Hortia ainda não permitem classificá-la corretamente dentro da família. Desta forma, o estudo fitoquímico de Hortia descrito neste trabalh...

  5. Efectivitat de la fisioteràpia en la paràlisi cerebral infantil espàstica.

    OpenAIRE

    Tella Aldomà, Àurea

    2015-01-01

    Pregunta de revisió: Quina intervenció terapèutica de fisioteràpia: vibroteràpia, hidroteràpia, hipoteràpia, estiraments, Bobath o electroteràpia, és més efectiva en pacients amb Paràlisi Cerebral Infantil (PCI) espàstica? Objectiu: Revisar i comparar l’efectivitat dels diferents tractaments de fisioteràpia actuals per tractar la espasticitat en nens amb PCI. Metodologia: S’han utilitzat bases de dades com Scopus, Pubmed, PEDro, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Thera...

  6. Perfil dos servidores da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo com empréstimo consignado

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Anneliza Baptista

    2014-01-01

    O crédito consignado é uma modalidade de empréstimo cujo valor da parcela incide sobre o salário do devedor. Com alto índice de adesão nos últimos anos, é o meio de acesso ao crédito mais comum entre os servidores públicos, pelas baixas taxas de juros, entre outros atrativos, o que contribui para expor a risco seus vencimentos com dívidas. Buscando atender ao objetivo principal de identificar se características do perfil demográfico dos servidores ativos da Universidade Federal do Espírito...

  7. La ética hacker y el espíritu del informacionalismo. Wikileaks como caso paradigmático

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Cantero, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo, Moya analiza el affaire Wikileaks, a la luz de la tesis que Pekka Himanen propone en el libro La ética hacker y el espíritu de la era de la información: los hackers, y sus valores de apertura, cooperación y creatividad, son los verdaderos arquitectos de la nueva sociedad digital. Abstract: This article discusses the Wikileaks affair, in light of the thesis proposed in Pekka Himanen’s book The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age: H...

  8. Memórias sociais de juventude entre quilombolas do norte do Espírito Santo

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim,Renata; Trindade,Zeidi Araújo; Menandro,Maria Cristina Smith

    2010-01-01

    Buscando um conjunto etário que tivesse vivido sua juventude entre as populações remanescentes de quilombos do norte do Estado do Espírito Santo e ainda na presença da Mata Atlântica, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo principal identificar as memórias sociais de juventude nessas comunidades, relacionando as representações desse passado compartilhado às mudanças ambientais e sociais que recentemente impactaram a sua região. Foram entrevistadas 11 pessoas, homens e mulheres, com idade entre 40 e...

  9. Indicações para o emprego da madeira de espécies tropicais do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Paula Grobério

    2000-01-01

    Realizou-se, no contexto deste trabalho, o estudo de espécies tropicais de madeira e a qualificação destas a partir de suas características físicas, de resistência e rigidez. Os ensaios para a determinação das propriedades foram realizados no Laboratório de Madeiras e de Estruturas de Madeira, do Departamento de Engenharia de Estruturas, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, seguindo as recomendações do anexo B da NBR 7190/1997 - Projeto de Estruturas de Madeira. O objetivo fundamental é gerar ...

  10. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): evolution of a full-sized concrete and bentonite shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Priyanto, D.G.; Martino, J.B.; De Combarieu, M.; Johansson, R.; Korkeakoski, P.; Villagran, J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A full-scale shaft seal was designed and installed in the 5-m-diameter access shaft at Atomic Energy of Canada's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the point where he shaft intersects an ancient water-bearing, low-angle thrust fault in granitic rock. The seal, part of the permanent closure of the URL, consists of a 6-m-thick bentonite-based component sandwiched between 3-m-thick upper and lower, 3-m-thick concrete components. The bentonite-based component spans the fracture zone and extends approximately 1 m beyond the maximum identified extent of the fracture. This design was adopted in order to limit water from the deeper, saline regions mixing with the fresher, near-surface groundwater regime. The concrete components provide the mechanical confinement and an in situ compacted 40/60 mixture of bentonite clay and quartz sand provides the sealing component. Construction of the shaft seal was done as part of Canada's Nuclear Legacies Liability Program. However, monitoring the seal evolution was not part of the decommissioning program's mandate. In addition to accomplishing the permanent closure of the URL, this seal's construction provides a unique opportunity to instrument and monitor the evolution of a full-scale shaft seal as well as the recovery of the regional groundwater regime as the facility passively floods above the seal. A jointly funded monitoring project was developed by NWMO (Canada), SKB (Sweden), Posiva (Finland) and ANDRA (France) and since mid 2009 the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical evolution of the seal has been constantly monitored. The evolution of the type of seal being monitored in the ESP is of relevance to repository closure planning, gaining confidence in the functionality of shaft seals. Although constructed in a crystalline rock medium, the results of the ESP are expected to be relevant to the performance of seals in a variety of host rock types. The shaft seal has been

  11. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  12. 7 CFR 1728.10 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 1728.10 Section 1728.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1728.10 General purpose and...

  13. 7 CFR 925.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 925.54 Section 925.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... entering the channels of trade for other than the specific purposes authorized by this section. Inspection...

  14. 28 CFR 550.30 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 550.30 Section 550.30... Urine Surveillance § 550.30 Purpose and scope. The Warden shall establish programs of urine testing for drug use, to monitor specific groups or individual inmates who are considered as high risk for drug use...

  15. 12 CFR 621.1 - Purpose and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Purpose and Definitions § 621.1 Purpose and applicability. This part sets forth accounting and reporting... Mortgage Corporation. The requirements set forth in this part are of both general and specific...

  16. Fenologia reprodutiva de espécies arbóreas em área fragmentada de Mata Atlântica em Itaborai, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Müller Freire

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fenológicos podem servir de subsídio para ações de colheita de sementes e recuperação de áreas degradadas, contribuindo para a conservação das espécies florestais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a época de floração e frutificação de 21 espécies arbóreas nativas em área fragmentada de Mata Atlântica em Itaboraí, RJ. Foram acompanhadas mensalmente 91 matrizes, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2011. A maior parte das espécies floresceu no final da estação seca e início da chuvosa, tendo sido observada correlação moderada e negativa entre floração e fotoperíodo. Observaram-se dois picos de frutificação: de março a abril para as espécies zoocóricas, e de setembro a outubro para espécies não zoocóricas, com correlação positiva entre precipitação e frutificação de espécies zoocóricas. Foi alta a incidência de patógenos nos frutos, comprometendo a produção de sementes de Machaerium hirtum, Melanoxylon brauna, Machaerium brasiliense e Psidium guineense. Outras espécies apresentaram baixa produção de frutos, como Andira sp., Swartzia oblata, Guarea guidonea e Enterolobium glaziovii. A sincronia de floração e frutificação entre as matrizes foi baixa para a maioria das espécies. A falta de trabalhos de fenologia para a maioria das espécies estudadas (52% reforça a necessidade de pesquisa para a região de estudo.

  17. Solar stills for agricultural purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Tran, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concepts of using desalinated water for agricultural purposes are outlined. A mathematical model describing heat and mass transfer in a system combining a solar still with a greenhouse, its solution, and test results of a small-scale unit built at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, are discussed. The unit was employed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the system. Further development and modifications are necessary for larger-scale operations. The basis of an optimization study which is underway at the Brace Research Institute of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, aimed at finding the best combination of design and operation parameters is also presented.

  18. Lista das espécies de Culicidae (Diptera depositadas na Coleção de Entomologia Pe. J. S. Moure Species list of the Culicidae (Diptera deposited at the Entomological Collection "Pe. J. S. Moure"

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    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in

  19. Anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae uma espécie endêmica. Wood anatomy of Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae an endemic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antonio DAROSCI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia vegetal é útil para a caracterização das espécies e do ambiente em que estas vivem. Muitas espécies respondem a algumas características ambientais com alterações na anatomia do lenho, por exemplo, na quantidade de vasos e raios, o que contribui para a sobrevivência no ambiente. Outras respostas anatômicas do lenho, devido às condições fisiológicas-estruturais presentes em diferentes regiões do caule, também são comuns. O presente estudo analisou a anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata, espécie endêmica da mata ciliar do Vale do Itajaí, a fim de buscar alterações do lenho em resposta a algumas características ambientais, além daquelas provocadas pelas diferentes regiões do caule. Para tanto, amostras do lenho foram coletadas em duas regiões: próxima do solo e à altura do peito (1,30 m. Possíveis respostas de R. echinata ao ambiente ripário foram observadas no comprimento e na frequência das fibras, na largura dos raios e no comprimento e na frequência total de vasos, com diferenças significativas, entre as duas regiões, apenas em características quantitativas. A espécie apresentou, ainda, vasos múltiplos tangenciais e em cacho, características até então não descritas para Rutaceae. Não foram vistos na espécie canais traumáticos, característica comum para Rutaceae. Plant anatomy is useful for the characterization of species and their associated environment. Many species, because of habitat features, can show anatomical alterations of wood that permit their survival in the environment, quantity of vessels and rays, for example. Other anatomical alterations caused by structural-physiological conditions present in different regions of the stem are also common. In this study, the anatomy of Raulinoa echinata wood, an endemic riparian forest species of Itajaí Valley, was analyzed in order to identify alterations in wood because of specific habitat features, as well as adaptations in different

  20. Restauração Florestal de uma Mina de Bauxita: Avaliação do Desenvolvimento das Espécies Arbóreas Plantadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as mudas de espécies arbóreas plantadas para fins de restauração florestal em uma área pós-mineração de bauxita. Foram alocadas 20 parcelas de 9 × 6 m nas quais foram mensurados diâmetro ao nível do solo, altura e diâmetro da copa das mudas plantadas. Também foram calculados a porcentagem de mortalidade e o valor de importância (VI das espécies. Foram registrados 540 indivíduos arbóreos vivos (22,9% de mortalidade e 45 espécies. As espécies com maiores VIs foram Solanum lycocarpum (14,7% e Schinus terebinthifolius (10,8%. S. terebinthifolius, S. lycocarpum e Joannesia princeps contribuíram com 30,4% de cobertura de copa. A altura média das mudas plantadas variou de 0,40 m a 3,90 m. As espécies utilizadas na restauração da área minerada proporcionaram benefícios ecológicos para a área, como cobertura do solo, atenuando processos erosivos e a invasão por gramíneas exóticas agressivas.

  1. ESP AS A CHALLENGE TO CONFRONT – A CASE STUDY OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH IN A PRE-INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUSTIGOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drowned in explosive amounts of information, new technology developments, globalisation, international job opportunities and large-scale job migration, ESP courses are faced with the increasing requirement of tailoring language-learning to accommodate employer/employee specialisations. This dynamism is currently being transmitted to courses at the university level, along with the accompanying challenges for all involved. This paper reviews these potential barriers to implementation of ESP courses for students with low proficiency of English, taking a pre-intermediate-level Technical English course at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague as a case study. After analysing various scholarly references aimed at ESP, the classroom-based research for this paper confirms the feasibility and efficacy of implementing ESP and TE, in particular, even into pre-intermediate classrooms. The self-motivating design of 6 TASKS, as well as authentic video sessions, combined with a student survey and teacher observations, all serve to point to ESP introduction on the pre-intermediate level as achievable in terms of application and resourceful regarding future life-career situations in which students will eventually find themselves.

  2. Padrão de resposta de Mimosa pudica e Senna obtusifolia à atividade potencialmente alelopática de espécies de Poaceae Response pattern of Mimosa pudica e Senna obtusifolia to potentially allelopathic activity of Poaceae species

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    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia é um importante mediador de interferências que alteram a dinâmica de espécies de plantas em sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, procurou-se determinar a existência de padrão de respostas das plantas daninhas Mimosa pudica e Senna obtusifolia a espécies da família Poaceae, via interação entre espécies e frações e ordenamento dos efeitos. Bioensaios de germinação de sementes e alongamento da radícula e do hipocótilo foram desenvolvidos, em condições controladas. Os testes foram realizados utilizando-se extratos hidroalcoólicos na concentração de 1,0% das frações folha, raiz e sementes de quatro espécies de Poaceae. Diferenças na intensidade dos efeitos para os fatores espécie e fração foram verificadas. O padrão de atividade observado foi de Paspalum maritimum apresentar as inibições mais intensas. Entre as espécies de Brachiaria, as inibições mais intensas foram produzidas por B. brizantha. Houve resposta efetiva para a especificidade entre espécies e fração para a germinação e alongamento da radícula, especialmente na espécie Mimosa pudica. Apenas para os extratos de P. maritimum foram observadas especificidade e efetividade em relação à germinação de sementes e alongamento da radícula da espécie Senna obtusifolia. A fração folha foi mais efetiva nas inibições, sobretudo na espécie P. maritimum. Comparativamente, a espécie Mimosa pudica foi mais sensível aos efeitos dos extratos, especialmente em relação ao desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. A intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos variou na seguinte ordem: alongamento da radícula > germinação de sementes > alongamento do hipocótilo. A ordenação dos resultados, para os indicadores de inibição, indicou discriminação no padrão para as espécies receptoras, o que sugere especificidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is an important device to measure interferences affecting the dynamics of plant species in

  3. Adaptive antenna system by ESP32-PICO-D4 and its application to web radio system

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    Toshiro Kodera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive antenna technique has an important role in the IoT environment in order to establish reliable and stable wireless communication in high congestion situation. Even if knowing antenna characteristics in advance, electromagnetic wave propagation in non-line-of-sight environment is very complex and unpredictable, therefore, the adjustment the antenna radiation for the optimum signal reception is important for the better wireless link. This article presents a simple but effective adaptive antenna system for Wi-Fi utilizing the function of a highly integrated component, ESP32-PICO-D4. This chip is a system-in-chip containing all components for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth application except for antenna. Together with SP3T RF switch and dielectric antennas and high-resolution audio DAC, completed web-radio system is made in the size of 50 × 50 mm. Keywords: Beam switching, Adaptive antenna, System-in-chip, ESP32, Web-radio

  4. Distribution of bovine fasciolosis and associated factors in south Espírito Santo, Brazil: an update

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    Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and factors associated with bovine fasciolosis in the south of Espírito Santo were updated and the prevalences of this disease and of snails of the genus Lymnaea in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro were calculated. In the first stage, fecal samples were collected from 10% of the herds of 115 farms in 23 municipalities and interviews were conducted with owners. Generalized linear mixed models were used. In the second stage, in Jerônimo Monteiro municipality, feces and mollusks were collected from all farms registered in the milk cooperatives in the region. The mollusks were identified and examined for infection by Fasciola hepatica. Fasciolosis was diagnosed in 18 (78% of the 23 municipalities. Of the 1157 fecal samples examined, 19.01% were positive for eggs of F. hepatica. The final model shows statistical evidence of associations between positive farms and previous cases of fasciolosis and concomitant grazing of cattle with other definitive hosts. In the evaluated farms from the studied municipality the prevalence of fasciolosis and Lymnaea was of 66.7% and 23.8%, respectively. Mollusks were found in flooded areas and the animals' drinking water troughs. The wide geographical distribution of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Espírito Santo requires control measures to prevent its expansion towards the north of this state and other places characterized as F. hepatica free-infection.

  5. Corridors of crestal and radial faults linking salt diapirs in the Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Nathalia H.; Alves, Tiago M.

    2018-03-01

    This work uses high-quality 3D seismic data to assess the geometry of fault families around salt diapirs in SE Brazil (Espírito Santo Basin). It aims at evaluating the timings of fault growth, and suggests the generation of corridors for fluid migration linking discrete salt diapirs. Three salt diapirs, one salt ridge, and five fault families were identified based on their geometry and relative locations. Displacement-length (D-x) plots, Throw-depth (T-z) data and structural maps indicate that faults consist of multiple segments that were reactivated by dip-linkage following a preferential NE-SW direction. This style of reactivation and linkage is distinct from other sectors of the Espírito Santo Basin where the preferential mode of reactivation is by upwards vertical propagation. Reactivation of faults above a Mid-Eocene unconformity is also scarce in the study area. Conversely, two halokinetic episodes dated as Cretaceous and Paleogene are interpreted below a Mid-Eocene unconformity. This work is important as it recognises the juxtaposition of permeable strata across faults as marking the generation of fault corridors linking adjacent salt structures. In such a setting, fault modelling shows that fluid will migrate towards the shallower salt structures along the fault corridors first identified in this work.

  6. Análise fitoquímica da espécie Phyllanthus niruri L. (quebra-pedra

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    Ana Carolina de Almeida do Rosário

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais possuem propriedades bioativas que ajudam no tratamento de doenças devido ao seu princípio ativo. Esta pesquisa buscou obtenção da análise fitoquímica da espécie Phyllanthus niruri L., conhecida popularmente como quebra-pedra e de uso medicinal popular em forma de chá para tratamento de cálculos renais, infecções intestinais e como anti-inflamatório. Após passar por processo de maceração, se obteve 0,422 g de extrato bruto, e a partir deste, realizou-se as análises dos principais metabólitos secundários. Após este procedimento foram identificados cinco constituintes químicos: esteroides e triterpenoides, alcaloides, depsídeos e depsidonas, açúcares redutores e antraquinonas. Relacionaram-se os mecanismos de ação obtidos na literatura dos metabólitos, com as atividades alegadas pela população da espécie em estudo. Assim, como a descoberta segundo a literatura da ação dos esteroides, como por exemplos, os heterosídeos cardioativos no tratamento de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva.

  7. Espécies de Phytophthora associadas à gomose em pomares de citros no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Marilda Pereira Caixeta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A gomose dos citros é considerada uma doença de grande importância para a citricultura no Brasil e em nível mundial. A etiologia desta doença compreende um complexo de espécies de Phytophthora. Embora importante, pouco se conhece sobre a gomose nas regiões produtoras de citros no Estado do Paraná. Por isso, este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar espécies de Phytophthora associadas à gomose em pomares de citros no Paraná. Nas regiões Norte, Noroeste e Vale do Ribeira foram retiradas amostras de raízes de plantas com sintomas de gomose e também de solo da rizosfera. Em laboratório, empregando pêra cv. D'anjou como isca e meio de cultivo batata-dextrose-ágar, foram obtidos 21 isolados de Phytophthora spp. Todos os isolados infectaram mudas de limão 'Cravo', reproduzindo os sintomas de gomose e também apresentaram crescimento micelial a 8º C e a 36º C, com exceção do isolado PR20 para 36º C . "In vitro", esses isolados foram heterotálicos, sendo 20 compatíveis ao tipo padrão A2 e um compatível ao tipo padrão A1. Vinte isolados formaram esporângios persistentes e papilados, com 25,5 - 62,0 µm de comprimento (C e 27,9 - 49,6 µm de largura (L e a relação C/L foi de 1,38:1. Um isolado (PR20 apresentou esporângios medindo 40,3 - 55,8 µm de comprimento e 27,9 - 37,2 µm de largura, formando esporângios persistentes, papilados ou bipapilados e de formas distorcidas, não formando clamidósporos. A temperatura ótima para crescimento desse isolado foi entre 20 a 28º C, enquanto para os demais foi de 24 a 32º C, tendo estes produção abundante de clamidósporos globosos de diâmetro variando entre 21,7 a 43,4 µm. De acordo com as características morfofisiológicas apresentadas, dos 21 isolados analisados, 20 pertenceram à espécie P. nicotianae e um à espécie P. citrophthora. A análise de sequências de genes da região ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 do rDNA e usando o teste de "Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism

  8. La «loi pêche» (Code rural et l'introduction des espèces piscicoles

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    GUEVEL B.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les introductions d'espèces piscicoles non représentées et/ou susceptibles de créer des déséquilibres biologiques se développent, ici ou là, pour des considérations halieutiques ou accessoirement scientifiques, ou tout simplement pour se débarrasser de spécimens devenus encombrants. Face à ce phénomène, le droit de la pêche continentale n'offre qu'une réponse partielle qui n'est pas suffisante, à ce jour, pour assurer son contrôle. Ainsi, le chapitre II du titre troisième (pêche en eau douce et gestion des ressources piscicoles du livre II (nouveau du Code rural organise le contrôle des peuplements (section IV : articles L.232-10 à L.232-12, R.*232-3 à R.*232-25 du Code rural. Ce dispositif comporte un ensemble d'interdictions assorties, le cas échéant, d'autorisations : - interdiction d'introduire dans les eaux libres et les piscicultures, et de transporter sans autorisation, des poissons susceptibles de provoquer des déséquilibres biologiques ; - interdiction d'introduire sans autorisation des espèces de poissons qui ne sont pas officiellement représentées dans les eaux douces nationales ; - interdiction d'introduire, dans les eaux classées en 1ère catégorie piscicole, des poissons des espèces carnassières (brochet, perche, sandre et black-bass ; - interdiction d'introduire dans les eaux libres, pour rempoissonner ou aleviner, des poissons qui ne proviennent pas d'établissements agréés. Cette législation est perfectible en tant qu'elle suscite des difficultés d'application : la notion d'introduction n'est pas explicitée par les textes et doit être distinguée de l'emploi d'appâts vifs ou de la remise à l'eau ; le transport des espèces non représentées - autres que celles qui sont de nature à créer des déséquilibres biologiques - n'est pas soumis à autorisation et s'effectue donc librement ; le système de listes d'espèces présente une certaine rigidité et ne permet pas de pr

  9. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  10. Iris Cryptography for Security Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Srighakollapu; Balaji Ganesh Kumar, M.; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world, the security became the major issue to every human being. A major issue is hacking as hackers are everywhere, as the technology was developed still there are many issues where the technology fails to meet the security. Engineers, scientists were discovering the new products for security purpose as biometrics sensors like face recognition, pattern recognition, gesture recognition, voice authentication etcetera. But these devices fail to reach the expected results. In this work, we are going to present an approach to generate a unique secure key using the iris template. Here the iris templates are processed using the well-defined processing techniques. Using the encryption and decryption process they are stored, traversed and utilized. As of the work, we can conclude that the iris cryptography gives us the expected results for securing the data from eavesdroppers.

  11. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  12. Secuencias rápidas de Eco de Espín en imágen por resonancia magnética

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Marta Pastrana, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral profundiza en el estudio de las secuencias rápidas turbo espín eco para la adquisición de imagen por resonancia magnética. En particular, se centra en la caracterización de las imágenes obtenidas mediante la combinación de la secuencia turbo espín eco con la adquisición parcial de datos o Fourier parcial. Se propone un método para mejorar la resolución espacial de la imagen sin aumentar el tiempo de exploración respecto de la secuencia original turbo espín eco. Dicha mejor...

  13. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  14. Wissadula Medik. (Malvaceae no Brasil: novas espécies e combinação Wissadula Medik. (Malvaceae in Brazil: new species and combination

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    Massimo G. Bovini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Duas novas espécies e uma nova combinação são apresentadas para o gênero Wissadula (Malvaceae: Wissadula delicata Bovini, W. krapovickasiana Bovini e Wissadula caribea (DC. Bovini, respectivamente, além de novos sinônimos. Para as espécies apresentadas, são fornecidas descrições, ilustrações e chaves de reconhecimento para distingui-las das espécies relacionadas.Two new species and a new combination are presented for genus Wissadula (Malvaceae: Wissadula krapovickasiana Bovini, W. delicata Bovini and Wissadula caribea (DC. Bovini, respectively, plus new synonyms. Descriptions, illustrations and keys to distinguish these species from similar species are supplied.

  15. Distribuição de espécies de columbídeos (Aves: Coliumbiformes), na zona urbana de Uberlândia, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Cândido, Claudiney Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Dentre as aves que vivem no ambiente urbano, podemos destacar os columbídeos (pombas e rolinhas). Em função da sua capacidade de adaptação, várias espécies desse grupo se tornaram tolerantes à presença e transformações humanas. Os objetivos desse estudo foram: determinar a distribuição de espécies de columbídeos na zona urbana de Uberlândia, MG e correlacionar a ocorrência dessas espécies com fatores ambientais (cobertura vegetal, tipos de edificações e distância em relação ao ...

  16. Análise cinemática da marcha de crianças com diparesia espástica em plano inclinado

    OpenAIRE

    Mélo, Tainá Ribas

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo visou caracterizar as variáveis cinemáticas da marcha de crianças com diparesia espástica em plano horizontal e em plano inclinado nas fases de subida e descida. Além disso objetivou-se comparar os dados da marcha de crianças com diparesia espástica com crianças com desenvolvimento típico. Participaram do estudo 20 crianças (10 crianças com diparesia espástica e 10 crianças com desenvolvimento típico), as quais foram avaliadas em condições experimentais (plano e incl...

  17. As ciências naturais e as ciências do espírito na era da globalização

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    Jaeschke, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, o autor apresenta, primeiramente, reflexões de cunho histórico sobre a relação entre as Ciências Naturais e as Ciências do Espírito, seguidas de observações, de caráter mais sistemático, sobre o conceito das próprias Ciências do Espírito. Com fundamento nessas observações, tece algumas reflexões sobre até que ponto podemos esperar da globalização efeitos sobre as Ciências Naturais e as Ciências do Espírito

  18. Understanding purposes of regulation: a case example in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, J T; Hadley, T

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the purposes of governmental regulation and how an exploration of purpose can contribute to our understanding of specific regulations. The primary regulatory purpose is defined as the achievement of quality control of a subject system, its process or its product. Quality control via regulation is achieved through one or a combination of approaches: (1) accountability, (2) organizational development, (3) protectionism. Regulatory purpose and approach is illustrated by a case example of the development of regulations for partial hospitalization mental health services.

  19. Dinâmica de crescimento de espécies de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista em Colombo, PR

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    Aline Canetti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos visando o uso adequado dos recursos da floresta são indispensáveis para o manejo e conservação de remanescentes florestais, como os da Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Tendo em vista a necessidade de se aprimorar conhecimentos sobre o crescimento de espécies em regiões subtropicais, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo monitorar o crescimento diamétrico intra-anual de espécies arbóreas em Colombo, Paraná. Em novembro de 2009 foram instaladas faixas dendrométricas em árvores adultas (de 15 a 25 indivíduos de 9 espécies dentre as mais frequentes em um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista. As medições de incremento diamétrico foram feitas mensalmente, até junho de 2011. Ocotea bicolor se diferenciou das outras espécies, apresentando crescimento superior e constante. Isto pode ser atribuído ao menor recobrimento da copa das árvores, favorecendo o acesso à luz pela espécie e consequentemente o seu crescimento. O maior crescimento de todas as espécies estudadas ocorreu no outono de 2011, estação antecedida por um inverno de baixa precipitação (inverno de 2010, em que a luminosidade esteve mais disponível para a produção fotossintética.

  20. Legal Language – a Cultural Ambassador. A Language for Various Purposes, not only a Language for Specific Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    2014-01-01

    to another. It means also overcoming the typical blindness to one’s own culture. The Spanish-Danish Legal Language course introduces Danish language students to a new world of cultural knowledge, as they generally have insignificant knowledge of Danish law and the Danish legal system. Furthermore, they have......KONFERENCE SINGAPORE Culture-related competence Courses in comparative Spanish -Danish legal language: A cultural Kinder egg? Learning comparative legal language is not only a question of linguistic competence, but it is also cultural training in which the students achieve culture......-related competences as culture is implicitly embedded in many legal terms in the shape of historical, societal and legal knowledge from two different worlds. Students need to understand these legal terms, fixed expressions, metaphors, collocations, etc. in order to be able to translate from one legal language/culture...

  1. Potencial de quatro espécies herbáceas forrageiras para fitorremediação de solo contaminado por arsênio Potential of four herbaceous forage species for phytoremediation of a soil contaminated with arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Freire de Melo

    2009-04-01

    fitoestabilização e, ou, na revegetação de áreas contaminadas por As, uma vez que apresentaram tolerância a esse elemento. Por se tratar de espécies forrageiras, quando utilizadas para esses fins, cuidados especiais são necessários, como o isolamento da área, para evitar a entrada do elemento na cadeia trófica.The decontamination of soils and substrates contaminated with arsenic through phytoremediation techniques has attracted increasing interest of researchers and specialists of environmental sciences. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the species townsville stylo (Stylosanthes humilis HBK, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory, oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. Samples of a Red Yellowh Latossol (Oxisol were incubated with different doses of arsenic (0; 50; 100 and 200 mg dm-3. After this incubation period, the four species were sown and, after germination, soil samples were fertilized accordingly. Sixty five days after sowing, plants were evaluated for height and biomass weight of roots and shoots. Arsenic content in young, intermediate, and old leaves, stem and roots and the As-translocation index (IT were determined. By regression analysis we estimated the critical contents for available arsenic (TC in soil which reduced the biomass production by 50 %. The species differed in As-tolerance; no morphologic symptoms of As toxicity were observed for ryegrass, forage peanut and townsville stylo. The TC values for oat and ryegrass were high. In forage peanut and townsville stylo plants the absorption and shoot translocation of arsenic were higher, but the potential of forage peanut for phytoremediation programs is greater. Ryegrass, peanut and stylo plants can be used in phytostabilization and / or the revegetation of As-contaminated areas. When forage species are used with phytoremediation purposes, special care is needed, such as the isolation of the area, to

  2. Travel and Tourism Students' Needs in Valencia (Spain): Meeting their Professional Requirements in the ESP Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the basic findings obtained as a result of the implementation of two projects of Computer and Information Technologies held in Valencia (Spain) between 2002 and 2003 with 92 second year university students enrolled in English as a foreign language to find out their ICT and foreign language needs both…

  3. As teorias da origem das espécies nos manuais escolares portugueses de Ciências Naturais (1905-1959)

    OpenAIRE

    Cavadas, Bento

    2010-01-01

    O ensino das teorias da origem das espécies no sistema de ensino liceal português ainda não está completamente esclarecido. Esta investigação visou contribuir para essa clarificação, ao mostrar o modo como os autores dos manuais de Ciências Naturais destinados ao ensino liceal, fizeram essa transposição, no período compreendido entre 1905 e 1959. Para tal, estudaram-se as perspectivas e as teorias da origem das espécies, os mecanismos e as provas do evolucionismo que apresentaram. Os resultad...

  4. La gestión del financiamiento y el desarrollo de las inversiones en empresas productoras de espárragos

    OpenAIRE

    García Figueroa, Sabino Procopio

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio de investigación tiene como objetivo general determinar en qué medida la gestión del financiamiento influye en el desarrollo de las inversiones en empresas productoras de espárragos. Luego, el primer objetivo específico, determinar en qué medida las políticas agrarias establecidas por el gobierno, favorecen el crecimiento de los productores de espárragos; el segundo objetivo específico, indicar como la estructura de financiamiento repercute en la consolidación patrimonial...

  5. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  6. Enjeux de la gestion des espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les milieux d'eau douce en outre-mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUBEYRAN, Yohann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Les milieux aquatiques d’eau douce en outre-mer ne sont pas épargnés par les espèces exotiques envahissantes. Ces espèces ont des impacts négatifs, avérés ou potentiels, importants. Diverses actions sont mises en œuvre tant sur le plan national que local pour mieux les gérer, mais de nombreux défis restent encore à relever.

  7. Peridomiciliary colonies of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in rural areas of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Es...

  8. Dieta e compotamento de forrageio de duas espécies de Tropidurus (Squamata,Tropiduridae) em uma área de Caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodiuk, Miguel Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Tropidurus semitaeniatus e Tropidurus hispidus são espécies de lagartos que têm ampla distribuição no Brasil, sendo que a primeira é reconhecida como endêmica das Caatingas, onde vive em sintopia com a segunda, que se distribui em outros ecossistemas e biomas. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a dieta incluindo variações sazonais e o comportamento de forrageio, para averiguar a importância de tais fatores na estrutura dessas populações e coexistência dessas espécies em sintopia. Não se con...

  9. Associações espaciais entre indivíduos de diferentes espécies de Miconia spp. Ruiz & Pav. (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as associações espaciais de indivíduos pertencentes a todas as espécies arbóreas do gênero Miconia presentes no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental de espécies dos gêneros Eucalyptus e Corymbia. Como o gênero Miconia possui a maioria das espécies pioneiras, a hipótese testada foi de que os pares de espécies analisadas apresentam indivíduos com sobreposição total ou parcial de habitat. Considerando o histórico da área, é possível supor que todos os indivíduos se regeneraram a partir da chuva e do banco de sementes. Foi estabelecido um transecto cruzando a área de estudo no sentido de seu maior comprimento, a partir do qual foram determinadas as coordenadas dos indivíduos do gênero Miconia com DAS (diâmetro medido na altura do solo maior ou igual a 1 cm. As associações espaciais entre os indivíduos das diferentes espécies foram analisadas por meio da função K de Ripley bivariada. Foram amostrados indivíduos de Miconia pepericarpa DC., Miconia sellowiana Naudin, Miconia albicans Triana, Miconia argyrophylla DC., Miconia chartacea Triana e Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC. Naudin. De forma geral, os resultados demonstraram ausência de associação espacial negativa entre os pares das espécies, indicando que os indivíduos de Miconia spp. compartilham parcial ou totalmente o mesmo espaço no sub-bosque de um plantio de eucalipto. Os resultados obtidos, apesar de não poderem ser extrapolados para outras espécies, corroboram a ideia de que algumas espécies pioneiras tendem a coexistir, em florestas tropicais, em áreas onde há maior disponibilidade de luz.

  10. Gradiente latitudinal de riqueza de espécies de formigas em cerrado: regra de Rapoport e efeitos da produtividade e heterogeneidade

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Carla Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    O gradiente latitudinal de riqueza de espécies (GLRE) é um padrão bem documentado para diversos grupos de organismos. Apesar de várias hipóteses terem sido levantadas para explicar o gradiente algumas são tidas como mais promissoras, tais como as relacionadas à energia, a heterogeneidade ambiental, ao tempo evolutivo e ao efeito do domínio mediano. O objetivo dessa tese é testar a existência do gradiente latitudinal de riqueza de espécies de formigas arborícolas em cerrado, assim como testar ...

  11. Similaridade cariotípica entre Barycholos ternetzi e cinco espécies do gênero Eleutherodactylus do Sudoeste do Brasil (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Eleutherodactylinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, João Reinaldo da Cruz de [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Estudos citogenéticos comparativos foram realizados em seis espécies de Eleutherodactylinae, da região Sudeste do Brasil: Barycholos ternetzi, Eleutherodactylus binotatus, E. juipoca, Eleutherodactylus sp., E. guentheri e E. parvus. Foram feitas análises, em alguns casos pela primeira vez, com coloração pelo Giemsa, Ag-RON, banda C, coloração por CMA3 e DAPI e hibridação in situ fluorescente (FISH) com sonda de DNAr. Todas as espécies apresentaram 2n=22 e grande similaridade nos cariótipos co...

  12. Multi-Purpose Storage Complex description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Storage Complex will provide interim storage of radioactive material (irradiated fuel, cesium/strontium capsules, plutonium residuals, canisters of vitrified high-level waste glass, and other radioactive material) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. A Storage Preparation and Shipping Facility is included that will have the capability to stabilize failed metal fuel, segregate high-level solid waste, and package/repackage any of the materials for interim storage/final disposal or subsequent processing. Current technology, both domestic and foreign, will be adapted with the expectation that no new technology will be required. This cost-effective approach will use fuel casks, transport systems, and/or modular vaults that have been licensed in the United States. The complex will have a central control room, and appropriate safeguards and security measures will be incorporated. A specific design objective will be to minimize the amount of secondary waste

  13. Peering into peer review: Galileo, ESP, Dr Scott Reuben, and advancing our professional evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2011-10-01

    The fundamental purpose of peer review is quality control that facilitates the introduction of information into our discipline; information that is essential to the care of patients who require anesthesia services. While the AANA Journal relies heavily on this process to maintain the overall quality of our scholarly literature, it may fail that objective under certain conditions. This editorial serves to inform readers of the nature and goals of the peer review process.

  14. Prevalência e caracterização de espécies de lactobacilos vaginais em mulheres em idade reprodutiva sem vulvovaginites Prevalence and characterization of vaginal lactobacillus species in women at reproductive age without vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Melo Brolazo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar espécies de lactobacilos isolados do conteúdo vaginal de mulheres saudáveis e assintomáticas; determinar as espécies mais prevalentes e caracterizá-las fenotipicamente. MÉTODOS: lactobacilos foram isolados em meio seletivo a partir de amostras de conteúdo vaginal de 135 mulheres, sem queixa de corrimento e com diagnóstico laboratorial negativo para infecções vaginais, acompanhadas em um ambulatório de Planejamento Familiar. Os isolados foram identificados por PCR multiplex e, quando necessário, submetidos ao sequenciamento do gene RNAr 16S. Foram também avaliados quanto à acidificação do meio de cultura, à produção de ácido láctico, de H2O2, bacteriocinas e a capacidade de adesão às células epiteliais. RESULTADOS: oitenta e três cepas de lactobacilos foram isoladas e identificadas, sendo as espécies predominantes L. crispatus (30,1%, L. jensenii (26,5%, L. gasseri (22,9% e L. vaginalis (8,4%. Apenas 20 destes isolados não produziram H2O2 em quantidades detectáveis. Das 37 linhagens selecionadas para teste de adesão a células epiteliais, 12 apresentaram adesão entre 50 a 69%, 10 apresentaram 70% ou mais, e as restantes pouca ou nenhuma adesão. Nenhum dos isolados produziu bacteriocinas. CONCLUSÕES: as espécies de lactobacilos mais prevalentes em mulheres sem vulvovaginites, isoladas em meio de cultura seletivo e identificadas por métodos moleculares, foram L. crispatus, L. jensenii e L. gasseri. Além de mais frequentes, tais linhagens também apresentaram melhor produção de H2O2 e atingiram menores valores de pH em meio de cultura.PURPOSE: to identify species of lactobacillus isolated from the vaginal contents of healthy and asymptomatic women, determining the most prevalent species and characterizing them phenotypically. METHODS: lactobacillus have been isolated in selective milieu from samples of the vaginal contents of 135 women without complaints of vaginal secretion, and with

  15. Sucesso reprodutivo de espécies distílicas de psychotria (rubiaceae em sub-bosque de floresta atlântica Reproductive success of distylous species of psychotria (rubiaceae of understory atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies distílicas Psychotria conjugens, P. hastisepala e P. sessilis (Rubiaceae são típicas de sub-bosques sombreados. Ocorrem no maior fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Sudeste brasileiro - a Mata do Paraíso, com 194 ha. A distilia caracteriza-se pela presença dos morfos florais longistilos (L e brevistilos (B em indivíduos distintos e pela dependência de polinizações intermorfos (L x B ou B x L para a produção de frutos; é esperada a proporção equilibrada (isopletia dos indivíduos na população. Foram objetivos deste trabalho verificar, nas espécies citadas, a proporção dos morfos florais em uma área de 7 ha e a dependência por polinizadores, testando a incompatibilidade intramorfos (L x L e B x B por meio de polinizações manuais in vivo, a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen e dimorfismo dos grãos entre os morfos florais; e quantificar as produções de frutos e de sementes por morfo. Os morfos florais das espécies se encontram em proporções equilibradas. Houve incompatibilidade e a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi alta (> 64%. Verificou-se dimorfismo dos grãos, e os maiores diâmetros foram os de B. As produções de frutos e de sementes (uma ou duas dos morfos de P. sessilis e de P. conjugens foram semelhantes e, em P. hastisepala, foram maiores em B. Na Mata do Paraíso, as condições adequadas, como o hábitat, a isopletia e a atuação de polinizadores, são fatores que parecem favorecer o sucesso reprodutivo e, consequentemente, a manutenção local das espécies estudadas.The distylous species of Psychotria conjugens, P. hastisepala e P. sessilis (Rubiaceae are typical of understory shady. It occurs in the largest fragment (194 ha of semideciduous forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil, where the present study was carried out. The distyly is characterized by the presence of pin (L and thrum (B floral morphs in different individual and the

  16. Morphometric of four species in agroforestry systems in the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. = Morfometria de quatro espécies florestais em sistemas agroflorestais no munícipio de Porto Velho, Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Monteiro Condé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the morphometry of Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, Brasil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa HBK, Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. and simulate the vital space for it to grow without competition in agroforestry plantations. Data were collected in 20 agroforestry (SAF’s considered productive age (16.5 years of Project RECA (Economic Reforestation Consortium and Compacted, the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. The deployment of the SAF’s occurred through the removal of vegetation through the process of clearing and burningof native forests. Morphometric data were collected randomly from individuals with DBH > 10 cm of four tree species in onehectare of each farm, for a total sample area of 20 ha (20 properties. The sample was composed by 25 individuals of Andiroba,40 of Brasil nut tree, 23 of Copaíba and 46 of Mogno. Andiroba was very similar to Mogno in relation to Cup Percentage (PC,Coverage Index (AI and Cup Form (FC, both showed potential for higher density plantations with timber purposes. The Brasilnut tree and Copaíba had the highest values of the FC (1.66, 1.79 and Crown Area (92.60, 57.51, respectively, showing frondscrowns, silvicultural interesting features for the extraction of seeds. Was simulated living space for the four species developwithout competition between cups. It was concluded that the four species have potential for planting for extraction of timberand non-timber forest in areas subject to degradation and deforestation in the Amazon.ResumoO presente estudo visa descrever a morfometria das espécies Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, Castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. e simular o espaço vital para que as mesmas cresçam sem concorrência em plantios agroflorestais. Os dados foram coletadosem vinte sistemas agroflorestais (SAF’s em idade considerada

  17. Importación de espárragos verdes frescos de Perú a España

    OpenAIRE

    Canto Cabeza de, Bartolomé; Hurtado Chorrillos, Edda Yrina; Wenxing Ma , Estrella; Chunliang Wang , Manuel; Ni Wang, Nebita

    2008-01-01

    El presente proyecto es la conclusión del XIV Máster en Comercio Internacional, impartido por la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Su objetivo es servir de guía a la realización de operaciones de importación de espárragos frescos verdes de origen y procedencia Perú a España. La parte de financiación es una de las más sensibles del proyecto, en su elaboración se considero los temas de negociación, contratación, análisis de coste beneficio y...

  18. Novas espécies de Lamiinae (Cerambycidae neotropicais e transferência de Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia. Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; da Bolívia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Adetus basalis, sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz.. Do Panamá: Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. (Chiriqui. O gênero Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originalmente descrito em Pteropliini é transferido para Apomecynini.New species described from Brazil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia, Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; from Bolivia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz; Adetus basalis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz., Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. from Panama (Chiriqui. The genus Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originally described in Pteropliini, is transferred to Apomecynini.

  19. New records of rhodolith-forming species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from deep water in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Maria Carolina; Villas-Boas, Alexandre; Rodriguez, Rafael Riosmena; Figueiredo, Marcia A. O.

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the diversity of non-geniculate coralline red algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinophycidae) from deep waters in Brazil. Most surveys undertaken in this country have been carried out in shallow waters. In 1994, however, the REVIZEE program surveyed the sustainable living resources potential of the Brazilian exclusive economic zone to depths of 500 m. In the present study, the rhodolith-forming coralline algae from the continental shelf of Espírito Santo State were identified. Samples were taken from 54 to 60 m depth by dredging during ship cruises in 1997. Three rhodolith-forming species were found: Spongites yendoi (Foslie) Chamberlain , Lithothamnion muelleri Lenormand ex Rosanoff and Lithothamnion glaciale Kjellman. These records extend the distribution ranges of these species into Brazilian waters and extend the depth distribution of non-geniculate coralline red algae into Brazilian water to 58 m.

  20. Novas espécies de Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Membracidae New species of Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Creão-Duarte

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies de Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 são descritas e ilustradas: S. compactum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. costaricense Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. notabile Souza & Rothéa sp. nov. e S. rubricatum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov. As duas primeiras são da Costa Rica e as outras do Brasil, Mato Grosso.Four new species of Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 are described and illustrated: S. compactum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. costaricense Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. notabile Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., and S. rubricatum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov. The first two species are from Costa Rica, and two others from Brazil, Mato Grosso.

  1. Valores de referência de qualidade para metais pesados em solos no Estado do Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Sá Paye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Valores de referência de qualidade (VRQ para metais pesados em solos, em âmbito mundial, são bastante heterogêneos. No Brasil, poucos estudos para estabelecer esses valores foram concluídos. Na ausência de VRQ para metais pesados em solos, estabelecidos para as condições do Estado do Espírito Santo, utilizam-se valores genéricos internacionais ou desenvolvidos para outros Estados. Entretanto, deve-se ressaltar que o uso desses valores pode levar a avaliações inadequadas, já que existem diferenças nas condições técnicas e variáveis ambientais de cada região, em especial das condições geológicas, hídricas e pedológicas. Essas diferenças justificam o desenvolvimento de uma tabela própria com VRQ para metais pesados em solos, adequada às condições do Estado do Espírito Santo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo buscou obter os teores naturais de 10 metais pesados e verificar a distribuição desses elementos nos solos das bacias hidrográficas Riacho, Reis Magos e Santa Maria da Vitória, no Estado do Espírito Santo, tendo em vista o estabelecimento de Valores de Referência de Qualidade (VRQ. Para isso, foram determinados os teores totais por ataque ácido, com digestão em forno micro-ondas, conforme o método SW-846 3052 da Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA e dosagem por espectrofotometria de emissão óptica com plasma induzido (ICP- OES. Os teores totais extraídos nos solos dessas bacias hidrográficas são relativamente baixos e inferiores aos reportados para solos de regiões brasileiras e de outros países. Os teores de cádmio ficaram abaixo do limite de detecção (LD do método para todas as amostras. Em consequência, os VRQ obtidos para 12 metais pesados no Estado do Espírito Santo foram semelhantes ou inferiores aos obtidos para outras regiões do Brasil e do mundo. Os VRQ obtidos a partir do percentil 75 (quartil superior para As (< 12,83, Cd (< 0,13, Co (10,21, Cr (54,13, Cu (5,91, Mn (137,80, Mo (1

  2. Anatomia comparada da antera de espécies de Passiflora L.(Passifloraceae) do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Aline Dettke

    2009-01-01

    Passiflora L. é o maior dos gêneros de Passifloraceae, com cerca de 530 espécies, e ocorre predominantemente no continente americano. Compreende trepadeiras herbáceas ou lenhosas com gavinhas, raramente ervas, arbustos ou pequenas árvores. A sistemática de Passiflora, assim como de Passifloraceae, não está ainda bem resolvida, pois são frágeis os limites de circunscrição de vários subgêneros, seções e séries e a última revisão sistemática dos gêneros americanos data do século passado. Esta cl...

  3. EFL Students’ Attitudes towards Self-Access Language Learning Centers (SALC: The Case of Iranian ESP Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Javdani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the attitude of ESP learners towards the role of Self-Access Language Learning Centres in improving their reading comprehension. It provides an evaluation of the success of these contents as well as an interpretation of students’ understanding of the related concepts. Finally it identifies factors that enhance or hinder the successful implementation of Self-Access Language Learning. Both qualitative and quantitative instruments were used to elicit data that give insight into learners’ perceptions of the issues under review. Self-Access Language Learning was evaluated positively by the students, both as a means to improve specialised English and as a means to develop autonomy as well as autonomous learning skills. The study identified a number of factors that contributed to these perceptions. It also revealed that students’ understanding of independent learning is rather shallow. Finally a number of recommendations were made for a successful implementation of Self-Access Language Learning into a curriculum.

  4. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare.

  5. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Tonini dos Santos Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO - Code of Dental Ethics, this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES - Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo. The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%, followed by technical error (18.7%, irregular registration (16.8%, patient/professional relationship (11.3% tax lien foreclosure (6.6%, professional/professional relationship (4.0%, irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%, consumer relations (0.8%, failure to provide care (0.6%, false certification (0.4%, and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%. Most (59.2% of the dental surgeons (DSs involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5 years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2% cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4% acquittals and 14 (63.6% convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning + pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%. It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare.

  6. Influência do teor de umidade na propriedade de tenacidade de espécies florestais

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    Denise Ortigosa Stolf

    Full Text Available A tenacidade da madeira é uma propriedade mecânica de interesse em situações em que o carregamento por impacto deve ser considerado, encontrando aplicação em silos, pontes e fôrmas para estruturas de concreto armado. Apesar das recomendações do Anexo B - NBR 7190:1997, não tem sido usual a determinação da tenacidade na caracterização da madeira. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a influência do teor de umidade (30; 20; 12; 6; 0% na obtenção da tenacidade da madeira angelim-saia (Vatairea sp, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus elliottii e Corymbia citriodora, considerando a orientação dos anéis de crescimento em relação à direção da força de impacto. Análises estatísticas dos resultados por análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey revelaram ser significativa a influência do teor de umidade na tenacidade apenas para a madeira de angelim-saia. Para as demais espécies, a análise estatística demonstrou resultados estatisticamente equivalentes, ou seja, o teor de umidade não foi influente na propriedade de tenacidade. Neste sentido, foi observado que o teor de umidade pode ser significativo na obtenção da tenacidade conforme a espécie e que maiores teores podem fornecer valores superiores desta propriedade.

  7. The R.E.D. tools: advances in RESP and ESP charge derivation and force field library building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupradeau, François-Yves; Pigache, Adrien; Zaffran, Thomas; Savineau, Corentin; Lelong, Rodolphe; Grivel, Nicolas; Lelong, Dimitri; Rosanski, Wilfried; Cieplak, Piotr

    2010-07-28

    Deriving atomic charges and building a force field library for a new molecule are key steps when developing a force field required for conducting structural and energy-based analysis using molecular mechanics. Derivation of popular RESP charges for a set of residues is a complex and error prone procedure because it depends on numerous input parameters. To overcome these problems, the R.E.D. Tools (RESP and ESP charge Derive, ) have been developed to perform charge derivation in an automatic and straightforward way. The R.E.D. program handles chemical elements up to bromine in the periodic table. It interfaces different quantum mechanical programs employed for geometry optimization and computing molecular electrostatic potential(s), and performs charge fitting using the RESP program. By defining tight optimization criteria and by controlling the molecular orientation of each optimized geometry, charge values are reproduced at any computer platform with an accuracy of 0.0001 e. The charges can be fitted using multiple conformations, making them suitable for molecular dynamics simulations. R.E.D. allows also for defining charge constraints during multiple molecule charge fitting, which are used to derive charges for molecular fragments. Finally, R.E.D. incorporates charges into a force field library, readily usable in molecular dynamics computer packages. For complex cases, such as a set of homologous molecules belonging to a common family, an entire force field topology database is generated. Currently, the atomic charges and force field libraries have been developed for more than fifty model systems and stored in the RESP ESP charge DDataBase. Selected results related to non-polarizable charge models are presented and discussed.

  8. Espécies novas de Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae New species of Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies novas de Meliponini do gênero Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae do Brasil e Panamá são descritas: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brasil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brasil: AM e T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA; e são apresentados novos registros geográficos de T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 e T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 e uma chave para identificação das espécies.Some new Meliponini species of the genus Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae from Brazil and Panamá are described: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brazil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brazil: AM and T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA; additional geographic records from T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 and T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 and an identification key for species are presented.

  9. Uma concepção dialética da arte a partir da gênese do conceito de trabalho na fenomenologia do espírito de Hegel

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    Márcia Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Fenomenologia do Espírito de Hegel não é ainda o lugar específico da posição de sua filosofia da arte propriamente dita. Entretanto, é possível compreender a relação sistemática entre alguns conceitos fundamentais desta obra de 1807 e a concepção hegeliana de arte da maturidade. A partir desta relação, destacaremos em nossa interpretação três diferentes e complementares teses: 1. Da obra de arte como produto ideal do trabalho do espírito (Geist; 2. Do simbolismo da religião natural como produto do trabalho do artesão à beleza da religião da arte; 3. Da necessidade do oráculo à subjetividade concreta do ator de teatro.Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind is not the specific place of the position of his philosophy of arts. However, it is possible to understand the systematic relationship between many fundamental concepts of this work of 1807 and the Hegel's conception of art in his maturity. Through this relationship, we will detach in our interpretation three different and complementary theses: 1. From the work of art as ideal product of the work of the "Geist"; 2. The symbolism of the natural religion as product of the worker to the beauty of the religion of the arts; 3. The necessity of the oracle to the concrete subjectivity of the actor of the theatre.

  10. Specifying Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  11. Peridomiciliary colonies of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in rural areas of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Claudiney Biral dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Espírito Santo State Health Secretariat has recorded nymphs infected with flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi in rural localities. Entomological surveys were carried out in the residences and outbuildings in which the insects were found, and serological examinations for Chagas disease performed on the inhabitants. Four colonies were found, all associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita, 111 specimens of T. vitticeps, and 159 eggs being collected. All the triatomines presented flagellates in their frass. Mice inoculated with the faeces presented trypomastigotes in the circulating blood and groups of amastigotes in the cardiac muscle fibres. Serological tests performed on the inhabitants were negative for T. cruzi. Even with the intense devastation of the forest in Espírito Santo, there are no indications of change in the sylvatic habits of T. vitticeps. Colonies of this insect associated with opossum nests would indicate an expansion of the sylvatic environment into the peridomicile.

  12. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Falqueto,Aloísio; Grimaldi Júnior,Gabriel; Sessa,Paulo Augusto; Varejão,José Benedito Malta; Deane,Leonidas M.

    1985-01-01

    Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  13. Espécies novas do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Melastomataceae Tibouchina Lutzii Brade n.sp

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    A. C. Brade

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available A posição desta espécie é após Tibouchina floribunda Cogn. No hábito assemelha-se a Tibouchina Schwackei Cogn. mas distingue-se bem desta pelo revestimento diferente e a côr alva da página inferior da folha.

  14. New species of Rhinoleucophenga, a potential predator of pineapple mealybugs Nova espécie de Rhinoleucophenga, potencial predadora da cochonilha-do-abacaxizeiro

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    Mark Paul Culik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to describe a new species of Rhinoleucophenga (Diptera: Drosophilidae. Rhinoleucophenga capixabensis sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus infested with Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Distinguishing characters of R. capixabensis sp. nov. include hyaline wings, a strong seta on the second antennal segment, body length of about 2-3 mm, uniformly dark brown scutellum, one pair of strong prescutellar setae, ventral epandrial lobes with about 17-18 teeth, and female cerci with approximately 20 long setae.O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma nova espécie de Rhinoleucophenga (Diptera: Drosophilidae. Rhinoleucophenga capixabensis sp. nov. foi descrita com base em espécimes coletados em associação com Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae em Ananas comosus var. comosus, no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. As principais características de R. capixabensis sp. nov. incluem asas hialinas, uma seta forte no segundo segmento da antena, comprimento do corpo de aproximadamente 2-3 mm, escutelo uniformemente castanho-escuro, um par robusto de setas prescutelares, lobos epadriais ventrais com aproximadamente 17-18 dentes e cercos da fêmea com aproximadamente 20 setas longas.

  15. Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae e Mesembrinellidae (Diptera da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Leandro Silva Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro registro de dípteros das famílias Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae e Mesembrinellidae da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL é apresentado e discutido, baseado em coletas realizadas no ano de 2007. Os exemplares foram capturados com o auxílio de armadilha adaptada de modelo proposto para lepidópteros, utilizando sardinha como isca e Malaise, além de coleta ativa com rede entomológica. Como resultado foram obtidos 1.253 espécimes, com destaque para as famílias Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae e Mesembrinellidae. É discutida a dualidade gerada pela presença de espécies com baixo grau de sinantropia e outras altamente sinantrópicas, caracterizando a área de coleta como uma região de transição entre áreas rural e florestal. A observação de espécies sinantrópicas está provavelmente correlacionada ao efeito de borda. Os resultados evidenciam a importância da criação de uma zona de amortecimento no entorno da EBSL com intuito de minimizar os impactos gerados às espécies nativas.

  16. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  17. New enigmatic Andean bee species of Protandrena (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae Novas espécies de abelhas andinas do gênero Protandrena (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Gonzalez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Panurgine bees are diverse and abundant in temperate areas of the Americas but poorly represented to nearly absent in the tropics. We describe and illustrate five distinctive new species of the genus Protandrena that occur at high altitudes (2000-3400 m in the Andes, from Venezuela to Ecuador. The species are also described to make the names available in forthcoming papers on their biology. These Andean species resemble some members of the subgenus Heterosarus but differ from it, as well as from any other subgenera of Protandrena, primarily in characters of the male genitalia and hidden sterna. The South American Protandrena s. l. are morphologically highly diverse and a complete study of the group is needed before supraspecific names are proposed for unusual species. Thus, to avoid further nomenclatural changes, we decided not to place these species in a new subgenus or any of the available subgenera. We also provide notes on the biology for some of the species.As espécies de abelhas da subfamília Panurginae nas áreas temperadas das Américas são diversas e abundantes, mas pouco representadas ou até ausentes nos trópicos. São descritas e ilustradas cinco novas espécies do gênero Protandrena que ocorrem em grandes altitudes (2000-3400 m nos Andes, da Venezuela ao Equador. As espécies são descritas para que se tenham nomes válidos em artigos sobre sua biologia. Estas espécies andinas são semelhantes a alguns membros do subgênero Heterosarus, mas diferem dele, assim como do subgênero Protandrena, primariamente pelos caracteres da genitália do macho e pelos esternos ocultos. Protandrena s. l. sulamericanos são morfologicamente muito diversos e um estudo completo do grupo deverá ser feito antes de serem propostos nomes supra-específicos para essas espécies. Portanto, para evitar futuras mudanças na nomenclatura, foi decidido não alocar essas espécies em um novo subgênero ou em qualquer outro. São fornecidas também notas da

  18. 12 CFR 41.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING General Provisions § 41.1 Purpose. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this part is to establish standards for national banks regarding consumer report information. In addition, the purpose of this part is to specify the extent to which...

  19. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC.

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    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas informações coletadas em 41 entrevistas feitas junto a madeireiros, ex-madeireiros e colonizadores, determinou-se quais as espécies potencialmente madeiráveis, o valor de uso e a valorização econômica das espécies madeiráveis para os remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual na região do Alto--Uruguai, SC, desde o início da colonização daquela região. A diversidade de espécies florestais de uso madeirável conhecida popularmente na região foi de 63 espécies. Contudo, em termos de dominância esse grupo reduz-se a 15 espécies. A maior dominância foi observada para as espécies Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana e Peltophorum dubium. As espécies de maior valor comercial foram Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus e Balfourodendron riedelianum. Já Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum e várias espécies da família Lauraceae apresentaram, no decorrer do tempo, incremento no uso e na comercialização. O valor de uma espécie é condicionado tanto pela qualidade quanto pela quantidade ofertada. Em geral, verificou-se uma evolução no valor das espécies bem como na indústria madeireira que utilizou várias maneiras para se adaptar às demandas desses produtos florestais.

  20. Creating Machinima (3D) and Real Life Videos in an ESP Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Alpala, Carol Anne; Ortíz García, William Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    This research paper reports on the development of oral presentation skills in a 3D virtual world called "Moviestorm" machinima, in contrast with real-life videos. In this way, the implementation of both types of videos sought to promote the improvement of oral communication skills, specifically oral presentations in a foreign language,…