WorldWideScience

Sample records for specific measurable attainable

  1. Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Relevant, and Timely (SMART) Documents: Utilized in Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    northeastern Nigeria (11o51’N, 13o05’E), with an estimated total population of 1.2 million. Con- current with rapid urban growth , the local government...dictions. Assessing individuals within the population allows analysis of so- cial well-being in relation to potential cascading infrastructure...Minnesota Population Center NBS National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria NGO nongovernment organizations NPR National Public Radio SMART specific

  2. Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study investigated the strategies for ensuring effective delivery of Biology Education at the secondary school level ...

  3. Contactless Opto-electronic Area and Their Attainable Measuring Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ricny

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of the contactless areameasurement on the principle of video signal processing. This videosignal generates TV camera, which scans the measured object. Basicprinciple of these meters is explained and attainable measurementaccuracy and factors influencing this accuracy are analyzed.

  4. Goal Attainment Scaling in paediatric rehabilitation practice : a useful outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, D.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of a 6-point Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) system to measure change over time in interdisciplinary rehabilitation practice for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). GAS is a generic individualized evaluative criterion-referenced instrument. It can

  5. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  7. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions......, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women...... of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control...

  8. The Case for Individualized Goal Attainment Scaling Measurement in Elder Abuse Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David; Lachs, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Research available to inform the development of effective community-based elder abuse protective response interventions is severely limited. Elder abuse intervention research is constrained by a lack of research capacity, including sensitive and responsive outcome measures that can assess change in case status over the course of intervention. Given the heterogeneous nature of elder abuse, standard scales can lack the flexibility necessary to capture the diverse range of individually relevant issues across cases. In this paper, we seek to address this gap by proposing the adaptation and use of an innovative measurement strategy-goal attainment scaling-in the context of elder protection. Goal attainment scaling is an individualized, client-centered outcome measurement approach that has the potential to address existing measurement challenges constraining progress in elder abuse intervention research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Mortality risk in hemodialysis patients with increased arterial stiffness is reduced by attainment of classical clinical performance measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Thies, Christina; Cheikhalfraj, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    We determined whether attainment of classical clinical performance measures for hemodialysis care improves survival in hemodialysis patients with increased arterial stiffness.......We determined whether attainment of classical clinical performance measures for hemodialysis care improves survival in hemodialysis patients with increased arterial stiffness....

  10. Measuring Social Studies Concept Attainment: Boys and Girls. Report from the Project on A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret L.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    This paper describes test development efforts for measuring achievement of selected concepts in social studies. It includes descriptive item and test statistics for the tests developed. Twelve items were developed for each of 30 concepts. Subject specialists categorized the concepts into three major areas: Geographic Region, Man and Society, and…

  11. Characterization of Factors Affecting Attainment of Glycemic Control in Asian Americans With Diabetes in a Culturally Specific Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung; Wong, Sophia; Iftikar, Tracy; Keenan, Hillary; King, George L.; Hsu, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts. Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center. Results AA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (−0.9% ± 1.6%, −0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044). Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population. PMID:23771841

  12. Implementation of learning outcome attainment measurement system in aviation engineering higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, I. Mohd; Mat Rani, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to discuss the effectiveness of the Learning Outcome Attainment Measurement System in assisting Outcome Based Education (OBE) for Aviation Engineering Higher Education in Malaysia. Direct assessments are discussed to show the implementation processes that become a key role in the successful outcome measurement system. A case study presented in this paper involves investigation on the implementation of the system in Aircraft Structure course for Bachelor in Aircraft Engineering Technology program in UniKL-MIAT. The data has been collected for five semesters, starting from July 2014 until July 2016. The study instruments used include the report generated in Learning Outcomes Measurements System (LOAMS) that contains information on the course learning outcomes (CLO) individual and course average performance reports. The report derived from LOAMS is analyzed and the data analysis has revealed that there is a positive significant correlation between the individual performance and the average performance reports. The results for analysis of variance has further revealed that there is a significant difference in OBE grade score among the report. Independent samples F-test results, on the other hand, indicate that the variances of the two populations are unequal.

  13. Development of construction specifications to attain clean rooms for the NOVA laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedix, C.P.

    1980-02-01

    This paper describes the process of defining technical requirements for a major Department of Energy Research and Development Facility and subsequent development of construction specifications for the clean spaces in that facility. The organizational interactions between technical client, Engineering and Construction elements are described. The importance of an interdisciplinary team approach is stressed. A brief description of the SHIVA Laser and NOVA Laser Clean Spaces is included to indicate the scope of the facility undertaking. A number of potential pitfalls are discussed that may be helpful to designers of new facilities

  14. Tracking Transfer: New Measures of Institutional and State Effectiveness in Helping Community College Students Attain Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Fink, John

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of two- to four-year college transfer is critical for meeting national goals for college attainment and promoting upward social mobility. Efforts to improve institutional effectiveness in serving transfer students and state transfer policy have been hampered by a lack of comparable metrics for measuring transfer…

  15. The declining influence of family background on educational attainment in Australia: The role of measured and unmeasured influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N; Mooi-Reci, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines changes in the influence of family background, including socioeconomic and social background variables on educational attainment in Australia for cohorts born between 1890 and 1982. We test hypotheses from modernization theory on sibling data using random effects models and find: (i) substantial declines in the influence of family background on educational attainment (indicated by the sibling intraclass correlations); (ii) declines in the effects of both economic and cultural socioeconomic background variables; (iii) changes in the effects of some social background variables (e.g., family size); (iv) and declines in the extent that socioeconomic and social background factors account for variation in educational attainment. Unmeasured family background factors are more important, and proportionally increasingly so, for educational attainment than the measured socioeconomic and social background factors analyzed. Fixed effects models showed steeper declines in the effects of socioeconomic background variables than in standard analyses suggesting that unmeasured family factors associated with socioeconomic background obscure the full extent of the decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of treatment adherence and treatment-specific therapeutic competencies on outcome and goal attainment in telephone-based therapy with caregivers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinköthe, Denise; Altmann, Uwe; Wilz, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory results have been found for the impact of therapist's adherence and competence on intervention outcomes. Most studies focus on generic aspects of competence and adherence, rather than taking into account treatment-specific aspects or specific challenges of the clientele. Appropriate analyses are lacking for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with caregivers of people with dementia. In a sample of 43 caregivers, we examined adherence and different competence ratings of 80 complete sessions, as predictors of symptom change and goal attainment. Therapist's competence was evaluated by four raters, using an adapted version of the cognitive therapy scale (CTS) on three subscales of competence: General therapeutic (GT), session-structuring (SS), and treatment-specific CBT technique (CT). Therapist's adherence to the manual was also assessed. The results show that GT competencies were associated with lower post-test depression scores and that CT competencies predicted a decrease in caregiver burden and higher goal attainment, while SS competencies predicted higher post-test burden. Therapist's adherence had no relationship to outcome, but the higher application of modifying dysfunctional thoughts was associated with higher goal attainment. The results suggest the importance of treatment-specific competencies for outcome. Future research should identify empirically what kind of therapeutic behavior is appropriate to the challenges of a specific clientele such as caregivers of people with dementia.

  17. Measurement of low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of low-temperature specific heat (LTSH) (0.1 K< T<60 K) has seen a number of breakthroughs both in design concepts and instrumentation in the last 15 years: particularly in small sample calorimetry. This review attempts to provide an overview of both large and small sample calorimetry techniques at temperatures below 60 K, with sufficient references to enable more detailed study. A comprehensive review is made of the most reliable measurements of the LTSH of 84 of the elements to illustrate briefly some of the problems of measurements and analysis, as well as to provide additional references. More detail is devoted to three special areas of low-temperature calorimetry that have seen rapid development recently: (1) measurement of the specific heat of highly radioactive samples, (2) measurement of the specific heat of materials in high magnetic fields (18 T), and (3) measurement of the specific heat of very small (100 μg) samples. The review ends with a brief discussion of the frontier research currently underway on microcalorimetry for nanogram sample weights

  18. Automated effect-specific mammographic pattern measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to develop methodologies for assessing effect specific structural changes of the breast tissue using a general statistical machine learning framework. We present an approach of obtaining objective mammographic pattern measures quantifying a specific biological effect......, such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We compare results using this approach to using standard density measures. We show that the proposed method can quantify both age related effects and effects caused by HRT. Age effects are significantly detected by our method where standard methodologies fail...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Williams, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  20. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  1. An urban-forest control measure for ozone in the Sacramento, CA federal non-attainment area (SFNA) Sustainable Cities and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider Taha; James Wilkinson; Robert Bornstein; Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory McPherson; Jim Simpson; Charles Anderson; Steven Lau; Janice Lam; Cindy Blain

    2015-01-01

    Urban forest strategies of gradually replacing high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) with low-emitting species are being considered as voluntary or emerging control measures for maintenance of the 8-h ozone standard in the Sacramento Federal Non-Attainment Area (SFNA). We describe a regulatory modeling study demonstrating the air-quality impacts...

  2. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... incorporates devices that affect the air flow measurement (such as air bleeds) that result in understated...

  3. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden...... indicators have defined SDG targets, against which we assessed attainment. FINDINGS: Globally, the median health-related SDG index was 56·7 (IQR 31·9-66·8) in 2016 and country-level performance markedly varied, with Singapore (86·8, 95% uncertainty interval 84·6-88·9), Iceland (86·0, 84·1-87·6), and Sweden...... 2-8) of the 24 defined targets currently measured. Globally, projected target attainment considerably varied by SDG indicator, ranging from more than 60% of countries projected to reach targets for under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria, to less than 5...

  4. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the...

  5. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the engine...

  6. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  7. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P

    2006-01-15

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  8. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P.

    2006-01-01

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  9. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  10. Educational attainment but not measures of current socioeconomic circumstances are associated with leukocyte telomere length in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark; Butcher, Lee; Lin, Jue; Brydon, Lena; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Erusalimsky, Jorge D

    2011-10-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with accelerated biological aging, but findings relating SES with telomere length have been inconsistent. We tested the hypotheses that shorter telomere length and telomerase activity would be related more robustly to education, an early life indicator of socioeconomic position, than to current indicators of socioeconomic circumstances. Healthy men and women aged 53-76 years from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort provided blood samples from which telomere length was assessed in 448 and telomerase activity in 416. Educational attainment was classified into four levels, while household income and grade of employment were measured as indicators of current socioeconomic circumstances. Age, gender, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, body mass index and physical activity were included as covariates. We found that lower educational attainment was associated with shorter telomere length after controlling statistically for biological and behavioral covariates. Neither household income nor employment grade was related to telomere length. The association between telomere length and education remained significant after adjusting for current socioeconomic circumstances. In men, highest levels of telomerase activity were found in the lowest education group. We conclude that low SES defined in terms of education but not current socioeconomic circumstances is associated with shortened telomeres. Low educational attainment may be an indicator of long-term SES trajectories, and be associated with accumulated allostatic load resulting in telomere shortening. Education may also promote problem-solving skills leading to reduced biological stress responsivity, with favorable consequences for biological aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Goal specificity: a proxy measure for improvements in environmental outcomes in collaborative governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer C; Koontz, Tomas M

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative governance critics continually call for evidence to support its prevalent use. As is often the case in environmental policy, environmental outcomes occur at a rate incompatible with political agendas. In addition, a multitude of possibly confounding variables makes it difficult to correlate collaborative governance processes with environmental outcomes. The findings of this study offer empirical evidence that collaborative processes have a measurable, beneficial effect on environmental outcomes. Through the use of a unique paired-waterbody design, our dataset reduced the potential for confounding variables to impact our environmental outcome measurements. The results of a path analysis indicate that the output of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is significantly related to watershed partnerships' level of attainment of their environmental improvement goals. The action of setting specific goals (e.g. percentage of load reductions in pollutant levels) is fostered by sustained participation from partnership members throughout the lifecycle of the collaborative. In addition, this study demonstrates the utility of logic modeling for environmental planning and management, and suggests that the process of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is a useful proxy measure for reporting progress towards improvements in environmental outcomes when long-term environmental data are not available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cause-specific measures of life years lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Kragh Andersen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new measure of the number of life years lost due to specific causes of death is introduced. Methods: This measure is based on the cumulative incidence of death, it does not require "independence" of causes, and it satisfies simple balance equations: "total number of life years lost = sum of cause-specific life years lost", and "total number of life years lost before age x + temporary life expectancy between birth and age x = x". Results: The measure is contrasted to alternatives suggested in the demographic literature and allmethods are illustrated using Danish and Russian multiple decrement life-tables.

  13. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  14. Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Relevant, and Timely (SMART) Documents: Utilized in Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    If grid failure is common or predictable , then the population may have alternative sources of electricity such as generators. If widespread use of...Observation – Observe evening electricity consumption and daily routines. • Local Informant – Ask locals. Question E2. Do you use electricity in...SPRING- PLANTING SEASON / FALL- HARVEST SEASON Purpose of Question Determines seasonal use patterns that affect the need for electricity and predicts

  15. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  16. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, Stephanie C.; Briesmeister, Judith F.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k eff measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a 252 Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented

  17. Measurement of specific heat and specific absorption rate by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, David H., E-mail: david.gultekin@aya.yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Gore, John C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    We evaluate a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method of calorimetry for the measurement of specific heat (c{sub p}) and specific absorption rate (SAR) in liquids. The feasibility of NMR calorimetry is demonstrated by experimental measurements of water, ethylene glycol and glycerol using any of three different NMR parameters (chemical shift, spin-spin relaxation rate and equilibrium nuclear magnetization). The method involves heating the sample using a continuous wave laser beam and measuring the temporal variation of the spatially averaged NMR parameter by non-invasive means. The temporal variation of the spatially averaged NMR parameter as a function of thermal power yields the ratio of the heat capacity to the respective nuclear thermal coefficient, from which the specific heat can be determined for the substance. The specific absorption rate is obtained by subjecting the liquid to heating by two types of radiation, radiofrequency (RF) and near-infrared (NIR), and by measuring the change in the nuclear spin phase shift by a gradient echo imaging sequence. These studies suggest NMR may be a useful tool for measurements of the thermal properties of liquids.

  18. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, Luis Guillermo; Badilla, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author) [es

  19. Specific activity measurement of 64Cu: A comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastren, Tara; Guthrie, James; Eisenbeis, Paul; Voller, Tom; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Robertson, J. David; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Effective specific activity of 64 Cu (amount of radioactivity per µmol metal) is important in order to determine purity of a particular 64 Cu lot and to assist in optimization of the purification process. Metal impurities can affect effective specific activity and therefore it is important to have a simple method that can measure trace amounts of metals. This work shows that ion chromatography (IC) yields similar results to ICP mass spectrometry for copper, nickel and iron contaminants in 64 Cu production solutions. - Highlights: • Comparison of TETA titration, ICP mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography to measure specific activity. • Validates ion chromatography by using ICP mass spectrometry as the “gold standard”. • Shows different types and amounts of metal impurities present in 64 Cu

  20. Polygenic Influence on Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Domingue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to uncover the genetic architecture of educational attainment. We build on this work using genome-wide data from siblings in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health. We measure the genetic predisposition of siblings to educational attainment using polygenic scores. We then test how polygenic scores are related to social environments and educational outcomes. In Add Health, genetic predisposition to educational attainment is patterned across the social environment. Participants with higher polygenic scores were more likely to grow up in socially advantaged families. Even so, the previously published genetic associations appear to be causal. Among pairs of siblings, the sibling with the higher polygenic score typically went on to complete more years of schooling as compared to their lower-scored co-sibling. We found subtle differences between sibling fixed-effect estimates of the genetic effect versus those based on unrelated individuals.

  1. Domain-Specific Relationships in Sexual Measures of Impulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R

    2018-04-25

    Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences. Undergraduate students (total N = 105; female n = 77, male n = 28) completed laboratory measures-delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD)-for two different outcomes-money and sexual activity. Participants also completed the Delaying Gratification Inventory (DGI), which measures difficulty with delaying gratification (i.e., impulsivity) across different domains, including money and physical pleasures. Findings indicated that DD and PD for money were not related to any of the DGI subscales. However, DD for sexual activity was significantly related to the DGI Physical Pleasures subscale, but not other subscales. These findings suggest that the relationship between behavioral and self-report measures of impulsive choice may be stronger when both are measuring domain-specific rather than domain-general behavioral patterns, but further research is warranted.

  2. Plethysmographic measurements of specific airway resistance in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    allowed discrimination of young children with respiratory disease. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be determined with acceptable short-term and long-term repeatability and provides good discrimination between asthmatics and healthy young children. The effects of the major antiasthmatic therapies have......Validated methods for lung function measurements in young children are lacking. Plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) provides such a method applicable from 2 years of age. sRaw gauges airway resistance from the measurements of the pressure changes driving the airflow...... during tidal breathing. These measurements require no active cooperation and are therefore feasible in children from 2 years of age. The within-observer and between-observer variability of sRaw in young children compare favorably with alternative methods. Reference values are available for sRaw and have...

  3. Specific heat measurements in KCN:KCL mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghivelder, L.

    1983-01-01

    An adiabatic calorimeter to perform specific heat measurements of small samples (approximatelly 150 mg) was built. The measurements were taken from 6 to 120 K, iN KCN:KCL mixed crystals, in order to observe the evolution of the antiferroelectric phase transition - that occurs at 83 K in KCN pure. From the experimental results the values of the phase transition critical temperature are found, for some particular concentrations of the mixture, and it was detected that this phase transition disappears with only 10% of Cl - . This result is explained in terms of a change of the potential wells in the crystal. (Author) [pt

  4. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  5. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Carol L., E-mail: armstrongc@email.chop.edu [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neuro-Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shera, David M. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lustig, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Phillips, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology and Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage.

  6. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Carol L.; Shera, David M.; Lustig, Robert A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18–69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT

  7. Phenotypic dissection of bone mineral density reveals skeletal site specificity and facilitates the identification of novel loci in the genetic regulation of bone mass attainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Kemp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (rg and residual (re correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD, lower limbs (LL-BMD and skull (SK-BMD, using total-body DXA scans of ∼ 4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC. Point estimates of rg indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD rg = 0.78 between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.43. Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e = 0.55 was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e = 0.20-0.24. To explore the basis for the observed differences in rg and re, genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n ∼ 9,395, combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites. In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01 × 10(-37, whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31 × 10(-14. In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease and LL-BMD (rs754388: β = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4 × 10(-10. Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and

  8. Phenotypic dissection of bone mineral density reveals skeletal site specificity and facilitates the identification of novel loci in the genetic regulation of bone mass attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, John P; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Estrada, Karol; St Pourcain, Beate; Heppe, Denise H M; Warrington, Nicole M; Oei, Ling; Ring, Susan M; Kruithof, Claudia J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Wolber, Lisa E; Reppe, Sjur; Gautvik, Kaare; Grundberg, Elin; Ge, Bing; van der Eerden, Bram; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Hibbs, Matthew A; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Choi, Kwangbom; Koller, Daniel L; Econs, Michael J; Williams, Frances M K; Foroud, Tatiana; Zillikens, M Carola; Ohlsson, Claes; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Davey Smith, George; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tobias, Jonathan H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Evans, David M

    2014-06-01

    Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (rg) and residual (re) correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD), lower limbs (LL-BMD) and skull (SK-BMD), using total-body DXA scans of ∼ 4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC). Point estimates of rg indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD rg = 0.78) between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.43). Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.55) was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.20-0.24). To explore the basis for the observed differences in rg and re, genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n ∼ 9,395), combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites). In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01 × 10(-37)), whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31 × 10(-14)). In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease) and LL-BMD (rs754388: β = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4 × 10(-10)). Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and

  9. Measurement properties of asthma-specific quality-of-life measures: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian; Paudyal, Priya; Bülbül, Alpaslan; Smith, Helen

    2014-07-24

    Asthma is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, and the assessment of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is important in both research and routine care. Various asthma-specific measures of HrQoL exist but there is uncertainty which measures are best suited for use in research and routine care. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is a comprehensive systematic assessment of the measurement properties of the existing measures that were developed to measure asthma-specific quality of life. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of asthma-specific measures of health-related quality of life. PubMed and Embase will be searched using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing or comparing measurement properties of asthma-specific HRQL tools. Eligibility assessment and data abstraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Evidence tables will be generated for study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties and interpretability. The quality of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study have investigated a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will produce a comprehensive assessment of measurement properties of existing measures of asthma-specific health-related quality of life. We also aim to derive recommendations in order to help researchers and practitioners alike in the choice of instrument. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014010491.

  10. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  11. Phase measurement of cognitive impairment specific to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Carol L; Shera, David M; Lustig, Robert A; Phillips, Peter C

    2012-07-01

    Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities and associations with caregivers' educational attainment: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-12-07

    To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers' education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional study. A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6-12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers' education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver-child relationship and caregivers' age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥ 30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥ 90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers' educational attainment. Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers' education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trendeducation, and 81.9% (SE=1.0) among children of caregivers >high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with education is associated with more sleep disturbances. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Locally specific measures for employment aimed at regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development

  14. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  15. AATR an ionospheric activity indicator specifically based on GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; Rovira-Garcia, Adrià; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibáñez, D.; Perez, R. Orus

    2018-03-01

    This work reviews an ionospheric activity indicator useful for identifying disturbed periods affecting the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). This index is based in the Along Arc TEC Rate (AATR) and can be easily computed from dual-frequency GNSS measurements. The AATR indicator has been assessed over more than one Solar Cycle (2002-2017) involving about 140 receivers distributed world-wide. Results show that it is well correlated with the ionospheric activity and, unlike other global indicators linked to the geomagnetic activity (i.e. DST or Ap), it is sensitive to the regional behaviour of the ionosphere and identifies specific effects on GNSS users. Moreover, from a devoted analysis of different Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) performances in different ionospheric conditions, it follows that the AATR indicator is a very suitable mean to reveal whether SBAS service availability anomalies are linked to the ionosphere. On this account, the AATR indicator has been selected as the metric to characterise the ionosphere operational conditions in the frame of the European Space Agency activities on the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS). The AATR index has been adopted as a standard tool by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for joint ionospheric studies in SBAS. In this work we explain how the AATR is computed, paying special attention to the cycle-slip detection, which is one of the key issues in the AATR computation, not fully addressed in other indicators such as the Rate Of change of the TEC Index (ROTI). After this explanation we present some of the main conclusions about the ionospheric activity that can extracted from the AATR values during the above mentioned long-term study. These conclusions are: (a) the different spatial correlation related with the MOdified DIP (MODIP) which allows to clearly separate high, mid and low latitude regions, (b) the large spatial correlation in mid

  16. Measurement Model Specification Error in LISREL Structural Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Beatrice; Lomax, Richard

    This LISREL study examines the robustness of the maximum likelihood estimates under varying degrees of measurement model misspecification. A true model containing five latent variables (two endogenous and three exogenous) and two indicator variables per latent variable was used. Measurement model misspecification considered included errors of…

  17. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  18. Specifics of Building Envelope Air Leakage Problems and Airtightness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodinecs Anatolijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to transmission heat loses the infiltration of outdoor air can cause significant heat losses. The external building envelope should be airtight in order to prevent uncontrolled cold air infiltration. The article analysis modern building materials and structures influence on airtightness. The practical measurements of renovated buildings’ airtightness are presented and compared to non-renovated buildings. In addition paper presents data on airtightness measurements of whole multi apartment building and single apartment in analyzed building taking inco accout properties of building materials. The airtightness of single apartment was evaluated with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The results show that the airtightness measurements of multi apartment building can be evaluated by measuring single apartment on last floor with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The practical measurement of renovated buildings had shown the air leakage rate q50 of typical Latvian construction after renovation is between 2.5 and 2.9 m3/(m2·h. Since the building envelope has to minimize the heat loses (transmission and infiltration and ventilation system either mechanical or natural has to provide necessary air exchange, the building envelope airtightness shouldn’t be dependent on type of ventilation systems.

  19. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  20. Measuring the Specific Heat of Metals by Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Three in one? Yes, three standard undergraduate thermodynamics experiments in one, not an oval can of lubricating oil. Previously it has been shown that the PASCO scientific apparatus for measuring coefficients of thermal expansion of metals can also be used to illustrate Newton's law of cooling in the same experiment. Now it will be shown that by…

  1. Measuring of sport specific skills of football players

    OpenAIRE

    Koltai, Miklós; Wallner, Dietmar; Gusztafik, Ádám; Sáfár, Zoltán; Dancs, Henriette; Simi, Helmut; Hagenauer, Marcel; Buchgraber, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Sport Science at the University of West-Hungary, and the FH-Joanneum – together with students majoring in sport science – started a collaborative international research aimed at assessing the sport-specific skills of football players. The study closely monitored football players – from leagues at different levels – in terms of choice reaction time, short and long pass skills and agility skills with and without a ball. The most modern device available, the SmartSpeed – a photo...

  2. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-16

    The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990-2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030. We used standardised GBD 2016 methods to measure 37 health-related indicators from 1990 to 2016, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2015. We substantially revised the universal health coverage (UHC) measure, which focuses on coverage of essential health services, to also represent personal health-care access and quality for several non-communicable diseases. We transformed each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile estimated between 1990 and 2030, and 100 as the 97·5th percentile during that time. An index representing all 37 health-related SDG indicators was constructed by taking the geometric mean of scaled indicators by target. On the basis of past trends, we produced projections of indicator values, using a weighted average of the indicator and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2016 with weights for each annual rate of change based on out-of-sample validity. 24 of the currently measured health-related SDG indicators have defined SDG targets, against which we assessed attainment. Globally, the median health-related SDG index was 56·7 (IQR 31·9-66·8) in 2016 and country-level performance markedly varied, with Singapore (86·8, 95% uncertainty interval 84·6-88·9), Iceland (86·0, 84·1-87·6), and Sweden (85·6, 81·8-87·8) having the highest levels in 2016 and Afghanistan (10·9, 9·6-11·9), the Central African Republic (11·0, 8·8-13·8), and Somalia (11·3, 9·5-13·1) recording the

  3. Patient Specific Dosimetry based in excreted urine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R.; Nunez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Valverde, J.; Basurto, F.

    2006-07-01

    One of the limiting factors in utilising therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the I-131 thyroid therapy is the potential hazard to the bone marrow, kidneys, and other internal organs. In this work, by means of daily dose rate measurements at a point in contact of the can with the urine excreted by the patient undergoing radio-iodine therapy, activities and associated absorbed doses in total body are calculated. The urine can is characterised by a geometric and materials model for MC simulation with MCNP. Knowing the conversion factor from activity in urine to dose rate in the measurement point of the can for each filling volume, the urine and patient activity can be obtained at each measurement time. From the fitting of these activities, the time evolution, the effective half life in the patient and the cumulative whole body activity are calculated. The emission characteristics of I-131 are using after to estimate the maximum whole body absorbed dose. The results for 2 hyperthyroidism and 4 carcinoma treatments are presented. The maximum total body absorbed dose are 673 and 149 Gy for the carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The corresponding range of T1/2 eff is o.2 to 2.5 days (carcinoma) and 5.4 to 6.6 days (hyperthyroidism). (Author)

  4. Analysis of measured radar data for specific emitter identification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conning, M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available and can be used more efficiently to determine the exact times when a pulse starts and ends [3]. Other statistical methods are also available, as mentioned below. To determine the start of a signal, [4] and [5] used a variance fractal dimension... measure together with a Bayesian step change detector. Temporal, nonstationary signals’ fractal dimensions change over time. Multifractals can be used with such signals, e.g. radar pulses that have time-varying fractal dimensions [4], [6] and [7]. A...

  5. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  6. General and food-specific parenting: measures and interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef; Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels-parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent-child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior.

  7. General and Food-Specific Parenting: Measures and Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels—parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Methods Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Results Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Conclusions Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent–child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior. PMID:23944921

  8. Domain Specific Language for Magnetic Measurements at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, C

    2009-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Founded in 1954, the CERN Laboratory sits astride the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 20 Member States. Its main purpose is fundamental research in partcle physics, namely investigating what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the design and realization of the new particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has required a remarkable technological effort in many areas of engineering. In particular, the tests of LHC superconducting magnets disclosed new horizons to magnetic measurements. At CERN, the objectively large R&D effort of the Technolgy Department/Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostats (TE/MSC) group identified areas where further work is required in order to assist the LHC commissioning and start-up, to provide continuity in the instrumentation for the LHC magnets maintenance,...

  9. MEASURING SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES IN MALE GYMNASTS: THE MEN'S GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Background Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts’ USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects’ current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). Conclusions The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27999723

  10. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow measurement... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  11. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  12. Groundwater arsenic and education attainment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael P; Sharmin, Raisa

    2015-10-26

    Thousands of groundwater tube wells serving millions of Bangladeshis are arsenic contaminated. This study investigates the effect of these wells on the education attainment and school attendance of youths who rely on those wells for drinking water. The analysis combines data from the 2006 Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2006 MICS) and the National Hydrochemical Survey (NHS) of Bangladeshi tube wells' contamination conducted between 1998 and 2000. The study uses multiple regression analysis to estimate the differences in education attainment and school attendance among the following: (i) youths who live where tube wells are safe, (ii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who report drinking from an arsenic-free source, and (iii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source. Controlling for other determinants of education attainment and school attendance, young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe (by Bangladeshis standards) but who report drinking from arsenic-free sources are found to have the same education attainment (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and school attendance (among 6- to 10-year-olds), on average, as corresponding young Bangladeshi males who live where wells are safe. But young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe and who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source attain, on average, a half-year less education (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and attend school, on average, five to seven fewer days a year (among 6- to 10-year-olds) than do other Bagladeshi males of those ages. The estimated effects for females are of the same sign but much smaller in magnitude. Bangladeshi public health measures to shift drinking from unsafe to safe wells not only advance good health but also increase males' education attainment.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEASURES OF ATTAINMENT VALUE AND ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCY TO THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, FRANK H.

    THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSED ON THE USEFULNESS OF A PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING MEASURES OF THE MOTIVATION OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES TO ACHIEVE IN READING WHICH DID NOT REQUIRE WRITTEN OR ORAL VERBAL RESPONSES FROM THE SUBJECTS. MEASURES OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WERE CORRELATED WITH TEACHER RATINGS OF EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE IN…

  14. Can personality traits and intelligence compensate for background disadvantage? Predicting status attainment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Can Personality Traits and Intelligence Compensate for Background Disadvantage? Predicting Status Attainment in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large US representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige eleven years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed one of three patterns in relation to parental SES when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., “the rich get richer,” individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, where interaction models were more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a “full catch up” effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. PMID:25402679

  16. Using High-Precision Specific Gravity Measurements to Study Minerals in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriss, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes ways to incorporate high-precision measurements of the specific gravities of minerals into undergraduate courses in mineralogy and physical geology. Most traditional undergraduate laboratory methods of measuring specific gravity are suitable only for unusually large samples, which severely limits their usefulness for student…

  17. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert

    2016-01-01

    In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  18. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  19. [Comparative measurement of urine specific gravity: reagent strips, refractometry and hydrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Christian Elías; Bettendorff, Carolina; Bupo, Sol; Ayuso, Sandra; Vallejo, Graciela

    2010-06-01

    The urine specific gravity is commonly used in clinical practice to measure the renal concentration/dilution ability. Measurement can be performed by three methods: hydrometry, refractometry and reagent strips. To assess the accuracy of different methods to measure urine specific gravity. We analyzed 156 consecutive urine samples of pediatric patients during April and May 2007. Urine specific gravity was measured by hydrometry (UD), refractometry (RE) and reagent strips (TR), simultaneously. Urine osmolarity was considered as the gold standard and was measured by freezing point depression. Correlation between different methods was calculated by simple linear regression. A positive and acceptable correlation was found with osmolarity for the RE as for the UD (r= 0.81 and r= 0.86, respectively). The reagent strips presented low correlation (r= 0.46). Also, we found good correlation between measurements obtained by UD and RE (r= 0.89). Measurements obtained by TR, however, had bad correlation when compared to UD (r= 0.46). Higher values of specific gravity were observed when measured with RE with respect to UD. Reagent strips are not reliable for measuring urine specific gravity and should not be used as an usual test. However, hydrometry and refractometry are acceptable alternatives for measuring urine specific gravity, as long as the same method is used for follow-up.

  20. The Association between Working Memory and Educational Attainment as Measured in Different Mathematical Subtopics in the Swedish National Assessment: Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n = 40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were…

  1. Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    John Cawley; C. Katharina Spiess

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate...

  2. Industry-specific risk models for numerical scoring of hazards and prioritization of safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khali, Y.F.; Johnson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Risk analysis consists of five cornerstones that have to be viewed in an holistic manner by risk practitioners of any organization regardless of the industry type or nature of its critical infrastructures. The cornerstones are hazard identification, risk assessment and consequence analysis, determination of risk management actions required to reduce risks to acceptable levels, communication of risk insights among the stake-holders, and continuous monitoring and verification to ensure sustained attainment of tolerable risk levels. Our primary objectives in this research are two fold: first, we compare and contrast a wide spectrum of current industry-specific and application-dependent semi-quantitative risk models. Secondly, based on the insights to be gained from the first task, we propose a framework for a robust risk-based approach for conducting security vulnerability assessment (SVA). Risk practitioners of critical infrastructures, such as commercial nuclear power plants, water utilities, chemical plants, transmission and distribution substations... etc., could readily use this proposed approach to classify, evaluate, and prioritize risks to support allocation of resources required to ensure protection of public health and safety. (author)

  3. Quantitative measurement of pathogen specific human memory T cell repertoire diversity using a CDR3β-specific microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski Jack

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing quantitative microarray data that is sensitive to very small differences in target sequence would be a useful tool in any number of venues where a sample can consist of a multiple related sequences present in various abundances. Examples of such applications would include measurement of pseudo species in viral infections and the measurement of species of antibodies or T cell receptors that constitute immune repertoires. Difficulties that must be overcome in such a method would be to account for cross-hybridization and for differences in hybridization efficiencies between the arrayed probes and their corresponding targets. We have used the memory T cell repertoire to an influenza-derived peptide as a test case for developing such a method. Results The arrayed probes were corresponded to a 17 nucleotide TCR-specific region that distinguished sequences differing by as little as a single nucleotide. Hybridization efficiency between highly related Cy5-labeled subject sequences was normalized by including an equimolar mixture of Cy3-labeled synthetic targets representing all 108 arrayed probes. The same synthetic targets were used to measure the degree of cross hybridization between probes. Reconstitution studies found the system sensitive to input ratios as low as 0.5% and accurate in measuring known input percentages (R2 = 0.81, R = 0.90, p 0.05. Conclusion This novel strategy appears to be robust and can be adapted to any situation where complex mixtures of highly similar sequences need to be quantitatively resolved.

  4. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  5. METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC TAUTOMERIC AND ZWITTERIONIC MICROSPECIES EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a method for the individual measurement of simultaneously occurring, unimolecular, site-specific “microequilibrium” constants as in, for example, prototropic tautomerism and zwitterionic equilibria. Our method represents an elaboration of that of Nygren et al. (Anal. ...

  6. Development of Field Angle Resolved Specific Heat Measurement System for Unconventional Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Takeshi; Machida, Yo; Izawa, Koichi; Onuki, Yoshichika; Salce, Bernard; Flouquet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    We developed a measurement system for field angle resolved specific heat under multiple extreme conditions at low temperature down to 50 mK, in magnetic field up to 7 T, and under high pressure up to 10 GPa. We demonstrated the performance of our developed system by measuring field angle dependence of specific heat of pressure induced unconventional superconductor CeIrSi 3

  7. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schellingerhout (Jasper Mattijs); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); H.C.W. de Vet (Henrica); B.W. Koes (Bart); C.B. Terwee (Caroline)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. Background: Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to

  8. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellingerhout, J.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; Verhagen, A.P.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Koes, B.W.; Terwee, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise

  9. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  10. Aircraft-borne spectrometry - a fast method for nuclide-specific measurement of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Schweiger, M.; Thomas, M.; Endrulat, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    An airworthy gamma spectrometer system for fast and large-area, nuclide-specific measurement of the soil contamination is described. The system encompasses an ultrapure germanium detector combined with a computer-controlled multichannel analyser system. The development from the laboratory system to an industrial-scale measuring system is explained. The practical testing is explained and first results are reported, obtained from measuring flights for the nuclide-specific determination of the soil contamination in the free State of Bavaria. (orig.) [de

  11. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  12. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  13. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  15. Measurement properties of disease-specific questionnaires in patients with neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellingerhout, Jasper M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koes, Bart W; de Vet, Henrica C; Terwee, Caroline B

    2012-05-01

    To critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of the original versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of an original version of a self-reported questionnaire, evaluating pain and/or disability, which was specifically developed or adapted for patients with neck pain. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using a checklist, specifically designed for evaluating studies on measurement properties. The search strategy resulted in a total of 3,641 unique hits, of which 25 articles, evaluating 8 different questionnaires, were included in our study. The Neck Disability Index is the most frequently evaluated questionnaire and shows positive results for internal consistency, content validity, structural validity, hypothesis testing, and responsiveness, but a negative result for reliability. The other questionnaires show positive results, but the evidence for each measurement property is mostly limited, and at least 50% of the information on measurement properties per questionnaire is lacking. Our findings imply that studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the measurement properties of the currently available questionnaires. Until high quality studies are available, we recommend using these questionnaires with caution. There is no need for the development of new neck-specific questionnaires until the current questionnaires have been adequately assessed.

  16. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  17. Detection of Second Order Melting Transitions in the HTSC's by Specific Heat Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Stephen W.; Valls, Oriol T.

    1997-03-01

    The finite magnetic field phase transition in the high-temperature superconductors from the solid vortex lattice to the liquid has been under intense study recently. Detection of this melting is difficult but has been seen in magnetization and resistivity measurements. It has also been reported recently in specific heat measurements. In particular, in one case, evidence for a second order melting phase transition has been presented based on specific heat measurements.(M. Roulin, A. Junod, and E. Walker. Science 273), 1210 (1996). However, we present evidence that the feature in the specific heat data can be explained using a theory derived using the lowest-Landau-level approximation(Z. Tes)anović and A. V. Andreev, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4064 (1994) that does not invoke flux lattice melting arguments.

  18. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  19. Does level of specificity affect measures of motivation to comply? A randomized evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Senkowski, Valerie

    2018-05-30

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a popular value-expectancy model in social and behavioral health. Motivation to comply, one of the theory's constructs, has not been well operationalized and measured in the past, and to date, there has been no assessment of whether level of specificity affects the measurement of the construct. The purpose of this study was to measure the motivation to comply construct across four domains (from general to TACT-behavior specific) and evaluate the potential impact the differences have when identifying determinants of generalized injunctive norms. Students (n = 234) attending a large southwestern university completed a TPB survey related to sleep and physical activity, and were randomized to one of four domains that measured motivation to comply (General domain, n = 58; Health domain, n = 60; Behavioral domain, n = 56; and TACT domain, n = 60). Across both behaviors, motivation to comply measurements did not appear to be affected by changing the level of specificity. Referents for sleep and physical activity were mostly significant, but the effects were small to medium. Future researchers should consider removing motivation to comply measures from TPB surveys to reduce respondent burden or find alternative ways of measuring the construct.

  20. Tracer technique for measuring specific activity of 63 Ni, using 4πβ-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.

    1979-01-01

    The specific activity of a 6 3 Ni solution has been measured by an efficiency tracer technique using a 4 π β - γ coincidence system. 6 3 Ni was chosen. Because it's a very low energy pure beta emitter. Due to chemical compatibility and beta spectral shapes, 6 0 Co has been chosen as tracer. In the determination of 6 3 Ni, the specific activity. As the efficiency tracer techniques requires a previous knowledge of tracer activity, this has been measured by a conventional 4 π β -γ coincidence method. (author)

  1. Heat loss mechanisms in a measurement of specific heat capacity of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, D.R.; Duane, S.

    1996-01-01

    Absorbed dose to graphite in electron beams with nominal energies in the range 3-20 MeV is determined by measuring the temperature rise in the core of a primary standard graphite calorimeter. This temperature rise is related to absorbed dose by a separate measurement of the specific heat capacity of the graphite core. There is, however, a small but significant amount of heat loss from the sample in the determination of specific heat capacity and corrections for these losses are required. This report discusses the sources of heat loss in the measurements and, where possible, provides estimates for the magnitude of these losses. For those mechanisms which are significant, a more realistic model of the measurement system is analysed and corrections for the losses are provided. (UK)

  2. Measurement of the specific airway resistance by plethysmography in young children accompanied by an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a procedure for measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) by whole body plethysmography in young awake children accompanied by an adult. sRaw was measured by a single-step procedure, omitting the measurement of the thoracic gas volume. The frequency...... dependency of sRaw was investigated and the accuracy of simulating body temperature, atmospheric pressure and saturation with water vapour (BTPS) conditions by electronic compensation was assessed. One hundred and thirty one children with asthma were studied. In 57 children (mean (SD) age 5.6 (1.8) yrs) who....... In conclusion, the use of electronic compensation for simulating body temperature, atmospheric pressure and saturation with water vapour introduces a bias that affects the accuracy of the estimate of specific airway resistance. Nevertheless, plethysmographic measurements with and without an accompanying adult...

  3. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.

  4. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.

    1969-01-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [fr

  5. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellingerhout, Jasper M; Heymans, Martijn W; Verhagen, Arianne P; de Vet, Henrica C; Koes, Bart W; Terwee, Caroline B

    2011-06-06

    Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.

  6. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI. PMID:21645355

  7. Development and validation of a Spanish diabetes-specific numeracy measure: DNT-15 Latino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard O; Osborn, Chandra Y; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L

    2011-09-01

    Although deficits in health literacy and numeracy have been described among Latinos, the impact of low numeracy on diabetes outcomes has not been studied. Study objectives were (1) to establish the reliability and validity of a 15-item Spanish, diabetes-specific numeracy measure (Diabetes Numeracy Test [DNT]-15 Latino) and (2) to examine the relationship between diabetes-specific numeracy and diabetes-related outcomes among a sample of Latino adults with diabetes. Data collection included patient demographics, health literacy, general numeracy, diabetes-specific numeracy, acculturation, self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, and most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Participants (n=144) were on average 47.8 years old (SD=12.1). The majority were female (62%), uninsured (81%), and of Mexican nationality (78%) and reported low levels of acculturation (96%). The DNT-15 Latino had high internal reliability (Kruder-Richardson 20=0.78). The DNT-15 Latino demonstrated construct validity, correlating with measures of health literacy (ρ=0.291), general numeracy (ρ=0.500), education (ρ=0.361), and income (ρ=0.270) (Pvalid measure of diabetes-specific numeracy for Latino patients with diabetes; however, additional studies are needed to further explore the association between diabetes-specific numeracy and acculturation and their impact on diabetes-related outcomes for Latinos.

  8. Haplotype reconstruction error as a classical misclassification problem: introducing sensitivity and specificity as error measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lamina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistically reconstructing haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes, can lead to falsely classified haplotypes. This can be an issue when interpreting haplotype association results or when selecting subjects with certain haplotypes for subsequent functional studies. It was our aim to quantify haplotype reconstruction error and to provide tools for it. METHODS AND RESULTS: By numerous simulation scenarios, we systematically investigated several error measures, including discrepancy, error rate, and R(2, and introduced the sensitivity and specificity to this context. We exemplified several measures in the KORA study, a large population-based study from Southern Germany. We find that the specificity is slightly reduced only for common haplotypes, while the sensitivity was decreased for some, but not all rare haplotypes. The overall error rate was generally increasing with increasing number of loci, increasing minor allele frequency of SNPs, decreasing correlation between the alleles and increasing ambiguity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, with the analytical approach presented here, haplotype-specific error measures can be computed to gain insight into the haplotype uncertainty. This method provides the information, if a specific risk haplotype can be expected to be reconstructed with rather no or high misclassification and thus on the magnitude of expected bias in association estimates. We also illustrate that sensitivity and specificity separate two dimensions of the haplotype reconstruction error, which completely describe the misclassification matrix and thus provide the prerequisite for methods accounting for misclassification.

  9. Tense Marking and Spontaneous Speech Measures in Spanish Specific Language Impairment: A Discriminant Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, John; Baron, Alisa; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; De la Mora, Juliana; Cantu-Sanchez, Myriam; Flores, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the proposal that the tense deficit that has been demonstrated for children with specific language impairment (SLI) in other languages is also found in child Spanish and that low performance on tense-related measures can distinguish Spanish-speaking children with SLI from those without. Method: The authors evaluated evidence from…

  10. Buffer Rod Design for Measurement of Specific Gravity in the Processing of Industrial Food Batters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.; Smith, Penny Probert

    2002-01-01

    A low cost perspex buffer rod design for the measurement of specific gravity during the processing of industrial food batters is reported. Operation was conducted in pulsed mode using a 2.25 MHz, 15 mm diameter transducer and the intensity and an analytic calibration curve relating buffer rod...

  11. Shape anisotropy enhanced optomagnetic measurement for prostate-specific antigen detection via magnetic chain formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Wetterskog, Erik; Qiu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    anisotropy), and directly increasing the optomagnetic signal (via optical shape anisotropy). We achieve a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.5 pM (0.82 ng/mL) for the detection of a model multivalent molecule, biotinylated anti-streptavidin, in PBS. For the measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in 50...

  12. An analysis of boundary-effects in obtaining the frequency dependent specific heat by effusivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Behrens, Claus

    The frequency dependent specific heat is a significant response function characterizing the glass transition. Contrary to the dielectric response it is not easily measured over many decades. The introduction of the 3-omega method, where the temperature oscillations at a planar oscillatoric heat g...

  13. Measuring the impact of cataract surgery on generic and vision-specific quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groessl, Erik J; Liu, Lin; Sklar, Marisa; Tally, Steven R; Kaplan, Robert M; Ganiats, Theodore G

    2013-08-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide and cause visual impairment for millions of adults in the United States. We compared the sensitivity of a vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure to that of multiple generic measures of HRQOL before and at 2 time points after cataract surgery. Participants completed 1 vision-specific and 5 generic quality of life measures before cataract surgery, and again 1 and 6 months after surgery. Random effects modeling was used to measure changes over the three assessment points. The NEI-VFQ25 total score and all 11 subscales showed significant improvements during the first interval (baseline and 1 month). During the second interval (1-6 months post-surgery), significant improvements were observed on the total score and 5 of 11 NEI-VFQ25 subscales. There were significant increases in HRQOL during the first interval on some preference-based generic HRQOL measures, though changes during the second interval were mostly non-significant. None of the SF-36v2™ or SF6D scales changed significantly between any of the assessment periods. The NEI-VFQ25 was sensitive to changes in vision-specific domains of QOL. Some preference-based generic HRQOL measures were also sensitive to change and showed convergence with the NEI-VFQ25, but the effects were small. The SF-36v2™ and SF-6D did not change in a similar manner, possibly reflecting a lack of vision-related content. Studies seeking to document both the vision-specific and generic HRQOL improvements of cataract surgery should consider these results when selecting measures.

  14. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry O'Hanley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a nanofluid specific heat capacity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and material. Model I is a straight volume-weighted average; Model II is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particles and the surrounding fluid. These two models give significantly different predictions for a given system. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, a robust experimental methodology for measuring the heat capacity of fluids, the specific heat capacities of water-based silica, alumina, and copper oxide nanofluids were measured. Nanoparticle concentrations were varied between 5 wt% and 50 wt%. Test results were found to be in excellent agreement with Model II, while the predictions of Model I deviated very significantly from the data. Therefore, Model II is recommended for nanofluids.

  15. Evaluation of the ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard "Adjusted Complication Rate" Measure Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Friedberg, Mark W; Stulberg, Jonah J; Zhou, Lynn; Hall, Bruce L; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-10-01

    The ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard is the first nationwide, multispecialty public reporting of individual surgeon outcomes. However, ProPublica's use of a previously undescribed outcome measure (composite of in-hospital mortality or 30-day related readmission) and inclusion of only inpatients have been questioned. Our objectives were to (1) determine the proportion of cases excluded by ProPublica's specifications, (2) assess the proportion of inpatient complications excluded from ProPublica's measure, and (3) examine the validity of ProPublica's outcome measure by comparing performance on the measure to well-established postoperative outcome measures. Using ACS-NSQIP data (2012-2014) for 8 ProPublica procedures and for All Operations, the proportion of cases meeting all ProPublica inclusion criteria was determined. We assessed the proportion of complications occurring inpatient, and thus not considered by ProPublica's measure. Finally, we compared risk-adjusted performance based on ProPublica's measure specifications to established ACS-NSQIP outcome measure performance (eg, death/serious morbidity, mortality). ProPublica's inclusion criteria resulted in elimination of 82% of all operations from assessment (range: 42% for total knee arthroplasty to 96% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy). For all ProPublica operations combined, 84% of complications occur during inpatient hospitalization (range: 61% for TURP to 88% for total hip arthroplasty), and are thus missed by the ProPublica measure. Hospital-level performance on the ProPublica measure correlated weakly with established complication measures, but correlated strongly with readmission (R = 0.834, P Scorecard is questionable.

  16. Accuracy increase of the coordinate measurement based on the model production of geometrical parts specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, O. Yu

    2018-04-01

    There is a relationship between the service properties of component parts and their geometry; therefore, to predict and control the operational characteristics of parts and machines, it is necessary to measure their geometrical specifications. In modern production, a coordinate measuring machine is the advanced measuring instrument of the products geometrical specifications. The analysis of publications has shown that during the coordinate measurements the problems of choosing locating chart of parts and coordination have not been sufficiently studied. A special role in the coordination of the part is played by the coordinate axes informational content. Informational content is the sum of the degrees of freedom limited by the elementary item of a part. The coordinate planes of a rectangular coordinate system have different informational content (three, two, and one). The coordinate axes have informational content of four, two and zero. The higher the informational content of the coordinate plane or axis, the higher its priority for reading angular and linear coordinates is. The geometrical model production of the coordinate measurements object taking into account the information content of coordinate planes and coordinate axes allows us to clearly reveal the interrelationship of the coordinates of the deviations in location, sizes and deviations of their surfaces shape. The geometrical model helps to select the optimal locating chart of parts for bringing the machine coordinate system to the part coordinate system. The article presents an algorithm the model production of geometrical specifications using the example of the piston rod of a compressor.

  17. Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.

  18. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  19. Ways and means of attaining minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, D.

    1993-01-01

    Means for attaining minimum nuclear deterrence include negotiations, unilateral measures, changes of doctrines, priorities with respect to armaments concerned, co-management of deterrence. Deterrence is a positive relationship related to non-proliferation. It is helpful because it has to be seen in the context of overall international security. Nuclear weapons have a significance which is real. The treat they pose should be dealt with in order to develop a better and safer world, and in that context the security needs of the nations should be provided, meaning truly improved security situation

  20. Specification of safety requirements for waste packages with respect to practicable quality control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Waste packages for disposal in a repository in the Federal Republic of Germany have to meet safety requirements derived from site specific safety analyses. The examination of the waste packages with regard to compliance with these requirements is the main objective of quality control measures. With respect to quality control the requirements have to be specified in a way that practicable control measures can be applied. This is dealt with for the quality control of the activity inventory and the quality control of the waste form. The paper discusses the determination of the activity of hard-to-measure radionuclides and the specification of safety related requirements for the waste form and the packaging using typical examples

  1. Effect of Retention in Elementary Grades on Grade 9 Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students’ motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West, & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student’s overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. PMID:25636258

  2. Effect of retention in elementary grades on grade 9 motivation for educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food color and appearance measurement, specification and communication, can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, John; Singleton, Mark; Plater, Keith; Dias, Benjamin

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods of color specification demand a sample that is flat, uniformly colored, diffusely reflecting and opaque. Very many natural, processed and manufactured foods, on the other hand, are three-dimensional, irregularly shaped unevenly colored and translucent. Hence, spectrophotometers and tristimulus colorimeters can only be used for reliable and accurate color measurement in certain cases and under controlled conditions. These techniques are certainly unsuitable for specification of color patterning and other factors of total appearance in which, for example, surface texture and gloss interfere with the surface color. Hence, conventional techniques are more appropriate to food materials than to foods themselves. This paper reports investigations on the application of digital camera and screen technologies to these problems. Results indicated that accuracy sufficient for wide scale use in the food industry is obtainable. Measurement applications include the specification and automatic measurement and classification of total appearance properties of three-dimensional products. This will be applicable to specification and monitoring of fruit and vegetables within the growing, storage and marketing supply chain and to on-line monitoring. Applications to sensory panels include monitoring of color and appearance changes occurring during paneling and the development of physical reference scales based pigment chemistry changes. Digital technology will be extendable to the on-screen judging of real and virtual products as well as to the improvement of appearance archiving and communication.

  4. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  5. Specific wavelength colorimeter. [for measuring given solute concentration in test sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. C.; Mcdavid, L. S.; Walsh, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self contained, specific wavelength, single beam colorimeter is described for direct spectrophotometric measurement of the concentration of a given solute in a test sample. An electrical circuit employing a photoconductive cell converts the optical output into a linear, directly readable meter output. The colorimeter is simple to operate and is adapted for use in zero gravity conditions. In a specific application, the colorimeter is designed to analyze the concentration of iodine in potable water carried aboard a space vehicle such as the 4B stage of Skylab.

  6. Assessing responsiveness of generic and specific health related quality of life measures in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jeffrey A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness, or sensitivity to clinical change, is an important consideration in selection of a health-related quality of life (HRQL measure for trials or clinical applications. Many approaches can be used to assess responsiveness, which may affect the interpretation of study results. We compared the relative responsiveness of generic and heart failure specific HRQL instruments, as measured both by common psychometric indices and by external clinical criteria. Methods We analyzed data collected at baseline and 6-weeks in 298 subjects with heart failure on the following HRQL measures: EQ-5D (US, UK, and VAS Scoring, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ (Clinical and Overall Summary Score, and RAND12 (Physical and Mental Component Summaries. Three external indicators of clinical change were used to classify subjects as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged: 6-minute walk test, New York Heart Association (NYHA class, and physician global rating of change. Four responsiveness statistics (T-test, effect size, Guyatt's responsiveness statistic, and standardized response mean were used to evaluate the responsiveness of the select measures. The median rank of each HRQL measure across responsiveness indices and clinical criteria was then determined. Results Average age of subjects was 60 years, 75 percent were male, and had moderate to severe heart failure symptoms. Overall, the KCCQ Summary Scores had the highest relative ranking, irrespective of the responsiveness index or external criterion used. Importantly, we observed that the relative ranking of responsiveness of the generic measures (i.e. EQ-5D, RAND12 was influenced by both the responsive indices and external criterion used. Conclusion The disease specific KCCQ was the most responsive HRQL measure assessing change over a 6-week period, although generic measures provide information for which the KCCQ is not suitable. The responsiveness of generic HRQL measures may

  7. Hysteresis losses and specific absorption rate measurements in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Martino, Luca; Kane, Shashank N; Raghuvanshi, Saroj; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia on magnetic nanoparticles have been studied with the aim of providing reliable and reproducible methods of measuring the specific absorption rate (SAR). The SAR of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with two different mean sizes, and Ni 1-x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 ferrites with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 has been measured with three approaches: static hysteresis loops areas, dynamic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia of a water solution. For dynamic loops and thermometric measurements, specific experimental setups have been developed, that operate at comparable frequencies (≈ 69kHz and ≈ 100kHz respectively) and rf magnetic field peak values (up to 100mT). The hyperthermia setup has been fully modelled to provide a direct measurement of the SAR of the magnetic nanoparticles by taking into account the heat exchange with the surrounding environment in non-adiabatic conditions and the parasitic heating of the water due to ionic currents. Dynamic hysteresis loops are shown to provide an accurate determination of the SAR except for superparamagnetic samples, where the boundary with a blocked regime could be crossed in dynamic conditions. Static hysteresis loops consistently underestimate the specific absorption rate but can be used to select the most promising samples. A means of reliably measure SAR of magnetic nanoparticles by different approaches for hyperthermia applications is presented and its validity discussed by comparing different methods. This work fits within the general subject of metrological traceability in medicine with a specific focus on magnetic hyperthermia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific-heat measurement of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradere, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Batsale, J.C.; Dilhaire, S.; Pailler, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a method for measuring the specific heat of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature. The difficulty of the measurement is due to the microscale of the fiber (≅10 μm) and the important range of temperature (700-2700 K). An experimental device, a modelization of the thermal behavior, and an analytic model have been developed. A discussion on the measurement accuracy yields a global uncertainty lower than 10%. The characterization of a tungsten filament with thermal properties identical to those of the bulk allows the validation of the device and the thermal estimation method. Finally, measurements on carbon and ceramic fibers have been done at very high temperature

  9. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  10. The Role of Condition-Specific Preference-Based Measures in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Ara, Roberta; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    A condition-specific preference-based measure (CSPBM) is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is specific to a certain condition or disease and that can be used to obtain the quality adjustment weight of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for use in economic models. This article provides an overview of the role and the development of CSPBMs, and presents a description of existing CSPBMs in the literature. The article also provides an overview of the psychometric properties of CSPBMs in comparison with generic preference-based measures (generic PBMs), and considers the advantages and disadvantages of CSPBMs in comparison with generic PBMs. CSPBMs typically include dimensions that are important for that condition but may not be important across all patient groups. There are a large number of CSPBMs across a wide range of conditions, and these vary from covering a wide range of dimensions to more symptomatic or uni-dimensional measures. Psychometric evidence is limited but suggests that CSPBMs offer an advantage in more accurate measurement of milder health states. The mean change and standard deviation can differ for CSPBMs and generic PBMs, and this may impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CSPBMs have a useful role in HTA where a generic PBM is not appropriate, sensitive or responsive. However, due to issues of comparability across different patient groups and interventions, their usage in health technology assessment is often limited to conditions where it is inappropriate to use a generic PBM or sensitivity analyses.

  11. Specific heat measurement set-up for quench condensed thin superconducting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Shachaf; Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Gérardin, Anne; Frydman, Aviad; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We present a set-up designed for the measurement of specific heat of very thin or ultra-thin quench condensed superconducting films. In an ultra-high vacuum chamber, materials of interest can be thermally evaporated directly on a silicon membrane regulated in temperature from 1.4 K to 10 K. On this membrane, a heater and a thermometer are lithographically fabricated, allowing the measurement of heat capacity of the quench condensed layers. This apparatus permits the simultaneous thermal and electrical characterization of successively deposited layers in situ without exposing the deposited materials to room temperature or atmospheric conditions, both being irreversibly harmful to the samples. This system can be used to study specific heat signatures of phase transitions through the superconductor to insulator transition of quench condensed films.

  12. Specific-heat measurements in superconducting indium-thallium alloys and the pseudopotential form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munukutla, L.V.; Cappelletti, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Normal-state specific heats between 1 and 4.4 K and superconducting transition temperatures of pure indium and In-Tl alloys have been measured. Excellent agreement with previous results was found. N/sub bs/(0) was extracted using our γ values and Dynes's lambda values and shows a large variation. The measured variation of lambda 2 > was also obtained from Dynes's results and found to be nearly linear in spite of the large variation of N/sub bs/(0). This is shown to be a consequence of the fact that the ratio of the calculated average screened pseudopotential form factor to electron density of states, 2 /sub s/>/N/sub bs/(0), is nearly constant across the alloy series for each element. No anomaly was found in the specific heat of In/sub 0.69/Tl/sub 0.31/ at the expected martensitic transition temperature

  13. Impact of measurement uncertainties on determination of chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient for marine phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, D.; Röttgers, R.; Neukermans, G.; Calzado, V.S.; Trees, C.; Ampolo-Rella, M.; Neil, C.; Cunningham, A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption of marine phytoplankton, aph*Chl (λ), is essential for primary production modelling, calculation of underwater light field characteristics, and development of algorithms for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations. Previous field and laboratory studies have demonstrated significant apparent variability in aph*Chl (λ) for natural samples and algal cultures. However, the potential impact of measurement uncertain...

  14. Vocational education and employment over the life course using a new measure of occupational specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Andrea G; Bol, Thijs

    2018-02-01

    Vocational education is seen as beneficial for the labor market allocation of young people. However, recent studies point to disadvantages later in the life course, where the specific skills that are obtained from vocational education decrease employability. This paper re-evaluates this hypothesis for the Netherlands with an improved measure for the vocational specificity of educational programs, utilizing both vertical (level) and horizontal (field) information on education. More specifically, we use a gradual measure for the linkage strength between education and occupation to predict employment over the life course. Using data from the national Dutch labor force surveys, we show that there is considerable heterogeneity in occupational specificity within the categories of vocational and general educational programs that is masked when using a dichotomous classification of general versus vocational education. In the life course analyses we find that the large early benefits of having vocational education disappear later in the career and turn into a small disadvantage before retirement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. DNA methylation signatures of educational attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Bonder, Marc Jan; Dekkers, Koen F.; Nivard, Michel G.; van Iterson, Maarten; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beekman, Marian; van der Spek, Ashley; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Franke, Lude; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; BIOS consortium

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is a key behavioural measure in studies of cognitive and physical health, and socioeconomic status. We measured DNA methylation at 410,746 CpGs (N = 4152) and identified 58 CpGs associated with educational attainment at loci characterized by pleiotropic functions shared with neuronal, immune and developmental processes. Associations overlapped with those for smoking behaviour, but remained after accounting for smoking at many CpGs: Effect sizes were on average 28% smaller and genome-wide significant at 11 CpGs after adjusting for smoking and were 62% smaller in never smokers. We examined sources and biological implications of education-related methylation differences, demonstrating correlations with maternal prenatal folate, smoking and air pollution signatures, and associations with gene expression in cis, dynamic methylation in foetal brain, and correlations between blood and brain. Our findings show that the methylome of lower-educated people resembles that of smokers beyond effects of their own smoking behaviour and shows traces of various other exposures.

  16. Specific absorption rate determination of magnetic nanoparticles through hyperthermia measurements in non-adiabatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coïsson, M. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Barrera, G. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); University of Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, F.; Martino, L.; Vinai, F. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martino, P. [Politronica srl, via Livorno 60, 10144 Torino (Italy); Ferraro, G. [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT, corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Tiberto, P. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    An experimental setup for magnetic hyperthermia operating in non-adiabatic conditions is described. A thermodynamic model that takes into account the heat exchanged by the sample with the surrounding environment is developed. A suitable calibration procedure is proposed that allows the experimental validation of the model. Specific absorption rate can then be accurately determined just from the measurement of the sample temperature at the equilibrium steady state. The setup and the measurement procedure represent a simplification with respect to other systems requiring calorimeters or crucial corrections for heat flow. Two families of magnetic nanoparticles, one superparamagnetic and one characterised by larger sizes and static hysteresis, have been characterised as a function of field intensity, and specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power have been obtained. - Highlights: • Development and thermodynamic modelling of a hyperthermia setup operating in non-adiabatic conditions. • Calibration of the experimental setup and validation of the model. • Accurate measurement of specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power in non-adiabatic conditions.

  17. Specificity and sensitivity of noninvasive measurement of pulmonary vascular protein leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauber, I.M.; Pluss, W.T.; VanGrondelle, A.; Trow, R.S.; Weil, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques employing external counting of radiolabeled protein have the potential for measuring pulmonary vascular protein permeability, but their specificity and sensitivity remain unclear. The authors tested the specificity and sensitivity of a double-radioisotope method by injecting radiolabeled albumin ( 131 I) and erythrocytes (/sup 99m/Tc) into anesthetized dogs and measuring the counts of each isotope for 150 min after injection with an external gamma probe fixed over the lung. They calculated the rate of increase of albumin counts measured by the probe (which reflects the rate at which protein leaks into the extravascular space). To assess permeability the authors normalized the rate of increase in albumin counts for changes in labeled erythrocyte signal to minimize influence of changes in vascular surface area and thus derived an albumin leak index. They measured the albumin leak index and gravimetric lung water during hydrostatic edema (acutely elevating left atrial pressure by left atrial balloon inflation: mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure = 22.6 Torr) and in lung injury edema induced by high- (1.0 g/kg) and low-dose (0.25 g/kg) intravenous thiourea. To test specificity hydrostatic and high-dose thiourea edema were compared. The albumin leak index increased nearly fourfold from control after thiourea injury (27.2 +/- 2.3 x 10-4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.9 x 10-4 min-1) but did not change from control levels after elevating left atrial pressure (8.9 +/- 1.2 x 10-4 min-1) despite comparable increases in gravimetric lung water. To test sensitivity the authors compared low-dose thiourea with controls. Following low-dose thiourea, the albumin leak index nearly doubled despite the absence of a measurable increase in lung water

  18. Characterization and validation of new tools for measuring site-specific cardiac troponin I phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Stephen F; Stutzke, Crystal A; Du, Yanmei; Browning, Michael D; Buttrick, Peter M; Walker, Lori A

    2014-01-31

    Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I is a well established mechanism by which cardiac contractility is modulated. However, there are a number of phosphorylation sites on TnI which contribute singly or in combination to influence cardiac function. Accordingly, methods for accurately measuring site-specific TnI phosphorylation are needed. Currently, two strategies are employed: mass spectrometry, which is costly, difficult and has a low throughput; and Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies, which is limited by the availability of reagents. In this report, we describe a cohort of new site-specific TnI phosphoantibodies, generated against physiologically relevant phosphorylation sites, that are superior to the current commercially available antibodies: to phospho-serine 22/23 which shows a >5-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; to phospho-serine 43, which has >3-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; and phospho-serine 150 which has >2-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI. These new antibodies demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity for the phosphorylated TnI than the most widely used commercially available reagents. For example, at a protein load of 20 μg of total cardiac extract, a commercially available antibody recognized both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated TnI to the same degree. At the same protein load our phospho-serine 22/23 antibody exhibited no cross-reactivity with dephosphorylated TnI. These new tools should allow a more accurate assessment and a better understanding of the role of TnI phosphorylation in the response of the heart to pathologic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, K.; Diao, Z.; Campanini, D.; Welp, U.; Divan, R.; Hudl, M.; Islam, Z.; Kwok, W.-K.; Rydh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  20. Validation of Patient-Specific Cerebral Blood Flow Simulation Using Transcranial Doppler Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Groen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a validation study comparing results from a patient-specific lattice-Boltzmann simulation to transcranial Doppler (TCD velocity measurements in four different planes of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. As part of the study, we compared simulations using a Newtonian and a Carreau-Yasuda rheology model. We also investigated the viability of using downscaled velocities to reduce the required resolution. Simulations with unscaled velocities predict the maximum flow velocity with an error of less than 9%, independent of the rheology model chosen. The accuracy of the simulation predictions worsens considerably when simulations are run at reduced velocity, as is for example the case when inflow velocities from healthy individuals are used on a vascular model of a stroke patient. Our results demonstrate the importance of using directly measured and patient-specific inflow velocities when simulating blood flow in MCAs. We conclude that localized TCD measurements together with predictive simulations can be used to obtain flow estimates with high fidelity over a larger region, and reduce the need for more invasive flow measurement procedures.

  1. Measurement of functional capacity requirements to aid in development of an occupation-specific rehabilitation training program to help firefighters with cardiac disease safely return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Roberts, Joanne; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Bartlett, Charles

    2009-03-15

    We designed a study to measure the functional capacity requirements of firefighters to aid in the development of an occupation-specific training program in cardiac rehabilitation; 23 healthy male firefighters with no history of heart disease completed a fire and rescue obstacle course that simulated 7 common firefighting tasks. They wore complete personal protective equipment and portable metabolic instruments that included a data collection mask. We monitored each subject's oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and working heart rate, then calculated age-predicted maximum heart rates (220 - age) and training target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). During performance of the obstacle course, the subjects' mean working heart rates and peak heart rates were higher than the calculated training target heart rates (t(22) = 5.69 [working vs target, p functional capacity greatly exceeded that typically attained by patients in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs (5 to 8 METs). In conclusion, our results indicate the need for intense, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training that will help firefighters safely return to work after a cardiac event.

  2. Specific calibration problems for gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Wershofen, H [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples are always done in a close source detector geometry. This geometry causes coincidence-summing effects for measurements of multi-photon emitting nuclides. The measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples are also influenced by the absorption of photons in the materials which have to be analysed. Both effects must be taken into account by correction factors with respect to an energy-specific calibration of the detector system for a given geometry and a given composition of the calibration source. The importance of these corrections is emphasized. It is the aim of the present paper to compare different experimental and theoretical methods for the determination of these correction factors published by various authors and to report about efforts to refine them. (orig.)

  3. Impact of epitope specificity and precursor maturation in pro-B-type natriuretic peptide measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, J.P.; Dahlstrom, U.; Alehagen, U.

    2008-01-01

    with different epitope specificities in a cohort of elderly patients presenting with symptoms associated with heart failure (n = 415). RESULTS: Comparison of N-terminal proBNP with proBNP 1-76 measurement in plasma revealed a high correlation on regression analysis (r(2) = 0.91, P ..., the proBNP 1-76 assay measured lower concentrations in the high range than the N-terminal proBNP assay. Correlations between assay measurements in a clinical setting were comparable for all the assays (r(2) approximately 0.57-0.83), and ROC analyses revealed area-under-the-curve values ranging between 0......BACKGROUND: Cardiac-derived natriuretic peptides are sensitive plasma markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent reports have disclosed a more complex molecular heterogeneity of B-type natriuretic peptide precursor (proBNP)-derived peptides than previously suggested. In this study, we examined...

  4. Clinical Utility of Noninvasive Method to Measure Specific Gravity in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeanine E; Huynh, Pauline P; Mody, Ameer P; Wang, Vincent J

    2018-04-01

    Clinicians rely on any combination of signs and symptoms, clinical scores, or invasive procedures to assess the hydration status in children. Noninvasive tests to evaluate for dehydration in the pediatric population are appealing. The objective of our study is to assess the utility of measuring specific gravity of tears compared to specific gravity of urine and the clinical assessment of dehydration. We conducted a prospective cohort convenience sample study, in a pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital. We approached parents/guardians of children aged 6 months to 4 years undergoing transurethral catheterization for evaluation of urinary tract infection for enrollment. We collected tears and urine for measurement of tear specific gravity (TSG) and urine specific gravity (USG), respectively. Treating physicians completed dehydration assessment forms to assess for hydration status. Among the 60 participants included, the mean TSG was 1.0183 (SD = 0.007); the mean USG was 1.0186 (SD = 0.0083). TSG and USG were positively correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation = 0.423, p = 0.001). Clinical dehydration scores ranged from 0 to 3, with 87% assigned a score of 0, by physician assessment. Mean number of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea in a 24-hour period were 2.2 (SD = 3.9) and 1.5 (SD = 3.2), respectively. Sixty-two percent of parents reported decreased oral intake. TSG measurements yielded similar results compared with USG. Further studies are needed to determine if TSG can be used as a noninvasive method of dehydration assessment in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1......,064 women who had been unemployed at least 70% of the time during a three-year period (October 1996 to October 1999). The outcome measures were two scales for coping with unemployment, one for problem-solving coping, and one for avoidant coping. Educational attainment was measured by years of vocational...

  6. Using the brief observation of social communication change (BOSCC) to measure autism-specific development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzerow, Janina; Teufel, Karoline; Wilker, Christian; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-09-01

    To date no reliable and objective, change sensitive instrument for autistic symptoms is available. The brief observation of social communication change (BOSCC) was specifically developed to measure change of core autistic symptoms, for example, for use as outcome measure in early intervention trials. This study investigated quality criteria of a preliminary research version of the BOSCC in N = 21 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had participated for 1 year in the Frankfurt early intervention program (FFIP). BOSCC rating was done on play based ADOS video scenes. Inter-rater agreement on the BOSCC average total was very high. The BOSCC showed a significant decrease of autistic symptoms after 1 year with a medium effect size. Symptom specific improvements were captured by the social communication subscale and most single items. The BOSCC showed comparable change sensitivity to other autism specific instruments. Future studies should focus on the finalized BOSCC version, and replicate findings in a larger sample. Autism Res 2016, 9: 940-950. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term reproducibility of in vivo measures of specific binding of radioligands in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael R. E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu

    2004-07-01

    The long-term reproducibility of measures of in vivo specific binding of radiolabeled forms of (+)-{alpha}-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) and d-threo-methylphenidate (MPH) in rat brain was examined. All studies were done using a consistent bolus plus infusion protocol and calculation of equilibrium distribution volume ratios (DVR). Over a period of eight years striatal DVR values for DTBZ binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in young adult (8-10 wks old) rats showed very good reproducibility (3.62{+-}0.33, N=35). Equivalent values were obtained using either tritiated or carbon-11 labeled DTBZ, and were irrespective of sex of animals. Older animals (78 wks old) showed losses (-45%) of specific binding. Striatal binding of MPH to the dopamine transporter (DAT) showed a similar reproducibility over a five year period (DVR=2.17{+-}0.39, N=52), again irrespective of radionuclide or sex. These studies demonstrate that use of a consistent in vivo technique can provide reliable measures of specific binding of radioligands to high affinity sites in the rat brain.

  8. Specific binding of antigen-antibody in physiological environments: Measurement, force characteristics and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lu; Xie, Shusen; Petti, Lucia; Wang, Shaomin; Wang, Fuyan

    2018-05-01

    The specific recognition of the antigen by the antibody is the crucial step in immunoassays. Measurement and analysis of the specific recognition, including the ways in which it is influenced by external factors are of paramount significance for the quality of the immunoassays. Using prostate-specific antigen (PSA)/anti-PSA antibody and α-fetoprotein (AFP) /anti-AFP antibody as examples, we have proposed a novel solution for measuring the binding forces between the antigens and their corresponding antibodies in different physiological environments by combining laminar flow control technology and optical tweezers technology. On the basis of the experimental results, the different binding forces of PSA/anti-PSA antibody and AFP/anti-AFP antibody in the same phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) environments are analysed by comparing the affinity constant of the two antibodies and the number of antigenic determinants of the two antigens. In different electrolyte environments, the changes of the binding force of antigens-antibodies are explained by the polyelectrolyte effect and hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, in different pH environments, the changes of binding forces of antigens-antibodies are attributed to the role of the denaturation of protein. The study aims to recognise the antigen-antibody immune mechanism, thus ensuring further understanding of the biological functions of tumour markers, and it promises to be very useful for the clinical diagnosis of early-stage cancer.

  9. Using a Design-Orientated Project to Attain Graduate Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalosi, Richie; Molokwane, Shorn; Mothibedi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays universities are required not only to impart knowledge of specific disciplines but also generic graduate attributes such as communication, problem-solving, teamwork, creative thinking, research and inquiry skills. For students to attain these generic skills, educators are encouraged to use learner-centred approaches in teaching.…

  10. Parental media socialization and educational attainment: Resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  11. Parental media socialization and educational attainment : resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  12. Using the Concept Attainment Strategy to Enhance Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Crow, Mary Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The Concept Attainment Strategy is an instructional technique proposed by Jerome Bruner that targets the "big idea" or concept underlining concrete or abstract examples. This strategy focuses on the developing comprehension of words and ideas associated with a concept rather than on its name or what the concept is called. Specifically it develops…

  13. Measurement of functional capacity requirements of police officers to aid in development of an occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Schneider, Jonna; Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Cheng, Dunlei; Simms, Kay; Hartman, Julie; Hinton, Paul; Strauss, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the functional capacity of healthy subjects during strenuous simulated police tasks, with the goal of developing occupation-specific training for cardiac rehabilitation of police officers. A calibrated metabolic instrument and an oxygen consumption data collection mask were used to measure the oxygen consumption and heart rates of 30 Dallas Police Academy officers and cadets as they completed an 8-event obstacle course that simulated chasing, subduing, and handcuffing a suspect. Standard target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate, or 0.85 x [220 - age]) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated; a matched-sample t test based on differences between target and achieved heart rate and MET level was used for statistical analysis. Peak heart rates during the obstacle course simulation were significantly higher than the standard target heart rates (those at which treadmill stress tests in physicians' offices are typically stopped) (t(29) = 12.81, P requires a functional capacity greater than that typically attained in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation professionals should consider performing maximal stress tests and increasing the intensity of cardiac rehabilitation workouts to effectively train police officers who have had a cardiac event.

  14. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  15. Specific-heat measurements on dilute 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeuw, H.C.M. van der.

    1985-01-01

    The author measured the specific heat of dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures in the concentration range from X = 1 x 10 -3 to X = 3 x 10 -3 and in the temperature range from 100 mK to 600 mK. This has been done by means of a thermal relaxation method. This method provides some interesting features and is applied, to our knowledge, for the first time to dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures. To reach the required temperature range for our experiments a 4 He circulating 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator has been constructed. The results confirm the deviation of the 3 He contribution to the specific heat from the ideal Fermi gas behaviour. (Auth.)

  16. Measurement of the Specific Refractivities of CF4 and C2F6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to relate the measured fringe shift of an interferometer to density, the relation between density rho and refractive index n must be known. For gases where the refractive index is close to unity, this relation between density and refractive index is very closely approximated by (n - 1) = K rho where K is the specific refractivity, or the Gladstone-Dale constant. The specific refractivity, which is weakly dependent on wavelength and temperature, is readily available for a number of common test gases such as N2 and air. For more unique test gases such as CF4 and C2F6 for which refractive index data at optical wavelengths is not readily available, the constants can be estimated from the atomic refractivities of carbon and fluorine. In order to verify this estimation, a two-beam interferometer was used to experimentally determine the specific refractivities of CF4 and C2F6. This data was required for holographic interferometric measurements made at the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel. A Twyman-Green interferometer with a He-Ne laser light source of vacuum wavelength lambda equal to 633 nm was used to measure the constants. One beam of the two-beam interferometer passed through an optical cell of known inside length l which could be evacuated and slowly filled with the test gas to a density of 7.2 kg/cu m for CF4 or 5.7 kg/cu m for C2F6. If the refractive index (and hence density) is constant along the optical path through the cell, the fringe shift M and density change Delta rho are related M = 2Kl Delta rho/lambda for the double pass interferometer. Thus K can be determined by measuring the fringe shift as the density is changed. The output of a photodiode used to detect the fringe shift was recorded on a strip chart recorder. The rate of pressure increase of the test gas in the cell was controlled such that the fringes shifted at a rate of 0.5 to 1 fringe per sec. The pressure in the test cell was measured with a high accuracy quartz crystal pressure

  17. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Kwan, Susan; Lam, Stephen; Khan, Nadia A; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patient education is a key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Delivering effective education to ethnic groups with COPD is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically specific audiovisual educational materials in supporting self-management practices in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients. Educational materials were developed using participatory approach (patients involved in the development and pilot test of educational materials), followed by a randomized controlled trial that assigned 91 patients to three intervention groups with audiovisual educational interventions and one control group (pamphlet). The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. The primary outcomes were improved inhaler technique and perceived self-efficacy to manage COPD. The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation procedures. Subjects in all three intervention groups, compared with control subjects, demonstrated postintervention improvements in inhaler technique (PCulturally appropriate educational interventions designed specifically to meet the needs of Mandarin and Cantonese COPD patients are associated with significantly better understanding of self-management practices. Self-management education led to improved proper use of medications, ability to manage COPD exacerbations, and ability to achieve goals in managing COPD. A relatively simple culturally appropriate disease management education intervention improved inhaler techniques and self-management practices. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management education on behavioral change and patient empowerment strategies.

  18. A specific colorimetric assay for measuring transglutaminase 1 and factor XIII activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Kitamura, Miyako; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Ceylan, Ismail; Thomas, Vincent; El Alaoui, Saïd

    2009-11-15

    Transglutaminase (TGase) is an enzyme that catalyzes both isopeptide cross-linking and incorporation of primary amines into proteins. Eight TGases have been identified in humans, and each of these TGases has a unique tissue distribution and physiological significance. Although several assays for TGase enzymatic activity have been reported, it has been difficult to establish an assay for discriminating each of these different TGase activities. Using a random peptide library, we recently identified the preferred substrate sequences for three major TGases: TGase 1, TGase 2, and factor XIII. In this study, we use these substrates in specific tests for measuring the activities of TGase 1 and factor XIII.

  19. Application of 125I radioimmunoassay to measure inhibition of precipitin reactions using carbohydrate-specific antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullanger, P.H.; Nagpurkar, A.; Noujaim, A.A.; Lemieux, R.U.

    1978-01-01

    Antibodies raised to an artificial antigen with β-D-galactopyranosyl groups as antigenic determinants were purified using an immunoadsorbent prepared from the hapten involved in the synthesis of the antigen. In order to study the specificity of these antibodies, 125 I radiolabelling of either the artificial antigen or the antibody was used in the study of inhibitions of the precipitin reaction. The method, involving labelling of the artificial antigen and counting radioactivity in the supernatant, was found to be more accurate and faster than the usual methods based on measuring the amount of protein precipitated by chemical or spectroscopic methods. (author)

  20. Cadmium may impair prostate function as measured by Prostate Specific Antigen in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, Alessandro; Mocevic, Emina; Jönsson, Bo A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between cadmium in blood and the concentration of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) in semen, including the modifying effects of zinc or the CAG polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR). Blood and semen samples were collected from 504 partners of pregnant women.......0009). Inverse trends between cadmium and PSA were found when semen zinc concentrations were below the median value for men from Ukraine and Greenland. These outcomes suggest that cadmium may impair prostate function, as measured by PSA in semen, while high zinc levels and a low number of CAG repeats protects...

  1. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...... SiO2 are most likely not due to fractal behavior....... the possibility of two spectral dimensions characterizing the fracton modes. Our data imply important differences between the physical mechanisms dominating the low-temperature behavior of aerogels and dense glasses, respectively. From our analysis we also conclude that the low-temperature properties of amorphous...

  2. Outcomes important to burns patients during scar management and how they compare to the concepts captured in burn-specific patient reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura L; Calvert, Melanie; Moiemen, Naiem; Deeks, Jonathan J; Bishop, Jonathan; Kinghorn, Philip; Mathers, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Pressure garment therapy (PGT) is an established treatment for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring; however, there is limited evidence for its effectiveness. Burn survivors often experience multiple issues many of which are not adequately captured in current PGT trial measures. To assess the effectiveness of PGT it is important to understand what outcomes matter to patients and to consider whether patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can be used to ascertain the effect of treatments on patients' health-related quality of life. This study aimed to (a) understand the priorities and perspectives of adult burns patients and the parents of burns patients who have experienced PGT via in-depth qualitative data, and (b) compare these with the concepts captured within burn-specific PROMs. We undertook 40 semi-structured interviews with adults and parents of paediatric and adolescent burns patients who had experienced PGT to explore their priorities and perspectives on scar management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The outcomes interpreted within the interview data were then mapped against the concepts captured within burn-specific PROMs currently in the literature. Eight core outcome domains were identified as important to adult patients and parents: (1) scar characteristics and appearance, (2) movement and function, (3) scar sensation, (4) psychological distress, adjustments and a sense of normality, (5) body image and confidence, (6) engagement in activities, (7) impact on relationships, and (8) treatment burden. The outcome domains presented reflect a complex holistic patient experience of scar management and treatments such as PGT. Some currently available PROMs do capture the concepts described here, although none assess psychological adjustments and attainment of a sense of normality following burn injury. The routine use of PROMs that represent patient experience and their relative contribution to trial

  3. Estimating Concentrations of Road-Salt Constituents in Highway-Runoff from Measurements of Specific Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    1999-01-01

    Discrete or composite samples of highway runoff may not adequately represent in-storm water-quality fluctuations because continuous records of water stage, specific conductance, pH, and temperature of the runoff indicate that these properties fluctuate substantially during a storm. Continuous records of water-quality properties can be used to maximize the information obtained about the stormwater runoff system being studied and can provide the context needed to interpret analyses of water samples. Concentrations of the road-salt constituents calcium, sodium, and chloride in highway runoff were estimated from theoretical and empirical relations between specific conductance and the concentrations of these ions. These relations were examined using the analysis of 233 highwayrunoff samples collected from August 1988 through March 1995 at four highway-drainage monitoring stations along State Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Theoretically, the specific conductance of a water sample is the sum of the individual conductances attributed to each ionic species in solution-the product of the concentrations of each ion in milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) multiplied by the equivalent ionic conductance at infinite dilution-thereby establishing the principle of superposition. Superposition provides an estimate of actual specific conductance that is within measurement error throughout the conductance range of many natural waters, with errors of less than ?5 percent below 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and ?10 percent between 1,000 and 4,000 ?S/cm if all major ionic constituents are accounted for. A semi-empirical method (adjusted superposition) was used to adjust for concentration effects-superposition-method prediction errors at high and low concentrations-and to relate measured specific conductance to that calculated using superposition. The adjusted superposition method, which was developed to interpret the State Route 25 highway-runoff records, accounts for

  4. Role of cerebral blood volume changes in brain specific-gravity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picozzi, P.; Todd, N.V.; Crockard, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was calculated in gerbils from specific-gravity (SG) changes between normal and saline-perfused brains. Furthermore, changes in CBV were investigated during ischemia using carbon-14-labeled dextran (MW 70,000) as an intravascular marker. Both data were used to evaluate the possible error due to a change in CBV on the measurement of ischemic brain edema by the SG method. The methodological error found was 0.0004 for a 100% CBV change. This error is insignificant, being less than the standard deviation in the SG measured for the gerbil cortex. Thus, CBV changes are not responsible for the SG variations observed during the first phase of ischemia. These variations are better explained as an increase of brain water content during ischemia

  5. Measuring the success of specific health problem consultations in cats and dogs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corah, Louise; Mossop, Liz; Cobb, Kate; Dean, Rachel

    2018-03-15

    Consultations are complex interactions, are central to achieving optimal outcomes for all stakeholders, yet what constitutes a successful consultation has not been defined. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the scope of the literature available on specific health problem consultations and appraise their identified success measures. Searches of CAB Abstracts and MEDLINE were performed in May 2016 using species and consultation terms. Systematic sorting of the results allowed identification of consultation 'success factors' cited in peer-reviewed veterinary literature which were appraised using an appropriate critical appraisal tool (AXIS). Searches returned 11 330 results with a total of 17 publications meeting the inclusion criteria, of which four measured consultation success. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association was the most common journal of publication (9 of 17) and the majority of included papers had been published since 2010 (12 of 17). Success factors measured were compliance, client satisfaction and veterinary surgeon satisfaction, and publications primarily used communication analysis tools to measure success. The review highlights the paucity of peer-reviewed literature examining small animal, health problem veterinary consultations. The available evidence is of variable quality and provides weak evidence as to which factors contribute to a successful consultation. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Determinations of dose mean of specific energy for conventional x-rays by variance-measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, B.; Jensen, M.; Lindborg, L.; Samuelson, G.

    1978-05-01

    The dose mean value (zeta) of specific energy of a single event distribution is related to the variance of a multiple event distribution in a simple way. It is thus possible to determine zeta from measurements in high dose rates through observations of the variations in the ionization current from for instance an ionization chamber, if other parameters contribute negligibly to the total variance. With this method is has earlier been possible to obtain results down to about 10 nm in a beam of Co60-γ rays, which is one order of magnitude smaller than the sizes obtainable with the traditional technique. This advantage together with the suggestion that zeta could be an important parameter in radiobiology make further studies of the applications of the technique motivated. So far only data from measurements in beams of a radioactive nuclide has been reported. This paper contains results from measurements in a highly stabilized X-ray beam. The preliminary analysis shows that the variance technique has given reasonable results for object sizes in the region of 0.08 μm to 20 μm (100 kV, 1.6 Al, HVL 0.14 mm Cu). The results were obtained with a proportional counter except for the larger object sizes, where an ionization chamber was used. The measurements were performed at dose rates between 1 Gy/h and 40 Gy/h. (author)

  7. Patient-specific simulations and measurements of the magneto-hemodynamic effect in human primary vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Adamos; Neufeld, Esra; Szczerba, Dominik; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Luechinger, Roger; Kozerke, Sebastian; McGregor, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the main characteristics of the magneto-hemodynamic (MHD) response for application as a biomarker of vascular blood flow. The induced surface potential changes of a volunteer exposed to a 3 T static B0 field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet were measured over time at multiple locations by an electrocardiogram device and compared to simulation results. The flow simulations were based on boundary conditions derived from MRI flow measurements restricted to the aorta and vena cava. A dedicated and validated low-frequency electromagnetic solver was applied to determine the induced temporal surface potential change from the obtained 4D flow distribution using a detailed whole-body model of the volunteer. The simulated MHD signal agreed with major characteristics of the measured signal (temporal location of main peak, magnitude, variation across chest and along torso) except in the vicinity of the heart. The MHD signal is mostly influenced by the aorta; however, more vessels and better boundary conditions are needed to analyze the finer details of the response. The results show that the MHD signal is strongly position dependent with highly variable but reproducibly measurable distinguished characteristics. Additional investigations are necessary before determining whether the MHD effect is a reliable reference for location-specific information on blood flow. (paper)

  8. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  9. Velocity and pressure measurements in guide vane clearance gap of a low specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, B. S.; Dahlhaug, O. G.; Thapa, B.

    2016-11-01

    In Francis turbine, a small clearance gap between the guide vanes and the cover plates is usually required to pivot guide vanes as a part of governing system. Deflection of cover plates and erosion of mating surfaces causes this gap to increase from its design value. The clearance gap induces the secondary flow in the distributor system. This effects the main flow at the runner inlet, which causes losses in efficiency and instability. A guide vane cascade of a low specific speed Francis turbine has been developed for experimental investigations. The test setup is able to produce similar velocity distributions at the runner inlet as that of a reference prototype turbine. The setup is designed for particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements from the position of stay vane outlet to the position of runner inlet. In this study, velocity and pressure measurements are conducted with 2 mm clearance gap on one side of guide vane. Leakage flow is observed and measured together with pressure measurements. It is concluded that the leakage flow behaves as a jet and mixes with the main flow in cross-wise direction and forms a vortex filament. This causes non-uniform inlet flow conditions at runner blades.

  10. Development of a measure of asthma-specific quality of life among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nicole K; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D; Sin, Nancy L; Lara, Marielena

    2014-04-01

    A key goal in asthma treatment is improvement in quality of life (QoL), but existing measures often confound QoL with symptoms and functional impairment. The current study addresses these limitations and the need for valid patient-reported outcome measures by using state-of-the-art methods to develop an item bank assessing QoL in adults with asthma. This article describes the process for developing an initial item pool for field testing. Five focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 50 asthmatic adults. We used "pile sorting/binning" and "winnowing" methods to identify key QoL dimensions and develop a pool of items based on statements made in the focus group interviews. We then conducted a literature review and consulted with an expert panel to ensure that no key concepts were omitted. Finally, we conducted individual cognitive interviews to ensure that items were well understood and inform final item refinement. Six hundred and sixty-one QoL statements were identified from focus group interview transcripts and subsequently used to generate a pool of 112 items in 16 different content areas. Items covering a broad range of content were developed that can serve as a valid gauge of individuals' perceptions of the effects of asthma and its treatment on their lives. These items do not directly measure symptoms or functional impairment, yet they include a broader range of content than most existent measures of asthma-specific QoL.

  11. The patient-specific functional scale: psychometrics, clinimetrics, and application as a clinical outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Katyana Kowalchuk; Jennings, Sophie; Richardson, Gillian; Vliet, Ditte Van; Hefford, Cheryl; Abbott, J Haxby

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review of the literature. To summarize peer-reviewed literature on the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and to identify its use as an outcome measure. Searches were performed of several electronic databases from 1995 to May 2010. Studies included were published articles containing (1) primary research investigating the psychometric and clinimetrics of the PSFS or (2) the implementation of the PSFS as an outcome measure. We assessed the methodological quality of studies included in the first category. Two hundred forty-two articles published from 1994 to May 2010 were identified. Of these, 66 met the inclusion criteria for this review, with 13 reporting the measurement properties of the PSFS, 55 implementing the PSFS as an outcome measure, and 2 doing both of the above. The PSFS was reported to be valid, reliable, and responsive in populations with knee dysfunction, cervical radiculopathy, acute low back pain, mechanical low back pain, and neck dysfunction. The PSFS was found to be reliable and responsive in populations with chronic low back pain. The PSFS was also reported to be valid, reliable, or responsive in individuals with a limited number of acute, subacute, and chronic conditions. This review found that the PSFS is also being used as an outcome measure in many other conditions, despite a lack of published evidence supporting its validity in these conditions. Although the use of the PSFS as an outcome measure is increasing in physiotherapy practice, there are gaps in the research literature regarding its validity, reliability, and responsiveness in many health conditions.

  12. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poureslami I

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iraj Poureslami,1,2 Susan Kwan,3 Stephen Lam,4,5 Nadia A Khan,6,7 John Mark FitzGerald 8,9 1Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 2Department of Graduate Studies, Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; 3Respiratory Department, Burnaby Hospital, University of British Columbia, Burnaby, Canada; 4Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 5Department of Integrative Oncology, BC Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, Canada; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 7Department of Internal Medicine, Providence Health Care Authority, Vancouver, Canada; 8VGH Divisions of Respiratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 9Respiratory Medicine, Vancouver Coastal Health Authority, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Institute for Heart and Lung Health, The Lung Centre, Gordon and Leslie Diamond Health Care Centre, Vancouver, Canada Background: Patient education is a key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Delivering effective education to ethnic groups with COPD is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically specific audiovisual educational materials in supporting self-management practices in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients. Methods: Educational materials were developed using participatory approach (patients involved in the development and pilot test of educational materials, followed by a randomized controlled trial that assigned 91 patients to three intervention groups with audiovisual educational interventions and one control group (pamphlet. The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. The primary outcomes were improved inhaler technique and

  13. Site-specific multipoint fluorescence measurement system with end-capped optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woosub; Moon, Sucbei; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Dug Young; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2011-07-10

    We present the development and implementation of a spatially and spectrally resolved multipoint fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) system utilizing multiple end-capped optical fibers and an inexpensive laser source. Specially prepared end-capped optical fibers placed in an image plane were used to both collect fluorescence signals from the sample and to deliver signals to the detectors. The placement of independently selected optical fibers on the image plane was done by monitoring the end-capped fiber tips at the focus using a CCD, and fluorescence from specific positions of a sample were collected by an end-capped fiber, which could accurately represent light intensities or spectral data without incurring any disturbance. A fast multipoint spectroscopy system with a time resolution of ∼1.5 ms was then implemented using a prism and an electron multiplying charge coupled device with a pixel binning for the region of interest. The accuracy of our proposed system was subsequently confirmed by experimental results, based on an FCS analysis of microspheres in distilled water. We expect that the proposed multipoint site-specific fluorescence measurement system can be used as an inexpensive fluorescence measurement tool to study many intracellular and molecular dynamics in cell biology. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. Sequence-specific inhibition of Dicer measured with a force-based microarray for RNA ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Katja; Aschenbrenner, Daniela; Gaub, Hermann E

    2013-04-01

    Malfunction of protein translation causes many severe diseases, and suitable correction strategies may become the basis of effective therapies. One major regulatory element of protein translation is the nuclease Dicer that cuts double-stranded RNA independently of the sequence into pieces of 19-22 base pairs starting the RNA interference pathway and activating miRNAs. Inhibiting Dicer is not desirable owing to its multifunctional influence on the cell's gene regulation. Blocking specific RNA sequences by small-molecule binding, however, is a promising approach to affect the cell's condition in a controlled manner. A label-free assay for the screening of site-specific interference of small molecules with Dicer activity is thus needed. We used the Molecular Force Assay (MFA), recently developed in our lab, to measure the activity of Dicer. As a model system, we used an RNA sequence that forms an aptamer-binding site for paromomycin, a 615-dalton aminoglycoside. We show that Dicer activity is modulated as a function of concentration and incubation time: the addition of paromomycin leads to a decrease of Dicer activity according to the amount of ligand. The measured dissociation constant of paromomycin to its aptamer was found to agree well with literature values. The parallel format of the MFA allows a large-scale search and analysis for ligands for any RNA sequence.

  15. Biocompatible click chemistry enabled compartment-specific pH measurement inside E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maiyun; Jalloh, Abubakar S; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Peng; Chen, Peng R

    2014-09-19

    Bioorthogonal reactions, especially the Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, have revolutionized our ability to label and manipulate biomolecules under living conditions. The cytotoxicity of Cu(I) ions, however, has hindered the application of this reaction in the internal space of living cells. By systematically surveying a panel of Cu(I)-stabilizing ligands in promoting protein labelling within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, we identify a highly efficient and biocompatible catalyst for intracellular modification of proteins by azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This reaction permits us to conjugate an environment-sensitive fluorophore site specifically onto HdeA, an acid-stress chaperone that adopts pH-dependent conformational changes, in both the periplasm and cytoplasm of E. coli. The resulting protein-fluorophore hybrid pH indicators enable compartment-specific pH measurement to determine the pH gradient across the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. This construct also allows the measurement of E. coli transmembrane potential, and the determination of the proton motive force across its inner membrane under normal and acid-stress conditions.

  16. Evaluative Measurement Properties of the Patient-Specific Functional Scale for Primary Shoulder Complaints in Physical Therapy Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, Marije L. S.; van Trijffel, Emiel; Lindeboom, Robert

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Clinical measurement, longitudinal. OBJECTIVES: To assess the test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) in patients with a primary shoulder complaint. BACKGROUND: Health measurement outcomes have become increasingly

  17. Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dana R.; Turner, Stephen J.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Wingo, Suzette; Andreansky, Samita; Sangster, Mark Y.; Riberdy, Janice M.; Liu, Tiebin; Tan, Ming; Doherty, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    The CD8+ T cell diaspora has been analyzed after secondary challenge with an influenza A virus that replicates only in the respiratory tract. Numbers of DbNP366- and DbPA224-specific CD8+ T cells were measured by tetramer staining at the end of the recall response, then followed sequentially in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, blood, and other organs. The extent of clonal expansion did not reflect the sizes of the preexisting memory T cell pools. Although the high-frequency CD8+ tetramer+ populations in the pneumonic lung and mediastinal lymph nodes fell rapidly from peak values, the “whole mouse” virus-specific CD8+ T cell counts decreased only 2-fold over the 4 weeks after infection, then subsided at a fairly steady rate to reach a plateau at about 2 months. The largest numbers were found throughout in the spleen, then the bone marrow. The CD8+DbNP366+ and CD8+DbPA224+ sets remained significantly enlarged for at least 4 months, declining at equivalent rates while retaining the nucleoprotein > acid polymerase immunodominance hierarchy characteristic of the earlier antigen-driven phase. Lowest levels of the CD69 “activation marker” were detected consistently on virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood, then the spleen. Those in the bone marrow and liver were intermediate, and CD69hi T cells were very prominent in the regional lymph nodes and the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Any population of “resting” CD8+ memory T cells is thus phenotypically heterogeneous, widely dispersed, and subject to broad homeostatic and local environmental effects irrespective of epitope specificity or magnitude. PMID:11344265

  18. Domain-Specific Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Sprengeler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities. School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively, whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval: −0.03–0.20 and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32, while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53, LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67 and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67. Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children.

  19. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  20. The Heterogeneous Impacts of Business Cycles on Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fluctuations in the unemployment rate before high school graduation on educational attainment measured 30 years later. I find evidence that important heterogeneity is masked by estimating average effects across the ability distribution. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this analysis…

  1. Educational attainment: A genome wide association study in 9538 Australians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.W.; Medland, S.E.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Lee, S.H.; Nyholt, D.R.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Correlations between Educational Attainment (EA) and measures of cognitive performance are as high as 0.8. This makes EA an attractive alternative phenotype for studies wishing to map genes affecting cognition due to the ease of collecting EA data compared to other cognitive phenotypes

  2. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  3. Measuring the relative extent of pulmonary infiltrates by hierarchical classification of patient-specific image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevas, S.; Iakovidis, D. K.

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are common radiological findings indicating the filling of airspaces with fluid, inflammatory exudates, or cells. They are most common in cases of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, atelectasis, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, whereas their extent is usually correlated with the extent or the severity of the underlying disease. In this paper we propose a novel pattern recognition framework for the measurement of the extent of pulmonary infiltrates in routine chest radiographs. The proposed framework follows a hierarchical approach to the assessment of image content. It includes the following: (a) sampling of the lung fields; (b) extraction of patient-specific grey-level histogram signatures from each sample; (c) classification of the extracted signatures into classes representing normal lung parenchyma and pulmonary infiltrates; (d) the samples for which the probability of belonging to one of the two classes does not reach an acceptable level are rejected and classified according to their textural content; (e) merging of the classification results of the two classification stages. The proposed framework has been evaluated on real radiographic images with pulmonary infiltrates caused by bacterial infections. The results show that accurate measurements of the infiltration areas can be obtained with respect to each lung field area. The average measurement error rate on the considered dataset reached 9.7% ± 1.0%.

  4. Passion and coping: relationships with changes in burnout and goal attainment in collegiate volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Gaudreau, Patrick; Crocker, Peter R E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season.

  5. Electron spectroscopic evidence of electron correlation in Ni-Pt alloys: comparison with specific heat measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, T U; Kim, J Y; Oh, S J

    2003-01-01

    We have performed photoemission spectroscopy of Ni-Pt alloys to understand the origin of the discrepancy between the experimental linear coefficient of specific heat gamma and that predicted by band theory. We found that the quasiparticle density of states at the Fermi level deduced from photoemission measurement is in agreement with the experimental value of gamma, if we include the electron correlation effect. It was also found that the Ni 2p core level satellite intensity increases as Ni content is reduced, indicating a strong electron correlation effect which can enhance the quasiparticle effective mass considerably. This supports our conclusion that electron correlation is the most probable reason of disagreement of gamma between experiment and band theory.

  6. Noise and specific detectivity measurements on high-temperature superconducting transition-edge bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.D.; Mogro-campero, A.; Turner, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of thermal fluctuation noise in thermal detectors can be lessened by reducing heat capacity and thermal conductance. An attempt to accomplish this with the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) bolometer by making YBCO resistors on thermally isolated membranes is reported. The spectral power of the electrical noise of YBCO films on SrTiO3, bulk silicon with a buffer layer, and in thin dielectric membranes is measured. It is found that 1/f noise predominates in polycrystalline YBCO films on silicon-based substrates. Films on SrTiO3 with good electrical properties are dominated by thermal fluctuation noise, just as in the case of low-temperature superconductors. The implications of these findings for bolometer are addressed. The specific detectivity of a bolometric pixel made on bulk SrTiO3 is reported. 14 refs

  7. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Velde, J. L.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires. Generic

  8. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Velde, J. L.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific

  9. Empirical usability testing in a component-based environment : improving test efficiency with component-specific usability measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.P.; Haakma, R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.; Bastide, R.; Palanque, P.; Roth, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of usability testing in a component-based software engineering environment, specifically measuring the usability of different versions of a component in a more powerful manner than other, more holistic, usability methods. Three component-specific usability measures are

  10. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  11. Measurement of specific parameters for dose calculation after inhalation of aerols containing transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramounet-le Gall, B.; Fritsch, P.; Abram, M.C.; Rateau, G.; Grillon, G.; Guillet, K.; Baude, S.; Berard, P.; Ansoborlo, E.; Delforge, J.

    2002-01-01

    A review on specific parameter measurements to calculate doses per unit of incorporation according to recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection has been performed for inhaled actinide oxides. Alpha activity distribution of the particles can be obtained by autoradiography analysis using aerosol sampling filters at the work places. This allows us to characterize granulometric parameters of 'pure' actinide oxides, but complementary analysis by scanning electron microscopy is needed for complex aerosols. Dissolution parameters with their standard deviation are obtained after rat inhalation exposure, taking into account both mechanical lung clearance and actinide transfer to the blood estimated from bone retention. In vitro experiments suggest that the slow dissolution rate might decrease as a function of time following exposure. Dose calculation software packages have been developed to take into account granulometry and dissolution parameters as well as specific physiological parameters of exposed individuals. In the case of poorly soluble actinide oxides, granulometry and physiology appear as the main parameters controlling dose value, whereas dissolution only alters dose distribution. Validation of these software packages are in progress. (author)

  12. Energy drinks, caffeine, junk food, breakfast, depression and academic attainment of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Richards, Gareth

    2018-06-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed, and concerns have been raised about possible negative outcomes. The aim of the present research was to examine associations between consumption of energy drinks, caffeine and junk food, and academic attainment in a sample of UK secondary school students. A total of 3071 students agreed to participate in the study; 2677 completed the survey on one occasion (52.4% female, 47.6% male; approximately 20% of the sample from each school year) and 1660 (49.6% female, 50.4% male) completed the survey a second time, approximately six months later. The academic attainment measure was based on Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 grades for Maths and English. In the cross-sectional analyses, logistic regressions showed that consumption of energy drinks was associated with a greater likelihood of being in the low academic achievement group. This was not found for other sources of caffeine. The effect of energy drinks was still significant when demographic, academic and health/lifestyle variables were covaried. However, inclusion of an unhealthy diet variable (junk food) removed the significant effect of energy drinks. Similar observations were made in the longitudinal study, with the poorer attainment of those who consumed energy drinks reflecting breakfast omission and depression. The present findings indicate that consumption of energy drinks is associated with an increased likelihood of poor academic attainment that reflects energy drink consumption being part of an unhealthy diet or being associated with skipping breakfast rather than a more specific effect, such as being a source of caffeine. Although the current study extends previous research by utilising a longitudinal design, intervention studies are now required to better answer questions relating to causality and direction of effect.

  13. Validity and internal consistency of a whiplash-specific disability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Melanie; Niere, Ken R; O'Leary, Elizabeth F; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-02-01

    Cross-sectional study of patients with whiplash-associated disorders investigating the internal consistency, factor structure, response rates, and presence of floor and ceiling effects of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ). The aim of this study was to confirm the appropriateness of the proposed WDQ items. Whiplash injuries are a common cause of pain and disability after motor vehicle accidents. Neck disability questionnaires are often used in whiplash studies to assess neck pain but lack content validity for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. The newly developed WDQ measures functional limitations associated with whiplash injury and was designed after interviews with 83 patients with whiplash in a previous study. Researchers sought expert opinion on items of the WDQ, and items were then tested on a clinical whiplash population. Data were inspected to determine floor and ceiling effects, response rates, factor structure, and internal consistency. Packages of questionnaires were distributed to 55 clinicians, whose patients with whiplash completed and returned 101 questionnaires to researchers. No substantial floor or ceiling effects were identified on inspection of data. The overall floor effect was 12%, and the overall ceiling effect was 4%. Principal component analysis identified one broad factor that accounted for 65% of the variance in responses. Internal consistency was high; Cronbach's alpha = 0.96. Results of the study supported the retention of the 13 proposed items in a whiplash-specific disability questionnaire. Dependent on the results of further psychometric testing, the WDQ is likely to be an appropriate outcome measure for patients with whiplash.

  14. Vehicle-specific emissions modeling based upon on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhang, Kaishan; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2010-05-01

    Vehicle-specific microscale fuel use and emissions rate models are developed based upon real-world hot-stabilized tailpipe measurements made using a portable emissions measurement system. Consecutive averaging periods of one to three multiples of the response time are used to compare two semiempirical physically based modeling schemes. One scheme is based on internally observable variables (IOVs), such as engine speed and manifold absolute pressure, while the other is based on externally observable variables (EOVs), such as speed, acceleration, and road grade. For NO, HC, and CO emission rates, the average R(2) ranged from 0.41 to 0.66 for the former and from 0.17 to 0.30 for the latter. The EOV models have R(2) for CO(2) of 0.43 to 0.79 versus 0.99 for the IOV models. The models are sensitive to episodic events in driving cycles such as high acceleration. Intervehicle and fleet average modeling approaches are compared; the former account for microscale variations that might be useful for some types of assessments. EOV-based models have practical value for traffic management or simulation applications since IOVs usually are not available or not used for emission estimation.

  15. Remarks on “A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ABELLÁN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two types of uncertainty co-exist in the theory of evidence: discord and non-specificity. From 90s, many mathematical expressions have arisen to quantify these two parts in an evidence. An important aspect of each measure presented is the verification of a coherent set of properties. About non-specificity, so far only one measure verifies an important set of those properties. Very recently, a new measure of non-specificity based on belief intervals has been presented as an alternative measure that quantifies a similar set of properties (Yang et al., 2016. It is shown that the new measure really does not verify two of those important properties. Some errors have been found in their corresponding proofs in the original publication. Keywords: Additivity, Imprecise probabilities, Non-specificity, Subadditivity, Theory of evidence, Uncertainty measures

  16. Methods for Specific Electrode Resistance Measurement during Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Niranjan; Rahman, Asif; Sarantos, Chris; Truong, Dennis Q.; Bikson, Marom

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to treat a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, for rehabilitation, and for enhancing cognitive performance. The monitoring of electrode resistance before and during tDCS is considered important for tolerability and safety, where an unusually high resistance is indicative of undesired electrode or poor skin contact conditions. Conventional resistance measurement methods do not isolate individual electrode resistance but rather measures overall voltage. Moreover, for HD-tDCS devices, cross talk across electrodes makes concurrent resistance monitoring unreliable. Objective We propose a novel method for monitoring of the individual electrode resistance during tDCS, using a super-position of direct current with a test-signal (low-intensity and low-frequency sinusoids with electrode– specific frequencies) and a single sentinel electrode (not used for DC). Methods To validate this methodology, we developed lumped-parameter models of two and multi-electrode tDCS. Approaches with and without a sentinel electrode were solved and underlying assumptions identified. Assumptions were tested and parameterized in healthy participants using forearm stimulation combining tDCS (2 mA) and sinusoidal test-signals (38 μA and 76 μA peak to peak at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 100 Hz) and an in vitro test (where varied electrode failure modes were created). DC and AC component voltages across the electrodes were compared and participants were asked to rate subjective pain. Results A sentinel electrode is required to isolate electrode resistance in a two-electrode tDCS system. For multi-electrode resistance tracking, cross talk was aggravated with electrode proximity and current/resistance mismatches, but could be corrected using proposed approaches. Average voltage and average pain scores were not significantly different across test current intensities and frequencies (two-way repeated measures ANOVA) indicating the

  17. Educational Attainment and Egalitarian Attitudes toward Women in the MENA Region: Insights from the Arab Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletto, Amy; Kim, Taeyeon; Marias, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasingly egalitarian attitudes toward women in the Middle East and North Africa, nations in this region continue to rank among the lowest in measures of gender equality. Using survey data, we examine the relationship between educational attainment and support for women. We find that increased educational attainment is predictive of…

  18. Interpretation of the source-specific substantive control measures of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2015-02-01

    Being persistent, toxic, and bio-accumulative, Mercury (Hg) seriously affects the environment and human health. Due to Hg's attribute of long-range environmental transport across national borders, especially through atmospheric transport, no country can fully protect its environment and human health with its own efforts, without global cooperation. The Minamata Convention on Mercury, which was formally adopted and opened for signature in October 2013, is the only global environmental regime on the control of Hg pollution. Its main substantive control measures are source-specific: its phasing-out, phasing-down, and other main substantive requirements all direct to specific categories of pollution sources through the regulation of specific sectors of the economy and social life. This Convention does not take a national quota approach to quantify the Parties' nationwide total allowable consumption or discharge of Hg or Hg compounds, nor does it quantify their nationwide total reduction requirements. This paper attempts to find the underlying reasons for this source-specific approach and offers two interpretations. One possible interpretation is that Hg might be a non-threshold pollutant, i.e., a pollutant without a risk-free value of concentration. The existence of a reference dose (RfD), reference concentration (RfC), provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), minimal risk level (MRL) or other similar reference values of Hg does not necessarily mean that Hg cannot be regarded as non-threshold because such reference values have scientific uncertainties and may also involve policy considerations. Another interpretation is that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity. There is evidence that negotiators might have treated Hg as non-threshold, or at least accepted that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity: (1) The negotiators were informed about the serious situations of the current emissions, releases, and legacy deposition; (2

  19. Postsecondary Educational Attainment among Whites and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfle, Lee M.

    Interracial differences in the educational attainment process between whites and blacks were examined, using Joreskog and Sorbom's (1981) general method for the analysis of covariance structures. The basic model of educational attainment considers education to be a function of father's occupational status and education, mother's education,…

  20. Inequality and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…

  1. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, P; Garnero, P; Meunier, P J; Bréart, G; Kamihagi, K; Delmas, P D

    1997-03-01

    those with only low BMD or high ucOC levels. In conclusion, we have developed a new specific ELISA for serum ucOC, with low cross-reactivity with carboxylated OC and increased specificity and sensitivity over the HAP assay. Using this new ELISA, we found that ucOC, but not total OC, predicts hip fracture risk independently of femoral neck BMD in elderly women drawn from the general population. Thus, ucOC measurement could be combined with bone mass determination to improve the assessment of hip fracture risk in elderly women.

  2. Comparing measured and modelled soil carbon: which site-specific variables are linked to high stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Schipanski, Meagan; Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; McNamara, Niall; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Changes in soil carbon (C) stocks have been studied in depth over the last two decades, as net greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks are highlighted to be a partial solution to the causes of climate change. However, the stability of this soil C is often overlooked when measuring these changes. Ultimately a net sequestration in soils is far less beneficial if labile C is replacing more stable forms. To date there is no accepted framework for measuring soil C stability, and as a result there is considerable uncertainty associated with the simulated impacts of land management and land use change when using process-based systems models. However, a recent effort to equate measurable soil C fractions to model pools has generated data that help to assess the impacts of land management, and can ultimately help to reduce the uncertainty of model predictions. Our research compiles this existing fractionation data along with site metadata to create a simplistic statistical model able to quantify the relative importance of different site-specific conditions. Data was mined from 23 published studies and combined with original data to generate a dataset of 100+ land use change sites across Europe. For sites to be included they required soil C fractions isolated using the Zimmermann et al. (2007) method and specific site metadata (mean annual precipitation, MAP; mean annual temperature, MAT; soil pH; land use; altitude). Of the sites, 75% were used to develop a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to create coefficients where site parameters can be used to predict influence on the measured soil fraction C stocks. The remaining 25% of sites were used to evaluate uncertainty and validate this empirical model. Further, four of the aforementioned sites were used to simulate soil C dynamics using the RothC, DayCent and RZWQM2 models. A sensitivity analysis (4096 model runs for each variable applying Latin hypercube random sampling techniques) was then used to observe whether these models place

  3. Evaluation and analytical validation of a handheld digital refractometer for urine specific gravity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara P. Wyness

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Refractometers are commonly used to determine urine specific gravity (SG in the assessment of hydration status and urine specimen validity testing. Few comprehensive performance evaluations are available demonstrating refractometer capability from a clinical laboratory perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct an analytical validation of a handheld digital refractometer used for human urine SG testing. Design and methods: A MISCO Palm Abbe™ refractometer was used for all experiments, including device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, evaluation of potential substances which contribute to SG (i.e. “interference”, and reference interval evaluation. A manual refractometer, urine osmometer, and a solute score (sum of urine chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, total protein, and urea nitrogen; all in mg/dL were used as comparative methods for accuracy assessment. Results: Significant carryover was not observed. A wash step was still included as good laboratory practice. Low imprecision (%CV, <0.01 was demonstrated using low and high QC material. Accuracy studies showed strong correlation to manual refractometry. Linear correlation was also demonstrated between SG, osmolality, and solute score. Linearity of Palm Abbe performance was verified with observed error of ≤0.1%. Increases in SG were observed with increasing concentrations of albumin, creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, sodium chloride, and urea. Transference of a previously published urine SG reference interval of 1.0020–1.0300 was validated. Conclusions: The Palm Abbe digital refractometer was a fast, simple, and accurate way to measure urine SG. Analytical validity was confirmed by the present experiments. Keywords: Specific gravity, Osmolality, Digital refractometry, Hydration, Sports medicine, Urine drug testing, Urine adulteration

  4. Reactive Agility Performance in Handball; Development and Evaluation of a Sport-Specific Measurement Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-09-01

    There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.

  5. Intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in adoptive families in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, L.; Das, M.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the strong association between family background and children’s educational attainment, we examined intergenerational transmission within families where genetic transmission is absent. Specifically, we investigated the effect of parent’s

  6. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  7. Development of new test procedures for measuring fine and coarse aggregates specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the research is to develop and evaluate new test methods at determining the specific gravity and absorption of both fine and coarse aggregates. Current methods at determining the specific gravity and absorption of fine and coarse agg...

  8. Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huang, Robert [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on IT measures in the data center and examines the techniques and analysis methods used to verify savings that result from improving the efficiency of two specific pieces of IT equipment: servers and data storage.

  9. The Use of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the RAND VSQ9 to Measure the Quality of Life and Visit-Specific Satisfaction of Pregnant Patients Under Chiropractic Care Utilizing the Webster Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Joel; Nazarenko, Andrea Lamont; Ohm, Jeanne; Alcantara, Junjoe

    2018-01-01

    To quantify the quality of life (QoL) and visit-specific satisfaction of pregnant women. A prospective cohort within a practice-based research network (PBRN). Setting/Locations: Individual chiropractic offices. Pregnant women (age ≥18 years) attending chiropractic care. Chiropractic care (i.e., The Webster Technique, spinal adjustments, and adjunctive therapies). The RAND VSQ9 to measure visit-specific satisfaction and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® )-29 to measure QoL. A convenience sample of 343 pregnant patients (average age = 30.96 years) comprised their study population. They were highly educated with 75% attaining a 2-year associate's degree or higher. The pregnant patients presented for chiropractic care with a mean week of gestation of 25.67 weeks (median = 28 weeks; range = 0-42 weeks) and parity (i.e., the number of live births) of 0.92 live births (median = 1; range = 0-6). From baseline (i.e., at study entrance with minimum first visit) and comparative (i.e., following a course of chiropractic care), the VSQ9 measurements revealed increasingly high satisfaction on the part of the subjects (i.e., the mean difference of baseline minus comparative measures = -0.7322; p < 0.005). The median number of visits (i.e., visits attended) at baseline and comparative measures was 1.00 (standard deviation [SD] = 22.69) and 3.30 (SD = 22.71), respectively. Across outcomes, QoL improved from baseline to comparative measurement after holding constant for visit number and time lapse, trimester of pregnancy, and care provider type. There was a reduction in mean T scores associated with fatigue (p < 0.05), pain interference (p < 0.05), sleep disturbance (p < 0.05), and an improvement in satisfaction with social roles (p < 0.05). A significant decrease was also found with pain interference (p < 0.05). No evidence was found that anxiety (p = 0.1404) or depression (p = 0

  10. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    to characterize patients with different infection status. Elevated levels of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies showed to be the risk factor for developing chronic Pa infection. Due to the specificity of the tests, antibiotic treatment based on serology might be considered in selected cases. There is a window...... of opportunity for suppression and eradication of initial P. aeruginosa infection making measurement of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies helpful Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  12. Attaining Success for Beginning Special Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marjorie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)

  13. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives

  14. Subject-specific regional measures of water diffusion are associated with impairment in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Ann S; Sadowsky, Cristina L; Smith, Seth A; van Zijl, Peter C M; Pekar, James J; Belegu, Visar

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to identify non-invasive imaging parameters that can serve as biomarkers for the integrity of the spinal cord, which is paramount to neurological function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices are sensitive to axonal and myelin damage, and have strong potential to serve as such biomarkers. However, averaging DTI indices over large regions of interest (ROIs), a common approach to analyzing the images of injured spinal cord, leads to loss of subject-specific information. We investigated if DTI-tractography-driven, subject-specific demarcation approach can yield measures that are more specific to impairment. In 18 individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), subject-specific demarcation of the injury region was performed using DTI tractography, which yielded three regions relative to injury (RRI; regions superior to, at, and below injury epicenter). DTI indices averaged over each RRI were correlated with measures of residual motor and sensory function, obtained using the International Standard of Neurological Classification for Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). Total ISNCSCI score (ISNCSCI-tot; sum of ISNCSCI motor and sensory scores) was significantly (p injury epicenter (IRRI), the degree of which exceeded that of those measured from the entire cervical cord-suggesting contribution from Wallerian degeneration. DTI tractography-driven, subject-specific injury demarcation approach provided measures that were more specific to impairment. Notably, DTI indices obtained from the IRRI region showed the highest specificity to impairment, demonstrating their strong potential as biomarkers for the SCI severity.

  15. Predictive, Construct, and Convergent Validity of General and Domain-Specific Measures of Hope for College Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cecil; Rose, Sage

    2010-01-01

    One leading version of hope theory posits hope to be a general disposition for goal-directed agency and pathways thinking. Domain-specific hope theory suggests that hope operates within context and measures of hope should reflect that context. This study examined three measures of hope to test the predictive, construct, and convergent validity…

  16. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  17. Maternal thyroid function and child educational attainment: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Haig, Caroline; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lindsay, Robert S

    2018-02-20

    To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. Prospective cohort study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function. Five age-specific national curriculum assessments in 3580 children at entry stage assessment at 54 months, increasing up to 4461 children at their final school assessment at age 15. No strong evidence of clinically meaningful associations of first trimester free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels with entry stage assessment score or Standard Assessment Test scores at any of the key stages was found. Associations of maternal free thyroxine or thyroid stimulating hormone with the total number of General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) passed (range 0-16) were all close to the null: free thyroxine, rate ratio per pmol/L 1.00 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.01); and thyroid stimulating hormone, rate ratio 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02). No important relationship was observed when more detailed capped scores of GCSEs allowing for both the number and grade of pass or when language, mathematics, and science performance were examined individually or when all educational assessments undertaken by an individual from school entry to leaving were considered. 200 (4.3%) mothers were newly identified as having hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism and 97 (2.1%) subclinical hyperthyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction attained an equivalent number of GCSEs and equivalent grades as children of mothers with euthyroidism. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy does not have a

  18. The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we

  19. The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we

  20. Option-4 algorithm for Florida pocket depth probe: reduction in the variance of site-specific probeable crevice depth measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, H J; Rogers, P; Johnson, N W; Slaney, R

    1999-08-01

    Clinical periodontal measurement is plagued by many sources of error which result in aberrant values (outliers). This study sets out to compare probeable crevice depth measurements (PCD) selected by the option-4 algorithm against those recorded with a conventional double-pass method and to quantify any reduction in site-specific PCD variances. A single clinician recorded full-mouth PCD at 1 visit in 32 subjects (mean age 45.5 years) with moderately advanced chronic adult periodontitis. PCD was recorded over 2 passes at 6 sites per tooth with the Florida Pocket Depth Probes, a 3rd generation probe. The option-4 algorithm compared the 1st pass site-specific PCD value (PCD1) to the 2nd pass site-specific PCD value (PCD2) and, if the difference between these values was >1.00 mm, allowed the recording of a maximum of 2 further measurements (3rd and 4th pass measurements PCD3 and PCD4): 4 site-specific measure-meets were considered to be the maximum subject and tissue tolerance. The algorithm selected the 1st 2 measurements whose difference was difference Y) (Y=[(A-B)/A]X 100) and a 75% reduction in the median site-specific variance of PCD1/PCD2.

  1. A system of radiation monitoring, and methods and equipment for measuring water of low specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1975-01-01

    The author considers criteria for the radiation protection of the population and the environment. He describes the role of procedures for monitoring waters of low specific activity in the framework of a system for ensuring the radiation safety of the population living near a nuclear power station. The main technical characteristics (background, efficiency, sensitivity) of the laboratory equipment for gamma spectrometric analysis of water samples of low specific activity are discussed. (author)

  2. Generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Vogel, A.; Hansen, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD).......The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  3. Fracture-specific pressure measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki drillhole OL-KR39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripatti, K.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2011-12-01

    An option was built to the Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF). A double packer device was combined together with a PFL DIFF probe. The new tool was needed for measurements of the very low hydraulic head. Indications of these were detected earlier in some fractures of drillhole OL-KR39. The target fractures could be measured with the accurate absolute pressure sensor in the PFL DIFF probe. Principles of the methods and the results of measurements are presented in this report. The measurements were carried out in drillhole OL-KR39 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between April 2011 and May 2011. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR measurement is used to place the device accurately on the chosen fracture. The section length limited by the packers is about 1 m. The measurements were carried out in natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The same measuring program was employed in all chosen fractures. Electrical conductivity (EC) of drillhole water and flow rate along the drillhole were also measured in conjunction with the pressure measurements. (orig.)

  4. Highly Specific Binding on Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymer-Coated Microbeads as Measured by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Esther; de Bus, Ian; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Smulders, Maarten M J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Zuilhof, Han

    2017-11-08

    Micron- and nano-sized particles are extensively used in various biomedical applications. However, their performance is often drastically hampered by the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules, a process called biofouling, which can cause false-positive and false-negative outcomes in diagnostic tests. Although antifouling coatings have been extensively studied on flat surfaces, their use on micro- and nanoparticles remains largely unexplored, despite the widespread experimental (specifically, clinical) uncertainties that arise because of biofouling. Here, we describe the preparation of magnetic micron-sized beads coated with zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer brushes that display strong antifouling characteristics. These coated beads can then be equipped with recognition elements of choice, to enable the specific binding of target molecules. First, we present a proof of principle with biotin-functionalized beads that are able to specifically bind fluorescently labeled streptavidin from a complex mixture of serum proteins. Moreover, we show the versatility of the method by demonstrating that it is also possible to functionalize the beads with mannose moieties to specifically bind the carbohydrate-binding protein concanavalin A. Flow cytometry was used to show that thus-modified beads only bind specifically targeted proteins, with minimal/near-zero nonspecific protein adsorption from other proteins that are present. These antifouling zwitterionic polymer-coated beads, therefore, provide a significant advancement for the many bead-based diagnostic and other biosensing applications that require stringent antifouling conditions.

  5. 78 FR 5810 - AHRQ Standing Workgroup for Quality Indicator Measure Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... collaboratively publish peer-reviewed journal articles or reports based on workgroup activities. However, this is..., quality alliances, medical or specialty societies, measure developers, accrediting organizations, and... topics include: (1) Strategic areas for AHRQ QI program development for the upcoming year, (2) measure...

  6. Developing scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU) : a new perspective on transdiagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; McEvoy, Peter M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Brandt, Charles P; Boelen, Paul A; Mahoney, Alison E J; Deacon, Brett J; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a construct of growing prominence in literature on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Existing measures of IU do not define the uncertainty that respondents perceive as distressing. To address this limitation, we developed eight scales measuring

  7. Virtual tape measure for the operating microscope: system specifications and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Y; Drake, J M; Milgram, P

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Tape Measure for the Operating Microscope (VTMOM) was created to assist surgeons in making accurate 3D measurements of anatomical structures seen in the surgical field under the operating microscope. The VTMOM employs augmented reality techniques by combining stereoscopic video images with stereoscopic computer graphics, and functions by relying on an operator's ability to align a 3D graphic pointer, which serves as the end-point of the virtual tape measure, with designated locations on the anatomical structure being measured. The VTMOM was evaluated for its baseline and application performances as well as its application efficacy. Baseline performance was determined by measuring the mean error (bias) and standard deviation of error (imprecision) in measurements of non-anatomical objects. Application performance was determined by comparing the error in measuring the dimensions of aneurysm models with and without the VTMOM. Application efficacy was determined by comparing the error in selecting the appropriate aneurysm clip size with and without the VTMOM. Baseline performance indicated a bias of 0.3 mm and an imprecision of 0.6 mm. Application bias was 3.8 mm and imprecision was 2.8 mm for aneurysm diameter. The VTMOM did not improve aneurysm clip size selection accuracy. The VTMOM is a potentially accurate tool for use under the operating microscope. However, its performance when measuring anatomical objects is highly dependent on complex visual features of the object surfaces. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Education attainment is associated with patient-reported outcomes: findings from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Meridith E; Rolfson, Ola; Nemes, Szilard; Gordon, Max; Malchau, Henrik; Garellick, Göran

    2014-06-01

    Age, sex, and medical comorbidities may be associated with differences in patient-reported outcome scores after THA. Highest level of education may be a surrogate for socioeconomic status, but the degree to which this is associated with patient-reported outcomes after THA is not known. We investigated the national Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register for the association of education attainment on patient-reported outcomes 1 year after THA; specifically, we evaluated level of education attainment against health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain reduction, and satisfaction with treatment 1 year after THA. All THAs for osteoarthritis performed from 2005 through 2007 with complete patient-reported outcome measures (representing 49% of the THAs performed for this diagnosis) were selected from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. These cases were merged with national databases containing education attainment, marital status, and comorbidities (n = 11,464; mean age of patients, 64 years). The patient-reported outcome measure protocol included the HRQoL measure EuroQol five-dimension scale (EQ-5D), a VAS for pain, the Charnley classification survey, and a VAS addressing THA satisfaction. Linear regression analyses determined the association of preoperative patient factors with patient-reported outcomes. High education attainment was associated with higher HRQoL (EQ-5D index ß(high) = 0.03 ± 0.01; EQ VAS ß(high) = 2.6 ± 0.5) after THA, whereas those with low and medium education were at risk for lower HRQoL. High education was associated with less pain after treatment (ß(high) = -3.3 ± 0.05). Individuals with low or medium education were at risk for less satisfaction with THA (p education to a greater extent. Identification of patients who will benefit most from THA and educating those at risk for poorer outcomes, like patients with low and medium education, ultimately may improve patient satisfaction, HRQoL, pain, and the cost utility of THA. Level III

  9. Specific heat measurements of TiB2 and 6LiF from 0.5 to 30 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian E.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Woodfield, Brian F.; Burger, Arnold; Roy, Utupal N.; Lamberti, Vincent; Bell, Zane W.

    2005-01-01

    The specific heats of TiB 2 and 6 LiF have been measured from 0.5 to 30 K as part of a larger project in the construction of a neutron spectrometer. For this application, the measured specific heats were used to extrapolate the specific heats down to 0.1 K with lattice, electronic, and Schottky equations for the respective samples. The resultant specific heat values at 0.1 K for TiB 2 and 6 LiF are 4.08 x 10 -4 ± 0.27 x 10 -4 J/K/mol and 9.19 x 10 -9 ± 0.15 x 10 -9 J/K/mol, respectively

  10. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  11. Core outcome measurement instruments for clinical trials in non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Boers, Maarten; Deyo, Richard A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Corbin, Terry P; Costa, Leonardo O P; Foster, Nadine E; Grotle, Margreth; Koes, Bart W; Kovacs, Francisco M; Christine Lin, Chung-Wei; Maher, Chris G; Pearson, Adam M; Peul, Wilco C; Schoene, Mark L; Turk, Dennis C; van Tulder, Maurits W; Terwee, Caroline B; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2017-01-01

    To standardize outcome reporting in clinical trials of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP), an international multidisciplinary panel recommended physical functioning, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as core outcome domains. Given the lack of consensus on

  12. A dilatometer to measure the influence of cooling rate and melt shearing on specific volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, M.H.E.; Peters, G.W.M.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a dilatometer to investigate the specific volume of polymers as a function of pressure (to 100 MPa), temperature (to 260 oC), cooling rate (to 80 C/s), and shear rate (to 77 1/s). The dilatometeris based on the principle of con¯ned compression and comprises of a pressure cell used in

  13. A Comparison of General and Work-Specific Measures of Core Self-Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A.; Wang, Qiang; Tang, Han Ying; Kennedy, Kellie D.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, considerable research attention has been given to core self-evaluations (CSEs). Although this research has found that CSE is related to several important work-related outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, job performance), we believe that researchers' reliance on general rather than work-specific CSE has resulted in…

  14. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid...

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhong, Liang-Huan; Wen, Yi; Liu, Tian-Wen; Li, Xiao-Ying; Hou, Zheng-Kun; Hu, Yue; Mo, Chuan-Wei; Liu, Feng-Bin

    2017-09-15

    This review aims to critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-specific health-related quality of life instruments. Medline, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched from their inception to May 2016. IBD-specific instruments for patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or IBD were enrolled. The basic characteristics and domains of the instruments were collected. The methodological quality of measurement properties and measurement properties of the instruments were assessed. Fifteen IBD-specific instruments were included, which included twelve instruments for adult IBD patients and three for paediatric IBD patients. All of the instruments were developed in North American and European countries. The following common domains were identified: IBD-related symptoms, physical, emotional and social domain. The methodological quality was satisfactory for content validity; fair in internal consistency, reliability, structural validity, hypotheses testing and criterion validity; and poor in measurement error, cross-cultural validity and responsiveness. For adult IBD patients, the IBDQ-32 and its short version (SIBDQ) had good measurement properties and were the most widely used worldwide. For paediatric IBD patients, the IMPACT-III had good measurement properties and had more translated versions. Most methodological quality should be promoted, especially measurement error, cross-cultural validity and responsiveness. The IBDQ-32 was the most widely used instrument with good reliability and validity, followed by the SIBDQ and IMPACT-III. Further validation studies are necessary to support the use of other instruments.

  16. 78 FR 22883 - AHRQ Standing Workgroup for Quality Indicator Measure Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... workgroup addresses broader issues related to the measurement cycle. Because AHRQ did not get a set of... proposed updates to the AHRQ QIs. The intent is to collect feedback in a standardized fashion, and to...

  17. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  18. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    .0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated......OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios...

  19. Specifications for trueness and precision of a reference measurement system for serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Dietmar; Sluss, Patrick M; Thienpont, Linda M

    2009-10-01

    The divergence in analytical quality of serum/plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D analysis calls for defining specifications for a reference measurement system. Fundamentally, in a reference measurement system, there should be a relationship between the analytical specifications for higher- (reference) and lower-order (routine) measurements. Therefore, when setting specifications, we started with limits for routine imprecision (CV(rou)) and bias (B(rou)) using 4 models: (1) the misclassifications in diagnosis, (2) biological variation data (reference interval (RI) and monitoring), (3) expert recommendations, and (4) state-of-the-art performance. Then, we used the derived goals to tailor those for reference measurements and certified reference materials (CRMs) for calibration by setting the limits for CV(ref) at 0.5 CV(rou), B(ref) at 0.33 B(rou)(,) max. uncertainty (U(max)) at 0.33 B(ref). The established specifications ranged between CV(rou)model 3) and CV(rou)model 2, monitoring). Model 2 (monitoring) gave the most stringent goals, model 3, the most liberal ones. Accounting for state-of-the-art performance and certification capabilities, we used model 2 (RI) to recommend achievable goals: for routine testing, CV(rou)measurements, CV(ref)

  20. Dissipation kinetics of asparagine in soil measured by compound-specific analysis with metabolite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Weronika; Rasmussen, Jim; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    labeled glutamic acid were detected in soil. This highlights the fast turnover of amino acid in soil and that the estimation of concentration of the formed compounds is important when evaluating plant available organic N. Efficiency of the compound-specific analysis showed to be a powerful technique......Estimating the potential for direct plant acquisition of organic N, in particular amino acids, requires assessment of their turnover times in soil. It is well known from 14C studies that mineralization of amino acids occurs within hours, but mineralization to 14CO2 does not indicate the rate...... of disappearance of the intact amino acid or the possible formation of metabolites during amino acid dissipation. We here used compound-specific isotope analysis with metabolite tracking to investigate the dissipation rate of universally labeled intact 13C15N-asparagine at two concentrations and the subsequent...

  1. Reliability of EEG Interactions Differs between Measures and Is Specific for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of interaction (connectivity of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from two EEG-recordings separated by 2 weeks. In order to characterize test-retest reliability, we correlated these measures for each group and compared the correlations between measures and between groups. We found that both measures of interaction as well as groups differed from each other in terms of reliability. The strongest correlation coefficients were found for spectrum, coherence, and full frequency directed transfer function (average rho > 0.9. In the delta (2–4 Hz range, reliability was lower for mild cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls and left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy. In the beta (13–30 Hz, gamma (31–80 Hz, and high gamma (81–125 Hz frequency ranges we found decreased reliability in subjective cognitive complaints compared to mild cognitive impairment. In the gamma and high gamma range we found increased reliability in left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to healthy controls. Our results emphasize the importance of documenting reliability of measures of interaction, which may vary considerably between measures, but also between patient populations. We suggest that studies claiming clinical usefulness of measures of interaction should provide information on the reliability of the results. In addition, differences between patient

  2. Quality of life in mucopolysaccharidoses: construction of a specific measure using the focus group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M R; Schwartz, I; Costa, L S; Maia, H; Ribeiro, M; Guerreiro, L B; Acosta, A; Rocha, N S

    2018-01-15

    To describe the perceptions of patients, their caregivers, and their healthcare providers to the development of a new specific instrument for assessment of the quality of life (QoL) in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) using a qualitative focus group (FG) design. FGs were held in two Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro). Three versions of the new instrument were developed, each for a different age group: children (age 8-12 years), adolescents (age 13-17), and adults (age ≥ 18). The FGs mostly confirmed the relevance of items. All FGs unanimously agreed on the facets: School, Happiness, Life Prospects, Religiosity, Pain, Continuity of Treatment, Trust in Treatment, Relationship with Family, Relationship with Healthcare Providers, Acceptance, and Meaning of Life. The overall concept of QoL (as proposed by the WHO-World Health Organization) and its facets apply to this patient population. However, other specific facets-particularly concerning clinical manifestations and the reality of the disease-were suggested, confirming the need for the development of a specific QoL instrument for MPS.

  3. From Practice to Evidence in Child Welfare: Model Specification and Fidelity Measurement of Team Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Garland, Ann F; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2014-04-01

    Fidelity measurement methods have traditionally been used to develop and evaluate the effects of psychosocial treatments and, more recently, their implementation in practice. The fidelity measurement process can also be used to operationally define and specify components of emerging but untested practices outside the realm of conventional treatment. Achieving optimal fidelity measurement effectiveness (scientific validity and reliability) and efficiency (feasibility and relevance in routine care contexts) is challenging. The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies to address these challenges in child welfare system practices. To illustrate the challenges, and operational steps to address them, we present a case example using the "Team Decisionmaking" (TDM; Annie E. Casey Foundation) intervention. This intervention has potential utility for decreasing initial entry into and time spent in foster care and increasing rates of reunification and relative care. While promising, the model requires rigorous research to refine knowledge regarding the relationship between intervention components and outcomes-research that requires fidelity measurement. The intent of this paper is to illustrate how potentially generalizable steps for developing effective and efficient fidelity measurement methods can be used to more clearly define and test the effects of child welfare system practices.

  4. Measuring disease-specific quality of life in rare populations: a practical approach to cross-cultural translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedlinger Arne

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease-specific quality of life (QoL measures have enhanced the capacity of outcome measures to evaluate subtle changes and differences between groups. However, when the specific disease is rare, the cohort of patients is small and international collaboration is often necessary to accomplish meaningful research. As many of the QoL measures have been developed in North American English, they require translation to ensure their usefulness in a multi-cultural and/or international society. Published guidelines provide formal methods to achieve cross-culturally comparable versions of a QoL tool. However, these guidelines describe a rigorous process that is not always feasible, particularly in rare disease groups. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the process that was developed to achieve accurate cross-cultural translations of a disease-specific QoL measure, to overcome the challenges of a small sample size, i.e. children with a rare disorder. Procedure A measurement study was conducted in the United Kingdom (UK, France, Germany and Uruguay, during which the validated measure was translated into the languages of the respective countries. Results This is a report of a modified, child-centric, cross-cultural translation and adaptation process in which culturally appropriate and methodologically valid translations of a disease-specific QoL measure, the Kids' ITP Tools (KIT, were performed in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. The KIT was translated from North American English into UK English, French, German, and Spanish. Conclusion This study was a successful international collaboration. The modified process through which culturally appropriate and methodologically valid translations of QoL measures may be achieved in a pediatric population with a relatively rare disorder is reported.

  5. A family-specific use of the Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebes, R C; Nijhuis, B J G; Boonstra, A M; Ketelaar, M; Wijnroks, L; Reinders-Messelink, H A; Postema, K; Vermeer, A

    2008-03-01

    To examine the validity and utility of the Dutch Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) as a family-specific measure. A validation study. Five paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. The MPOC-SP was utilized in a general (reflecting on services provided for all clients and clients' families) and family-specific way (filled out in reference to a particular child and his or her family). Professionals providing rehabilitation and educational services to children with cerebral palsy. For construct validity, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients (r ) between the scales were calculated. The ability of service providers to discriminate between general and family-specific ratings was examined by exploration of absolute difference scores. One hundred and sixteen service professionals filled out 240 family-specific MPOC-SPs. In addition, a subgroup of 81 professionals filled out a general MPOC-SP. For each professional, family-specific and general scores were paired, resulting in 151 general-family-specific MPOC-SP pairs. The construct validity analyses confirmed the scale structure: 21 items (77.8%) loaded highest in the original MPOC-SP factors, and all items correlated best and significantly with their own scale score (r 0.565 to 0.897; PService providers were able to discriminate between general and family-specific MPOC-SP item ratings. The family-specific MPOC-SP is a valid measure that can be used for individual evaluation of family-centred services and can be the impetus for family-related quality improvement.

  6. Measuring the Dynamic Characteristics of a Low Specific Speed Pump—Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Cathrin Walseth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from an experiment performed to obtain the dynamic characteristics of a reversible pump-turbine model. The characteristics were measured in an open loop system where the turbine initially was run on low rotational speed before the generator was disconnected allowing the turbine to go towards runaway. The measurements show that the turbine experience damped oscillations in pressure, speed and flow rate around runaway corresponding with presented stability criterion in published literature. Results from the experiment is reproduced by means of transient simulations. A one dimensional analytical turbine model for representation of the pump-turbine is used in the calculations. The simulations show that it is possible to reproduce the physics in the measurement by using a simple analytical model for the pump-turbine as long as the inertia of the water masses in the turbine are modeled correctly.

  7. Does Sibship Size Affect Educational Attainment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing...... the claim of a negative causal relationship between sibship size and educational attainment. Analyzing data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the empirical analysis demonstrates, first, that conventional OLS regression estimates sibship size to have a negative effect on educational attainment equal...... to about one-tenth of a year of schooling per sibling. Second, when applying the IV method to account for potential endogeneity, the negative effect of sibship size increases substantially to about one-third of a year of schooling per sibling....

  8. A Structured Review of Generic and Specific Instruments for Measuring the Subjectively Assessed Quality of Life of Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kacmarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to offer a review of the instruments designed for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors. At present it is possible to notice an increase of interest in the issue of the quality of life of specific groups of population; in addition, there is a large number of tools for its measuring. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of generic and specific instruments for measuring quality of life of seniors which have been published in peer-reviewed journals and whose psychometric parameters have been verified. The search procedure formed a part of a larger retrieval search in which we analyzed 4829 abstracts in EBSCO and ProQuest Central full-text databases. We found 831 instruments which claimed to be measuring quality of life and were verified their reliability or validity. We identified 3 groups of instruments suitable for use in the senior age-group: generic methodologies applicable to adults in general, 7 generic tools and 9 specific tools designed exclusively for the senior age. The paper presents the measures designed for seniors who were analyzed and compared with regard to their psychometric parameters, purpose and theoretical framework utilized for their construction. In conclusion the authors of the study provide recommendations for the use of the selected methodologies for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors.

  9. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  10. Evaluating podiatry services: testing a treatment specific measure of health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macran, S; Kind, P; Collingwood, J; Hull, R; McDonald, I; Parkinson, L

    2003-03-01

    This study reports on the preliminary testing of a new measure designed for use alongside EQ-5D in evaluating outcomes in podiatry: the Podiatry Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Individuals aged 18 years or more, receiving podiatry services in clinic or domicilliary locations across four NHS Trusts in Yorkshire and Humberside UK took part in a questionnaire survey. Respondents reported high levels of problems on all six PHQ dimensions. Correlations suggested that the PHQ and EQ-5D were measuring distinct constructs. The levels on each dimension were well defined in terms of self-rated morbidity on the PHQ visual analogue scale (PHQvas) and the EQ-5Dvas, although PHQvas appeared to be slightly more sensitive to changes in health on the dimensions. There was a strong relationship between clinicians' Podiatry Clinical Score rating and reported symptoms for four out of six PHQ dimensions and PHQvas. The PHQ was able to distinguish respondents in terms of their self-reported morbidity in EQ-5D and in terms of their morbidity as assessed by clinicians. It is suggested that the respondent completed PHQ appears to be a useful new measure for assessing foot-related health. However, further investigation of the psychometric properties of the measure is required.

  11. Measurement of specific [3H]-ouabain binding to different types of human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Arnold; Oh, V M; Taylor, John E.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the specific binding of [3H]-ouabain to intact mononuclear leucocytes (82% lymphocytes) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In both types of cells [3H]-ouabain binding was saturable, confined to a single site of high affinity, slow to reach equilibrium, slow to reverse, temperature...... were expressed per square micron of cell surface area the difference between the two cell types was proportionately greater (83 and 186 sites per micron 2 respectively). We conclude that the [3H]-ouabain binding sites on mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leucocytes are similar in nature, but different...

  12. Measurement of the spatial specific impulse distribution due to buried high explosive charge detonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Denefeld

    2017-06-01

    The momentum transfer to a vehicle depends on a number of influencing factors such as: charge mass, embedding material (e.g. sand, gravel, clay, density, water content, saturation, depth of burial, ground clearance and vehicle shape. The presented technology is applied to quantify the influence of the embedding material (alluvial sand, quartz sand, the burial depth and the water content on the local specific impulse distribution. The obtained data can be used as initial condition for the numerical simulation of occupant safety assessment and as input for empirical modeling of momentum transfer on structures.

  13. Specific heat measurements of the antiferroelectric phase transition in the mixed system KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghivelder, L.; Bastos, C.A.M.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Weid, J.P. von der.

    1984-01-01

    The specific heat of KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x) mixed crystals was measured for four chlorine concentrations between x=0,90 and x=1,00. The entropy change ΔS and critical temperature T sub(c) were obtained and the results are discussed in terms of the orientational motion of the CN - molecular ions. (Author) [pt

  14. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification activity as measured by RNA- and DNA-based function-specific assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals can inhibit nitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. The transcriptional responses of functional genes (amoA, hao, nirK and norB) were measured in conjunction with specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) for nitrifying enrichment cultures...

  15. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  16. Measurement properties of rheumatoid arthritis-specific quality-of-life questionnaires: systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Soo Hyun; Moon, Seung Hei; Lee, Eun-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    This study conducted a systematic review of the methodological quality of the psychometric evaluation process and the quality of measurement properties of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) questionnaires with the purpose of obtaining the best evidence to help in the selection of the most appropriate instrument for measuring HRQOL in RA patients. A systematic literature search was performed to identify RA-specific HRQOL questionnaires in databases. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist. The quality of the measurement properties was assessed using quality criteria. The evidence regarding the measurement properties was pooled using best-evidence synthesis, with considerations of the number and methodological quality of the studies, and the consistency of their findings in terms of the quality of the measurement properties. The search identified 37 studies describing 9 instruments. Best-evidence synthesis suggested that the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire had the strongest positive evidence, especially with respect to reliability, measurement error, and content validity, and moderate positive evidence with respect to hypothesis testing and responsiveness. The current evidence suggests that the best-validated instrument among the RA-specific HRQOL measures is the RAQoL questionnaire in terms of both methodological quality in the process of psychometric evaluation and the quality of the measurement properties. However, there is limited evidence regarding internal consistency and structural validity of the RAQoL. Further efforts are warranted to establish the psychometric quality of this questionnaire.

  17. Use of stream water pH and specific conductance measurements to identify ground water discharges of fly ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Low pH and high specific conductance are typical chemical characteristics of coal fly ash leachate. Measurements of these parameters in streams adjacent to a fly ash facility were used to identify areas of ground water discharge into the streams. In-situ specific conductance and pH were determined at approximately 50 surface water stations from on-site and off-site streams. The results of the in-situ determinations were used to select twelve surface water stations for more detailed chemical analyses. The chemical character of the stream water affected by ground water discharges was similar to the water quality of sedimentation ponds which received drainage from the fly ash embankment. The results indicated that in-situ measurements of indicator parameters such as pH and specific conductance can be used as a screening method for identifying surface water quality impacts at fly ash facilities

  18. Measurement of the specific heats of Santowax 'R', para-, meta- and ortho-terphenyl, diphenyl and dowtherm 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.; Garton, D.A.; Norris, H.F.

    1960-12-01

    New absolute measurements have been made of the specific heats of Santowax 'R1, the terphenyl isomers, diphenyl and Dowtherm 'A'. An adiabatic calorimeter was used in which the sample was heated electrically while a surrounding jacket was maintained at the same temperature as the calorimeter. The specific heats of all materials tested were found to increase linearly with temperature, the slope being substantially the same for all the pure materials except para-terphenyl. The specific heat of Santowax 'R' was about 1/2% less than the weighted mean of its components. The probable accuracy of the measurements was ± 2% and this was confirmed by comparison with diphenyl ether. A summary of results is given in Table 1 and Figure 10. (author)

  19. Measuring the Electronic Properties of DNA-Specific Schottky Diodes Towards Detecting and Identifying Basidiomycetes DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vengadesh; Rizan, Nastaran; Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Tan, Yee Shin; Tajuddin, Hairul Annuar; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of semiconducting behavior of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in a large number of literatures in the study of DNA electronics. Sequence-specific electronic response provides a platform towards understanding charge transfer mechanism and therefore the electronic properties of DNA. It is possible to utilize these characteristic properties to identify/detect DNA. In this current work, we demonstrate a novel method of DNA-based identification of basidiomycetes using current-voltage (I-V) profiles obtained from DNA-specific Schottky barrier diodes. Electronic properties such as ideality factor, barrier height, shunt resistance, series resistance, turn-on voltage, knee-voltage, breakdown voltage and breakdown current were calculated and used to quantify the identification process as compared to morphological and molecular characterization techniques. The use of these techniques is necessary in order to study biodiversity, but sometimes it can be misleading and unreliable and is not sufficiently useful for the identification of fungi genera. Many of these methods have failed when it comes to identification of closely related species of certain genus like Pleurotus. Our electronics profiles, both in the negative and positive bias regions were however found to be highly characteristic according to the base-pair sequences. We believe that this simple, low-cost and practical method could be useful towards identifying and detecting DNA in biotechnology and pathology. PMID:27435636

  20. Measure, a specific professional skill for teachers of Mathematics-Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Guillermo Pozo Velázquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at the validation of measuring skill as one of the bassic professi onal skill conceived for the formation of the Physics professor from the definitions given by A. Márquez(1987 and H. Fuentes(1994 in one of a first approximation, in order to make later, a validation of the conceptual and operational structure of this sk ill taking into consideration the definition of the concept of measurement given by the necessity of the social task in the formation to the first ́year student in the career Mathematics–Physics in the University of Pedagogical Science “Rafael María de Mendive” in Pinar del Río.

  1. Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

  2. Measuring Time in Sporting Competitions with the Domain-Specific Language EasyTime

    OpenAIRE

    Fister Jr., Iztok; Fister, Iztok

    2012-01-01

    Measuring time in mass sporting competitions is unthinkable manually today because of their long duration and unreliability. Besides, automatic timing devices based on the RFID technology have become cheaper. However, these devices cannot operate stand-alone. To work efficiently, they need a computer timing system for monitoring results. Such system should be capable of processing the incoming events, encoding and assigning results to a individual competitor, sorting results according to the ...

  3. Release of a human platelet specific protein measured by a radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, C A; Moore, S; Bolton, A E; Pepper, D S; Cash, J D

    1975-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and characterize a protein released from human platelets during thrombin-induced aggregation. This protein appeared to be unique to platelets and was named ..beta..-thromboglobulin (..beta..-TG). The following communication describes a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of ..beta..-TG and gives an account of preliminary studies to examine the potential application of this assay for the detection of platelet involvement in thromboembolic disorders.

  4. Real-world and specific to vehicle driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, M; JOUMARD, R

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the European research project ARTEMIS, a set of representative real-world driving cycles has been developed, to ensure a coherency between the pollutant emissions measurements conducted in the frame of the ARTEMIS project and of on-going national campaigns and to enable the integration of all the resulting emission data in the European systems of emission inventory. The 3 real-world ARTEMIS driving cycles (urban, rural road and motorway) represent the observed European drivi...

  5. The CdZnTe Detector with Slit Collimator for Measure Distribution of the Specific Activity Radionuclide in the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. E.; Volkovich, A. G.; Potapov, V. N.; Semin, I. A.; Stepanov, A. V.; Simirskii, Iu. N.

    2018-01-01

    From 2011 in the NRC "Kurchatov Institute" carry out the dismantling of the MR multiloop research reactor. Now the reactor and all technological equipment in the premises of the reactor were dismantled. Now the measurements of radioactive contamination in the reactor premises are made. The most contaminated parts of premises - floor and the ground beneath it. To measure the distribution of specific activity in the ground the CdZnTe detector (volume 500MM3) was used. Detector placed in a lead shielding with a slit collimation hole. The upper part of shielding is made movable to close and open the slit of the collimator. At each point two measurements carried out: with open and closed collimator. The software for determination specific activity of radionuclides in ground was developed. The mathematical model of spectrometric system based on the Monte-Carlo method. Measurements of specific activity of ground were made. Using the results of measurements the thickness of the removed layer of ground and the amount of radioactive waste were calculated.

  6. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health.

  7. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  8. Security Measures and some Specific Features of the Transport Police Functioning in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Ignatushenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article specifics of the transport police work in the Russian Federation are discussed, as well as in other countries of the world (USA, Germany, Israel, etc.. Attention is drawn to the need of the role and significance of the Russian police review in the matters of railway and aviation security, as well as safety on river and sea transport. The term “transport security” is a state of security of transport and transport infrastructure, consumers of transport services (passengers from various types of threats (natural and man-made, as well as acts of unlawful interference in the activities of various modes of transport – points put the author. Transport security issues are important for the creation of the transport police system in the Russian Federation, taking into account experience of foreign countries.

  9. A comparison of systemwide and hospital-specific performance measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Clarence; Siu, Emily; Baker, G Ross; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2005-01-01

    Balanced scorecards are being implemented at the system and organizational levels to help managers link their organizational strategies with performance data to better manage their healthcare systems. Prior to this study, hospitals in Ontario, Canada, received two editions of the system-level scorecard (SLS)--a framework, based on the original balanced scorecard, that includes four quadrants: system integration and management innovation (learning and growth), clinical utilization and outcomes (internal processes), patient satisfaction (customer), and financial performance and condition (financial). This study examines the uptake of the SLS framework and indicators into institution-specific scorecards for 22 acute care institutions and 2 non-acute-care institutions. This study found that larger (teaching and community) hospitals were significantly more likely to use the SLS framework to report performance data than did small hospitals (p < 0.0049 and 0.0507) and that teaching hospitals used the framework significantly more than community hospitals did (p < 0.0529). The majority of hospitals in this study used at least one indicator from the SLS in their own scorecards. However, all hospitals in the study incorporated indicators that required data collection and analysis beyond the SLS framework. The study findings suggest that SLS may assist hospitals in developing institution-specific scorecards for hospital management and that the balanced scorecard model can be modified to meet the needs of a variety of hospitals. Based on the insight from this study and other activities that explore top priorities for hospital management, the issues related to efficiency and human resources should be further examined using SLSs.

  10. The use of Goal Attainment Scaling in a community health promotion initiative with seniors

    OpenAIRE

    Kloseck Marita

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Evaluating collaborative community health promotion initiatives presents unique challenges, including engaging community members and other stakeholders in the evaluation process, and measuring the attainment of goals at the collective community level. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a versatile, under-utilized evaluation tool adaptable to a wide range of situations. GAS actively involves all partners in the evaluation process and has many benefits when used in community h...

  11. Torque measurements reveal sequence-specific cooperative transitions in supercoiled DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstrass, Florian C.; Fernandes, Louis E.; Bryant, Zev

    2012-01-01

    B-DNA becomes unstable under superhelical stress and is able to adopt a wide range of alternative conformations including strand-separated DNA and Z-DNA. Localized sequence-dependent structural transitions are important for the regulation of biological processes such as DNA replication and transcription. To directly probe the effect of sequence on structural transitions driven by torque, we have measured the torsional response of a panel of DNA sequences using single molecule assays that employ nanosphere rotational probes to achieve high torque resolution. The responses of Z-forming d(pGpC)n sequences match our predictions based on a theoretical treatment of cooperative transitions in helical polymers. “Bubble” templates containing 50–100 bp mismatch regions show cooperative structural transitions similar to B-DNA, although less torque is required to disrupt strand–strand interactions. Our mechanical measurements, including direct characterization of the torsional rigidity of strand-separated DNA, establish a framework for quantitative predictions of the complex torsional response of arbitrary sequences in their biological context. PMID:22474350

  12. A flexible Monte Carlo tool for patient or phantom specific calculations: comparison with preliminary validation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, S.; Cui, J.; Followill, D.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.

    2008-02-01

    The Dose Planning Method (DPM) is one of several 'fast' Monte Carlo (MC) computer codes designed to produce an accurate dose calculation for advanced clinical applications. We have developed a flexible machine modeling process and validation tests for open-field and IMRT calculations. To complement the DPM code, a practical and versatile source model has been developed, whose parameters are derived from a standard set of planning system commissioning measurements. The primary photon spectrum and the spectrum resulting from the flattening filter are modeled by a Fatigue function, cut-off by a multiplying Fermi function, which effectively regularizes the difficult energy spectrum determination process. Commonly-used functions are applied to represent the off-axis softening, increasing primary fluence with increasing angle ('the horn effect'), and electron contamination. The patient dependent aspect of the MC dose calculation utilizes the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequence file exported from the treatment planning system DICOM output, coupled with the source model, to derive the particle transport. This model has been commissioned for Varian 2100C 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams using percent depth dose, dose profiles, and output factors. A 3-D conformal plan and an IMRT plan delivered to an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were used to benchmark the model. The calculated results were compared to Pinnacle v7.6c results and measurements made using radiochromic film and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD).

  13. Site specific measurements of bone formation using [18F] sodium fluoride PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Glen M; Puri, Tanuj; Siddique, Musib; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Fogelman, Ignac

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride ([ 18 F]NaF) allows the quantitative assessment of regional bone formation by measuring the plasma clearance of fluoride to bone at any site in the skeleton. Today, hybrid PET and computed tomography (CT) dual-modality systems (PET/CT) are widely available, and [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT offers a convenient non-invasive method of studying bone formation at the important osteoporotic fracture sites at the hip and spine, as well as sites of pure cortical or trabecular bone. The technique complements conventional measurements of bone turnover using biochemical markers or bone biopsy as a tool to investigate new therapies for osteoporosis, and has a potential role as an early biomarker of treatment efficacy in clinical trials. This article reviews methods of acquiring and analyzing dynamic [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT scan data, and outlines a simplified approach combining venous blood sampling with a series of short (3- to 5-minute) static PET/CT scans acquired at different bed positions to estimate [ 18 F]NaF plasma clearance at multiple sites in the skeleton with just a single injection of tracer.

  14. National Differences in Intelligence and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    We examine the correlations between the national IQs of Lynn and Vanhanen (Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations". Westport, CT: Praeger. Westport, CT: Praeger, Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2006). "IQ and global inequality". Athens, GA: Washington Summit Books.) and educational attainment scores in math and science for 10-…

  15. Educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of ...

  16. Educational Attainment: Success to the Successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Peter; Gould, David; Smith, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Systems archetypes are patterns of structure found in systems that are helpful in understanding some of the dynamics within them. The intent of this study was to examine educational attainment data using the success-to-the-successful archetype as a model to see if it helps to explain the inequality observed in the data. Data covering 1990 to 2009…

  17. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  18. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  19. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  20. The Fiscal Impacts of College Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study quantifies one part of the return to U.S. public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates pay much more taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also much less for college graduates than for those without a college education.…

  1. On educational attainment in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duczynski, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2001), s. 163-173 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies * educational attainment Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoelking, J; Yuvaraj, S; Jens, F; Lohr, F; Wenz, F; Wertz, H; Wertz, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  3. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoelking, J; Yuvaraj, S; Jens, F; Lohr, F; Wenz, F; Wertz, H; Wertz, H [University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  4. A Paleoevaporation Proxy Using Compound Specific Stable Isotope Measurements from Peatland Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is important to understand how evaporation from wetlands changes with climate. To do this, we have developed a paleoevaporation proxy for use in ombrotrophic peatland sediments. Using compound specific hydrogen isotopic ratios of vascular plant and Sphagnum biomarkers, we can quantitatively reconstruct past changes in evaporation. The contrast in H isotopic ratios of water available to living Sphagnum and water in the acrotelm can be used to estimate “f”—the fraction of water remaining after evaporation. Vascular plant leaf waxes record H isotopic ratios of precipitation which is little affected by evaporation, whereas the Sphagnum biomarker, C23 n-alkane, records H isotopic ratios of the water inside its cells and between its leaves, which is strongly affected by evaporation at the bog surface. Evaporation changes can then be calculated with the H-isotopic ratios of the two types of biomarkers. We calibrated the apparent fractionation of D/H ratios from source water to C23 n-alkane with lab-grown Sphagnum. We also present several reconstructions of paleoevaporation from peatlands throughout eastern North America. By comparison with overall hydrologic balance, we are able to understand the varying role of evaporation in the hydrologic system in both time and space.

  5. Design, Specification and Construction of Specialized Measurement System in the Experimental Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Kwasnowski, Pawel; Furtak, Marcin; Hayduk, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Experimental buildings for “in situ” research are a very important tool for collecting data on energy efficiency of the energy-saving technologies. One of the most advanced building of this type in Poland is the Maloposkie Laboratory of Energy-saving Buildings at Cracow University of Technology. The building itself is used by scientists as a research object and research tool to test energy-saving technologies. It is equipped with a specialized measuring system consisting of approx. 3 000 different sensors distributed in technical installations and structural elements of the building (walls, ceilings, cornices) and the ground. The authors of the paper will present the innovative design and technology of this specialized instrumentation. They will discuss issues arising during the implementation and use of the building.

  6. Measurement of the flavour-specific CP-violating asymmetry asls in Bs0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The CP-violating asymmetry a sl s is studied using semileptonic decays of B s 0 and B ¯ s 0 mesons produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC, exploiting a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb −1 . The reconstructed final states are D s ± μ ∓ , with the D s ± particle decaying in the ϕπ ± mode. The D s ± μ ∓ yields are summed over B ¯ s 0 and B s 0 initial states, and integrated with respect to decay time. Data-driven methods are used to measure efficiency ratios. We obtain a sl s =(−0.06±0.50±0.36)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic

  7. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Derwood, MD (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning [HVAC] equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5 percent to 20 percent, with a typical payback of two years or less (Thorne 2003). The method presented in this protocol provides direction regarding: (1) how to account for each measure's specific characteristics and (2) how to choose the most appropriate savings verification approach.

  8. Quantitation of specific myeloid cells in rat bone marrow measured by in vitro /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A F; Rose, M S

    1984-08-01

    A biochemical measurement which can be used for quantitation of specific early myeloid cells in rat bone marrow has been developed. This measurement consists of a rapid, simple assay for the in vitro quantitation of /sup 35/S-sulfate incorporation into rat bone marrow cells. Incubation of bone marrow cells with /sup 35/S-sulfate led to a time-dependent increase in radioactivity obtained in perchloric acid insoluble fractions of bone marrow cell suspensions. This incorporation was inhibited by cyanide and puromycin. Autoradiography has demonstrated the radiolabel to be specifically associated with immature cells of the myeloid series. The cells most active in this respect were eosinophils. When rats were treated with endotoxin, the rate of /sup 35/S-sulfate incorporation was increased. Cell number measurements, using conventional histopathology and a Coulter Counter, demonstrated that endotoxin caused an initial release of mature granulocytes from the bone marrow. The regeneration of this mature population in the marrow was rapid, and was characterized by an increase in the number of immature cells and a concomitant increase in the rate of /sup 35/S-sulfate incorporation measured in preparations of bone marrow cells in vitro. Furthermore, this response to endotoxin has demonstrated that Coulter Counting techniques can be used to distinguish specific populations of cells (e.g. mature granulocytes) within the bone marrow.

  9. Impact of introducing specific measures to reduce the frequency of cesarean delivery for non-obstetric indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psenkova, Petra; Bucko, Marek; Braticak, Michal; Baneszova, Ruth; Zahumensky, Jozef

    2018-03-25

    To identify the frequency of cesarean delivery for non-obstetric indications before and after the introduction of specific measures to lower the rate of elective cesarean, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the introduced measures. In the present single-center retrospective cohort study at University Hospital Trnava, Trnava, Slovak Republic, the frequency of elective cesarean was evaluated before (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014) and after (January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016) the implementation of specific measures applied in January 2015 to confirm the indications for primary cesarean delivery. The frequency of elective cesarean delivery for non-obstetric indications was compared between the two periods. Before the intervention in 2015, 229 (2.9%) of 7768 women had elective cesarean deliveries for non-obstetric indications. After implementation of the intervention, the frequency decreased to 27 (0.8%) of 3203 women (Pdelivery for non-obstetric indications was reduced significantly by introducing specific reasonable measures. These included all non-obstetric indications for cesarean delivery being approved by a leading specialist of the related department, close cooperation with professionals from other specialties, and, additionally, staff attending professional educational lectures. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Basophil sensitivity through CD63 or CD203c is a functional measure for specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Ronald

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subcutaneous Immunotherapy (SCIT modifies the allergic response and relieves allergic symptoms. SCIT is the only and a very effective treatment for insect venom allergy. We hypothesized that basophil sensitivity, measured through the basophil activation test, would decrease during SCIT up dosing. Expression of CD203c was compared to CD63 as marker for basophil activation, using a Bland Altman plot and ROC curves. Methods Patients (n = 18 starting subcutaneous SCIT for wasp allergy with an up dosing scheme of 7 to 11 weeks were enrolled. Heparinised blood samples were drawn at weeks 1-4, 7 and at the first maintenance visit. Basophils were stimulated at 7 log dilutions of V. vespula allergen for 15 min, and were stained with CD203c and CD63. Basophils were identified as CD203c+ leukocytes, and the proportion of CD63+ and CD203c+ cells were plotted against allergen concentration. A sigmoid curve was fitted to the points, and the allergen concentration at which half of the maximal activation was achieved, LC50, was calculated. In another series of experiments, LC50 calculated in whole blood (AP was subtracted from LC50 calculated with basophils suspended in plasma from a nonatopic donor (HS to determine the protective effect of soluble factors in blood of patients treated with SCIT. Results Heparin blood basophil activation was similar through CD63 and CD203c. Basophils were significantly more sensitized three weeks after initiation of SCIT compared to baseline (p Conclusion Basophil activation is a versatile and sensitive tool that measures changes in the humoral immune response to allergen during SCIT.

  11. Measurement Properties of Performance-Specific Pain Ratings of Patients Awaiting Total Joint Arthroplasty as a Consequence of Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Paul W.; Kennedy, Deborah M.; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Spadoni, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the test–retest reliability of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain sub-scale and performance-specific assessments of pain, as well as the association between these measures for patients awaiting primary total hip or knee arthroplasty as a consequence of osteoarthritis. Methods: A total of 164 patients awaiting unilateral primary hip or knee arthroplasty completed four performance measures (self-paced walk, timed up and go, stair test, six-minute walk) and the WOMAC. Scores for 22 of these patients provided test–retest reliability data. Estimates of test–retest reliability (Type 2,1 intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and standard error of measurement [SEM]) and the association between measures were examined. Results: ICC values for individual performance-specific pain ratings were between 0.70 and 0.86; SEM values were between 0.97 and 1.33 pain points. ICC estimates for the four-item performance pain ratings and the WOMAC pain sub-scale were 0.82 and 0.57 respectively. The correlation between the sum of the pain scores for the four performance measures and the WOMAC pain sub-scale was 0.62. Conclusion: Reliability estimates for the performance-specific assessments of pain using the numeric pain rating scale were consistent with values reported for patients with a spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions. The reliability estimate for the WOMAC pain sub-scale was lower than typically reported in the literature. The level of association between the WOMAC pain sub-scale and the various performance-specific pain scales suggests that the scores can be used interchangeably when applied to groups but not for individual patients. PMID:20145758

  12. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  13. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  14. Superconductivity and specific heat measurements in V--Nb--Ta ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Y.P.

    1977-01-01

    The correlation between the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ with electronic specific heat coefficient γ and Debye temperature theta/sub D/ in some isoelectronic ternary V--Nb--Ta alloys is investigated. It has been known that the variation of theta/sub D/ with concentration in both V--Nb and V--Ta systems is clearly of the same curvature as that of T/sub c/ and γ. In Ta--Nb alloys, however, over most of the concentration range theta/sub D/ seems to have a slight negative curvature while T/sub c/ and γ curve upwards. (But beyond approx. 80 at. % Nb theta/sub D/ rises rapidly to the pure Nb value.) By choosing alloys along a line connecting Ta and V 25 --Nb 75 which is close to the Nb--Ta side of the Gibb's triangle the extent to which the Nb--Ta type of behavior persists in this ternary system can be estimated. A model proposed by Miedema that takes into account the variation of properties caused by possible charge transfer among constituent atoms in an alloy has been found to apply almost quantitatively for nearly all binary alloy systems whose experimental data are available, including those for which Hopfield's method fails. A previous test of the extension of Miedema's empirical model into ternary alloys shows qualitatively correct behavior for intra-row Zr/sub x/Nb/sub 1-2x/Mo/sub x/ alloys. The good agreement between the predicted values of γ and T/sub c/ and the experimental values in the inter-row ternary V--Nb--Ta system studied here gives another and better test of the application of Miedema's model

  15. Medication persistence with long-term, specific grass pollen immunotherapy measured by prescription renewal rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, J; De Geest, S; Shah-Hosseini, K; Mösges, R

    2011-04-01

    We assessed medication persistence using prescription renewal rates for grass pollen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in a representative population of patients in Germany to evaluate whether the perception of superior persistence for the subcutaneous route compared to the sublingual route could be confirmed in clinical practice. Individual prescriptions for allergen immunotherapy were extracted from a national prescription database (INSIGHT Health) and followed over 3 years on a per-patient basis. However, patients' medical history and treatment schedules were not available for analysis. Products were identified by the national drug code (PZN number) and grouped to either subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with natural extract injections, SCIT with modified allergens (allergoids) or sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with natural pollen extract solutions. Persistence was defined as at least one prescription of the individual drug in the respective years. A total of 1409 patients started SIT in 2005 (112, 695, and 602 for natural extract SLIT, natural extract SCIT, and allergoid SCIT, respectively). In 2006, 71%, 55%, and 59% of those patients had at least one renewal prescription of natural extract SLIT, natural extract SCIT, and allergoid SCIT, respectively, as well as 51%, 34%, and 39% in 2007. In both years, persistence with natural extract SLIT was significantly higher than with natural extract SCIT (p = 0.0015 for 2006, p = 0.0003 for 2007) and allergoid SCIT (p = 0.0152 for 2006, p = 0.0111 for 2007). There were no significant differences between the two SCIT groups. Medication persistence with grass pollen SIT in a representative sample of patients in Germany was similar to published medication persistence in asthma and COPD patients. The sublingual application route shows significantly better persistency than the subcutaneous route with native allergens or allergoids.

  16. Quality measure attainment with dapagliflozin plus metformin extended-release as initial combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc pooled analysis of two clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell KF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly F Bell, Arie Katz, John J Sheehan AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, USA Background: The use of quality measures attempts to improve safety and health outcomes and to reduce costs. In two Phase III trials in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg/d as initial combination therapy with metformin extended-release (XR significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C from baseline to 24 weeks and allowed higher proportions of patients to achieve A1C <7% vs dapagliflozin or metformin monotherapy. Objective: A pooled analysis of data from these two studies assessed the effect of dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg/d plus metformin XR (combination therapy compared with placebo plus metformin XR (metformin monotherapy on diabetes quality measures. Quality measures include laboratory measures of A1C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C as well as vital status measures of blood pressure (BP and body mass index (BMI. The proportion of patients achieving A1C, BP, and LDL-C individual and composite measures was assessed, as was the proportion with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 who lost ≥4.5 kg. Subgroup analyses by baseline BMI were also performed. Results: A total of 194 and 211 patients were treated with dapagliflozin 5- or 10-mg/d combination therapy, respectively, and 409 with metformin monotherapy. Significantly higher proportions of patients achieved A1C ≤6.5%, <7%, or <8% with combination therapy vs metformin monotherapy (P<0.02. Significantly higher proportions of patients achieved BP <140/90 mmHg (P<0.02 for each dapagliflozin dose and BP <130/80 mmHg (P<0.02 with dapagliflozin 5 mg/d only with combination therapy vs metformin monotherapy. Similar proportions (29%–33% of patients had LDL-C <100 mg/dL across treatment groups. A higher proportion of patients with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 lost ≥4.5 kg with combination therapy. Combination therapy had a more robust effect on patients with higher baseline BMI. Conclusion

  17. State of the science: does the theory of maternal role attainment apply to African American motherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge of the theory of maternal role attainment (MRA) and its relevance in describing African American motherhood. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were searched for journal articles that examined maternal identity and MRA. Keyword searches included maternal identity, maternal role attainment, becoming a mother, prenatal attachment, maternal-fetal attachment, and maternal-infant attachment. Inclusion criteria for this review were published journal articles of studies conducted in the United States, with a clear delineation of the theoretical framework of MRA. Journal articles that measured MRA among women with depression or medically fragile infants were excluded. Two hundred and twelve studies were reviewed; 25 studies, published between 1975 and 2007, met the inclusion criteria. Nine articles described the theory of MRA, 11 articles measured variables thought to influence MRA, and 6 articles described maternal-fetal attachment, a construct of MRA. Studies were reviewed, categorized, and analyzed to determine current knowledge of how the theory of MRA describes African American motherhood. Categories included studies describing the theoretical framework of maternal identity and MRA, studies measuring key variables thought to impact MRA, and studies measuring maternal-fetal attachment and maternal-infant attachment. The studies were limited by homogenous samples of upper-middle-class white women and low-income, single, African American adolescents. Study results of MRA cannot be generalized to African American women. Further research is essential to identify attributes influencing MRA, specifically among larger samples of African American women with demographics similar to that of the white populations that have been included in studies thus far. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Quantifying sex, race, and age specific differences in bone microstructure requires measurement of anatomically equivalent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Burghardt, Andrew; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Iuliano, Sandra; Bonaretti, Serena; Bui, Minh; Zebaze, Roger; Seeman, Ego

    2017-08-01

    Individuals differ in forearm length. As microstructure differs along the radius, we hypothesized that errors may occur when sexual and racial dimorphisms are quantified at a fixed distance from the radio-carpal joint. Microstructure was quantified ex vivo in 18 cadaveric radii using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and in vivo in 158 Asian and Caucasian women and men at a fixed region of interest (ROI), a corrected ROI positioned at 4.5-6% of forearm length and using the fixed ROI adjusted for cross sectional area (CSA), forearm length or height. Secular effects of age were assessed by comparing 38 younger and 33 older women. Ex vivo, similar amounts of bone mass fashioned adjacent cross sections. Larger distal cross sections had thinner porous cortices of lower matrix mineral density (MMD), a larger medullary CSA and higher trabecular density. Smaller proximal cross-sections had thicker less porous cortices of higher MMD, a small medullary canal with little trabecular bone. Taller persons had more distally positioned fixed ROIs which moved proximally when corrected. Shorter persons had more proximally positioned fixed ROIs which moved distally when corrected, so dimorphisms lessened. In the corrected ROIs, in Caucasians, women had 0.6 SD higher porosity and 0.6 SD lower trabecular density than men (pmicrostructure requires measurement of anatomically equivalent regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chapter 1: Introduction. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy-Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Haeri, Hossein [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Reynolds, Arlis [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This chapter provides a set of model protocols for determining energy and demand savings that result from specific energy efficiency measures implemented through state and utility efficiency programs. The methods described here are approaches that are or are among the most commonly used and accepted in the energy efficiency industry for certain measures or programs. As such, they draw from the existing body of research and best practices for energy efficiency program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V). These protocols were developed as part of the Uniform Methods Project (UMP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective for the project was to establish easy-to-follow protocols based on commonly accepted methods for a core set of widely deployed energy efficiency measures.

  1. Influence Of Specific Mechanical Energy On Cornmeal Viscosity Measured By An On-line System During Twin-screw Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Y.K.; Martinez-Bustos F.; Park T.S.; Kokini J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...

  2. Effect of Diffusion on the Autoradiographic Measurement of Macromolecular Synthesis in Specific Cell Types In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.; Schwarz, V. [Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1970-02-15

    Organ slices cultured in vitro lack a capillary circulation. Cells within the slice are supplied with nutrients and oxygen by diffusion from the culture medium into the slice. The rate of synthesis of macromolecules, e.g. ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, protein or mucopolysaccharide can be determined in these circumstances by adding labelled precursors to the culture medium. Comparisons of the rate of synthesis between different types of cell within a single organ slice or between different slices can be quantitated by autoradiography and grain counting only if the concentration of labelled precursor in tissue water is uniform throughout all the slices. To achieve this aim the precursor should rapidly saturate the tissue water at the beginning of the incubation period, and subsequently diffusion into the slice should keep pace with consumption of the precursor by the cells. Experimental methods to measure the relevant parameters of any organ slice and precursor combination will be described. These parameters are the diffusion coefficient of the precursor in the organ slice, the rate of consumption of the precursor by each cell type, and the frequency and distribution of tissue within the slice. The relation between precursor concentration and position within the slice can be calculated under differing culture conditions, using the appropriate mathematical model. It is then possible to choose those conditions which give a uniform concentration of precursor throughout the organ slice. The methods are illustrated by consideration of ribonucleic acid synthesis from {sup 3}H-uridine in full thickness slices of human skin, an organ which contains several tissues including epidermis, hair follicle, eccrine sweat gland and sebaceous gland. (author)

  3. Measurement of weekly prostate specific antigen levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy for nonprostatic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Quadri, S. Farhat; Sen, Saunak; Vaida, Florin; Ignacio, Lani; Weichselbaum, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To study the response of nonmalignant prostatic tissue to ionizing irradiation in terms of the resultant changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods and Materials: Weekly serum PSA values were determined during radiotherapy (RT) in nine patients ('treatment group') without clinical evidence of prostate cancer (PC), and who received pelvic RT for other indications. Slopes for the rate of change in PSA was determined using model: log PSA = β0 + β1 * week + β2 * week 2 + error. These results are compared with 17 normal volunteers ('control group') who were not exposed to ionizing irradiation. An attempt is made to compare any similarities and differences in subsets of 64 T1-T4N0M0 PC patients who received pelvic RT. Results: An elevation in the serum PSA levels were noted in eight of nine patients in the 'treatment group' with a median time of 4.2 weeks to reach the maximum serum PSA values. After an initial increase, PSA values declined. In some patients, manifold increase in PSA was noted, for example, from 1.8 to 13.5 ng/ml and 3.3 to 9.8 ng/ml in two patients. The PSA increase ranged from 50-650%. The median slope was 0.601 week -1 (range 0.192-3.045 week -1 ). No such increases were seen in the 'control group' (median slope = 0.03 week -1 ; range, 0.18-0.13 week -1 ). When differences between the mean increase/decrease for each week compared to pretreatment values were analyzed, the irradiated group had statistically significant elevations in the PSA for weeks 3 (p = 0.034), 4 (p = 0.035), and 5 (p 0.024). A similar trend of increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy was noted in prostate cancer patients whose initial PSA values were ≤ 20 ng/ml: whereas positive slopes (i.e., increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy course) was seen in 7.1% of those with > 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values, such trends were seen in 52.7% of those with ≤ 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values. Conclusions: (a) Incidental exposure of noncancerous

  4. Measurement of weekly prostate specific antigen levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy for nonprostatic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Quadri, S Farhat; Sen, Saunak; Vaida, Florin; Ignacio, Lani; Weichselbaum, R R

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To study the response of nonmalignant prostatic tissue to ionizing irradiation in terms of the resultant changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods and Materials: Weekly serum PSA values were determined during radiotherapy (RT) in nine patients ('treatment group') without clinical evidence of prostate cancer (PC), and who received pelvic RT for other indications. Slopes for the rate of change in PSA was determined using model: log PSA = {beta}0 + {beta}1{sup *}week + {beta}2{sup *}week{sup 2} + error. These results are compared with 17 normal volunteers ('control group') who were not exposed to ionizing irradiation. An attempt is made to compare any similarities and differences in subsets of 64 T1-T4N0M0 PC patients who received pelvic RT. Results: An elevation in the serum PSA levels were noted in eight of nine patients in the 'treatment group' with a median time of 4.2 weeks to reach the maximum serum PSA values. After an initial increase, PSA values declined. In some patients, manifold increase in PSA was noted, for example, from 1.8 to 13.5 ng/ml and 3.3 to 9.8 ng/ml in two patients. The PSA increase ranged from 50-650%. The median slope was 0.601 week{sup -1} (range 0.192-3.045 week{sup -1}). No such increases were seen in the 'control group' (median slope = 0.03 week{sup -1}; range, 0.18-0.13 week{sup -1}). When differences between the mean increase/decrease for each week compared to pretreatment values were analyzed, the irradiated group had statistically significant elevations in the PSA for weeks 3 (p = 0.034), 4 (p = 0.035), and 5 (p 0.024). A similar trend of increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy was noted in prostate cancer patients whose initial PSA values were {<=} 20 ng/ml: whereas positive slopes (i.e., increasing PSA levels during radiotherapy course) was seen in 7.1% of those with > 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values, such trends were seen in 52.7% of those with {<=} 20 ng/ml preradiotherapy PSA values

  5. Clearing the waters: Evaluating the need for site-specific field fluorescence corrections based on turbidity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, John F.; Shanley, James B.; Downing, Bryan D.; Pellerin, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    In situ fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) measurements have gained increasing popularity as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in streams. One challenge to accurate fDOM measurements in many streams is light attenuation due to suspended particles. Downing et al. (2012) evaluated the need for corrections to compensate for particle interference on fDOM measurements using a single sediment standard in a laboratory study. The application of those results to a large river improved unfiltered field fDOM accuracy. We tested the same correction equation in a headwater tropical stream and found that it overcompensated fDOM when turbidity exceeded ∼300 formazin nephelometric units (FNU). Therefore, we developed a site-specific, field-based fDOM correction equation through paired in situ fDOM measurements of filtered and unfiltered streamwater. The site-specific correction increased fDOM accuracy up to a turbidity as high as 700 FNU, the maximum observed in this study. The difference in performance between the laboratory-based correction equation of Downing et al. (2012) and our site-specific, field-based correction equation likely arises from differences in particle size distribution between the sediment standard used in the lab (silt) and that observed in our study (fine to medium sand), particularly during high flows. Therefore, a particle interference correction equation based on a single sediment type may not be ideal when field sediment size is significantly different. Given that field fDOM corrections for particle interference under turbid conditions are a critical component in generating accurate DOC estimates, we describe a way to develop site-specific corrections.

  6. Development and test of sets of 3D printed age-specific thyroid phantoms for 131I measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Tiffany; Caldeira Ideias, Pedro; Rimlinger, Maeva; Broggio, David; Franck, Didier

    2017-06-01

    In the case of a nuclear reactor accident the release contains a high proportion of iodine-131 that can be inhaled or ingested by members of the public. Iodine-131 is naturally retained in the thyroid and increases the thyroid cancer risk. Since the radiation induced thyroid cancer risk is greater for children than for adults, the thyroid dose to children should be assessed as accurately as possible. For that purpose direct measurements should be carried out with age-specific calibration factors but, currently, there is no age-specific thyroid phantoms allowing a robust measurement protocol. A set of age-specific thyroid phantoms for 5, 10, 15 year old children and for the adult has been designed and 3D printed. A realistic thyroid shape has been selected and material properties taken into account to simulate the attenuation of biological tissues. The thyroid volumes follow ICRP recommendations and the phantoms also include the trachea and a spine model. Several versions, with or without spine, with our without trachea, with or without age-specific neck have been manufactured, in order to study the influence of these elements on calibration factors. The calibration factor obtained with the adult phantom and a reference phantom are in reasonable agreement. In vivo calibration experiments with germanium detectors have shown that the difference in counting efficiency, the inverse of the calibration factor, between the 5 year and adult phantoms is 25% for measurement at contact. It is also experimentally evidenced that the inverse of the calibration factor varies linearly with the thyroid volume. The influence of scattering elements like the neck or spine is not evidenced by experimental measurements.

  7. Azoreductase and Nitroreductase in Human Feces: Comparison of Methods to Measure Specific Activities in the Absence of Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, Robert J.; Woodburn, Mary Alice

    2011-01-01

    We measured the specific activity of azoreductase and nitroreductase in eight fresh samples of human feces, using three ways to produce anaerobic assay conditions. A fourth, bench top aerobic assay was also run. Using Oxyrase to produce anaerobic conditions on the open bench gave a significantly higher level of azoreductase than did running the assay entirely in an anaerobic the glove box. Nitroreductase levels were similar in the two assays. Oxyrase and the glove box both gave significantly ...

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okbay, Aysu; P. Beauchamp, Jonathan; Alan Fontana, Mark

    2016-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural......Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends...... development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals...

  9. Development and refinement of the WAItE: a new obesity-specific quality of life measure for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluboyede, Yemi; Hulme, Claire; Hill, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Few weight-specific outcome measures, developed specifically for obese and overweight adolescents, exist and none are suitable for the elicitation of utility values used in the assessment of cost effectiveness. The development of a descriptive system for a new weight-specific measure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 treatment-seeking (above normal weight status) and non-treatment-seeking (school sample) adolescents aged 11-18 years, to identify a draft item pool and associated response options. 315 eligible consenting adolescents, aged 11-18 years, enrolled in weight management services and recruited via an online panel, completed two version of a long-list 29-item descriptive system (consisting of frequency and severity response scales). Psychometric assessments and Rasch analysis were applied to the draft 29-item instrument to identify a brief tool containing the best performing items and associated response options. Seven items were selected, for the final item set; all displayed internal consistency, moderate floor effects and the ability to discriminate between weight categories. The assessment of unidimensionality was supported (t test statistic of 0.024, less than the 0.05 threshold value). The Weight-specific Adolescent Instrument for Economic-evaluation focuses on aspects of life affected by weight that are important to adolescents. It has the potential for adding key information to the assessment of weight management interventions aimed at the younger population.

  10. Site-Specific Bluff Recession Rates Measured on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B.; Gadd, P.; Crowell, W.

    2017-12-01

    OverviewThe effects of climate change are being studied globally with coastal erosion in Arctic regions of particular concern. In support of Hilcorp Alaska's Northstar Development, short- and long-term bluff recession rates have been documented at a pipeline shore crossing located in Gwydyr Bay on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast. These data are presented, along with the predominant forcing mechanisms, and compared to local and regional recession rates recently published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Arctic Bluff RecessionCoastal retreat along the northern coast of Alaska occurs at two different rates: infrequent, but rapid erosion induced by strong westerly storms, and seasonal retreat related to thawing and sediment removal under more moderate wave conditions. Variability in the rate of bluff retreat is related to a number of factors, including bluff composition (ice content and sediment type), existence of a fronting beach, and wave exposure. Measured Bluff Recession at the Northstar Pipeline Shore CrossingThe location of the Northstar Development pipeline shore crossing was chosen based on analysis of historical aerial photos acquired between 1949 and 1996. Over this 47-year period, the average annualized rate of bluff retreat in the study area ranged from 1.6 to 3.0 ft/yr. Beginning in 1996, ground-based shoreline monitoring surveys have been conducted along the bluff and ten shore-perpendicular transects at the site. The rates of bluff retreat derived from the survey data have been modest, ranging from no change to 5.8 ft/yr. The monitoring surveys indicate that waves and currents erode the bluffs by direct impact only during infrequent, but strong westerly storms that promote a short-term rise in sea level (storm surge). The more prevalent easterly storms can cause set-down, or reduction in the sea level which limits direct wave impact on the bluff, thereby decreasing the potential for wave induced erosion. Comparative StudiesRecent studies conducted

  11. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaio, E.; Collantes, J.M.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F.; Mornet, S.; Couillaud, F.; Sandre, O.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m −1 . In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We propose AC magnetometry as a method to measure the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles suitable for magnetic hyperthermia therapy. • We have built a lab-made AC magnetometer, which is able to measure magnetic dynamic hysteresis-loops of nanoparticle dispersions. • The device works with AC magnetic field intensities up to 24 kA m −1 in a frequency range from 75 kHz to 1 MHz. • The SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles around 12 nm in magnetic diameter dispersed in water are measured by the lab-made magnetometer and different calorimetric methods. • Although all methods are in good agreement, several factors (probe location, thermal inertia, losses, etc.) make calorimetric method less accurate than AC magnetometry

  12. 40 CFR 439.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Extraction Products § 439.22 Effluent limitations attainable... wastes in raw waste loads in fact, nor does it mandate any specific practice, but rather describes the...

  13. 40 CFR 439.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Research § 439.52 Effluent limitations attainable by the... inclusion of such wastes in raw waste loads in fact, nor does it mandate any specific practice, but rather...

  14. Retrievals of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms in the West Florida Shelf from observations by the JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Satellite processed using Neural Network Algorithms, and Evaluation of the Impact of Temporal Variabilities on Attainable Accuracies against in-situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habashi, A.; Ahmed, S.; Lovko, V. J.

    2017-12-01

    Retrievals of of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal blooms (KB HABS) in the West Florida Shelf (WFS) obtained from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) measurements by the JPSS VIIRS satellite and processed using recently developed neural network (NN) algorithms are examined and compared with other techniques. The NN approach is used because it does not require observations of Rrs at the 678 nm chlorophyll fluorescence channel. This channel, previously used on MODIS-A (the predecessor satellite) to satisfactorily detect KB HABs blooms using the normalized fluorescence height approach, is unavailable on VIIRS. Thus NN is trained on a synthetic data set of 20,000 IOPs based on a wide range of parameters from NOMAD, and requires as inputs the Rrs measurements only at 486, 551 and 671 and 488, 555 and 667 nm channels, available from VIIRS and MODIS-A respectively. These channels are less vulnerable to atmospheric correction inadequacies affecting observations at the shorter blue wavelengths which are used with other algorithms. The NN retrieves phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm, which, when combined with backscatter information at 551 nm, is sufficient for effective KB HABs retrievals. NN retrievals of KB HABs in the WFS are found to compare favorably with retrievals using other retrieval algorithms, including OCI/OC3, GIOP and QAA version 5. Accuracies of VIIRS retrievals were then compared against all the in-situ measurements available over the 2012-2016 period for which concurrent or near concurrent match ups could be obtained with VIIRS observations. Retrieval statistics showed that the NN technique achieved the best accuracies. They also highlight the impact of temporal variabilities on retrieval accuracies. These showed the importance of having a shorter overlap time window between in-situ measurement and satellite retrieval. Retrievals within a 15 minute overlap time window showed very significantly improved accuracies over those attained with a 100 minute window

  15. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2016-04-15

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  16. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990-2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past...

  17. Validation of the PedsQL Epilepsy Module: A pediatric epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Junger, Katherine F; Mara, Constance A; Kellermann, Tanja; Barrett, Lauren; Wagner, Janelle; Mucci, Grace A; Bailey, Laurie; Almane, Dace; Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Urso, Lauryn; Hater, Brooke; Hustzi, Heather; Smith, Gigi; Herrmann, Bruce; Perry, M Scott; Zupanc, Mary; Varni, James W

    2017-11-01

    To validate a brief and reliable epilepsy-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in children with various seizure types, treatments, and demographic characteristics. This national validation study was conducted across five epilepsy centers in the United States. Youth 5-18 years and caregivers of youth 2-18 years diagnosed with epilepsy completed the PedsQL Epilepsy Module and additional questionnaires to establish reliability and validity of the epilepsy-specific HRQOL instrument. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas), test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Questionnaires were analyzed from 430 children with epilepsy (M age = 9.9 years; range 2-18 years; 46% female; 62% white: non-Hispanic; 76% monotherapy, 54% active seizures) and their caregivers. The final PedsQL Epilepsy Module is a 29-item measure with five subscales (i.e., Impact, Cognitive, Sleep, Executive Functioning, and Mood/Behavior) with parallel child and caregiver reports. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.70-0.94. Construct validity and convergence was demonstrated in several ways, including strong relationships with seizure outcomes, antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects, and well-established measures of executive, cognitive, and emotional/behavioral functioning. The PedsQL Epilepsy Module is a reliable measure of HRQOL with strong evidence of its validity across the epilepsy spectrum in both clinical and research settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Specific absorption rate dependence on temperature in magnetic field hyperthermia measured by dynamic hysteresis losses (ac magnetometry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaio, Eneko; Sandre, Olivier; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Mornet, Stéphane; Plazaola, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied for their potential use for magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that has passed a phase II clinical trial against severe brain cancer (glioblastoma) at the end of 2011. Their heating power, characterized by the ‘specific absorption rate (SAR)’, is often considered temperature independent in the literature, mainly because of the difficulties that arise from the measurement methodology. Using a dynamic magnetometer presented in a recent paper, we measure here the thermal dependence of SAR for superparamagnetic iron oxide (maghemite) NPs of four different size-ranges corresponding to mean diameters around 12 nm, 14 nm, 15 nm and 16 nm. The article reports a parametrical study extending from 10 to 60 {}^\\circ C in temperature, from 75 to 1031 kHz in frequency, and from 2 to 24 kA m-1 in magnetic field strength. It was observed that SAR values of smaller NPs decrease with temperature whereas for the larger sample (16 nm) SAR values increase with temperature. The measured variation of SAR with temperature is frequency dependent. This behaviour is fully explained within the scope of linear response theory based on Néel and Brown relaxation processes, using independent magnetic measurements of the specific magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy constant. A good quantitative agreement between experimental values and theoretical values is confirmed in a tri-dimensional space that uses as coordinates the field strength, the frequency and the temperature.

  19. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Diao, Z. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Laboratory of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, SE-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden; Campanini, D. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Welp, U. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Divan, R. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hudl, M. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Islam, Z. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Kwok, W. -K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rydh, A. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-delta crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  20. Implicit sexual attitude of heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals: disentangling the contribution of specific associations to the overall measure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Anselmi

    Full Text Available The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis was used to disentangle the contribution of specific associations to the overall IAT measure. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals. Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals. The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.

  1. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Monique de Haan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  2. The fiscal impacts of college attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A. Trostel

    2007-01-01

    This study quantifies one important part of the economic return to public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates generally pay much more in taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also generally much less for college graduates than for those without a college education. Indeed, over an average lifetime, total government spending per college degree is negative. That is, direct savings...

  3. On the measurment of specific energy of coals by means of 12C determination using a correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Bogacz, J.; Czubek, J.A.; Dabrowski, J.M.; Loskiewicz, J.; Zazula, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The most important industrial property of coal is its gross specific energy (combustion heat). It depends mainly on carbon concentration in coal. We propose to measure the carbon or more precisely, its 12 C content using the (n,n'γ) reaction in which 4.43 MeV gamma rays are emitted. We are using the correlation technique which can be used in high background measurements. The idea of correlation type measurement necessitates the existence of a reaction chain with primary and secondary radiations emitted and registered. By measuring the correlation or covariance function PHI we can obtain a measure of the number of excited 12 C nuclei i.e. a value which is connected to the carbon concentration. The dependence of PHI/t ratio (t being the sampling interval time) on carbon concentration shows a clear increase of the PHI/t value with carbon content. The relative standard deviations for different points vary from 1.3 to 4.4%. The preliminary results presented show that with improved experimental techniques this method can find application in industrial coal cobustion heat measurements. (author)

  4. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Amelia Kate; Craig, Emma Louise; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70-71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions.

  5. Patient-specific quantification of image quality: An automated method for measuring spatial resolution in clinical CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Jeremiah, E-mail: jeremiah.sanders@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Hurwitz, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an automated technique for evaluating the spatial resolution characteristics of clinical computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: Twenty one chest and abdominopelvic clinical CT datasets were examined in this study. An algorithm was developed to extract a CT resolution index (RI) analogous to the modulation transfer function from clinical CT images by measuring the edge-spread function (ESF) across the patient’s skin. A polygon mesh of the air-skin boundary was created. The faces of the mesh were then used to measure the ESF across the air-skin interface. The ESF was differentiated to obtain the line-spread function (LSF), and the LSF was Fourier transformed to obtain the RI. The algorithm’s ability to detect the radial dependence of the RI was investigated. RIs measured with the proposed method were compared with a conventional phantom-based method across two reconstruction algorithms (FBP and iterative) using the spatial frequency at 50% RI, f{sub 50}, as the metric for comparison. Three reconstruction kernels were investigated for each reconstruction algorithm. Finally, an observer study was conducted to determine if observers could visually perceive the differences in the measured blurriness of images reconstructed with a given reconstruction method. Results: RI measurements performed with the proposed technique exhibited the expected dependencies on the image reconstruction. The measured f{sub 50} values increased with harder kernels for both FBP and iterative reconstruction. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm was able to detect the radial dependence of the RI. Patient-specific measurements of the RI were comparable to the phantom-based technique, but the patient data exhibited a large spread in the measured f{sub 50}, indicating that some datasets were blurrier than others even when the projection data were reconstructed with the same reconstruction algorithm and kernel. Results from the observer study substantiated this

  6. Simultaneous measurements of auto-immune and infectious disease specific antibodies using a high throughput multiplexing tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Asati

    Full Text Available Considering importance of ganglioside antibodies as biomarkers in various immune-mediated neuropathies and neurological disorders, we developed a high throughput multiplexing tool for the assessment of gangliosides-specific antibodies based on Biolpex/Luminex platform. In this report, we demonstrate that the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool is robust, highly specific and demonstrating ∼100-fold higher concentration sensitivity for IgG detection than ELISA. In addition to the ganglioside-coated array, the high throughput multiplexing tool contains beads coated with influenza hemagglutinins derived from H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 and H1N1 A/California/07/09 strains. Influenza beads provided an added advantage of simultaneous detection of ganglioside- and influenza-specific antibodies, a capacity important for the assay of both infectious antigen-specific and autoimmune antibodies following vaccination or disease. Taken together, these results support the potential adoption of the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool for measuring ganglioside antibodies in various neuropathic and neurological disorders.

  7. Serial measurement of neuron specific enolase improves prognostication in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron specific enolase (NSE has repeatedly been evaluated for neurological prognostication in patients after cardiac arrest. However, it is unclear whether current guidelines for NSE cutoff levels also apply to cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Thus, we investigated the prognostic significance of absolute NSE levels and NSE kinetics in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Methods In a prospective study of 35 patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest, NSE was measured daily for four days following admission. Outcome was assessed at ICU discharge using the CPC score. All patients received hypothermia treatment for 24 hours at 33°C with a surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Results The cutoff for absolute NSE levels in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 72 hours after cardiac arrest was 57 μg/l with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.82 (sensitivity 47%, specificity 100%. The cutoff level for NSE kinetics in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 was an absolute increase of 7.9 μg/l (AUC 0.78, sensitivity 63%, specificity 100% and a relative increase of 33.1% (AUC 0.803, sensitivity 67%, specificity 100% at 48 hours compared to admission. Conclusion In cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia, prognostication of unfavourable outcome by NSE kinetics between admission and 48 hours after resuscitation may be superior to prognostication by absolute NSE levels.

  8. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: measurements and site-specific rate rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardany, Ahmed E; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-06-28

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (C=O) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (C=O), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):

  9. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famiano, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time (∼1 micros to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, 137 Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired

  10. Psychometric comparisons of four disease-specific health-related quality of life measures for stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Yeh; Ou, Yu-Chih; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru

    2015-08-01

    To examine psychometric properties of four stroke-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures, including original Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (12-domain SSQoL), modified 8-domain SSQoL, Stroke Impact Scale (SIS 3.0), and modified SIS-16 focused on physical domains. Prospective repeated measures study conducted in rehabilitation and wards in hospitals. Study cohort was recruited with 263 patients in the first administration and 121 in the second administration, an average of two weeks later. To investigate discriminant validity, the same number of patients (i.e., 52) was grouped for each of 3 levels of stroke severity. Outcome measures, including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Barthel Index. Patients completed HRQoL self-reports. Domains of four measures showed (1) good reliability, except 12-domainSSQoL family roles (Cronbach's α = 0.68) and personality domains (Cronbach's α = 0.65) and SIS 3.0 social participation (ICC=0.67) domain; (2) acceptable precision, except 12-domain SSQoL family role domain and SIS 3.0 social participation domain; (3) good convergent validity, except 12-domain SSQoL/8-domain SSQoL vision domain (r = 0.19), (4) good discriminant validity, except 12-domain SSQoL and 8-domain SSQoL thinking domains (P = 0.365); and (5) acceptable floor effects and strong ceiling effects. The 12-domain SSQoL and 8-domain SSQoL met scaling assumptions better than SIS 3.0 and SIS-16. Four measures showed acceptable psychometric properties with some domains slightly less satisfactory. Overall, use of 8-domain SSQoL and SIS 3.0 are feasible for clinical practice to monitor HRQoL of stroke survivors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future climate. The empirical evidence presented for a cross-country time series of factors associated with past natural disaster fatalities since 1980 in 125 countries confirms this overriding importance of education in reducing impacts. We also present new projections of populations by age, sex, and level of educational attainment to 2050, thus providing an appropriate tool for anticipating societies' future adaptive capacities based on alternative education scenarios associated with different policies.

  12. Low-temperature specific heat measurements on the NdCoxFe1-xO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, F.; Kuz'min, M.D.; Bartolome, J.; Blasco, J.; Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    Low-temperature specific heat measurements have been carried out on the NdCo x Fe 1-x O 3 perovskite system (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.9, 1). Magnetic ordering of Nd 3+ ions have been observed in NdCoO 3 (at 1.20 K) and NdFeO 3 (at 1.05 K). The studied dilutions, unlike the pure Fe or Co compounds, do not show a magnetic order of the Nd ions due to the stronger molecular field caused by decompensation of the internal field upon the introduction of the (Co 3+ ) magnetic vacancies in the antiferromagnetically ordered Fe subsystem. The specific heat curve of the system at x=0.9 resembles spin-glass behaviour. ((orig.))

  13. Summary report of consultants' meeting on high-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.; Nicols, A.L.

    2009-12-01

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting on 'High-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes'. Participants assessed and reviewed the decay data for close to 50 positron-emitting radionuclides. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with the detailed recommendations and a priority list for future work. Direct positron and X-ray measurements are required to resolve a significant number of outstanding issues associated with the radionuclides reviewed. The following new measurements are recommended: gamma-ray emission probability for Cu-64, positron and Xray emission probabilities for Ni-57, Cu-62, Ga-66, As-72, Se-73, Rb-81,82m, Sr-83, Y-86 and Tc-94m. The following immediate evaluations were also recommended: Br-76 and I-120g.. Participants assessed and reviewed the decay data for close to 50 positron-emitting radionuclides. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with the detailed recommendations and a priority list for future work. Direct positron and X-ray measurements are required to resolve a significant number of outstanding issues associated with the radionuclides reviewed. The following new measurements are recommended: gamma-ray emission probability for Cu-64, positron and Xray emission probabilities for Ni-57, Cu-62, Ga-66, As-72, Se-73, Rb-81,82m, Sr-83, Y-86 and Tc-94m. The following immediate evaluations were also recommended: Br-76 and I-120g. (author)

  14. The Relationship of Educational Attainment with Pulmonary Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas B; Washko, George R; Coxson, Harvey O; Silverman, Edwin K; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S

    2015-06-01

    Low educational attainment is a risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is limited knowledge on the relationship between educational level and computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT). We hypothesized that low educational attainment is associated with increased emphysema and AWT in ever-smokers with and without COPD. We included 462 and 485 ever-smokers with and without COPD in a cross-sectional study, aged 40-86 years. The sample was divided into groups reflecting educational attainment: primary, secondary, and university. We performed linear regression to examine associations between educational attainment and both emphysema and AWT separately for those with and without COPD. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, age of onset of smoking, pack-years, height, and body mass index. Compared with university education, in subjects with COPD, primary education was associated with a 68.1% (95% confidence interval = 14.2-147.6%; P = 0.01) relative increase in emphysema and secondary education was associated with a 50.6% (95% confidence interval = 5.7-114.6%; P = 0.02) relative increase. There was a nonsignificant trend toward an association between lower educational attainment and increased emphysema among those without COPD (P = 0.18), yet greater age appeared to modify this association (P = 0.01). We did not detect significant linear relationships between educational attainment and AWT in subjects with or without COPD. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased emphysema among adults with COPD. Among those without COPD, this association was more pronounced with increasing age. No significant linear relationship between educational attainment and AWT was found. Clinicians treating adults with emphysema should keep in mind that factors related to low education beyond that of smoking and occupational dust exposure might be of importance to the disease.

  15. Identification of Auditory Object-Specific Attention from Single-Trial Electroencephalogram Signals via Entropy Measures and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has revealed that auditory attention can be tracked from ongoing electroencephalography (EEG signals. The aim of this novel study was to investigate the identification of peoples’ attention to a specific auditory object from single-trial EEG signals via entropy measures and machine learning. Approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, composite multiscale entropy (CmpMSE and fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn were used to extract the informative features of EEG signals under three kinds of auditory object-specific attention (Rest, Auditory Object1 Attention (AOA1 and Auditory Object2 Attention (AOA2. The linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM, were used to construct two auditory attention classifiers. The statistical results of entropy measures indicated that there were significant differences in the values of ApEn, SampEn, CmpMSE and FuzzyEn between Rest, AOA1 and AOA2. For the SVM-based auditory attention classifier, the auditory object-specific attention of Rest, AOA1 and AOA2 could be identified from EEG signals using ApEn, SampEn, CmpMSE and FuzzyEn as features and the identification rates were significantly different from chance level. The optimal identification was achieved by the SVM-based auditory attention classifier using CmpMSE with the scale factor τ = 10. This study demonstrated a novel solution to identify the auditory object-specific attention from single-trial EEG signals without the need to access the auditory stimulus.

  16. Impact of Self-Regulatory Influences on Writing Course Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Bandura, Albert

    1994-01-01

    Using path analysis, studied the role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards in writing-course attainment of 95 college freshmen. Different facets of perceived self-efficacy played a key role in writing-course attainment. (SLD)

  17. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papelis, Charalambos; Um, Wooyong; Russel, Charles E.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2003-01-01

    The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces. To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area (1.65 m2/g), while one of the samples of in situ vitrified rock had the lowest surf ace area (0.0016 m2/g). The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: (1) samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size. The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. (2) samples that showed a trend of decreasing surface area dependence on particle size as the particle size increased. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0.1 and 0.01 m2/g and was also attributed to internal porosity and surface roughness. (3) samples whose surface area showed a monotonic decrease with increasing particle size, never reaching an ultimate surface area limit within the particle

  18. A method for measurements of neutral fragments kinetic energies released to a specific dissociation threshold: optical translational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, A.; Frigon, C.; Larzilliere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The optical translational spectroscopy technique, based on the principles of fast ion beam laser spectroscopy (FIBLAS) and translational spectroscopy, allows the kinetic energies study of neutral fragments released through free dissociation of a neutral molecule. This method presents interesting features such as near-threshold energy measurements and selection of a specific dissociation limit. The fragments resulting from free dissociation (not induced) of neutral molecules, produced by charge exchange processes with a fast ion beam, are probed by laser radiation. Monitoring of the laser-induced fluorescence allows high-resolution spectra due to the kinematic compression of the velocity spread. Measurements of kinetic energies released to the second limit of dissociation H(1s) + H(2l) of H 2 are put forth and compared with those obtained by means of off-axis translational spectroscopy

  19. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  20. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE......: The purpose of the study was to validate a new automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP method (Gentian cCRP). METHODS: Studies of imprecision, accuracy, prozone effect, interference, limit of quantification, and stability under different storage conditions were performed. The new method was compared...... with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was

  1. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Benton, Nathanael [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Burns, Patrick [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: High-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating, load/unload, or constant-speed compressor; and Compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  2. Differences in Attainment and Performance in a Foreign Language: The Role of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert, Roger; Munoz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the role of working memory capacity in L2 attainment and performance. The study uses an L1 reading span task to measure working memory of a group of 59 high-intermediate/advanced learners of English, and a film retelling task to measure their oral production. The analysis first showed a moderate to high…

  3. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-05

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs.

  4. Measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines for exclusion of pheochromocytoma: Can specificity be improved by adjustment for age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafni Amiram

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma by measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines is limited by false positive rates of up to 18% in people without known genetic predisposition to the disease. The plasma normetanephrine fraction is responsible for most false positives and plasma normetanephrine increases with age. The objective of this study was to determine if we could improve the specificity of fractionated plasma measurements, by statistically adjusting for age. Methods An age-adjusted metanephrine score was derived using logistic regression from 343 subjects (including 33 people with pheochromocytoma who underwent fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements as part of investigations for suspected pheochromocytoma at Mayo Clinic Rochester (derivation set. The performance of the age-adjusted score was validated in a dataset of 158 subjects (including patients 23 with pheochromocytoma that underwent measurements of fractionated plasma metanephrines at Mayo Clinic the following year (validation dataset. None of the participants in the validation dataset had known genetic predisposition to pheochromocytoma. Results The sensitivity of the age-adjusted metanephrine score was the same as that of traditional interpretation of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements, yielding a sensitivity of 100% (23/23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 85.7%, 100%. However, the false positive rate with traditional interpretation of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements was 16.3% (22/135, 95% CI, 11.0%, 23.4% and that of the age-adjusted score was significantly lower at 3.0% (4/135, 95% CI, 1.2%, 7.4% (p Conclusion An adjustment for age in the interpretation of results of fractionated plasma metanephrines may significantly decrease false positives when using this test to exclude sporadic pheochromocytoma. Such improvements in false positive rate may result in savings of expenditures related to confirmatory imaging.

  5. 75 FR 67303 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM 10... proposes to determine that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur/Douglas nonattainment areas in Arizona... Hayden, Nogales and Paul Spur/Douglas nonattainment areas are not currently attaining the PM 10 standard...

  6. Development of a disease-specific instrument to measure quality of life in patients with alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yuichiro; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Arakawa, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common hair loss disorder that frequently follows a chronic course. Although AA is apparently associated with disturbance of quality of life (QoL), no disease-specific instrument to measure the QoL has been developed. This study was conducted to develop a disease-specific self-administered instrument to measure AA patients' QoL (AAQ). A two-step cross-sectional study was conducted. Items were generated from qualitative interviews with five patients with AA (two men and three women, age 28±6.4 years). Then, a preliminary questionnaire was produced and delivered to the patients (n=122). The AAQ was examined in terms of statistical performance. The AAQ included 7 items in the following three subscales: 'restriction of activity', 'concealment' and 'adaptation'. The reliability of internal consistency was fair with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.59-81 for each subscale. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis demonstrated that the AAQ had good construct validity. Interestingly, the AAQ was only correlated with subjective severity scores as rated by the patients, but not with objective disease severity assessed by investigators.

  7. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  8. Natural radioactivity measurements in agricultural soil, fertilizer and crops in some specific areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, Shaikh Abdul; Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Molla, Nurul Islam; Nassef, Mohamed Hamed [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering

    2014-09-01

    High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma-ray spectrometry with 500 cc Marinelli beaker geometry was used for radioactivity measurement in some specific areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The detection limits of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in soil, fertilizers, and vegetables lie mostly below 1 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in local phosphate fertilizers were measured in the range of 236.8-879.0 Bq/kg and 101.5-297.0 Bq/kg, respectively. The respective activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra measured in one charge of German phosphate fertilizer are in the range of 552.7-790.0 Bq/kg and 280.6-317.0 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of {sup 232}Th are assessed to have maximum values up to 2.24 Bq/kg in locally manufactured phosphate fertilizers. Local urea exhibited concentration level (Bq/kg) of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K below the detection limit. Mean values of activity concentrations of {sup 238}U in agricultural soil of Wadi Fatima, Taif, Hada Al-Sham, Madina City and Abyar Al-MashiMadina are 21.7 ± 3.24, 38.2 ± 4.1, 17.6 ± 2.1, 34.3 ± 3.5 and 32.7 ± 2.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The respective mean of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in those areas are 12.16 ± 1.16, 20.2 ± 1.33, 11.21 ± 0.4, 21.4 ± 1.7 and 21.0 ± 1.22 Bq/kg. The specific activity of {sup 232}Th in the respective areas has been measured as 12.6 ± 1.3, 25.3 ± 0.8, 11.5 ± 0.9, 20.4 ± 2.4 and 20.0 ± 1.2 Bq/kg. Activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the vegetable samples are mostly found in the range of 0.37 Bq/kg to 37.8 Bq/kg. The {sup 40}K specific activity lies in the range of 44.4-196 Bq/kg. The calculated absorbed dose rates in the representative locations are 24.07-53.28 nGy/h. (orig.)

  9. A valid and reliable method to measure jump-specific training and competition load in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skazalski, C; Whiteley, R; Hansen, C; Bahr, R

    2018-05-01

    Use of a commercially available wearable device to monitor jump load with elite volleyball players has become common practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of this device, the Vert, to count jumps and measure jump height with professional volleyball players. Jump count accuracy was determined by comparing jumps recorded by the device to jumps observed through systematic video analysis of three practice sessions and two league matches performed by a men's professional volleyball team. Jumps performed by 14 players were each coded for time and jump type and individually matched to device recorded jumps. Jump height validity of the device was examined against reference standards as participants performed countermovement jumps on a force plate and volleyball-specific jumps with a Vertec. The Vert device accurately counted 99.3% of the 3637 jumps performed during practice and match play. The device showed excellent jump height interdevice reliability for two devices placed in the same pouch during volleyball jumps (r = .99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99). The device had a minimum detectable change (MDC) of 9.7 cm and overestimated jump height by an average of 5.5 cm (95% CI 4.5-6.5) across all volleyball jumps. The Vert device demonstrates excellent accuracy counting volleyball-specific jumps during training and competition. While the device is not recommended to measure maximal jumping ability when precision is needed, it provides an acceptable measure of on-court jump height that can be used to monitor athlete jump load. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The peripheral artery questionnaire: a new disease-specific health status measure for patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertus, John; Jones, Philip; Poler, Sherri; Rocha-Singh, Krishna

    2004-02-01

    The most common indication for treating patients with peripheral arterial disease is to improve their health status: their symptoms, function, and quality of life. Quantifying health status requires a valid, reproducible, and sensitive disease-specific measure. The Peripheral Artery Questionnaire (PAQ) is a 20-item questionnaire developed to meet this need by quantifying patients' physical limitations, symptoms, social function, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life. Psychometric and clinical properties of the PAQ were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 44 patients undergoing elective percutaneous peripheral revascularization. To establish reproducibility, 2 assessments were performed 2 weeks apart and before revascularization. The change in scores before and 6 weeks after revascularization were used to determine the instruments' responsiveness and were compared with the Short Form-36 and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire. A series of cross-sectional analyses were performed to establish the construct validity of the PAQ. The 7 domains of the PAQ were internally reliable, with Cronbach alpha = 0.80 to 0.94. The test-retest reliability analyses revealed insignificant mean changes of 0.6 to 2.3 points (P = not significant for all). Conversely, the change after revascularization ranged from 13.7 to 41.9 points (P PAQ to clinical improvement. The PAQ Summary Scale was the most sensitive of all scales tested. Construct validity was established by demonstrating correlations with other measures of patient health status. The PAQ is a valid, reliable, and responsive disease-specific measure for patients with peripheral arterial disease. It may prove to be a useful end point in clinical trials and a potential aid in disease management.

  11. Clinimetric evaluation of methods to measure muscle functioning in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits-Engelsman Bouwien CM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. Methods A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases from 1980 to January 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinimetric properties of identified measurement methods, using a checklist of generally accepted criteria for reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement, construct validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Results The search identified a total of 16 studies. The instruments or tests included were: muscle endurance tests for short neck flexors, craniocervical flexion test with an inflatable pressure biofeedback unit, manual muscle testing of neck musculature, dynamometry and functional lifting tests (the cervical progressive iso-inertial lifting evaluation (PILE test and the timed weighted overhead test. All the articles included report information on the reproducibility of the tests. Acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability was demonstrated for t enduranctest for short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test. Construct validity and responsiveness have hardly been documented for tests on muscle functioning. Conclusion The endurance test of the short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test can be regarded as appropriate instruments for measuring different aspects of neck muscle function in patients with non-specific neck pain. Common methodological flaws in the studies were their small sample size and an inappropriate description of the study design.

  12. Study of the matrix specific mass discrimination effects during inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, E.; Quetel, Ch.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sample matrix related effects on mass discrimination during inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) isotope ratio measurements have only been rarely reported. However, they can lead to errors larger than the uncertainty claimed on the ratio results when not properly taken into account or corrected for. These matrix specific affects were experienced during an Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) campaign we carried out for the certification of the Cd amount content in some food digest samples (7% acidity and salts content around 450μg g -1 ). Dilution was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g -1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This was a significant difference considering that less than 1.5% relative combined uncertainty was eventually estimated for these IDMS measurements. Similar results could be obtained either way after the implementation of necessary corrections. The direct measurement approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the food digest sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. Consequently, the impact of matrix effects on mass discrimination during isotope ratio measurements with two types of ICP- MS (quadrupole and magnetic sector instruments) was studied for 4 elements (Li, Cu, Cd and Tl). Samples of varying salinity (up to 0.25%) and acidity (up to 7%) characteristics were prepared using isotopic certified reference materials of these elements. The long term and short-term stability, respectively reproducibility and repeatability, of the results, as well as the evolution of the difference to certified ratio values were monitored. As expected the 13 investigated isotopic ratios were all sensitive to variations in salt and acid concentrations. Our experiments also showed that simultaneous variation

  13. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  14. Funding and the Attainment of Transformation Goals in South Africa's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The link between the funding of higher education and the attainment of higher education transformation goals in South Africa, especially access by students from previously under-represented communities, is the main focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper examines three questions: (a) How does public funding of higher education encourage (or…

  15. Student Perceptions of Asynchronous and Synchronous Web Based Tools and Perceived Attainment of Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing presence and continual adaptations related to distance learning, there is a recognized need for up-to-date research in the area of effectiveness of online education programs. More specifically, assessing the capacity to attain academic goals by use of asynchronous and synchronous web based tools within Learning Management…

  16. Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

    2009-05-01

    In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.

  18. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouda, Jan C; van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2013-12-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives and teaching methods for the attainment of professional expertise in patient education. Firstly, we propose to use functional learning objectives derived from the goals and strategies of clinical communication. Secondly, we recommend using teaching and assessment methods which: (1) contain stimulating learning tasks with opportunities for immediate feedback, reflection and corrections, and (2) give ample opportunity for repetition, gradual refinements and practice in challenging situations. Video-on-the-job fits these requirements and can be used to improve the competency in patient education of residents and medical staff in clinical practice. However, video-on-the-job can only be successful if the working environment supports the teaching and learning of communication and if medical staff which supervises the residents, is motivated to improve their own communication and didactic skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Site-specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    Reaction rate constants for nine site-specific hydrogen atom (H) abstraction by hydroxyl radicals (OH) have been determined using experimental measurements of the rate constants of Alkane+OH→Products reactions. Seven secondary (S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33) and two tertiary (T 100 and T 101) site-specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms (C) connected to the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range (250-1450K). This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes. The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures (822-1367K) using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic. Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) transition of OH spectrum near 306.69nm.Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range (250-1450. K). Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1]. Subsequent to that, site-specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. S20=8.49×10-17T1.52exp(73.4K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(250-1450K) S21=1.07×10-15T1.07exp(208.3K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(296-1440K) S22=2.88×10-13T0.41exp(-291.5K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(272-1311K) S30=3.35×10-18T1.97exp(323.1K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(250-1366K) S31=1.60×10-18T2.0exp(500.0K/T)cm3

  20. Genome Target Evaluator (GTEvaluator: A workflow exploiting genome dataset to measure the sensitivity and specificity of genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Felten

    Full Text Available Most of the bacterial typing methods used to discriminate isolates in medical or food safety microbiology are based on genetic markers used as targets in PCR or hybridization experiments. These DNA typing methods are important tools for studying prevalence and epidemiology, for conducting surveillance, investigations and control of biological hazard sources. In that perspective, it is crucial to insure that the chosen genetic markers have the greatest specificity and sensitivity. The wealth of whole-genome sequences available for many bacterial species offers the opportunity to evaluate the performance of these genetic markers. In the present study, we have developed GTEvaluator, a bioinformatics workflow which ranks genetic markers depending on their sensitivity and specificity towards groups of well-defined genomes. GTEvaluator identifies the most performant genetic markers to target individuals among a population. The individuals (i.e. a group of genomes within a collection are defined by any kind of particular phenotypic or biological properties inside a related population (i.e. collection of genomes. The performance of the genetic markers is computed by a distance value which takes into account both sensitivity and specificity. In this study we report two examples of GTEvaluator application. In the first example Bacillus phenotypic markers were evaluated for their capacity to distinguish B. cereus from B. thuringiensis. In the second experiment, GTEvaluator measured the performance of genetic markers dedicated to the molecular serotyping of Salmonella enterica. In one in silico experiment it was possible to test 64 markers onto 134 genomes corresponding to 14 different serotypes.

  1. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  2. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves. PMID:26911983

  3. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  4. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-01

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B 12 . Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B 12 is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of 14 C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ( 14 C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B 12 in the range of normal dietary intake. The B 12 used was quantitatively labeled with 14 C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B 12 or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with 14 C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced 14 C-B 12 of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified 14 C-B 12 was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B 12 assimilation

  5. A distance measurement between specific sites on the cytoplasmic surface of bovine rhodopsin in rod outer segment disk membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A D; Watts, A; Spooner, P; Groebner, G; Young, J; Yeagle, P L

    1997-08-14

    Structural information on mammalian integral membrane proteins is scarce. As part of work on an alternative approach to the structure of bovine rhodopsin, a method was devised to obtain an intramolecular distance between two specific sites on rhodopsin while in the rod outer segment disk membrane. In this report, the distance between the rhodopsin kinase phosphorylation site(s) on the carboxyl terminal and the top of the third transmembrane helix was measured on native rhodopsin. Rhodopsin was labeled with a nuclear spin label (31P) by limited phosphorylation with rhodopsin kinase. Major phosphorylation occurs at serines 343 and 338 on the carboxyl terminal. The phosphorylated rhodopsin was then specifically labeled on cysteine 140 with an electron spin label. Magic angle spinning 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the resonance arising from the phosphorylated protein. The enhancement of the transverse relaxation of this resonance by the paramagnetic spin label was observed. The strength of this perturbation was used to determine the through-space distance between the phosphorylation site(s) and the spin label position. A distance of 18 +/- 3 A was obtained.

  6. Spiritual Dryness as a Measure of a Specific Spiritual Crisis in Catholic Priests: Associations with Symptoms of Burnout and Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.

  7. Localised electrochemical impedance measurements of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell using a reference electrode array to give cathode-specific measurements and examine membrane hydration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Erik; Hinds, Gareth; Meyer, Quentin; Mason, Tom; Brightman, Edward; Castanheira, Luis; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2018-04-01

    Advances in bespoke diagnostic techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells continue to provide unique insight into the internal operation of these devices and lead to improved performance and durability. Localised measurements of current density have proven to be extremely useful in designing better fuel cells and identifying optimal operating strategies, with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) now routinely used to deconvolute the various losses in fuel cells. Combining the two techniques provides another dimension of understanding, but until now each localised EIS has been based on 2-electrode measurements, composed of both the anode and cathode responses. This work shows that a reference electrode array can be used to give individual electrode-specific EIS responses, in this case the cathode is focused on to demonstrate the approach. In addition, membrane hydration dynamics are studied under current load steps from open circuit voltage. A three-stage process is identified associated with an initial rapid reduction in membrane resistance after 10 s of applying a current step, followed by a slower ramp to approximately steady state, which was achieved after ∼250 s. These results support previously published work that has looked at membrane swelling dynamics and reveal that membrane hydration/membrane resistance is highly heterogeneous.

  8. Laboratory Measurements of Mass Specific Absorption Spectra for Suites of Black Carbon-like, Biomass Burning and Mineral Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, J.; Zangmeister, C.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols can be grouped into three categories: black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC) or mineral dust (MD). In many cases, the absorption of these species is best quantified using a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) since the particles are in the Rayleigh regime (BC) or optically thin (BrC and MD); notably, MAC values are both traceable to the SI and transferrable between photoacoustic spectroscopy and filter-based absorption measurements. Here, we present laboratory measurements of MAC for all three light-absorbing aerosol classes. Particles were size- and mass-selected using a differential mobility analyzer and aerosol particle mass analyzer, respectively, with absorption coefficients (αabs) and number concentrations (N) being measured by a broadband photoacoustic spectrometer and condensation particle counter, respectively. This suite of instrumentation allows for direct quantification of MAC from the measured parameters (MAC = αabs/Nmp). Further, the measurements contained > 8 data points spanning λ = 405 nm to 840 nm allowing for spectral curvatures (i.e. the Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE) to be fit from many data points versus the more common 2-point interpolations. For the carbonaceous, BC-like aerosols - five samples generated from flames, spark discharge soot (i.e. fullerene soot), graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and fullerene (C60) - we found: 1) measured MAC ranged between 2.4 m2 g-1 and 8.6 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) most AAEs ranged between 0.5 and 1.3; C60 AAE was 7.5 ± 0.9 and 3) MAC spectra were dependent on fuel type and formation conditions. For BrC particles generated from smoldering combustion of 3 hardwood (Oak, Hickory and Mesquite) and 3 softwood species (Western redcedar, Blue spruce and Baldcypress), we found: 1) median MAC values ranged from 1.4 x 10-2 m2 g-1 to 7.9 x 10-2 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) AAE values ranged between 3.5 and 6.2, and 3) Oak, Western redcedar and Blue spruce

  9. The relationship between internalising symptom development and academic attainment in early adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveetha Patalay

    Full Text Available Evidence for the longitudinal associations between internalising symptom development and academic attainment is sparse and results from existing studies are largely inconclusive. The approaches that have been used in existing studies examining this relationship have in common the limitation of grouping together all individuals in the sample which makes the assumption that the relationship between time, symptoms and attainment across all individuals is the same. The current study aimed to use heterogeneous trajectories of symptom development to examine the longitudinal associations between internalising symptom development and change in academic attainment over a three years period in early adolescence, a key period for internalising symptom development. Internalising symptoms were assessed for 3 consecutive years in a cohort from age 11-14 years (n = 2647, mean age at T1 = 11.7 years. National standardised test scores prior to the first wave and subsequent to the last wave were used as measures of academic attainment. Heterogeneous symptom development trajectories were identified using latent class growth analysis and socio-demographic correlates, such as gender, SES and ethnicity, of the different trajectory groupings were investigated. Derived trajectory groupings were examined as predictors of subsequent academic attainment, controlling for prior attainment. Results demonstrate that symptom trajectories differentially predicted change in academic attainment with increasing trajectories associated with significantly worse academic outcomes when compared to pupils with low levels of symptoms in all waves. Hence, a trajectory based approach provides a more nuanced breakdown of complexities in symptom development and their differential relationships with academic outcomes and in doing so helps clarify the longitudinal relationship between these two key domains of functioning in early adolescence.

  10. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment.METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated. The study measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects, physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, weight, height, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between physical fitness and academic attainment after adjusting for potential confounders by gender. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in academic attainment according to fitness and screen time categories (< 2 hours/day and ≥ 2 hours/day.RESULTS: In both genders good cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with high language (ß = 0.272-0.153 and mean academic attainment (ß = 0.192-0.156 grades; however, after adjusting for screen time and other potential confounders, these associations disappear. Similarly, no relationship was observed after analyzing those children who spend more hours of screen time (≥ 2 hours/day.CONCLUSIONS: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  11. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Macarena M; Vergara, Felipe A; Velásquez, Erikson J A; Marina, Raquel; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment. A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys) participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June). Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated. The study measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects), physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength), weight, height, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between physical fitness and academic attainment after adjusting for potential confounders by gender. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in academic attainment according to fitness and screen time categories (< 2 hours/day and ≥ 2 hours/day). In both genders good cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with high language (β=0.272-0.153) and mean academic attainment (β=0.192-0.156) grades; however, after adjusting for screen time and other potential confounders, these associations disappear. Similarly, no relationship was observed after analyzing those children who spend more hours of screen time (≥ 2 hours/day). Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The Measurement and Role of Ecological Resilience Systems Theory Across Domain-Specific Outcomes: The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie S; Chivers, Sally

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education. The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales are found to predict unique variance in job satisfaction, lower job burnout, quality-of-life following illness, marriage commitment, and educational engagement, while controlling for factors including sex, age, personality, cognitive ability, and trait resilience. The findings also suggest a distinction between the three resilience dimensions in terms of the types of systems to which they contribute. Engineering resilience may contribute most to life domains where an established system needs to be maintained, for example, one's health. Ecological resilience may contribute most to life domains where the system needs sustainability in terms of present and future goal orientation, for example, one's work. Adaptive Capacity may contribute most to life domains where the system needs to be retained, preventing it from reaching a crisis state, for example, work burnout.

  13. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  14. Academic Attainment in Students with Dyslexia in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2015-11-01

    This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The role of self-efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease management: preliminary validation of a disease-specific measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Kiebles, Jennifer L; Taft, Tiffany H

    2011-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) require self-management skills that may be influenced by self-efficacy (SE). Self-efficacy represents an individual's perception of his or her ability to organize and execute the behaviors necessary to manage disease. The goal of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of IBD-specific SE that can be used in clinical and research contexts. One hundred and twenty-two adults with a verified IBD diagnosis participated in the study. Data were pooled from 2 sources: patients from an outpatient university gastroenterology clinic (n=42) and a sample of online respondents (n=80). All participants (N=122) completed the IBD Self-Efficacy Scale (IBD-SES) and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Additionally, online participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, whereas those in the clinic sample completed the Perceived Health Competence Scale, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and the Short Form Version 2 Health Survey. The IBD-SES was initially constructed to identify 4 distinct theoretical domains of self-efficacy: (1) managing stress and emotions, (2) managing medical care, (3) managing symptoms and disease, and (4) maintaining remission. The 29-item IBD-SES has high internal consistency (r=0.96), high test-retest reliability (r=0.90), and demonstrates strong construct and concurrent validity with established measures. The IBD-SES is a critical first step toward addressing an important psychological construct that could influence treatment outcomes in IBD.

  16. Site-Specific Measurement of Water Dynamics in the Substrate Pocket of Ketosteroid Isomerase Using Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Santosh Kumar; Ji, Minbiao; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the reorganization capacity of water molecules at the active sites of enzymes and how this couples to the catalytic reaction. Here, we study the dynamics of water molecules at the active site of a highly proficient enzyme, Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), during a light-activated mimic of its catalytic cycle. Photo-excitation of a nitrile containing photo-acid, coumarin183 (C183), mimics the change in charge density that occurs at the active site of KSI during the first step of the catalytic reaction. The nitrile of C183 is exposed to water when bound to the KSI active site, and we used time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy as a site-specific probe to study the solvation dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of the nitrile. We observed that water molecules at the active site of KSI are highly rigid, during the light-activated catalytic cycle, compared to the solvation dynamics observed in bulk water. Based upon this result we hypothesize that rigid water dipoles at the active site might help in the maintenance of the pre-organized electrostatic environment required for efficient catalysis. The results also demonstrate the utility of nitrile probes in measuring the dynamics of local (H-bonded) water molecules in contrast to the commonly used fluorescence methods which measure the average behavior of primary and subsequent spheres of solvation. PMID:22931297

  17. Extension of the ELISA method to the measurement of the specific radioactivity of viruses in crude cellular extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konate, G; Fritig, B [Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 67-Strasbourg (France). Lab. de Virologie

    1983-06-01

    The double-antibody sandwich method of ELISA, which allows accurate quantitative determination of plant viruses, was extended to a radiochemical procedure which permits direct measurement of the specific radioactivity of virus labelled in vivo and present in very crude plant homogenates. Evidence is presented showing that 20 to 50% of the virus introduced in the polystyrene wells during the antigen incubation step could be trapped in the sandwich. The percentage of virus bound increased with the concentration of the coating antibody and was almost proportional to the concentration of the antigen and to the incubation time of the antigens. Complete dissociation of the double-antibody sandwich was achieved by incubation with 0.2 M KOH or NaOH (pH 13.3), and the label carried by the virus was measured by scintillation counting of the solubilization fluid. The ratio infected/healthy was much higher for the radiochemical procedure than for the immunosorbent assay itself since binding of the virus to the coating antibody was not accompanied by any nonspecific trapping of radioactive contaminants in the double-antibody sandwich. The procedure was highly sensitive since the background corresponded to the scintillation counting background. The detection of the label carried by tobacco mosaic virus was possible when the tobacco samples contained at least 5 ng of virus carrying a label as low as 40 dpm /sup 3/H or 20 dpm /sup 14/C.

  18. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (CO) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (CO), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):P1,CO = 7.38 × 10-14 exp(-274 K/T) + 9.17 × 10-12 exp(-2499 K/T) (285-1355 K)S10,CO = 1.20 × 10-11 exp(-2046 K/T) + 2.20 × 10-13 exp(160 K/T) (222-1464 K)S11,CO = 4.50 × 10-11 exp(-3000 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1440 K/T) (248-1302 K)S11′,CO = 3.80 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1550 K/T) (263-1370 K)S 21,CO = 5.00 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 4.00 × 10-13 exp(775 K/T) (297-1376 K) © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  19. Emission Characteristics of Gas-Fired Boilers based on Category-Specific Emission Factor from Field Measurements in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Yan, X.; Song, G.; Yan, J.; Xue, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-fired boilers will become the main stationary sources of NOx in Beijing. However, the knowledge of gas-fired boilers in Beijing is limited. In the present study, the emission characteristics of NOx, SO2, and CO from gas-fired boilers in Beijing were established using category-specific emission factors (EFs) from field measurements. In order to obtain category-specific EFs, boilers were classified through influence analysis. Factors such as combustion mode, boiler type, and installed capacity were considered critical for establishing EFs because they play significant roles in pollutant formation. The EFs for NOx, CO, and SO2 ranged from 1.42-6.86 g m-3, 0.05-0.67 g m-3 and 0.03-0.48 g m-3. The emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO for gas-fired boilers in Beijing were 11121 t, 468 t, and 222 t in 2014, respectively. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 1 km × 1 km, and the results indicated that top emitters were in central Beijing. The uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated high uncertainties in CO (-157% to 154%) and SO2 (-127% to 182%) emissions, and relatively low uncertainties (-34% to 34%) in NOx emission. Furthermore, approximately 61.2% and 96.8% of the monitored chamber combustion boilers (CCBs) met the standard limits for NOx and SO2, respectively. Concerning NOx, low-NOx burners and NOx emission control measures are urgently needed for implementing of stricter standards. Adopting terminal control measures is unnecessary for SO2, although its concentration occasionally exceeds standard limits, because reduction of its concentration can be achieved thorough control of the sulfur content of natural gas at a stable low level. Furthermore, the atmospheric combustion boilers (ACBs) should be substituted with CCBs, because ACBs have a higher emission despite lower gross installed capacity. The results of this study will enable in understanding and controlling emissions from gas

  20. Ultrasensitive prostate specific antigen assay following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy--an outcome measure for defining the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, R; Gommersall, L; Zeif, J; Hayne, D; Shah, Z H; Doherty, A

    2009-07-01

    Radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) performed laparoscopically is a popular treatment with curative intent for organ-confined prostate cancer. After surgery, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels drop to low levels which can be measured with ultrasensitive assays. This has been described in the literature for open RRP but not for laparoscopic RRP. This paper describes PSA changes in the first 300 consecutive patients undergoing non-robotic laparoscopic RRP by a single surgeon. To use ultrasensitive PSA (uPSA) assays to measure a PSA nadir in patients having laparoscopic radical prostatectomy below levels recorded by standard assays. The aim was to use uPSA nadir at 3 months' post-prostatectomy as an early surrogate end-point of oncological outcome. In so doing, laparoscopic oncological outcomes could then be compared with published results from other open radical prostatectomy series with similar end-points. Furthermore, this end-point could be used in the assessment of the surgeon's learning curve. Prospective, comprehensive, demographic, clinical, biochemical and operative data were collected from all patients undergoing non-robotic laparoscopic RRP. We present data from the first 300 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic RRP by a single surgeon. uPSA was measured every 3 months post surgery. Median follow-up was 29 months (minimum 3 months). The likelihood of reaching a uPSA of bench-marking performance. With experience, a surgeon can achieve in excess of an 80% chance of obtaining a uPSA nadir of < or = 0.01 ng/ml at 3 months after laparoscopic RRP for a British population. This is equivalent to most published open series.

  1. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis

  2. Intergenerational transmission of educational attainment: Three levels of parent-child communication as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Liping

    2013-04-01

    Although the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment has been confirmed by many researchers, its mechanism still remains controversial. Parent-child communication has been regarded as one of the important mediators. The present study primarily aimed to examine the potentially mediating role of parent-child communication in the transmission of educational attainment, based on a sample of 366 Chinese fifth and sixth graders. Parent-child communication was measured against the three levels of the parents' communication ability, the quality of the father-child and mother-child communications, and the relation between the two dyadic communications. The results duplicated the positive effect of parents' educational attainment on children's academic achievement. Moreover, it was found that parents' communication ability alone played a mediating role, and that the three levels of parent-child communication constructed a "mediator chain" between the parents' educational attainment and the children's academic achievement. Finally, the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in China and the mediating role of the three levels of parent-child communication were discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Allergoid-specific T-cell reaction as a measure of the immunological response to specific immunotherapy (SIT) with a Th1-adjuvanted allergy vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baehr, V; Hermes, A; von Baehr, R; Scherf, H P; Volk, H D; Fischer von Weikersthal-Drachenberg, K J; Woroniecki, S

    2005-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is believed to modulate CD4+ T-helper cells. In order to improve safety, SIT vaccines are often formulated with allergoids (chemically modified allergens). Interaction between T-cells and allergoids is necessary to influence cellular cytokine expression. There have been few reports on identification the early cellular effects of SIT. Patients allergic to grass and/or mugwort pollen (n= 21) were treated with a 4-shot allergy vaccine (Pollinex Quattro) containing appropriate allergoids (grass/rye and/or mugwort) adsorbed to L-tyrosine plus a Th1 adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Fourteen grass-allergic patients served as untreated controls. Using the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these patients, an optimized lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was employed to monitor the in vitro proliferative response of T-cells to an allergoid challenge (solubilised Pollinex Quattro) before the first and last injection and then 2 and 20 weeks after the final injection. Control challenges utilised preparations of a similar pollen vaccine without the adjuvant MPL and a tree pollen vaccine with and without MPL. The LTT showed increased LTT stimulation indices (SI) in 17/20 SIT patients when the solublised vaccine preparation was used as a challenge before the last injection and 2 weeks after, in comparison to pre-treatment levels. Twenty weeks after therapy, the SI decreased to baseline level. A vaccine challenge without MPL gave lower SI levels. A challenge of a clinically inappropriate tree allergoid vaccine gave no response, and a nontreated group also showed no response. Following a short-course SIT adjuvated with MPL, challenges of allergoids were shown to activate allergen-specific T cells in vitro. There was an additional stimulating effect when the challenge was in combination with MPL. There were no non-specific effects of MPL, shown by the tree allergoid/MPL control. The timing of the response was closely correlated to the

  4. Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    2011-01-01

    This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

  5. Enzyme immunoassay for measurement of murine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, employing a specific antibody produced by the DNA vaccine method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Takagi, Akira; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Yamamoto, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Matsushita, Tadashi; Murate, Takashi; Saito, Hidehiko; Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2003-01-01

    We developed a sensitive immunoassay to determine the concentration of mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The assay was a non-competitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the production of a specific polyclonal antibody against mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) used both as a trapping and detecting antibody. This antibody was raised in a rabbit by direct introduction of the expression vector plasmid DNA encoding mouse PAI-1, instead of conventional immunization with the purified protein. The standard curve was constructed with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mouse PAI-1 fusion protein (GST-mPAI-1) and dose-response of the assay was linear for GST-mPAI-1 between 6.25 and 100 pM. In order to assess the consistency of the assay, we measured PAI-1 antigen in normal mouse pooled plasma several times. We found that the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 4.8% and 9.2%, respectively, indicating that the ELISA would be sufficiently repeatable and reproducible. In this assay, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice showed substantially higher levels (22-fold) of plasma PAI-1 antigen than did control mice (12.5+/-2.4 vs. 0.58+/-0.16 nM), similar to results reported elsewhere. Taken together, the DNA vaccine method is extremely useful for preparing specific antibodies against mouse PAI-1, which can be utilized to establish the ELISA and analyze the profile of PAI-1 distributions in mice under various conditions. This approach might also be useful for immunological investigation of other coagulation factors and related proteins.

  6. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression....... This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...

  7. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  8. Development and first application of an Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) for quasi online compound specific aerosol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Trimborn, Dagmar; Jayne, John; Wahner, Andreas; Worsnop, Doug

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate and human health on regional and global scales (IPCC, 2007). In many environments organics are a major fraction of the aerosol influencing its properties. Due to the huge variety of organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosol current measurement techniques are far from providing a full speciation of organic aerosol (Hallquist et al., 2009). The development of new techniques for compound specific measurements with high time resolution is a timely issue in organic aerosol research. Here we present first laboratory characterisations of an aerosol collection module (ACM) which was developed to allow for the sampling and transfer of atmospheric PM1 aerosol. The system consists of an aerodynamic lens system focussing particles on a beam. This beam is directed to a 3.4 mm in diameter surface which is cooled to -30 °C with liquid nitrogen. After collection the aerosol sample can be evaporated from the surface by heating it to up to 270 °C. The sample is transferred through a 60cm long line with a carrier gas. In order to test the ACM for linearity and sensitivity we combined it with a GC-MS system. The tests were performed with octadecane aerosol. The octadecane mass as measured with the ACM-GC-MS was compared versus the mass as calculated from SMPS derived total volume. The data correlate well (R2 0.99, slope of linear fit 1.1) indicating 100 % collection efficiency. From 150 °C to 270 °C no effect of desorption temperature on transfer efficiency could be observed. The ACM-GC-MS system was proven to be linear over the mass range 2-100 ng and has a detection limit of ~ 2 ng. First experiments applying the ACM-GC-MS system were conducted at the Jülich Aerosol Chamber. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was formed from ozonolysis of 600 ppbv of b-pinene. The major oxidation product nopinone was detected in the aerosol and could be shown to decrease from 2 % of the total aerosol to 0.5 % of the aerosol over the 48 hours of

  9. Measurements of serum non-ceruloplasmin copper by a direct fluorescent method specific to Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitti, Rosanna; Siotto, Mariacristina; Cassetta, Emanuele; El Idrissi, Imane Ghafir; Colabufo, Nicola A

    2017-08-28

    Meta-analyses indicated the breakdown of copper homeostasis in the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), comprising copper decreases within the brain and copper increases in the blood and the pool not bound to ceruloplasmin (non-Cp Cu, also known in the literature as "free" copper). The calculated non-Cp Cu (Walshe's) index has many limitations. A direct fluorescent method for non-Cp Cu detection has been developed and data are presented herein. The study included samples from 147 healthy subjects, 36 stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 89 AD patients, who were tested for non-Cp Cu through the direct method, total serum copper, ceruloplasmin concentration and o-dianisidine ceruloplasmin activity. The indirect non-Cp Cu Walshe's index was also calculated. The direct method was linear (0.9-5.9 μM), precise (within-laboratory coefficient variation of 9.7% for low and 7.1% for high measurements), and had a good recovery. A reference interval (0-1.9 μM) was determined parametrically in 147 healthy controls (27-84 years old). The variation of non-Cp Cu was evaluated according to age and sex. Non-Cp Cu was 1.5 times higher in AD patients (regarding the upper value of the reference interval) than in healthy controls. Healthy, MCI and AD subjects were differentiated through the direct non-Cp Cu method [areas under the curve (AUC)=0.755]. Considering a 95% specificity and a 1.91 μmol/L cut-off, the sensitivity was 48.3% (confidence interval 95%: 38%-58%). The likelihood ratio (LR) was 9.94 for positive test results (LR+) and 0.54 for negative test result (LR-). The direct fluorescent test reliably and accurately measures non-Cp Cu, thereby determining the probability of having AD.

  10. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  12. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Falah, Anas

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period. A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed. Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%), followed by hypertension (6.6%), asthma (5.6%) and CHD (2.5%), and the majority of subjects (69.5%) had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was aches in the back and neck (49.2%), night sweat (37.2%), low backache (35.7%), feeling nervous (35.4%) followed by aches in the muscles/joints (34.6%), hot flashes (33.3%), decreased social activities (28.3%), decreased leisure activities (47.6%), difficulty sleeping (28.9%), mood swings (25.4%), and decreased concentration (28.3%), sexual activity (24.1%) and total energy level (26.7%). The lowest reported symptoms were facial hair at 16

  13. Goal striving, goal attainment, and well-being: adapting and testing the self-concordance model in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan

    2007-12-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.

  14. H-Abstraction by OH from Large Branched Alkanes: Overall Rate Measurements and Site-Specific Tertiary Rate Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dapeng

    2017-01-10

    Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with nine large branched alkanes (i.e., 2-methyl-3-ethyl-pentane, 2,3-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,2,3-trimethyl-pentane, 2,3,4-trimethyl-pentane, 3-ethyl-pentane, 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane) are measured at high temperatures (900-1300 K) using a shock tube and narrow-line-width OH absorption diagnostic in the UV region. In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range (300-1300 K). The rate coefficients are analyzed using the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) methodology to derive nine tertiary (T003, T012, T013, T022, T023, T111, T112, T113, and T122) site-specific rate coefficients for the abstraction of H atoms by OH radicals from branched alkanes. Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over 950-1300 K, are given as (the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): T003 = 1.80 × 10-10 exp(-2971 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T012 = 9.36 × 10-11 exp(-3024 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T013 = 4.40 × 10-10 exp(-4162 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T022 = 1.47 × 10-10 exp(-3587 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T023 = 6.06 × 10-11 exp(-3010 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T111 = 3.98 × 10-11 exp(-1617 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T112 = 9.08 × 10-12 exp(-3661 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T113 = 6.74 × 10-9 exp(-7547 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T122 = 3.47 × 10-11 exp(-1802 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  15. TH-A-BRC-03: AAPM TG218: Measurement Methods and Tolerance Levels for Patient-Specific IMRT Verification QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miften, M. [University of Colorado School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics Survey of possible calibration protocols for calibration of Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery (GSR) devices Overview of modern Quality Assurance techniques for GSR AAPM TG-218 Tolerance Levels and Methodologies for IMRT Verification QA - Moyed Miften Patient-specific IMRT QA measurement is a process designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered doses. Error tolerance limits are not well-defined or consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report has been prepared to improve the understanding and consistency of this process by providing recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. Learning Objectives: Review measurement methods and methodologies for absolute dose verification Provide recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, the use of analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA Sonja Dieterich has a research agreement with Sun Nuclear Inc. Steven Goetsch is a part-time consultant for Elekta.

  16. TH-A-BRC-03: AAPM TG218: Measurement Methods and Tolerance Levels for Patient-Specific IMRT Verification QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miften, M.

    2016-01-01

    of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics Survey of possible calibration protocols for calibration of Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery (GSR) devices Overview of modern Quality Assurance techniques for GSR AAPM TG-218 Tolerance Levels and Methodologies for IMRT Verification QA - Moyed Miften Patient-specific IMRT QA measurement is a process designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered doses. Error tolerance limits are not well-defined or consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report has been prepared to improve the understanding and consistency of this process by providing recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. Learning Objectives: Review measurement methods and methodologies for absolute dose verification Provide recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, the use of analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA Sonja Dieterich has a research agreement with Sun Nuclear Inc. Steven Goetsch is a part-time consultant for Elekta.

  17. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  18. DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacAulay, Calum [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hayes, Malcolm [Department of Pathology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korbelik, Jagoda [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Palcic, Branko [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a

  19. Mental Health Problems and Educational Attainment in Adolescence: 9-Year Follow-Up of the TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems) were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. Results Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model). When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11–4.83). Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83–5.32). Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25–3.94). For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. Conclusions Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood. PMID:25047692

  20. Comparison of the measured specific activities of cesium in mushrooms, pine tree twigs, blueberries, honey and game in Aachen after 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Schmelz, G.

    1998-01-01

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the specific activity in mushrooms originating from the region of Aachen was continuously measured until today. At the same time the specific activity was determined in pine tree twigs, blueberries, honey and game. There is a strong connection of the living organisms and the inanimate environment within the forest ecosystem. The decrease of the specific caesium activity in living organisms is slower than in the other environment. (orig.) [de

  1. Glassceramics frits attainment from industrial solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Matheus Chianca

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the residue obtained from the process of aluminum metal extraction activities, a great interest process, because of Brazil own some of the biggest bauxite mineral reserves in all the world. As a useful choice for no residue generation, and a support for environmentally friendly technologies, this work studies the white dross residue (WDR), from the process of aluminum metal reduction by thermal plasma. The phase equilibrium diagram of Al 2 O 3 -Ca O-SiO 2 system was used to calculate the compositions. The WDR were incorporated in a ceramic product without modifying its principal characteristics. The fusion and devitrification treatments were studied. XRD (X-ray diffractometry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (transformed Fourier infrared) were used to investigate the glass and glassceramic samples. These techniques showed that is possible to get glassceramic with up to 30 mass% of WDR after molten at 1300 deg C and annealed at 900 deg C. In addition, the WDR showed to be a promising material in attainment of crystalline phases in less times of heat treatment for annealing. (author)

  2. Measurement of {sup 11}C-raclopride binding in micropig brain with high and low specific activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Eo, Jae Seon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    In vitro, a saturation hyperbola or Scatchard plot is applied for the determination of receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). Simillary, Bmax and Kd could be obtained in vivo by performing two or more PET experiments with high and low specific activities (SA). To measure these parameters, the binding potential (BP) of 11C-raclopride for striatal D2 receptor in micropig brain at high and low SA was measured in this study. A normal male PWG micropig (weight: 38 kg, age: 24 months) was used in this study. The animals were anesthetized with ketamine (2 mL/10 kg, i.m.) and xylazine (1mL/10kg, i.m.), and placed in a supine position. Dynamic PET data was acquired for 60 min after injection of 11C-raclopride (2.5 mCi) through the catheter placed in a femoral vein. High SA and low SA (6.8 uCi/nmol) PET and T1 SPGR MRI scans were performed. MR image was co-registered to the static PET images and ROIs were drawn on striatum and cerebellum to obtain the time activity curve. The BP in striatum was computed by both the Lammertsma and Logan reference tissue methods using cerebellum tissue input function. BP parametric images were also generated using the Logan method. The value of striatum BP was 1.46/0.32 (high SA / low SA) and 1.34/0.31 in Lammertsma and Logan methods, respectively. The D2 occupancy by the cold raclopride was approximately 78% in micropig striatum. The Logan BP parametric image visualized well the change of receptor occupancy between the two scans. In this study, BP values at high and low SA and their percent change estimated by the two different methods were correlated well. This preliminary result suggests that the experimental procedures established in this study would be useful for the quantification of the density of D2 receptor and affinity in the micropig brain.

  3. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  4. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  5. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. Population Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    The population in the United States is becoming more educated, but significant differences in educational attainment remain with regard to age, sex, race, and origin. Nevertheless, the educational attainment of young adults (25 to 29 years), which provides a glimpse of our country's future, indicates dramatic improvement by groups who have…

  6. Measurement of the enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 reactor fuel material to 19800K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The enthalpy and specific heat of a Be 2 C-graphite-UC 2 composite nuclear fuel material were measured over the temperature range 300 to 1980 0 K using differential scanning calorimetry and liquid argon vaporization calorimetry. The fuel material measured was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in pulsed test reactors. The material is a hot-pressed composite consisting of 40 vol % Be 2 C, 49.5 vol % graphite, 3.5 vol % UC 2 and 7.0 vol % void. The specific heat was measured with the differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range 300 to 950 0 K while the enthalpy was measured over the range 1185 to 1980 0 K with the liquid argon vaporization calorimeter. The normal spectral emittance at a wavelength of 6.5 x 10 -5 cm was measured over the experimental temperature range. The combined experimental enthalpy data were fit using a spline routine and differentiated to give the specific heat. Comparison of the measured specific heat of the composite to the specific heat calculated by summing the contributions of the individual components indicates that the specific heat of the Be 2 C component differs significantly from literature values and is approximately 0.6 cal/g-K (2.5 x 10 3 J/Kg-K) for temperatures above 1000 0 K

  7. The relationship between personality and attainment in 16-19-year-old students in a sixth form college: II: Self-perception, gender and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, M; Youngman, M

    1999-06-01

    A related paper (Summerfield & Youngman, 1999) has described the development of a scale, the Student Self-Perception Scale (SSPS) designed to explore the relationship between academic self-concept, attainment and personality in sixth form college students. The study aimed to identify groups of students exhibiting varying patterns of relationship using a range of measures including the SSPS. Issues of gender and also examined. The samples comprised a pilot sample of 152 students (aged 16-17 years from two sixth form colleges) and a main sample of 364 students (mean age, 16 yrs 10 mths range 16:0 to 18:6 years, from one sixth form college). The main sample included similar numbers of male and female students (46% male, 54% female) and ethnic minority students comprised 14% of this sample. Data comprised responses to two personality measures (the SSPS, Summerfield, 1995, and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), various student and tutor estimates of success, and performance data from college records. Students were classified using relocation cluster analysis and cluster differences verified using discriminant function analysis. Thirty outcome models were tested using covariance regression analysis. Eight distinct and interpretable groups, consistent with other research, were identified but the hypothesis of a positive, linear relationship between mastery and academic attainment was not sustained without qualification. Previous attainment was the major determinant of final performance. Gender variations were detected on the personality measures, particularly Confidence of outcomes, Prediction discrepancy, Passivity, Mastery, Dependency and Locus of control, and these were implicated in the cluster characteristics. The results suggest that a non-linear methodology may be required to isolate relationships between self-concept, personality and attainment, especially where gender effects may exist.

  8. 76 FR 1532 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM 10... making final determinations that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur/Douglas nonattainment areas in... the Clean Air Act, that three Arizona ``moderate'' PM 10 nonattainment areas (Hayden, Nogales, and...

  9. 75 FR 67220 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM 10...: EPA has determined that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur/ Douglas nonattainment areas in Arizona... of a review of more recent ambient monitoring data, EPA has determined that the Hayden, Nogales, and...

  10. 75 FR 72964 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [R09-OAR-2010-0718; FRL-9233-1] Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM10 Nonattainment... November 2, 2010 (75 FR 67220), direct final rule determining that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur...

  11. The role of mentor type and timing in predicting educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruiht, Veronica M; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Having an adult mentor during adolescence has been found to predict academic success. Building on previous work, the present study examined interactions between the type of mentor (i.e., kin, teacher, friend, or community), the time that mentor became important (i.e., before, during, or after high school), and the ethnicity of the protégé in predicting educational attainment in young adulthood. Analyses used Waves III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,409). Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 27 (M = 21.75, SD = 1.79). The sample was 56.7 % female and nationally representative of ethnic diversity. Analyses showed that having a teacher-mentor was more predictive of educational attainment than having other types of mentors and that overall, having a mentor after high school predicts the most educational attainment. Kin- and community-mentors appeared to be more important to educational attainment during and before high school, respectively. Findings were consistent across ethnic groups. Overall, results highlight the value of teacher-mentors throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood and our study further suggests that different types of mentors may be particularly useful at specific points in development.

  12. Pathways of Intergenerational Transmission of Advantages during Adolescence: Social Background, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wiebke; Schunck, Reinhard; Diewald, Martin; Johnson, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability. By integrating two strands of research, a clearer picture of the pathways linking the family of origin, cognitive ability, and early educational outcomes can be reached. Using the population-based TwinLife study in Germany, we investigated multidimensional pathways linking parental socioeconomic position to their children's cognitive ability and academic track attendance in the secondary school. The sample included twins (N = 4008), respectively ages 11 and 17, and siblings (N = 801). We observed strong genetic influences on cognitive ability, whereas shared environmental influences were much more important for academic tracking. In multilevel analyses, separate dimensions of socioeconomic resources influenced child cognitive ability, controlling parental cognitive ability. Controlling adolescent cognitive ability and parental cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic resources also directly affected track attendance. This indicated that it is crucial to investigate the intertwined influences on educational outcomes in adolescence of both cognitive ability and the characteristics of the family of origin.

  13. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Reported Measures Of Strength And Sport-Specific Skills Distinguish Ranking In An International Online Fitness Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-02-08

    To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Pre-surgical Incisor Decompensation Attained in an Orthognathic Surgery Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    incisors were more proclined. One of the goals of pre - surgical orthodontic treatment is decompensation of the occlusion and movement of teeth into...purpose of this study is to analyze pre - surgical orthodontic incisor decompensation attained in a group of orthognathic surgery patients treated in...the Tri-Service Orthodontic Residency Program. B. Specific Hypothesis Pre - surgical orthodontic treatment does not achieve full decompensation of

  16. Association between childhood allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status in later life: systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Quint, Jennifer K; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the a...

  17. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  18. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keates, Steven [ADM Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) or packages of measures where evaluators can analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP).

  19. Life course epidemiology: Modeling educational attainment with administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie L; Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes across childhood and adolescence that affect later life inequalities depends on many variables for a large number of individuals measured over substantial time periods. Linkable administrative data were used to generate birth cohorts and to study pathways of inequity in childhood and early adolescence leading to differences in educational attainment. Advantages and disadvantages of using large administrative data bases for such research were highlighted. Children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1995 were followed until age 19 (N = 89,763), with many time-invariant measures serving as controls. Five time-varying predictors of high school graduation-three social and two health-were modelled using logistic regression and a framework for examining predictors across the life course. For each time-varying predictor, six temporal patterns were tested: full, accumulation of risk, sensitive period, and three critical period models. Predictors measured in early adolescence generated the highest odds ratios, suggesting the importance of adolescence. Full models provided the best fit for the three time-varying social measures. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a particularly influential predictor of not graduating from high school. The transmission of risk across developmental periods was also highlighted; exposure in one period had significant implications for subsequent life stages. This study advances life course epidemiology, using administrative data to clarify the relationships among several measures of social behavior, cognitive development, and health. Analyses of temporal patterns can be useful in studying such other outcomes as educational achievement, teen pregnancy, and workforce participation.

  20. Life course epidemiology: Modeling educational attainment with administrative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L Roos

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes across childhood and adolescence that affect later life inequalities depends on many variables for a large number of individuals measured over substantial time periods. Linkable administrative data were used to generate birth cohorts and to study pathways of inequity in childhood and early adolescence leading to differences in educational attainment. Advantages and disadvantages of using large administrative data bases for such research were highlighted.Children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1995 were followed until age 19 (N = 89,763, with many time-invariant measures serving as controls. Five time-varying predictors of high school graduation-three social and two health-were modelled using logistic regression and a framework for examining predictors across the life course. For each time-varying predictor, six temporal patterns were tested: full, accumulation of risk, sensitive period, and three critical period models.Predictors measured in early adolescence generated the highest odds ratios, suggesting the importance of adolescence. Full models provided the best fit for the three time-varying social measures. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a particularly influential predictor of not graduating from high school. The transmission of risk across developmental periods was also highlighted; exposure in one period had significant implications for subsequent life stages.This study advances life course epidemiology, using administrative data to clarify the relationships among several measures of social behavior, cognitive development, and health. Analyses of temporal patterns can be useful in studying such other outcomes as educational achievement, teen pregnancy, and workforce participation.

  1. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seletskiy, Sergey M.; Rochester U.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the first cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cooling. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Tevatron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV carrying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 (micro)rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible. Chapter 1 is an introduction where I describe briefly the theory and the history of electron cooling, and derive the requirements to the quality of electron beam and requirements to the basic parameters of the Recycler Electron Cooler. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theoretical consideration of the motion of electrons in the cooling section, description of the cooling section and of the measurement of the magnetic fields. In Chapter 3 I consider different factors that increase the effective electron angle in the cooling section and suggest certain algorithms for the suppression of parasitic angles. Chapter 4 is devoted to the measurements of the energy of the electron beam. In the concluding Chapter 5 I review

  2. The suitability of polycystic ovary syndrome-specific questionnaires for measuring the impact of PCOS on quality of life in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik-Aslam, Aysha; Reaney, Matthew D; Speight, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Generic patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures underestimate the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this review was to identify PCOS-specific QoL measures and establish whether their development history and measurement properties support their use in clinical trials. A systematic search was conducted using terms synonymous with "PCOS" and "QoL." Following identification of measures, further searches were undertaken using the questionnaire name and abbreviation to explore its use, development history, and demonstrated measurement properties. Of 56 abstracts screened, 21 reported using PRO measures. One PCOS-specific QoL measure was identified: the PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ). Nine papers show that the PCOSQ's development history is somewhat incomplete, and that it does not have good content validity. The PCOSQ subscales demonstrate acceptable levels of reliability (0.70-0.97) and partial known-groups validity as well as convergent/divergent validity with other PRO instruments. Responsiveness to change is variable and minimally important differences have not been established. The PCOSQ is the only condition-specific measure of the impact of PCOS on QoL. Additional research is required to ensure its comprehensiveness, sensitivity, and to guide interpretation prior to including in clinical trials.

  3. H-Abstraction by OH from Large Branched Alkanes: Overall Rate Measurements and Site-Specific Tertiary Rate Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dapeng; Khaled, Fathi; Giri, Binod; Assaf, Emmanuel; Fittschen, Christa; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    ,2,3,4-tetramethyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane) are measured at high temperatures (900-1300 K) using a shock tube and narrow-line-width OH absorption diagnostic in the UV region. In addition, room-temperature measurements

  4. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    -pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct

  5. Site-specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    absorption of the R1(5) transition of OH spectrum near 306.69nm.Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a

  6. Accurate tissue area measurements with considerably reduced radiation dose achieved by patient-specific CT scan parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, J.; Bergelin, E.; Sjostrom, L.

    2008-01-01

    A low-dose technique was compared with a standard diagnostic technique for measuring areas of adipose and muscle tissue and CT numbers for muscles in a body composition application. The low-dose technique was intended to keep the expected deviation in the measured area of adipose and muscle tissu...

  7. Memory for general and specific value information in younger and older adults: measuring the limits of strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Farb, Norman A S; Craik, Fergus I M

    2007-06-01

    The ability to selectively remember important information is a critical function of memory. Although previous research has suggested that older adults are impaired in a variety of episodic memory tasks, recent work has demonstrated that older adults can selectively remember high-value information. In the present research, we examined how younger and older adults selectively remembered words with various assigned numeric point values, to see whether younger adults could remember more specific value information than could older adults. Both groups were equally good at recalling point values when recalling the range of high-value words, but younger adults outperformed older adults when recalling specific values. Although older adults were more likely to recognize negative value words, both groups exhibited control by not recalling negative value information. The findings suggest that although both groups retain high-value information, older adults rely more on gist-based encoding and retrieval operations, whereas younger adults are able to remember specific numeric value information.

  8. Recent advances in cross-cultural measurement in psychiatric epidemiology: utilizing 'what matters most' to identify culture-specific aspects of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Thornicroft, Graham; Alvarado, Ruben; Vega, Eduardo; Link, Bruce George

    2014-04-01

    While stigma measurement across cultures has assumed growing importance in psychiatric epidemiology, it is unknown to what extent concepts arising from culture have been incorporated. We utilize a formulation of culture-as the everyday interactions that 'matter most' to individuals within a cultural group-to identify culturally-specific stigma dynamics relevant to measurement. A systematic literature review from January 1990 to September 2012 was conducted using PsycINFO, Medline and Google Scholar to identify articles studying: (i) mental health stigma-related concepts; (ii) ≥ 1 non-Western European cultural group. From 5292 abstracts, 196 empirical articles were located. The vast majority of studies (77%) utilized adaptations of existing Western-developed stigma measures to new cultural groups. Extremely few studies (2.0%) featured quantitative stigma measures derived within a non-Western European cultural group. A sizeable amount (16.8%) of studies employed qualitative methods to identify culture-specific stigma processes. The 'what matters most' perspective identified cultural ideals of the everyday activities that comprise 'personhood' of 'preserving lineage' among specific Asian groups, 'fighting hard to overcome problems and taking advantage of immigration opportunities' among specific Latino-American groups, and 'establishing trust among religious institutions due to institutional discrimination' among African-American groups. These essential cultural interactions shaped culture-specific stigma manifestations. Mixed method studies (3.6%) corroborated these qualitative results. Quantitatively-derived, culturally-specific stigma measures were lacking. Further, the vast majority of qualitative studies on stigma were conducted without using stigma-specific frameworks. We propose the 'what matters most' approach to address this key issue in future research.

  9. Chapter 9: Metering Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy-Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mort, Dan [ADM Associates, Inc. Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Estimated energy savings are calculated as the difference between the energy use during the baseline period and the energy use during the post installation period of the EEM. This chapter describes the physical properties measured in the process of evaluating EEMs and the specific metering methods for several types of measurements. Skill-level requirements and other operating considerations are discussed, including where, when, and how often measurements should be made. The subsequent section identifies metering equipment types and their respective measurement accuracies. This is followed by sections containing suggestions regarding proper data handling procedures and the categorization and definition of several load types.

  10. Mathematics Objectives and Measurement Specifications 1986-1990. Exit Level. Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Educational Assessment.

    This document lists the objectives for the Texas educational assessment program in mathematics. Eighteen objectives for exit level mathematics are listed, by category: number concepts (4); computation (3); applied computation (5); statistical concepts (3); geometric concepts (2); and algebraic concepts (1). Then general specifications are listed…

  11. The Development of a Tool for Measuring Graduate Students' Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Thin Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, L. V. A.; Lutter, J. C.; Shultz, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students play a critical role in undergraduate education at doctorate granting institutions; but generally have minimal opportunity to develop teaching expertise. Furthermore, little is known about how graduate students develop teaching expertise in this context. We investigated the development of topic-specific pedagogical content…

  12. Quality of life in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease measured by a generic and a disease-specific questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, H. J.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.; Koopman, H. M.; Derkx, H. H. F.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents. using both a generic and a disease-specific instrument. Three questionnaires were sent to all patients (8-18 y old) from the database of two large

  13. Validating subject-specific RF and thermal simulations in the calf muscle using MR-based temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Ffj; Raaijmakers, Aje; Lagendijk, Jjw; van den Berg, Cat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Ongoing discussions occur to translate the safety restrictions on MR scanners from specific absorption rate (SAR) to thermal dose. Therefore, this research focuses on the accuracy of thermal simulations in human subjects during an MR exam, which is fundamental information in that debate.

  14. Assessing the Factors Influencing Women Attainment of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the factors influencing the attainment of household food security in Ikwuano ... Data analysis utilized descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, ... had no access to credits, 71.7% had no contact with extension service.

  15. Competencies to Attain a Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Ricky L

    2009-01-01

    .... With additional training and education in executive competencies and interpersonal skills, the FA 53 officer attains a JIIM perspective and is prepared to operate in the complex JIIM environment...

  16. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  17. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  18. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  19. Comparison of three infertility-specific measures in men and women going through assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedro, Juliana; Frederiksen, Yoon; Schmidt, Lone

    2016-01-01

    higher internal consistency. COMPI Fertility Problem Stress Scales differentiated best between its domains. Fertility Problem Inventory revealed better concurrent validity. Fertility Quality of Life Tool presented better fit. While discrimination for depression was similar between measures, Fertility...

  20. SU-F-BRE-04: Construction of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for Dosimetric Verification Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a method to create per patient phantoms for dosimetric verification measurements. Methods: Using a RANDO phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a model of the external features of the head and neck region of the phantom was created. A phantom was used instead of a human for two reasons: to allow for dosimetric measurements that would not be possible in-vivo and to avoid patient privacy issues. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene thermoplastic as the building material, a hollow replica was created using the 3D printer filled with a custom tissue equivalent mixture of paraffin wax, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate. A traditional parallel-opposed head and neck plan was constructed. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in both the RANDO phantom and in the 3D printed phantom. Calculated and measured dose was compared at 17 points phantoms including regions in high and low dose regions and at the field edges. On-board cone beam CT was used to localize both phantoms within 1mm and 1° prior to radiation. Results: The maximum difference in calculated dose between phantoms was 1.8% of the planned dose (180 cGy). The mean difference between calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was 1.9% ± 2.8% and −0.1% ± 4.9%, respectively. The difference between measured and calculated dose was determined in the RANDO and 3D printed phantoms. The differences between measured and calculated dose in each respective phantom was within 2% for 12 of 17 points. The overlap of the RANDO and 3D printed phantom was 0.956 (Jaccard Index). Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed good agreement between the dose in the RANDO phantom (patient substitute) and the 3D printed phantom

  1. SU-F-BRE-04: Construction of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for Dosimetric Verification Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To validate a method to create per patient phantoms for dosimetric verification measurements. Methods: Using a RANDO phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a model of the external features of the head and neck region of the phantom was created. A phantom was used instead of a human for two reasons: to allow for dosimetric measurements that would not be possible in-vivo and to avoid patient privacy issues. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene thermoplastic as the building material, a hollow replica was created using the 3D printer filled with a custom tissue equivalent mixture of paraffin wax, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate. A traditional parallel-opposed head and neck plan was constructed. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in both the RANDO phantom and in the 3D printed phantom. Calculated and measured dose was compared at 17 points phantoms including regions in high and low dose regions and at the field edges. On-board cone beam CT was used to localize both phantoms within 1mm and 1° prior to radiation. Results: The maximum difference in calculated dose between phantoms was 1.8% of the planned dose (180 cGy). The mean difference between calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was 1.9% ± 2.8% and −0.1% ± 4.9%, respectively. The difference between measured and calculated dose was determined in the RANDO and 3D printed phantoms. The differences between measured and calculated dose in each respective phantom was within 2% for 12 of 17 points. The overlap of the RANDO and 3D printed phantom was 0.956 (Jaccard Index). Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed good agreement between the dose in the RANDO phantom (patient substitute) and the 3D printed phantom.

  2. Mengembangkan Self Concept Siswa Melalui Model Pembelajaran Concept Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumartini, Tina Sri

    2015-01-01

    Dalam pembelajaran matematika, siswa masih kurang memiliki self concept yang positif. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengembangkan self concept siswa adalah model concept attainment. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perkembangan self concept siswa setelah mendapatkan model pembelajaran concept attainment. Penelitian ini berbentuk one shot case study. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa di salah satu SMK di Kabupaten Garut. Pengambilan sampel d...

  3. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More resea...

  4. General and Specific Approaches to Media Parenting: A Systematic Review of Current Measures, Associations with Screen-Viewing, and Measurement Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J.; Urbanski, Carly R.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parent-focused interventions may help to reduce youth screen-viewing (SV). This review synthesized current information on the links between parenting styles, parenting practices, and youth SV with a focus on measurement. Methods A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted. Results In all, 29 of 1189 studies met the inclusion criteria. Parenting practices were divided into rule and nonrule-based practices. Seven rules: (1) Limits on total time (n studies=23); (2) limits on time of day (n=7); (3) content restriction (n=11); (4) mealtime rules (n=2); (5) parental supervision (n=3); (6) contingent screentime (n=3); and (7) no-TV policy (n=1) were reported. Two nonrule-based practices were reported: Co-viewing (n=6) and encouragement to view (n=2). Three studies (10.3%) provided information on parenting styles. Only 12 studies (41.4%) provided information on the reliability/validity of the outcome measure, 15 (51.7%) studies provided information on the reliability/validity of the parenting measure, and 6 (20.7%) provided information on the reliability/validity of both outcome and exposure measures. Conclusions There is mixed evidence that parenting styles and media-related parenting practices are associated with youth SV. The assessment of parental influence of youth media use is hampered by the diversity of measures that have been used. There is a need for new measures that assess a range of media parenting practices that are relevant to multiple forms of SV. PMID:23944925

  5. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal fluctuations in the classical superconductor Nb3Sn from high-resolution specific-heat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lortz, Rolf; Wang Yuxing; Junod, Alain; Toyota, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The range of thermal fluctuations in 'classical' bulk superconductors is extremely small and especially in low-fields hardly experimentally accessible. With a new type of calorimeter we were able to detect a tiny lambda anomaly in the specific-heat of the superconductor Nb 3 Sn within a narrow temperature range around the H c2 line. We show that the evolution of the anomaly as a function of magnetic field follows scaling laws expected in the presence of critical thermal fluctuations

  7. Measurement properties of the most commonly used Foot- and Ankle-Specific Questionnaires: the FFI, FAOS and FAAM. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierevelt, I N; Zwiers, R; Schats, W; Haverkamp, D; Terwee, C B; Nolte, P A; Kerkhoffs, G M M J

    2017-10-12

    In the foot and ankle literature, a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is used, however, consensus as to which PROMs are preferred is lacking. Selection of a PROM is among other reasons, often based on measurement properties without considering the methodological quality of the studies that evaluate these measurement properties. The aim of current study was first to identify the most frequently used foot and ankle-specific PROMs in recent orthopaedic foot and ankle literature, and second to conduct a systematic review to synthesize and critically appraise the measurement properties of these PROMS. Six PubMed indexed journals focussing on foot and ankle research were screened to identify most commonly used foot and ankle-specific PROMs over a 2 year period (2015-2016). Subsequently, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Scopus to identify relevant studies on their measurement properties. Methodological quality assessment was performed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, criteria for good measurement properties were applied, and a level of evidence was determined for the measurement properties of each domain of the questionnaires. The three most frequently reported PROMs were the Foot Function Index (FFI), the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Activity Measure (FAAM). Among 2046 unique citations, 50 studies were included evaluating these PROMs. Evidence to support the measurement properties of the FFI was mainly lacking due to poor methodological quality. More evidence was available for the measurement properties of the FAOS and the FAAM, but overall evidence supporting all measurement properties is not yet sufficient. The best available evidence retrieved in this review showed that the FAOS and the FAAM are promising outcome measures for evaluation of patients with foot and ankle conditions, but their

  8. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  9. Impact of a product-specific reference standard for the measurement of a PEGylated rFVIII activity: the Swiss Multicentre Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, O; Poncet, A; Alberio, L; Asmis, L M; Gähler, A; Graf, L; Nagler, M; Studt, J-D; Tsakiris, D A; Fontana, P

    2017-07-01

    Measuring factor VIII (FVIII) activity can be challenging when it has been modified, such as when FVIII is pegylated to increase its circulating half-life. Use of a product-specific reference standard may help avoid this issue. Evaluate the impact of using a product-specific reference standard for measuring the FVIII activity of BAX 855 - a pegylated FVIII - in eight of Switzerland's main laboratories. Factor VIII-deficient plasma, spiked with five different concentrations of BAX 855, plus a control FVIII sample, was sent to the participating laboratories. They measured FVIII activity by using either with a one-stage (OSA) or the chromogenic assay (CA) against their local or a product-specific reference standard. When using a local reference standard, there was an overestimation of BAX 855 activity compared to the target concentrations, both with the OSA and CA. The use of a product-specific reference standard reduced this effect: mean recovery ranged from 127.7% to 213.5% using the OSA with local reference standards, compared to 110% to 183.8% with a product-specific reference standard, and from 146.3% to 182.4% using the CA with local reference standards compared to 72.7% to 103.7% with a product-specific reference standard. In this in vitro study, the type of reference standard had a major impact on the measurement of BAX 855 activity. Evaluation was more accurate and precise when using a product-specific reference standard. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for calibration and reduction of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvance, D.; Novak, E.

    1983-12-01

    The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the reduction of calibration data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems

  11. Association between childhood allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status in later life: systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the association between specific allergic diseases and educational attainment. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status, and if possible, calculate meta-analytic summary estimates for the associations. Methods Systematic electronic searches in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and education Resources Information Center (ERIC); hand search in reference lists of included papers and conference reports; search for unpublished studies in clinical trial registers and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report; data extraction; and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) will be performed. Analysis Data will be summarised descriptively, and meta-analysis including meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneities will be performed if possible. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination in a peer-reviewed, open-access, international scientific journal is planned. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017058036. PMID:29025838

  12. Researchers and Institutions in the Periphery: Challenges in Measuring Research Capacity for Geographically Specific Programs in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkers, J.

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. research funding system supports two geographically targeted government programs designed to enhance the research capacity of less competitive states in seeking federal research funds. Program eligibility is based on a relatively narrow measures of overall jurisdiction research funding track record. Yet, in order to adequately measure and address improved capacity development in these areas, a more nuanced understanding of the research capacity in these settings is needed. While the metric of prior research funding metric may be useful in assigning jurisdictions program eligibility, they do not account for variations within or across these areas, nor for factors that may function differently in lower capacity regions. This paper addresses the particular institutional and social/human capital aspects of measuring and identifying research capacity in these regions. Institutional data are used to categorize institutions within and across eligible jurisdictions. Survey data are used to address capacity issues and factors relevant to capacity development at the researcher level. (Author)

  13. Measuring Development of Selected Poverty Risk Indicators in V4 Countries with Specific Focus on Slovak Republic and its Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beňuš Ondrej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of selected poverty indicators as measured by EU-Statistics on income and living conditions. Our orientation on these indicators underlines our focus on quantitative measurement. Spatial orientation was selected as the area of the Visegrad group countries serving as a research base for our investigation of poverty differences in the Central Europe. Further research is dedicated to Slovakia and its regions. In this article we aim to identify those quantitative poverty indicators that are responsible for poverty status of the most affected social group of people in the country.

  14. Leveling the Playing Field? Communication Technology as a Predictor of Future Attainments for Deaf Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Lou Garberoglio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication technologies are often proposed to level the playing field for individuals with disabilities, but the benefits may be magnified for deaf individuals in particular due to the communication barriers experienced by these individuals. In this paper, we set out to test the assumption that increased engagement with communication technology, specifically computer-mediated communication, during adolescence would contribute to actual attainment gains in adult life for deaf individuals in three domains: life, education, and employment. A secondary analysis using the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2 was conducted, allowing for a longitudinal examination of deaf individuals' experiences in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Findings revealed that deaf individuals who engaged with computer-mediated communication at higher frequencies during adolescence did not reveal discernible gains in adult life attainments in any domain. We propose that the benefits of communication technology only go so far, and that achieving greater equitable outcomes for deaf individuals requires larger systemic change.

  15. Shared Environment Estimates for Educational Attainment: A Puzzle and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Jeremy; Jao, Yu-Han

    2017-02-01

    Classical behavioral genetics models for twin and other family designs decompose traits into heritability, shared environment, and nonshared environment components. Estimates of heritability of adult traits are pervasively observed to be far higher than those of shared environment, which has been used to make broad claims about the impotence of upbringing. However, the most commonly studied nondemographic variable in many areas of social science, educational attainment, exhibits robustly high estimates both for heritability and for shared environment. When previously noticed, the usual explanation has emphasized family resources, but evidence suggests this is unlikely to explain the anomalous high estimates for shared environment of educational attainment. We articulate eight potential complementary explanations and discuss evidence of their prospective contributions to resolving the puzzle. In so doing, we hope to further consideration of how behavioral genetics findings may advance studies of social stratification beyond the effort to articulate specific genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clinimetric evaluation of methods to measure muscle functioning in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, C.H. de; Heuvel, S.P. van den; Staal, J.B.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Hendriks, E.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle

  17. Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, R; Helms-Lorenz, M.; Maulana, R; van Veen, K; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to adjust the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW) in order to measure stress causes and stress responses of beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. First, the suitability of the original QEEW stress scales for use in the

  18. Site-specific flight speeds of nonbreeding Pacific dunlins as a measure of the quality of a foraging habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Florian; Hentze, Nathan; Rourke, Jay; Ydenberg, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how foraging behavior such as prey choice varies with factors such as prey size or density. Models of such relationships can be applied "in reverse" to translate easily observed foraging behaviors into assays of habitat attributes that cannot (easily) be measured

  19. Technical specification of the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter used for the measurement of body dose and skin dose

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, K B

    1977-01-01

    This report specifies the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter used for the measurement of radiation dose in tissue at a depth of 700 mg cm sup - sup 2 (body dose) and at a depth of 5-10 mg cm sup - sup 2 (skin dose).

  20. Student Perceptions of the Relationship between Web-Based Instructional Tools and Perceived Attainment of Intended Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of and continual adaptations related to distance learning, there is a recognized need for up to date research in the area of effectiveness of online education programs. More specifically, assessing the capacity to attain academic goals by use of asynchronous and synchronous learning management systems (LMS) that power distance…

  1. A strand specific high resolution normalization method for chip-sequencing data employing multiple experimental control measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enroth, Stefan; Andersson, Claes; Andersson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is becoming the standard tool for investigating protein-DNA interactions or epigenetic modifications. However, the data generated will always contain noise due to e.g. repetitive regions or non-specific antibody interactions. The noise will appear in the form of a backg......, the background is only used to adjust peak calling and not as a pre-processing step that aims at discerning the signal from the background noise. A normalization procedure that extracts the signal of interest would be of universal use when investigating genomic patterns....

  2. Thermal fluctuations in the classical superconductor Nb{sub 3}Sn from high-resolution specific-heat measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, Rolf [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Rolf.Lortz@physics.unige.ch; Wang Yuxing; Junod, Alain [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Toyota, Naoki [Physics Department, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 980-8571 Sendai (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    The range of thermal fluctuations in 'classical' bulk superconductors is extremely small and especially in low-fields hardly experimentally accessible. With a new type of calorimeter we were able to detect a tiny lambda anomaly in the specific-heat of the superconductor Nb{sub 3}Sn within a narrow temperature range around the H{sub c2} line. We show that the evolution of the anomaly as a function of magnetic field follows scaling laws expected in the presence of critical thermal fluctuations.

  3. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  4. Immunocapture-based fluorometric assay for the measurement of neprilysin-specific enzyme activity in brain tissue homogenates and cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miners, J.S.; Verbeek, M.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kehoe, P.G.; Love, S.

    2008-01-01

    Neprilysin, a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, has important roles in the physiology and pathology of many diseases such as hypertension, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We have developed an immunocapture assay to measure the specific enzyme activity of neprilysin in brain tissue homogenates and

  5. Are context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour associated with accelerometer data in 2-9-year-old European children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Bammann, Karin; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Eiben, Gabriele; Konstabel, Kenn; Kovács, Eva; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Reisch, Lucia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Maes, Lea; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children. Cross-sectional study. Seven European countries taking part in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study. Data were analysed from 2-9-year-old children (n 5982) who provided both parental-reported and accelerometer-derived physical activity/sedentary behaviour measures. Parents reported their children's daily screen-time, weekly sports participation and daily outdoor playtime by means of the Outdoor Playtime Checklist (OPC) and Outdoor Playtime Recall Questions (OPRQ). Sports participation, OPC- and OPRQ-derived outdoor play were positively associated with accelerometer-derived physical activity. Television viewing and computer use were positively associated with accelerometer-derived sedentary time. All parental-reported measures that were significantly associated with accelerometer outcomes explained only a minor part of the variance in accelerometer-derived physical activity or sedentary time. Parental-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are not useful as a proxy for 2-9-year-old children's physical activity and sedentary time. Findings do not preclude the use of context-specific measures but imply that conclusions should be limited to the context-specific behaviours that are actually measured. Depending on the aim of the study, future research should carefully consider the choice of measurements, including the use of subjective or objective measures of the behaviour of interest or a combination of both.

  6. Pressure dependence of thermal conductivity and specific heat in CeRh2Si2 measured by an extended thermal relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Shijo; Seida, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a new technique for measuring thermal conductivity and specific heat under pressure by improving a thermal relaxation method. In this technique, a cylindrical sample with a small disc heater is embedded in the pressure-transmitting medium, then temperature variations of the sample and heater were directly measured by thermocouples during a heating and cooling process. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are estimated by comparing the experimental data with temperature variations simulated by a finite element method. The obtained thermal conductivity and specific heat of the test sample CeRh2Si2 exhibit a small enhancement and a clear peak arising from antiferromagnetic transition, respectively. The observation of these typical behaviors for magnetic compounds indicate that the technique is valid for the study on thermal properties under pressure.

  7. An Instrument to Measure Dental Students' Communication Skills With Patients in Six Specific Circumstances: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalboe, Joanna A; Schumacher, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the internal structure of an instrument assessing dental students' confidence in their ability to communicate with patients in six specific circumstances (anxious, in pain, etc.) using exploratory factor analysis. In a Communication in the Dental Health Care Setting course at a U.S. dental school, second-year dental students in two years (2013 and 2014) responded to the six items on a survey instrument. Of the total 123 students, 122 fully completed the instrument, for a response rate of 99%. Analysis of the results identified a unidimensional scale with regards to patient-specific communication self-efficacy and explained 74% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reflected by high Cronbach's alpha (α=0.929, 95% CI [0.907, 0.947]). These findings suggest the instrument may be a useful tool in assessing the development of patient communication skills in second-year dental students following a course in communication. Further exploration utilizing confirmatory analysis, determining predictive validity, and assessing convergent and discriminant evidence is warranted.

  8. Self consistently calibrated photopyroelectric calorimeter for the high resolution simultaneous absolute measurement of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zammit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature resolution study of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity over the smecticA-nematic and nematic-isotropic phase transitions in octylcynobephenyl liquid crystal using a new photopyroelectric calorimetry configuration are reported, where, unlike previously adopted ones, no calibration is required other than the procedure used during the actual measurement. This makes photopyroelectric calorimetry suitable for “absolute” measurements of the thermal parameters like most other existing conventional calorimetric techniques where, however, the thermal conductivity cannot be measured.

  9. Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, R; Helms-Lorenz, M.; Maulana, R; van Veen, K; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to adjust the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW) in order to measure stress causes and stress responses of beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. First, the suitability of the original QEEW stress scales for use in the beginning teachers (BTs) context was investigated using a sample of 356 beginning teachers from 52 different secondary school locations in the Netherlands. Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Principal Compone...

  10. Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, Ruth; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan; van Veen, Klaas; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to adjust the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW) in order to measure stress causes and stress responses of beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. First, the suitability of the original QEEW stress scales for use in the beginning teachers (BTs) context was investigated using a sample of 356 beginning teachers from 52 different secondary school locations in the Netherlands. Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Principal Compone...

  11. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2017-10-06

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller - or multiple chillers - and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components.

  12. Cross-cultural validation of a disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure for lupus in Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, S V; Tanangunan, R M D V; Mikolaitis-Preuss, R A; Kosinski, M; Block, J A; Jolly, M

    2013-03-01

    LupusPRO is a disease-targeted patient-reported outcome measure that was developed and validated among US patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report the cross-cultural validation results of the LupusPRO English-language version among Filipino SLE patients. The 43-item LupusPRO was pretested in 15 SLE individuals, then administered to 106 SLE patients, along with short-form SF36 and the EQ5D visual analogue scale. A mail/drop-back LupusPRO and change in health status item survey were returned within two to three days. Demographics, clinical and serological characteristics, disease activity and damage measured by PGA, SELENA-SLEDAI, LFA Flare, and SLICC-ACR SLE damage index (SDI) were collected. Internal consistency reliability (ICR), test-retest reliability (TRT), convergent validity (corresponding SF36 domains) and criterion validity (against general health and disease activity measures) were tested. Reported p values are two tailed. A total of 121 Filipino SLE subjects (95% women, median age 31.0 ± 16 years) with at least a high school level of English instruction participated. Median (IQR) PGA, SLEDAI and SDI were 0.0 (1.0), 2.0 (10) and 0 (1), respectively. ICR exceeded 0.7 for all domains except the lupus symptoms domain. TRT was greater than 0.85 for all LupusPRO domains. Convergent and criterion validity were observed against corresponding SF36 domains and disease activity measures. The tool was well received by patients. Confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit. English LupusPRO has fair psychometric properties among SLE patients in the Philippines, and is now available for inclusion in clinical trials and longitudinal studies to test responsiveness to change.

  13. Development of a simple measurement scale to evaluate the severity of non-specific low back pain for industrial ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashiro, Mashaharu

    2010-06-01

    This study developed an assessment scale that hierarchically classifies degrees of low back pain severity. This assessment scale consists of two subscales: 1) pain intensity; 2) pain interference. First, the assessment scale devised by the authors was used to administer a self-administered questionnaire to 773 male workers in the car manufacturing industry. Subsequently, the validity of the measurement items was examined and some of them were revised. Next, the corrected low back pain scale was used in a self-administered questionnaire, the subjects of which were 5053 ordinary workers. The hierarchical validity between the measurement items was checked based on the results of Mokken Scale analysis. Finally, a low back pain assessment scale consisting of seven items was perfected. Quantitative assessment is made possible by scoring the items and low back pain severity can be classified into four hierarchical levels: none; mild; moderate; severe. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The use of this scale devised by the authors allows a more detailed assessment of the degree of risk factor effect and also should prove useful both in selecting remedial measures for occupational low back pain and evaluating their efficacy.

  14. In-place measurement of specific electric resistance during precipitation of γ'-precipitating Ni base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silomon, M.

    1991-01-01

    During precipitation and coarsening of a second phase, the electric resistance of an alloy changes. Continuous resistance measurement is possible during heat treatment and can be conducted with limited experimental effort; any metallographic determination of the temperature and time dependencies of structural changes, however, requires very high effort. For this reason, an instrument was set up which permits continuous measurement of the resistance at precipitation temperature and during heating or cooling, while providing sufficient resolution for minor changes. Both measuring methods are conducted on technologically relevant alloys such as Nimonic PE 16 and those based on Ni-20 At.% Cr with deliberately varied additions of Al and Ti (accompanying investigations: TEM, SANS, and calorimetry). Their usefulness for alloy development is discussed within the scope of current concepts of demixing kinetics and resistance of alloys. Essential results concern the matrix/γ'-phase mismatch, the Ni 2 Cr short range order, and determination of the γ'-solvus temperature. (orig.) With 53 figs., 4 tabs [de

  15. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  16. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  17. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  18. P300 as a measure of processing capacity in auditory and visual domains in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julia L; Selinger, Craig; Pollak, Seth D

    2011-05-10

    This study examined the electrophysiological correlates of auditory and visual working memory in children with Specific Language Impairments (SLI). Children with SLI and age-matched controls (11;9-14;10) completed visual and auditory working memory tasks while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In the auditory condition, children with SLI performed similarly to controls when the memory load was kept low (1-back memory load). As expected, when demands for auditory working memory were higher, children with SLI showed decreases in accuracy and attenuated P3b responses. However, children with SLI also evinced difficulties in the visual working memory tasks. In both the low (1-back) and high (2-back) memory load conditions, P3b amplitude was significantly lower for the SLI as compared to CA groups. These data suggest a domain-general working memory deficit in SLI that is manifested across auditory and visual modalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Completion of proteomic data sets by Kd measurement using cell-free synthesis of site-specifically labeled proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Majkut

    Full Text Available The characterization of phosphotyrosine mediated protein-protein interactions is vital for the interpretation of downstream pathways of transmembrane signaling processes. Currently however, there is a gap between the initial identification and characterization of cellular binding events by proteomic methods and the in vitro generation of quantitative binding information in the form of equilibrium rate constants (Kd values. In this work we present a systematic, accelerated and simplified approach to fill this gap: using cell-free protein synthesis with site-specific labeling for pull-down and microscale thermophoresis (MST we were able to validate interactions and to establish a binding hierarchy based on Kd values as a completion of existing proteomic data sets. As a model system we analyzed SH2-mediated interactions of the human T-cell phosphoprotein ADAP. Putative SH2 domain-containing binding partners were synthesized from a cDNA library using Expression-PCR with site-specific biotinylation in order to analyze their interaction with fluorescently labeled and in vitro phosphorylated ADAP by pull-down. On the basis of the pull-down results, selected SH2's were subjected to MST to determine Kd values. In particular, we could identify an unexpectedly strong binding of ADAP to the previously found binding partner Rasa1 of about 100 nM, while no evidence of interaction was found for the also predicted SH2D1A. Moreover, Kd values between ADAP and its known binding partners SLP-76 and Fyn were determined. Next to expanding data on ADAP suggesting promising candidates for further analysis in vivo, this work marks the first Kd values for phosphotyrosine/SH2 interactions on a phosphoprotein level.

  20. Subscales measuring symptoms of non-specific depression, anhedonia, and anxiety in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia

    2008-06-01

    There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.

  1. Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with high blood pressure in black South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Botha-Ravyse, Chrisna; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Doubell, Maretha; van Rooyen, Johannes M

    2017-11-01

    To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured. There was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (high blood pressure (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.09-2.81 versus OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.23, respectively). Despite significant agreement between BMI and %BF categories, considerable misclassification occurred in the overweight range. Participants with excessive %BF had a greater odds of high blood pressure than those in the highest BMI category. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The measures for achieving nZEB standard of retrofitted educational building for specific polish location - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Mijakowski, Maciej; Trząski, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Most of the EU member states have already set a definition of nZEB for new buildings and some of the countries also done it for existing buildings. As there is no definition of nZEB for existing buildings in Poland, the paper will include various considerations of such a standard. Next, a case study of educational building retrofitting to a proposed nZEB standard will be presented. The aim of the paper is to present what measures can be used in order to decrease energy consumption in existing building. The measures are divided into three parts: architectural and construction, installations and energy sources. Thus a complexity of the solutions are presented. As the nZEB standard is related to available energy sources, also an influence of local condition will be considered. Building chosen for analysis is located in an area under historic protection which makes the work even more difficult. It was proved that used solutions were chosen not only to reduce energy demand or increase energy production from renewable energy sources, but also to increase social and aesthetic features of the building.

  3. Fractionation in position-specific isotope composition during vaporization of environmental pollutants measured with isotope ratio monitoring by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, Maxime; Parinet, Julien; Nun, Pierrick; Bayle, Kevin; Höhener, Patrick; Robins, Richard J.; Remaud, Gérald S.

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation of pollutants in terrestrial or aqueous environments is a well-recognized means by which to track different processes during remediation. As a complement to the common practice of measuring the change in isotope ratio for the whole molecule using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry (irm-MS), position-specific isotope analysis (PSIA) can provide further information that can be exploited to investigate source and remediation of soil and water pollutants. Position-specific fractionation originates from either degradative or partitioning processes. We show that isotope ratio monitoring by 13 C NMR (irm- 13 C NMR) spectrometry can be effectively applied to methyl tert-butylether, toluene, ethanol and trichloroethene to obtain this position-specific data for partitioning. It is found that each compound exhibits characteristic position-specific isotope fractionation patterns, and that these are modulated by the type of evaporative process occurring. Such data should help refine models of how remediation is taking place, hence back-tracking to identify pollutant sources. - Highlights: • Position-Specific Isotope Analysis (PSIA) by 13 C NMR spectrometry. • PSIA on isotope fractionation during several vaporization processes. • PSIA for isotope profiling in environment pollutants. • Intramolecular 13 C reveal normal and inverse effects, bulk values being unchanged. - PSIA in pollutants during evaporation processes shows more detailed information for discerning the nature of the process involved than does bulk isotope measurements

  4. Passing It On: Parent-to-Adult Child Financial Transfers for School and Socioeconomic Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Rauscher

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As wealth inequality increases, the importance of parental financial transfers for socioeconomic attainment may also rise. Using data from the 2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics Rosters and Transfers Module, this study investigates two questions: how parental financial transfers for education have changed over time, and what the relationship is between these transfers and adult socioeconomic outcomes. Results suggest that transfers for education have increased, have become more commonplace, and have become more dependent on parental wealth over time. Holding constant several individual and parental measures, the relationship between parental transfers for school and adult socioeconomic attainment is positive. This relationship holds when using three-stage least squares models to account for potential endogeneity of financial transfers for school. Overall, results support arguments that parental financial transfers for education facilitate the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic standing.

  5. GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  6. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.

  7. Indication for a chiral phase in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac)3NiTiPr by specific heat and μ+SR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascialfari, A.; Ullu, R.; Affronte, M.; Cinti, F.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Rovai, D.; Pini, M.G.; Rettori, A.

    2004-01-01

    Specific heat and muon spin relaxation (μ + SR) measurements performed in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac) 3 NiTiPr provide indication for the onset, at T 0 =2.08 K, of a phase with chiral order in the absence of long-range helical order. Specific heat data (probing the chirality-chirality correlation function) show a peak at T 0 that disappears upon application of a 5 T magnetic field, while μ + SR data (probing the spin-spin correlation function) do not present any anomaly at T 0 nor oscillations in the asymmetry curve below T 0

  8. Measuring specific, rather than generalized, cognitive deficits and maximizing between-group effect size in studies of cognition and cognitive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2008-07-01

    While cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is easy to demonstrate, it has been much more difficult to measure a specific cognitive process unconfounded by the influence of other cognitive processes and noncognitive factors (eg, sedation, low motivation) that affect test scores. With the recent interest in the identification of neurophysiology-linked cognitive probes for clinical trials, the issue of isolating specific cognitive processes has taken on increased importance. Recent advances in research design and psychometric theory regarding cognition research in schizophrenia demonstrate the importance of (1) maximizing between-group differences via reduction of measurement error during both test development and subsequent research and (2) the development and use of process-specific tasks in which theory-driven performance indices are derived across multiple conditions. Use of these 2 strategies can significantly advance both our understanding of schizophrenia and measurement sensitivity for clinical trials. Novel data-analytic strategies for analyzing change across multiple conditions and/or multiple time points also allow for increased reliability and greater measurement sensitivity than traditional strategies. Following discussion of these issues, trade-offs inherent to attempts to address psychometric issues in schizophrenia research are reviewed. Finally, additional considerations for maximizing sensitivity and real-world significance in clinical trials are discussed.

  9. Validation study of the prototype of a disease-specific index measure for health-related quality of life in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schölzel-Dorenbos Carla J M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Index measures for health-related quality of life (HRQoL quantify the desirability (utility of a certain health state. The commonly used generic index measure, e.g. EuroQol: EQ-5D, may underestimate relevant areas of specific diseases, resulting in lower validity. Disease-specific index measures on the other hand combine disease-specificity and quantification of perceived quality on several health domains of a certain disease into one single figure. These instruments have been developed for several diseases, but a dementia-specific HRQoL index instrument was not yet available. Facing the increasing individual and societal burden of dementia, specific HRQoL values with metric characteristics are especially useful because they will provide vital information for health outcome research and economic evaluations. Aims of the study To develop and validate the prototype of a dementia-specific HRQoL index measure: Dementia Quality of life Instrument (DQI, as the first step towards valuation of the dementia health state. Methods For development of the DQI we created a conceptual framework based on a review of the literature, qualitative interviews with people with dementia and their carers, expert opinion and team discussion. To assess validity we undertook a survey under 241 dementia professionals. Measurements consisted of ranking (1–5 and rating (1–10 of 5 dementia-specific DQI domains (memory, orientation, independence, social activities and mood and simultaneously rating of 9 DQI-derived health states on a visual analogue scale (VAS. We also performed a cross-sectional study in a large sample of people with very mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers (N = 145 to assess feasibility and concurrent validity. In addition, caregivers valued 10 DQI and 10 EQ-5D + C derived health states of the patient simultaneously on the same VAS. Setting: outpatient clinics, nursing homes and patient residences. Results All

  10. Patient-specific electric field simulations and acceleration measurements for objective analysis of intraoperative stimulation tests in the thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hemm-Ode

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing use of deep brain stimulation (DBS the fundamental mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Simulation of electric entities has previously been proposed for chronic DBS combined with subjective symptom evaluations, but not for intraoperative stimulation tests. The present paper introduces a method for an objective exploitation of intraoperative stimulation test data to identify the optimal implant position of the chronic DBS lead by relating the electric field simulations to the patient-specific anatomy and the clinical effects quantified by accelerometry. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, it was applied to five patients with essential tremor bilaterally implanted in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM. The VIM and its neighborhood structures were preoperatively outlined in 3D on white matter attenuated inversion recovery MR images. Quantitative intraoperative clinical assessments were performed using accelerometry. Electric field simulations (n = 272 for intraoperative stimulation test data performed along two trajectories per side were set-up using the finite element method for 143 stimulation test positions. The resulting electric field isosurface of 0.2V/mm was superimposed to the outlined anatomical structures. The percentage of volume of each structure's overlap was calculated and related to the corresponding clinical improvement. The proposed concept has been successfully applied to the five patients. For higher clinical improvements, not only the VIM but as well other neighboring structures were covered by the electric field isosurfaces. The percentage of the volumes of the VIM, of the nucleus intermediate lateral of the thalamus and the prelemniscal radiations within the prerubral field of Forel increased for clinical improvements higher than 50% compared to improvements lower than 50%. The presented new concept allows a detailed and objective analysis of a high amount of intraoperative data to

  11. A goal attainment pain management program for older adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gail C; White, Terri L

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a pain management intervention that integrates goal setting with older adults (age > or =65) living independently in residential settings. This preliminary testing of the Goal Attainment Pain Management Program (GAPMAP) included a sample of 17 adults (mean age 79.29 years) with self-reported pain related to arthritis. Specific study aims were to: 1) explore the use of individual goal setting; 2) determine participants' levels of goal attainment; 3) determine whether changes occurred in the pain management methods used and found to be helpful by GAPMAP participants; and 4) determine whether changes occurred in selected pain-related variables (i.e., experience of living with persistent pain, the expected outcomes of pain management, pain management barriers, and global ratings of perceived pain intensity and success of pain management). Because of the small sample size, both parametric (t test) and nonparametric (Wilcoxon signed rank test) analyses were used to examine differences from pretest to posttest. Results showed that older individuals could successfully participate in setting and attaining individual goals. Thirteen of the 17 participants (76%) met their goals at the expected level or above. Two management methods (exercise and using a heated pool, tub, or shower) were used significantly more often after the intervention, and two methods (exercise and distraction) were identified as significantly more helpful. Two pain-related variables (experience of living with persistent pain and expected outcomes of pain management) revealed significant change, and all of those tested showed overall improvement.

  12. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legramandi, Mario A; Schepens, Bénédicte; Cavagna, Giovanni A

    2013-01-01

    In an ideal elastic bounce of the body, the time during which mechanical energy is released during the push equals the time during which mechanical energy is absorbed during the brake, and the maximal upward velocity attained by the center of mass equals the maximal downward velocity. Deviations from this ideal model, prolonged push duration and lower upward velocity, have found to be greater in older than in younger adult humans. However it is not known how similarity to the elastic bounce changes during growth and whether an optimal elastic bounce is attained at some age. Here we show that similarity with the elastic bounce is minimal at 2 years and increases with age attaining a maximum at 13-16 years, concomitant with a mirror sixfold decrease of the impact deceleration peak following collision of the foot with the ground. These trends slowly reverse during the course of the lifespan.

  13. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stewart, James [Cadmus, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral and social sciences to influence household energy use. These may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5 percent. Utilities will continue to implement residential BB programs as large-scale, randomized control trials (RCTs); however, some are now experimenting with alternative program designs that are smaller scale; involve new communication channels such as the web, social media, and text messaging; or that employ novel strategies for encouraging behavior change (for example, Facebook competitions). These programs will create new evaluation challenges and may require different evaluation methods than those currently employed to verify any savings they generate. Quasi-experimental methods, however, require stronger assumptions to yield valid savings estimates and may not measure savings with the same degree of validity and accuracy as randomized experiments.

  14. Education, the Process of Attainment and the Structure of Inequality. Discussion Papers #393-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Aage B.

    This paper analyzes the properties of the process of social and economic attainments in two contrasting situations: (1) when the process of attainment generates the distribution of attainments, and (2) when the structure of attainments is seen as exogenously determined. It is argued that the neoclassical economic theory of earnings determination…

  15. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  16. Racial disparities in the health benefits of educational attainment: a study of inflammatory trajectories among African American and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; Doan, Stacey N; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective effects of educational attainment on proinflammatory physiology among African American and white adults. Participants were 1192 African Americans and 1487 whites who participated in Year 5 (mean [standard deviation] age = 30 [3.5] years), and Year 20 (mean [standard deviation] age = 45 [3.5]) of an ongoing longitudinal study. Initial analyses focused on age-related changes in fibrinogen across racial groups, and parallel analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 assessed at Year 20. Models then estimated the effects of educational attainment on changes in inflammation for African Americans and whites before and after controlling for four blocks of covariates: a) early life adversity, b) health and health behaviors at baseline, c) employment and financial measures at baseline and follow-up, and d) psychosocial stresses in adulthood. African Americans had larger increases in fibrinogen over time than whites (B = 24.93, standard error = 3.24, p educational attainment were weaker for African Americans than for whites (B = 10.11, standard error = 3.29, p = .002), and only 8% of this difference was explained by covariates. Analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 yielded consistent results. The effects of educational attainment on inflammation levels were stronger for white than for African American participants. Why African Americans do not show the same health benefits with educational attainment is an important question for health disparities research.

  17. The influence of specific mechanical energy on cornmeal viscosity measured by an on-line system during twin-screw extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    CHANG, Y. K.; MARTINEZ-BUSTOS, F.; PARK, T. S.; KOKINI, J .L.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...

  18. The Toronto outcome measure for craniofacial prosthetics: reliability and validity of a condition-specific quality-of-life instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D; Johnston, Dennis A; Haugh, Gil S; Kiat-Amnuay, Sudarat; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to refine the Toronto Outcome Measure for Craniofacial Prosthetics (TOMCP), present evidence for its reliability and validity, and use the instrument to explore differences in quality of life between prostheses made with chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) (experimental) and silicone (control). As part of a multicenter prospective controlled randomized double-blind single-crossover clinical trial of the two materials, the TOMCP was administered at the start and end of two 4-month study arms, during which 42 patients wore prostheses made from one material then the other. Reliability was assessed at the crossover. To determine validity of the TOMCP, the Linear Analogue Self-Assessment (LASA-12) and the Short-Form 8 (SF-8) were also administered with the TOMCP. The TOMCP was reduced by removing items that were unreliable, had poorly distributed answers, showed increased internal consistency after their removal, or were too highly correlated with more than one other item. The tests of reliability and validity were then repeated. Finally, the reduced instrument was used to test for differences in quality of life between prostheses made of the two materials. The item reduction tactics pared the 52-item instrument down to 27 items. The correlations of both TOMCP versions with the LASA-12 and the SF-8 were found to be statistically significant, providing evidence of the validity of the TOMCP. The instrument revealed significantly better quality of life with silicone rather than CPE prostheses. Both versions of the TOMCP were found to be reliable and valid. The instrument was able to show differences in quality of life between two materials.

  19. Specific heat measurements of CePt{sub 3}Si and Ce{sub 1+x}Pt{sub 3+y}Si{sub 1+z}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyama, G. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)]. E-mail: motoyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Watanabe, M. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Maeda, K. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Oda, Y. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Ueda, K. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Kohara, T. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We have measured the specific heat of a series of polycrystalline CePt{sub 3}Si and Ce{sub 1+x}Pt{sub 3+y}Si{sub 1+z} samples whose compositions vary slightly from the stoichiometric composition. We observed two peaks derived from magnetic anomalies on the specific heat measurements of the Ce{sub 1+x}Pt{sub 3+y}Si{sub 1+z} samples. One of the peaks relates to the antiferromagnetic phase transition at T{sub N}=2.2K. The other is a large peak at 2.7K observed for the sample that showed a ferromagnetic anomaly at 3.0K on the temperature dependence of the magnetization. Heat treatment had different effects between these anomalies.

  20. Methods for measuring specific rates of mercury methylation and degradation and their use in determining factors controlling net rates of mercury methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlal, P.S.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hecky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate specific rates of demethylation of methyl mercury in aquatic samples by measuring the volatile 14 C end products of 14 CH 3 HgI demethylation. This method was used in conjuction with a 203 Hg 2+ radiochemical method which determines specific rates of mercury methylation. Together, these methods enabled us to examine some factors controlling the net rate of mercury methylation. The methodologies were field tested, using lake sediment samples from a recently flooded reservoir in the Southern Indian Lake system which had developed a mercury contamination problem in fish. Ratios of the specific rates of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation occurred in the flooded shorelines of Southern Indian Lake. These results provide an explanation for the observed increases in the methyl mercury concentrations in fish after flooding