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Sample records for specific chemical modification

  1. Chemical modification of DNA: Molecular specificity studied by tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-jer; Cooks, R.G.; Chae, Whi-Gun; Wood, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical modifications of DNA in vitro could be directly studied by C-13 NMR and P-31 NMR, which eliminated all degradation and separation processes. The prospects of utilized the NMR method in the in vitro experiments are limited because of the inherent low sensitivity of NMR and low level of DNA modification. We have developed a reverse-phase ion-paired HPLC method to study DNA modifications by methylating agents. The structural specificity of HPLC is significantly enhanced by conjunction with the specificity of enzymic transformations. The HPLC studies have also revealed the limitation of HPLC method for simultaneous determination of many minor modified nucleosides. This problem has been overcome by tandem mass spectrometry. In conjunction with the resolving power of HPLC in separating isomers, desorption chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry has been utilized in the determination of the modified nucleosides at the picomole level using stable-isotope labeled compounds as internal references

  2. Concatenation of electrochemical grafting with chemical or electrochemical modification for preparing electrodes with specific surface functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pallavi; Maire, Pascal; Novak, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Surface modified electrodes are used in electro-analysis, electro-catalysis, sensors, biomedical applications, etc. and could also be used in batteries. The properties of modified electrodes are determined by the surface functionality. Therefore, the steps involved in the surface modification of the electrodes to obtain specific functionality are of prime importance. We illustrate here bridging of two routes of surface modifications namely electrochemical grafting, and chemical or electrochemical reduction. First, by electrochemical grafting an organic moiety is covalently immobilized on the surface. Then, either by chemical or by electrochemical route the terminal functional group of the grafted moiety is transformed. Using the former route we prepared lithium alkyl carbonate (-O(CH 2 ) 3 OCO 2 Li) modified carbon with potential applications in batteries, and employing the latter we prepared phenyl hydroxyl amine (-C 6 H 4 NHOH) modified carbon which may find application in biosensors. Benzyl alcohol (-C 6 H 4 CH 2 OH) modified carbon was prepared by both chemical as well as electrochemical route. We report combinations of conjugating the two steps of surface modifications and show how the optimal route of terminal functional group modification depends on the chemical nature of the moiety attached to the surface in the electrochemical grafting step.

  3. Concatenation of electrochemical grafting with chemical or electrochemical modification for preparing electrodes with specific surface functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Pallavi; Maire, Pascal [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Section Electrochemical Energy Storage, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Novak, Petr, E-mail: petr.novak@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Section Electrochemical Energy Storage, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-04-01

    Surface modified electrodes are used in electro-analysis, electro-catalysis, sensors, biomedical applications, etc. and could also be used in batteries. The properties of modified electrodes are determined by the surface functionality. Therefore, the steps involved in the surface modification of the electrodes to obtain specific functionality are of prime importance. We illustrate here bridging of two routes of surface modifications namely electrochemical grafting, and chemical or electrochemical reduction. First, by electrochemical grafting an organic moiety is covalently immobilized on the surface. Then, either by chemical or by electrochemical route the terminal functional group of the grafted moiety is transformed. Using the former route we prepared lithium alkyl carbonate (-O(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OCO{sub 2}Li) modified carbon with potential applications in batteries, and employing the latter we prepared phenyl hydroxyl amine (-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}NHOH) modified carbon which may find application in biosensors. Benzyl alcohol (-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}OH) modified carbon was prepared by both chemical as well as electrochemical route. We report combinations of conjugating the two steps of surface modifications and show how the optimal route of terminal functional group modification depends on the chemical nature of the moiety attached to the surface in the electrochemical grafting step.

  4. Engineering specific chemical modification sites into a collagen-like protein from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoichevska, Violet; Peng, Yong Y; Vashi, Aditya V; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J; Ramshaw, John A M

    2017-03-01

    Recombinant bacterial collagens provide a new opportunity for safe biomedical materials. They are readily expressed in Escherichia coli in good yield and can be readily purified by simple approaches. However, recombinant proteins are limited in that direct secondary modification during expression is generally not easily achieved. Thus, inclusion of unusual amino acids, cyclic peptides, sugars, lipids, and other complex functions generally needs to be achieved chemically after synthesis and extraction. In the present study, we have illustrated that bacterial collagens that have had their sequences modified to include cysteine residue(s), which are not normally present in bacterial collagen-like sequences, enable a range of specific chemical modification reactions to be produced. Various model reactions were shown to be effective for modifying the collagens. The ability to include alkyne (or azide) functions allows the extensive range of substitutions that are available via "click" chemistry to be accessed. When bifunctional reagents were used, some crosslinking occurred to give higher molecular weight polymeric proteins, but gels were not formed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 806-813, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Site-specific chemical modification of antibody fragments using traceless cleavable linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Steiner, Martina; Hartmann, Isabelle; Neri, Dario; Casi, Giulio

    2013-11-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are promising agents for the selective delivery of cytotoxic drugs to specific cells (for example, tumors). In this protocol, we describe two strategies for the precise modification at engineered C- or N-terminal cysteines of antibodies in IgG, diabody and small immunoprotein (SIP) formats that yield homogenous ADCs. In this protocol, cemadotin derivatives are used as model drugs, as these agents have a potent cytotoxic activity and are easy to synthesize. However, other drugs with similar functional groups could be considered. In the first approach, a cemadotin derivative containing a sulfhydryl group results in a mixed disulfide linkage. In the second approach, a cemadotin derivative containing an aldehyde group is joined via a thiazolidine linkage. The procedures outlined are robust, enabling the preparation of ADCs with a defined number of drugs per antibody in a time frame between 7 and 24 h.

  6. Modification degrees at specific sites on heparan sulphate: an approach to measure chemical modifications on biological molecules with stable isotope labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengliang L.; Lech, Miroslaw

    2005-01-01

    Chemical modification of biological molecules is a general mechanism for cellular regulation. A quantitative approach has been developed to measure the extent of modification on HS (heparan sulphates). Sulphation on HS by sulphotransferases leads to variable sulphation levels, which allows cells to tune their affinities to various extracellular proteins, including growth factors. With stable isotope labelling and HPLC-coupled MS, modification degrees at various O-sulphation sites could be determined. A bovine kidney HS sample was first saturated in vitro with 34S by an OST (O-sulphotransferase), then digested with nitrous acid and analysed with HPLC-coupled MS. The 34S-labelled oligosaccharides were identified based on their unique isotope clusters. The modification degrees at the sulphotransferase recognition sites were obtained by calculating the intensities of isotopic peaks in the isotope clusters. The modification degrees at 3-OST-1 and 6-OST-1 sites were examined in detail. This approach can also be used to study other types of chemical modifications on biological molecules. PMID:15743272

  7. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  8. Purification, physicochemical characterization, saccharide specificity, and chemical modification of a Gal/GalNAc specific lectin from the seeds of Trichosanthes dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil Ali Mohammed; Kenoth, Roopa; Swamy, Musti J

    2004-12-15

    A new galactose-specific lectin has been purified from the extracts of Trichosanthes dioica seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked guar gum. The purified lectin (T. dioica seed lectin, TDSL) moved as a single symmetrical peak on gel filtration on Superose-12 in the presence of 0.1 M lactose with an M(r) of 55 kDa. In the absence of ligand, the movement was retarded, indicating a possible interaction of the lectin with the column matrix. In SDS-PAGE, in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, two non-identical bands of M(r) 24 and 37 kDa were observed, whereas in the absence of beta-mercaptoethanol, the lectin yielded a single band corresponding to approximately 55,000 Da, indicating that the two subunits of TDSL are connected by one or more disulfide bridges. TDSL is a glycoprotein with about 4.9% covalently bound neutral sugar. Analysis of near-UV CD spectrum by three different methods (CDSSTR, CONTINLL, and SELCON3) shows that TDSL contains 13.3% alpha-helix, 36.7% beta-sheet, 19.4% beta-turns, and 31.6% unordered structure. Among a battery of sugars investigated, TDSL was inhibited strongly by beta-d-galactopyranosides, with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside being the best ligand. Chemical modification studies indicate that tyrosine residues are important for the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating activities of the lectin. A partial protection was observed when the tyrosine modification was performed in the presence of 0.2 M lactose. The tryptophan residues of TDSL appear to be buried in the protein interior as they could not be modified under native conditions, whereas upon denaturation with 8 M urea two Trp residues could be selectively modified by N-bromosuccinimide. The subunit composition and size, secondary structure, and sugar specificity of this lectin are similar to those of type-2 ribosome inactivating proteins, suggesting that TDSL may belong to this protein family.

  9. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    such as hydrocarbons or steroids have been introduced to change the surface properties of DNA origami structures, either to protect the DNA nanostructure or to dock it into membranes and other hydrophobic surfaces. DNA nanostructures have also been used to control covalent chemical reactions. This article provides......DNA nanotechnology has the power to form self-assembled and well-defined nanostructures, such as DNA origami, where the relative positions of each atom are known with subnanometer precision. Our ability to synthesize oligonucleotides with chemical modifications in almost any desired position...... provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  10. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  11. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  12. Recent advances in the chemical modification of unsaturated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D. N.; Turner, S. R.; Golub, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The present discussion has the objective to update the most comprehensive reviews on the considered subject and to fill in the gaps of less complete, but more modern treatments. Only simple chemical functionalization or structural modification of unsaturated polymers are covered, and the literature of diene polymer modification since 1974 is emphasized. Attention is given to hydrogenation, halogenation and hydrohalogenation, cyclization, cis-trans isomerization, epoxidation, ene and other cycloaddition reactions, sulfonation, carboxylation, phosphonylation, sulfenyl chloride addition, carbene addition, metalation, and silylation. It is pointed out that modern synthetic reagents and catalysts have been advantageously employed to improve process and/or product quality. Synthetic techniques have been refined to allow the selective modification of specific polymer microstructures or blocks.

  13. Artificial Metalloenzymes through Chemical Modification of Engineered Host Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Zernickel, Anna

    2014-10-01

    With a few exceptions, all organisms are restricted to the 20 canonical amino acids for ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Addition of new amino acids to the genetic code can introduce novel functionalities to proteins, broadening the diversity of biochemical as well as chemical reactions and providing new tools to study protein structure, reactivity, dynamics and protein-protein-interactions. The site directed in vivo incorporation developed by P. G. SCHULTZ and coworkers, using an archeal orthogonal tRNA/aaRS (aminoacyl-tRNA synthase) pair, allows site-specifically insertion of a synthetic unnatural amino acid (UAA) by reprogramming the amber TAG stop codon. A variety of over 80 different UAAs can be introduced by this technique. However by now a very limited number can form kinetically stable bonds to late transition metals. This thesis aims to develop new catalytically active unnatural amino acids or strategies for a posttranslational modification of site-specific amino acids in order to achieve highly enantioselective metallorganic enzyme hybrids (MOEH). As a requirement a stable protein host has to be established, surviving the conditions for incorporation, posttranslational modification and the final catalytic reactions. mTFP* a fluorescent protein was genetically modified by excluding any exposed Cys, His and Met forming a variant mTFP*, which fulfills the required specifications. Posttranslational chemical modification of mTFP* allow the introduction of single site metal chelating moieties. For modification on exposed cysteines different maleiimid containing ligand structures were synthesized. In order to perform copper catalyzed click reactions, suitable unnatural amino acids (para-azido-(L)-phenylalanine, para-ethynyl-(L)-phenylalanine) were synthesized and a non-cytotoxic protocol was established. The triazole ring formed during this reaction may contribute as a moderate σ-donor/π-acceptor ligand to the metal binding site. Since the cell limits the

  14. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  15. Chemical modification and characterization of quaternized polysulfones.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) using polysulfones is described. The modification process of polysulfones involves two steps: Firstly, by introducing chloromethyl groups followed by quaternization reaction...

  16. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  17. Host Specificity of Salmonella typhimurium Deoxyribonucleic Acid Restriction and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Harvey; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1973-01-01

    The restriction and modification genes of Salmonella typhimurium which lie near the thr locus were transferred to a restrictionless mutant of Escherichia coli. These genes were found to be allelic to the E. coli K, B, and A restriction and modification genes. E. coli recombinants with the restriction and modification host specificity of S. typhimurium restricted phage λ that had been modified by each of the seven known host specificities of E. coli at efficiency of plating levels of about 10−2. Phage λ modified with the S. typhimurium host specificity was restricted by six of the seven E. coli host specificities but not by the RII (fi− R-factor controlled) host specificity. It is proposed that the restriction and modification enzymes of this S. typhimurium host specificity have two substrates, one of which is a substrate for the RII host specificity enzymes. PMID:4570605

  18. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  19. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovieva, S E; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2011-01-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  20. Electrostatic interactions play an essential role in the binding of oleic acid with α-lactalbumin in the HAMLET-like complex: a study using charge-specific chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yongjing; Min, Soyoung; Harte, Níal P; Kirk, Hannah; O'Brien, John E; Voorheis, H Paul; Svanborg, Catharina; Hun Mok, K

    2013-01-01

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and its analogs are partially unfolded protein-oleic acid (OA) complexes that exhibit selective tumoricidal activity normally absent in the native protein itself. To understand the nature of the interaction between protein and OA moieties, charge-specific chemical modifications of lysine side chains involving citraconylation, acetylation, and guanidination were employed and the biophysical and biological properties were probed. Upon converting the original positively-charged lysine residues to negatively-charged citraconyl or neutral acetyl groups, the binding of OA to protein was eliminated, as were any cytotoxic activities towards osteosarcoma cells. Retention of the positive charges by converting lysine residues to homoarginine groups (guanidination); however, yielded unchanged binding of OA to protein and identical tumoricidal activity to that displayed by the wild-type α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex. With the addition of OA, the wild-type and guanidinated α-lactalbumin proteins underwent substantial conformational changes, such as partial unfolding, loss of tertiary structure, but retention of secondary structure. In contrast, no significant conformational changes were observed in the citraconylated and acetylated α-lactalbumins, most likely because of the absence of OA binding. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positively-charged basic groups on α-lactalbumin and the negatively-charged carboxylate groups on OA molecules play an essential role in the binding of OA to α-lactalbumin and that these interactions appear to be as important as hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Graphene: chemical approaches to the synthesis and modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayfer, E D; Makotchenko, V G; Nazarov, Albert S; Kim, S J; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2011-08-31

    Published data on the new carbon nanomaterial, graphene, are described systematically from the chemist's standpoint. The attention is focused on the chemical methods of the synthesis of graphene-like materials from various precursors: natural and expanded graphite, graphite oxide, graphite intercalation compounds, etc. Approaches to the chemical modification of the graphene plane by various reagents and routes for the preparation of colloidal dispersions of graphene are considered. The bibliography includes 220 references.

  2. Chemical Strategies for the Covalent Modification of Filamentous Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Francis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically filamentous bacteriophage have been known to be the workhorse of phage display due to their ability to link genotype to phenotype. More recently, the filamentous phage scaffold has proved to be powerful outside the realms of phage display technology in fields such as molecular imaging, cancer research and materials and vaccine development. The ability of the virion to serve as a platform for a variety of applications heavily relies on the functionalization of the phage coat proteins with a wide variety of functionalities. Genetic modification of the coat proteins has been the most widely used strategy for functionalizing the virion; however complementary chemical modification strategies can help to diversify the range of materials that can be developed. This review emphasizes the recent advances that have been made in the chemical modification of filamentous phage as well as some of the challenges that are involved functionalizing the virion.

  3. Enzyme Technology of Peroxidases: Immobilization, Chemical and Genetic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Adriana; Tinoco, Raunel; Torres, Eduardo

    An overview of enzyme technology applied to peroxidases is made. Immobilization on organic, inorganic, and hybrid supports; chemical modification of amino acids and heme group; and genetic modification by site-directed and random mutagenesis are included. Different strategies that were carried out to improve peroxidase performance in terms of stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity are analyzed. Immobilization of peroxidases on inorganic and organic materials enhances the tolerance of peroxidases toward the conditions normally found in many industrial processes, such as the presence of an organic solvent and high temperature. In addition, it is shown that immobilization helps to increase the Total Turnover Number at levels high enough to justify the use of a peroxidase-based biocatalyst in a synthesis process. Chemical modification of peroxidases produces modified enzymes with higher thermostability and wider substrate variability. Finally, through mutagenesis approaches, it is possible to produce modified peroxidases capable of oxidizing nonnatural substrates with high catalytic activity and affinity.

  4. Aqueous polymer emulsions by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions

  5. Direct chemical modification and voltammetric detection of glycans in glycoproteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, NOV2014 (2014), s. 52-55 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Glycoproteins * Chemical modification * Os(VI)L complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.847, year: 2014

  6. Site-Specific Modification Using the 2′-Methoxyethyl Group Improves the Specificity and Activity of siRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyun Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress has been made toward small interfering RNA (siRNA-based therapy for human disorders, but rationally optimizing siRNAs for high specificity and potent silencing remains a challenge. In this study, we explored the effect of chemical modification at the cleavage site of siRNAs. We found that modifications at positions 9 and 10 markedly reduced the silencing potency of the unmodified strand of siRNAs but were well tolerated by the modified strand. Intriguingly, addition of the 2′-methoxyethyl (MOE group at the cleavage site improved both the specificity and silencing activity of siRNAs by facilitating the oriented RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC loading of the modified strand. Furthermore, we combined MOE modifications at positions 9 and 10 of one strand together with 2′-O-methylation (OMe at position 14 of the other strand and found a synergistic effect that improved the specificity of siRNAs. The surprisingly beneficial effect of the combined modification was validated using siRNA-targeting endogenous gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1. We found that the combined modifications eliminated its off-target effects. In conclusion, we established effective strategies to optimize siRNAs using site-specific MOE modifications. The findings may allow the creation of superior siRNAs for therapy in terms of activity and specificity.

  7. Chemical modification and blending of polymers in an extruder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prut, Eduard V; Zelenetskii, Alexandr N

    2001-01-01

    Chemical modification and blending of polymers in an extruder reactor are discussed. Relationships between the parameters affecting the reaction kinetics, viz., mixing time, duration of a chemical reaction and the residence time of the system in the extruder reactor, and the structure of the materials produced are analysed. The mechanisms of (i) grafting of low-molecular-mass compounds onto polymers; (ii) reactions between terminal groups of different polymers and (iii) transesterification and interchange reactions are considered. The factors affecting the mechanism of dynamic vulcanisation and the properties of thermoplastic elastomers are identified. Solid-phase reactions of polysaccharides in an extruder are discussed. The priority aspects of studies on the chemical modification and blending of polymers are noted. The bibliography includes 90 references.

  8. Chemical modifications of therapeutic proteins induced by residual ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louise; Sloey, Christopher; Zhang, Zhongqi; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Kim, Hyojin; Ren, Da; Kanapuram, Sekhar

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) is widely used in sterilization of drug product primary containers and medical devices. The impact of residual EtO on protein therapeutics is of significant interest in the biopharmaceutical industry. The potential for EtO to modify individual amino acids in proteins has been previously reported. However, specific identification of EtO adducts in proteins and the effect of residual EtO on the stability of therapeutic proteins has not been reported to date. This paper describes studies of residual EtO with two therapeutic proteins, a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Peg-GCSF) and recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) formulated with human serum albumin (HSA). Peg-GCSF was filled in an EtO sterilized delivery device and incubated at accelerated stress conditions. Glu-C peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO reacted with Peg-GCSF and resulted in EtO modifications at two methionine residues (Met-127 and Met-138). In addition, tryptic peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO in plastic vials reacted with HSA in EPO formulation at Met-328 and Cys-34. This paper details the work conducted to understand the effects of residual EtO on the chemical stability of protein therapeutics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  10. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimzey, Michael J.; Kinsky, Owen R.; Yassine, Hussein N.; Tsaprailis, George; Stump, Craig S.; Monks, Terrence J.; Lau, Serrine S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC–MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R + 72) and hydroimidazolone (R + 54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan–HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients. - Highlights: • Methylglyoxal (MG) selectively modifies arginine sites in human plasma proteome. • Dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone adducts on serum albumin identified • MG modification on albumin R257 associated with loss of drug site I binding capacity • MRM-tandem mass spectrometry enables sensitive detection of albumin MG-R257. • Site-specific MG modification may

  11. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimzey, Michael J.; Kinsky, Owen R. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yassine, Hussein N. [Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tsaprailis, George [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stump, Craig S. [Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Tucson, AZ 85723 (United States); Monks, Terrence J. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lau, Serrine S., E-mail: lau@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC–MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R + 72) and hydroimidazolone (R + 54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan–HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients. - Highlights: • Methylglyoxal (MG) selectively modifies arginine sites in human plasma proteome. • Dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone adducts on serum albumin identified • MG modification on albumin R257 associated with loss of drug site I binding capacity • MRM-tandem mass spectrometry enables sensitive detection of albumin MG-R257. • Site-specific MG modification may

  12. Modification-specific proteomics: strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yingming; Jensen, Ole N

    2009-01-01

    More than 300 different types of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, many of which are known to have pivotal roles in cellular physiology and disease. Nevertheless, only a handful of PTMs have been extensively investigated at the proteome level. Knowledge of protein...... substrates and their PTM sites is key to dissection of PTM-mediated cellular processes. The past several years have seen a tremendous progress in developing MS-based proteomics technologies for global PTM analysis, including numerous studies of yeast and other microbes. Modification-specific enrichment...

  13. Surface chemical modification for exceptional wear life of MEMS materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arvind Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS are built at micro/nano-scales. At these scales, the interfacial forces are extremely strong. These forces adversely affect the smooth operation and cause wear resulting in the drastic reduction in wear life (useful operating lifetime of actuator-based devices. In this paper, we present a surface chemical modification method that reduces friction and significantly extends the wear life of the two most popular MEMS structural materials namely, silicon and SU-8 polymer. The method includes surface chemical treatment using ethanolamine-sodium phosphate buffer, followed by coating of perfluoropolyether (PFPE nanolubricant on (i silicon coated with SU-8 thin films (500 nm and (ii MEMS process treated SU-8 thick films (50 μm. After the surface chemical modification, it was observed that the steady-state coefficient of friction of the materials reduced by 4 to 5 times and simultaneously their wear durability increased by more than three orders of magnitude (> 1000 times. The significant reduction in the friction coefficients is due to the lubrication effect of PFPE nanolubricant, while the exceptional increase in their wear life is attributed to the bonding between the -OH functional group of ethanolamine treated SU-8 thin/thick films and the -OH functional group of PFPE. The surface chemical modification method acts as a common route to enhance the performance of both silicon and SU-8 polymer. It is time-effective (process time ≤ 11 min, cost-effective and can be readily integrated into MEMS fabrication/assembly processes. It can also work for any kind of structural material from which the miniaturized devices are/can be made.

  14. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of 14 C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of ∼ 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA

  15. Specific histone modification responds to arsenic-induced oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lu [Department of Toxicology, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhan, Zhengbao; Chen, Liping; Li, Daochuan; Bai, Qing; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zeng, Xiaowen; He, Zhini; Wang, Shan; Xiao, Yongmei [Department of Toxicology, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: chenwen@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Aihua, E-mail: aihuagzykd@163.com [Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China)

    2016-07-01

    To explore whether specific histone modifications are associated with arsenic-induced oxidative damage, we recruited 138 arsenic-exposed and arsenicosis subjects from Jiaole Village, Xinren County of Guizhou province, China where the residents were exposed to arsenic from indoor coal burning. 77 villagers from Shang Batian Village that were not exposed to high arsenic coal served as the control group. The concentrations of urine and hair arsenic in the arsenic-exposure group were 2.4-fold and 2.1-fold (all P < 0.001) higher, respectively, than those of the control group. Global histone modifications in human peripheral lymphocytes (PBLCs) were examined by ELISA. The results showed that altered global levels of H3K18ac, H3K9me2, and H3K36me3 correlated with both urinary and hair-arsenic levels of the subjects. Notably, H3K36me3 and H3K18ac modifications were associated with urinary 8-OHdG (H3K36me3: β = 0.16; P = 0.042, H3K18ac: β = − 0.24; P = 0.001). We also found that the modifications of H3K18ac and H3K36me3 were enriched in the promoters of oxidative stress response (OSR) genes in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and HaCaT cells, providing evidence that H3K18ac and H3K36me3 modifications mediate transcriptional regulation of OSR genes in response to NaAsO{sub 2} treatment. Particularly, we found that reduced H3K18ac modification correlated with suppressed expression of OSR genes in HEK cells with long term arsenic treatment and in PBLCs of all the subjects. Taken together, we reveal a critical role for specific histone modification in response to arsenic-induced oxidative damage. - Highlights: • H3K18ac, H3K9me2 and H3K36me3 were associated with arsenic exposed levels. • H3K18ac and H3K36me3 were correlated with oxidative damage induced by arsenic. • H3K18ac and H3K36me3 might involve in transcriptional regulation of OSR genes. • Dysregulation of H3K18ac and H3K36me3 might be biomarkers of arsenic toxicity.

  16. Specific histone modification responds to arsenic-induced oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lu; Li, Jun; Zhan, Zhengbao; Chen, Liping; Li, Daochuan; Bai, Qing; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zeng, Xiaowen; He, Zhini; Wang, Shan; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    To explore whether specific histone modifications are associated with arsenic-induced oxidative damage, we recruited 138 arsenic-exposed and arsenicosis subjects from Jiaole Village, Xinren County of Guizhou province, China where the residents were exposed to arsenic from indoor coal burning. 77 villagers from Shang Batian Village that were not exposed to high arsenic coal served as the control group. The concentrations of urine and hair arsenic in the arsenic-exposure group were 2.4-fold and 2.1-fold (all P < 0.001) higher, respectively, than those of the control group. Global histone modifications in human peripheral lymphocytes (PBLCs) were examined by ELISA. The results showed that altered global levels of H3K18ac, H3K9me2, and H3K36me3 correlated with both urinary and hair-arsenic levels of the subjects. Notably, H3K36me3 and H3K18ac modifications were associated with urinary 8-OHdG (H3K36me3: β = 0.16; P = 0.042, H3K18ac: β = − 0.24; P = 0.001). We also found that the modifications of H3K18ac and H3K36me3 were enriched in the promoters of oxidative stress response (OSR) genes in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and HaCaT cells, providing evidence that H3K18ac and H3K36me3 modifications mediate transcriptional regulation of OSR genes in response to NaAsO 2 treatment. Particularly, we found that reduced H3K18ac modification correlated with suppressed expression of OSR genes in HEK cells with long term arsenic treatment and in PBLCs of all the subjects. Taken together, we reveal a critical role for specific histone modification in response to arsenic-induced oxidative damage. - Highlights: • H3K18ac, H3K9me2 and H3K36me3 were associated with arsenic exposed levels. • H3K18ac and H3K36me3 were correlated with oxidative damage induced by arsenic. • H3K18ac and H3K36me3 might involve in transcriptional regulation of OSR genes. • Dysregulation of H3K18ac and H3K36me3 might be biomarkers of arsenic toxicity.

  17. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  18. [Chemical modification of allergen leading to changes in its epitopic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhin, A A; Gushchin, I S; Andreev, S M; Petrukhina, A I; Viler, A V; Stokinger, B; Nolte, G; Dubuske, L M; Khaitov, R M; Petrpv, R V

    1999-01-01

    Modification of a model allergen ovalbumin (OA) with succinylation led to a decrease of its allergenicity measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, RAST inhibition assay and basophil histamine release. Modified OA stimulated OA-specific T-cell hybrid 3DO-548 to produce IL-2 at the same level as in case of non-modified OA. Modified OA did not induce anti-OA IgE, but did induce anti-OA IgG antibodies. This approach to chemical modification of allergen-selective blockade of B-cell epitopes while not affecting T-cell epitopes suggests new opportunities in creation of safe and effective allergovaccines.

  19. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  20. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzmann, A.

    1997-01-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  1. Discovery of a Chemical Modification by Citric Acid in a Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic monoclonal antibodies exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity that can arise from various post-translational modifications. The formulation for a protein product is to maintain a specific pH and to minimize further modifications. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), citric acid is commonly used for formulation to maintain a pH at a range between 3 and 6 and is generally considered chemically inert. However, as we reported herein, citric acid covalently modified a recombinant monoclonal antibody (IgG1) in a phosphate/citrate-buffered formulation at pH 5.2 and led to the formation of so-called “acidic species” that showed mass increases of 174 and 156 Da, respectively. Peptide mapping revealed that the modification occurred at the N-terminus of the light chain. Three additional antibodies also showed the same modification but displayed different susceptibilities of the N-termini of the light chain, heavy chain, or both. Thus, ostensibly unreactive excipients under certain conditions may increase heterogeneity and acidic species in formulated recombinant monoclonal antibodies. By analogy, other molecules (e.g., succinic acid) with two or more carboxylic acid groups and capable of forming an anhydride may exhibit similar reactivities. Altogether, our findings again reminded us that it is prudent to consider formulations as a potential source for chemical modifications and product heterogeneity. PMID:25136741

  2. Enhancing the functional properties of thermophilic enzymes by chemical modification and immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Don A; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2011-09-10

    The immobilization of proteins (mostly typically enzymes) onto solid supports is mature technology and has been used successfully to enhance biocatalytic processes in a wide range of industrial applications. However, continued developments in immobilization technology have led to more sophisticated and specialized applications of the process. A combination of targeted chemistries, for both the support and the protein, sometimes in combination with additional chemical and/or genetic engineering, has led to the development of methods for the modification of protein functional properties, for enhancing protein stability and for the recovery of specific proteins from complex mixtures. In particular, the development of effective methods for immobilizing large multi-subunit proteins with multiple covalent linkages (multi-point immobilization) has been effective in stabilizing proteins where subunit dissociation is the initial step in enzyme inactivation. In some instances, multiple benefits are achievable in a single process. Here we comprehensively review the literature pertaining to immobilization and chemical modification of different enzyme classes from thermophiles, with emphasis on the chemistries involved and their implications for modification of the enzyme functional properties. We also highlight the potential for synergies in the combined use of immobilization and other chemical modifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of Tc by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrot, J.

    1989-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of pertechnetate (TcO 4 -) by aerobically and anaerobically grown soil bacteria and by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were studied to gain insight on the possible mechanisms by which bacteria can affect the solubility of Tc in soil. Aerobically grown bacteria had no apparent effect on TcO 4 -; they did not accumulate Tc nor modify its chemical form. Anaerobically grown bacteria exhibited high bioaccumulation and reduced TcO 4 -, enabling its association with organics of the growth medium. Reduction was a metabolic process and not merely the result of reducing conditions in the growth medium. Association of Tc with bacterial polysaccharides was observed only in cultures of anaerobic bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria efficiently removed Tc from solution and promoted its association with organics. Up to 70% of the total Tc in the growth medium was bioaccumulated and/or precipitated. The remaining Tc in soluble form was entirely associated with organics. Pertechnetate was not reduced by the same mechanism as dissimilatory sulfate reduction, but rather by some reducing agent released in the growth medium. A calculation of the amount of Tc that could be associated with the bacterial biomass present in soil demonstrates that high concentration ratios in cultures do not necessarily imply that bioaccumulation is an important mechanism for long-term retention of Tc in soil

  4. Areal variation and chemical modification of weathered shale infiltration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Spalding, B.P.; Munro, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial variability of infiltration into a weathered shale subsoil was evaluated at a site proximal to one used for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Double-ring infiltometers were installed at 48 locations on a 2- by 2-m grid after the removal of 1 to 2 m of soil (Litz-Sequoia association, Typic Hapludults). Infiltration rates were measured before and during the 0- to 20- and 239- to 259-day periods following treatment with solutions of NaOH, KOH, NaF, NaAlO 2 , and Na 2 SiO 3 at rates of 151 equivalents/m 2 . None of these chemical treatments significantly altered infiltration rate, indicating that chemical modification of soil exchange properties may be achieved without inducing hydrologic disturbance in these subsoils. A semivariogram analysis of infiltration data showed that areal variability was random; any spatial patterning must therefore occur at a smaller scale than 2 m

  5. Chemical modification of hybrid nanostructures (POSS for application as lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Luvison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS are hybrid structures type RSiO15n, with n organic groups R. These molecules can be easily functionalized by simply changing the chemical constitution of the organic groups. In this work, chemical modification of POSS-NH2 was performed by amidation reaction with butyric acid at elevated temperature, 160°C. The formation of the amide group is evinced by the appearance of NH angular deformation band at 1540 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. Approximately 40% of the amino groups reacted, according to titration results. The formation of the amide groups resulted in a shift of the glass transition temperature (Tg from -36.9°C to -25.6°C for the modified-POSS sample. Both POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS samples exhibited similar thermal degradation pattern. Analysis of the pairs distribution function (PDF has determined that the hybrid nanoparticles are separated by a periodic distance of approximately 1.32 nm. POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS exhibit newtonian behavior, which will range from 10-1 s-1 and 1000 s-1. The viscosity decreased with increasing temperature, a typical behavior of liquid lubricants.

  6. Physico-chemical modifications of plastics by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, S.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiations (beta and gamma), initially for the sterilization of medico-surgical instruments and for the preservation of food products, has led to the development of the chemistry of polymers under radiations. Ionizing radiations can initiate chemical reactions (chain cutting, poly-additions, polymerization etc..) thanks to the formation of free radicals. The main applications concerns the degradation of plastics, the reticulation of plastics and of woods impregnated with resin, and the grafting of polymers. The processing of plastic materials was initially performed with low energy electron accelerators (0.1 to 3 MeV), allowing only surface treatments, while recent high energy accelerators (10 MeV) and gamma facilities allow the treatment in depth of materials (from few cm to 1 m). This article describes the industrial treatments performed with such high energy facilities: 1 - action of ionizing radiations on plastic materials: different types of ionizing radiations, action of beta and gamma radiations, chemical changes induced by beta and gamma radiations; 2 - reticulation of plastic materials submitted to beta and gamma radiations: radio-'reticulable' polymers and reticulation co-agents, modification of the properties of reticulated plastic materials under beta and gamma radiations; 3 - industrial aspects of reticulation under beta and gamma radiation: industrial irradiation facilities, dosimetry and radio-reticulation control, applications; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. Attention bias modification in specific fears: Spiders versus snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xijia; Ikani, Nessa; Barth, Anja; Rengers, Lea; Becker, Eni; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is used to manipulate attention biases in anxiety disorders. It has been successful in reducing attention biases and anxious symptoms in social anxiety and generalized anxiety, but not yet in specific fears and phobias. We designed a new version of the dot-probe training task, aiming to train fearful participants' attention away from or towards pictures of threatening stimuli. Moreover, we studied whether the training also affected participants' avoidance behavior and their physical arousal upon being confronted with a real threat object. In Experiment 1, students with fear of spiders were trained. We found that the attention manipulation was successful, but the training failed to affect behavior or arousal. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used on snake-fearful students. Again, attention was trained in the expected directions. Moreover, participants whose attention had been trained away from snakes showed lower physiological arousal upon being confronted with a real snake. The study involved healthy students with normal distribution of the fear of spider/snake. Future research with clinical sample could help with determining the generalizability of the current findings. The effect of ABM on specific phobia is still in question. The finding in the present study suggested the possibility to alter attentional bias with a dot-probe task with general positive stimuli and this training could even affect the behavior while encountering a real threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Modification of Semiconductor Surfaces for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2017-03-08

    Inserting molecular monolayers within metal/semiconductor interfaces provides one of the most powerful expressions of how minute chemical modifications can affect electronic devices. This topic also has direct importance for technology as it can help improve the efficiency of a variety of electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, sensors, and possible future bioelectronic ones. The review covers the main aspects of using chemistry to control the various aspects of interface electrostatics, such as passivation of interface states and alignment of energy levels by intrinsic molecular polarization, as well as charge rearrangement with the adjacent metal and semiconducting contacts. One of the greatest merits of molecular monolayers is their capability to form excellent thin dielectrics, yielding rich and unique current-voltage characteristics for transport across metal/molecular monolayer/semiconductor interfaces. We explain the interplay between the monolayer as tunneling barrier on the one hand, and the electrostatic barrier within the semiconductor, due to its space-charge region, on the other hand, as well as how different monolayer chemistries control each of these barriers. Practical tools to experimentally identify these two barriers and distinguish between them are given, followed by a short look to the future. This review is accompanied by another one, concerning the formation of large-area molecular junctions and charge transport that is dominated solely by molecules.

  9. Radiation modification of swollen and chemically modified cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, J.; Toth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Biodegradable hydrogel was produced by radiation-induced crosslinking of water soluble carboxymethyl cellulose. Mobility of the molecular chain was found to play an important role in the crosslinking reaction. In this work the role of cellulose chains' mobility in radiation-induced reactions of fibrous cellulose was studied. Mobility of chains was improved by swelling (in sodium hydroxide and tetramethylammonium hydroxide) and chemical modification (substitution of about 3 % of hydroxyl groups with carboxymethyl groups), respectively. All samples were neutralized after the treatments. Accessibility of cellulose characterized by water adsorption and retention was significantly improved by the treatments in the following order: sodium hydroxide < tetramethylammonium hydroxide < carboxymethylation. Less fibrillar structure of modified fibers was observed by electron microscope. Samples were irradiated in wet form in open air (10 kGy). Untreated sample coated with soluble CMC was also irradiated. Degree of polymerization, FTIR spectra, and water sorption of samples before and after irradiation are presented. Amount of water adsorbed on samples decreased after irradiation. It can be considered the consequence of crosslinks, which might improve the crease recovery ability of cotton fabric. High accessibility improved degradation rather than crosslinking of cellulose chains

  10. The Use of Chemical Modification of Polymer Waste for Obtaining Polymer Flocculants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.W.Sulkowski; K.Nowak; A.Sulkowska; A.Wolin; ska; S.Malanka; W.M.Baldur; D.Pentak

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Chemical modification of polymer plastic wastes to useful products can be one of the way of effective waste plastics management (chemical recycling). Chemical modification of polymers and polymer plastic wastes can yield products with suitable physical and chemical properties. In consequence they can be used as polyelectrolytes[1]. The variety of pollutants, universality of various water and sewage treatment technologies, introduction of new water quality improved technologies have caused a gr...

  11. Chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by the removable backbone modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Zuo, Chao; Huang, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical synthesis can produce membrane proteins bearing specifically designed modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, isotope labeling) that are difficult to obtain through recombinant protein expression approaches. The resulting homogeneously modified synthetic membrane proteins are valuable tools for many advanced biochemical and biophysical studies. This protocol describes the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by condensation of transmembrane peptide segments through native chemical ligation. To avoid common problems encountered due to the poor solubility of transmembrane peptides in almost any solvent, we describe an effective procedure for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins through the removable-backbone modification (RBM) strategy. Two key steps of this protocol are: (i) installation of solubilizing Arg4-tagged RBM groups into the transmembrane peptides at any primary amino acid through Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) solid-phase peptide synthesis and (ii) native ligation of the full-length sequence, followed by removal of the RBM tags by TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) cocktails to afford the native protein. The installation of RBM groups is achieved by using 4-methoxy-5-nitrosalicyladehyde by reduction amination to incorporate an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary. The Arg4-tag-modified membrane-spanning peptide segments behave like water-soluble peptides to facilitate their purification, ligation and mass characterization.

  12. Molecules for Fluorescence Detection of Specific Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in on-off fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. A molecule in this family consists of a fluorescent core (such as an anthracene or pyrene) attached to two end groups that, when the dye is excited by absorption of light, transfer an electron to the core, thereby quenching the fluorescence. The end groups can be engineered so that they react chemically with certain analytes. Upon reaction, electrons on the end groups are no longer available for transfer to the core and, consequently, the fluorescence from the core is no longer quenched. The chemoselectivity of these molecules can be changed by changing the end groups. For example, aniline end groups afford a capability for sensing acids or acid halides (including those contained in chemical warfare agents). Pyridine or bipyridyl end groups would enable sensing of metal ions. Other chemicals that can be selectively detected through suitable choice of end groups include glucose and proteins. Moreover, the fluorescent cores can be changed to alter light-absorption and -emission characteristics: anthracene cores fluoresce at wavelengths around 500 nm, whereas perylene cores absorb and emit at

  13. Chemical mechanisms of histone lysine and arginine modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Brian C.; Denu, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone lysine and arginine residues are subject to a wide array of post-translational modifications including methylation, citrullination, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The combinatorial action of these modifications regulates critical DNA processes including replication, repair, and transcription. In addition, enzymes that modify histone lysine and arginine residues have been correlated with a variety of human diseases including arthritis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, an...

  14. Chemical surface reactions by click chemistry: coumarin dye modification of 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, Claudia; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2008-01-01

    The functionalization of surfaces and the ability to tailor their properties with desired physico-chemical functions is an important field of research with a broad spectrum of applications. These applications range from the modification of wetting properties, over the alteration of optical properties, to the fabrication of molecular electronic devices. In each of these fields, it is of specific importance to be able to control the quality of the layers with high precision. The present study demonstrates an approach that utilizes the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal acetylenes to prepare triazole-terminated monolayers on different substrates. The characterization of the precursor monolayers, the optimization of the chemical surface reactions as well as the clicking of a fluorescent dye molecule on such azide-terminated monolayers was carried out. A coumarin 343 derivative was utilized to discuss the aspects of the functionalization approach. Based on this approach, a number of potential surface reactions, facilitated via the acetylene-substituted functional molecules, for a broad range of applications is at hand, thus leading to numerous possibilities where surface modifications are concerned. These modifications can be applied on non-structured surfaces of silicon or glass or can be used on structured surfaces. Various possibilities are discussed

  15. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  16. Chemical modification of the lectin of the marine coral Gerardia savaglia by marine quinone avarone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA PAJIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The quinone avarone, isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara, possesses the ability to chemically modify proteins. In this work, modification of lectin isolated from the coral Gerardia savaglia by avarone was examined. The techniques used for studying the modification were: SDS PAGE, isoelectric focusing and hemagglutination testing. The results of the SDS PAGE indicate dimerization of the protein. A shift of the pI toward lower value occurs upon modification. The change of the hemagglutination activity of the protein confirms that chemical modification of G. savaglia lectin by avarone changes its ability to interact with the membrane of erythrocytes.

  17. Expanding the Bioactive Chemical Space of Anthrabenzoxocinones through Engineering the Highly Promiscuous Biosynthetic Modification Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xianyi; Yan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Mingjia; Shen, Guangqing; Zhou, Linjun; Deng, Zixin; Lei, Chun; Qu, Xudong

    2018-01-19

    Anthrabenzoxocinones (ABXs) including (-)-ABXs and (+)-ABXs are a group of bacterial FabF-specific inhibitors with potent antimicrobial activity of resistant strains. Optimization of their chemical structures is a promising method to develop potent antibiotics. Through biosynthetic investigation, we herein identified and characterized two highly promiscuous enzymes involved in the (-)-ABX structural modification. The promiscuous halogenase and methyltransferase can respectively introduce halogen-modifications into various positions of the ABX scaffolds and methylation to highly diverse substrates. Manipulation of their activity in both of the (-)-ABXs and (+)-ABXs biosyntheses led to the generation of 14 novel ABX analogues of both enantiomers. Bioactivity assessment revealed that a few of the analogues showed significantly improved antimicrobial activity, with the C3-hydroxyl and chlorine substitutions critical for their activity. This study enormously expands the bioactive chemical space of the ABX family and FabF-specific inhibitors. The disclosed broad-selective biosynthetic machineries and structure-activity relationship provide a solid basis for further generation of potent antimicrobial agents.

  18. Chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN SLADIC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple, as well as their derivatives show considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modifications of b-lactoglobulin, isolated from cow milk, by avarone, its model compound 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and several of their alkylthio derivatives were studied. The techniques applied for assaying the modifications were: UV/VIS spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. The results of the SDS PAGE suggest that polymerisation of the protein occurs. The shift of the pI of the protein upon modification toward lower values indicates that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  19. Chemical modifications of antisense morpholino oligomers enhance their efficacy against Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Dana L; Warfield, Kelly L; Warren, Travis K; Lovejoy, Candace; Hassinger, Jed N; Ruthel, Gordon; Blouch, Robert E; Moulton, Hong M; Weller, Dwight D; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

    2009-05-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are uncharged nucleic acid-like molecules designed to inactivate the expression of specific genes via the antisense-based steric hindrance of mRNA translation. PMOs have been successful at knocking out viral gene expression and replication in the case of acute viral infections in animal models and have been well tolerated in human clinical trials. We propose that antisense PMOs represent a promising class of therapeutic agents that may be useful for combating filoviral infections. We have previously shown that mice treated with a PMO whose sequence is complementary to a region spanning the start codon of VP24 mRNA were protected against lethal Ebola virus challenge. In the present study, we report on the abilities of two additional VP24-specific PMOs to reduce the cell-free translation of a VP24 reporter, to inhibit the in vitro replication of Ebola virus, and to protect mice against lethal challenge when the PMOs are delivered prior to infection. Additionally, structure-activity relationship evaluations were conducted to assess the enhancement of antiviral efficacy associated with PMO chemical modifications that included conjugation with peptides of various lengths and compositions, positioning of conjugated peptides to either the 5' or the 3' terminus, and the conferring of charge modifications by the addition of piperazine moieties. Conjugation with arginine-rich peptides greatly enhanced the antiviral efficacy of VP24-specific PMOs in infected cells and mice during lethal Ebola virus challenge.

  20. Chemical Posttranslational Modification with Designed Rhodium(II) Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S C; Minus, M B; Ball, Z T

    2016-01-01

    Natural enzymes use molecular recognition to perform exquisitely selective transformations on nucleic acids, proteins, and natural products. Rhodium(II) catalysts mimic this selectivity, using molecular recognition to allow selective modification of proteins with a variety of functionalized diazo reagents. The rhodium catalysts and the diazo reactivity have been successfully applied to a variety of protein folds, the chemistry succeeds in complex environments such as cell lysate, and a simple protein blot method accurately assesses modification efficiency. The studies with rhodium catalysts provide a new tool to study and probe protein-binding events, as well as a new synthetic approach to protein conjugates for medical, biochemical, or materials applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modification of mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different organic molecules to gain chemical sensors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Lashgari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of the biologically and environmentally important ions is of great interest in the field of chemical sensors in recent years. The fluorescent sensors as a powerful optical analytical technique for the detection of low level of various analytes such as anions and metal cations have been progressively developed due to the simplicity, cost effective, and selectivity for monitoring specific analytes in various systems. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials have important advantages as solid chemosensors and various innovative hybrid materials modified by fluorescence molecules were recently prepared. On the other hand, the homogeneous porosity and large surface area of mesoporous silica make it a promising inorganic support. SBA-15 as a two-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica material with stable structure, thick walls, tunable pore size, and high specific surface area is a valuable substrate for modification with different organic chelating groups. This review highlights the fluorescent chemosensors for ionic species based on modification of the mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different organic molecules, which have been recently developed from our laboratory.

  2. Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Kusano, Yukihiro; Morgen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic charging, discharging, and consequent surface modification induced by sliding dissimilar surfaces have been studied. The surface-charge related phenomena were monitored by using a home-built capacitive, non-contact electrical probe, and the surface chemistry was studied by X...... are also able to comment on the behavior and the charge decay time in the ambient air-like condition, once the sliding contact is discontinued. XPS analysis showed a marginal deoxidation effect on the polyester disks due to the charging and discharging of the surfaces. Moreover, these XPS results clearly...

  3. Chemical modification of birch allergen extract leads to a reduction in allergenicity as well as immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter Adler; Lund, Lise; Lund, Gitte; Holm, Jens; Millner, Anders; Henmar, Helene

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, specific immunotherapy is currently conducted with vaccines containing allergen preparations based on intact extracts. In addition to this, chemically modified allergen extracts (allergoids) are used for specific allergy treatment. Reduced allergenicity and thereby reduced risk of side effects in combination with retained ability to activate T cells and induce protective allergen-specific antibody responses has been claimed for allergoids. In the current study, we compared intact allergen extracts and allergoids with respect to allergenicity and immunogenicity. The immunological response to birch allergen extract, alum-adsorbed extract, birch allergoid and alum-adsorbed allergoid was investigated in vitro in human basophil histamine release assay and by stimulation of human allergen-specific T cell lines. In vivo, Bet v 1-specific IgG titers in mice were determined after repetitive immunizations. In all patients tested (n = 8), allergoid stimulations led to reduced histamine release compared to the intact allergen extract. However, the allergoid preparations were not recognized by Bet v 1-specific T cell lines (n = 7), which responded strongly to the intact allergen extract. Mouse immunizations showed a clearly reduced IgG induction by allergoids and a strongly potentiating effect of the alum adjuvant. Optimal IgG titers were obtained after 3 immunizations with intact allergen extracts, while 5 immunizations were needed to obtain maximal response to the allergoid. The reduced histamine release observed for allergoid preparations may be at the expense of immunological efficacy because the chemical modifications lead to a clear reduction in T cell activation and the ability to induce allergen-specific IgG antibody responses. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Use of hydrostatic pressure for modulation of protein chemical modification and enzymatic selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexey A; Helmy, Roy; Joyce, Leo; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Maust, Mathew; Ren, Sumei; Mergelsberg, Ingrid; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-05-11

    Using hydrostatic pressure to induce protein conformational changes can be a powerful tool for altering the availability of protein reactive sites and for changing the selectivity of enzymatic reactions. Using a pressure apparatus, it has been demonstrated that hydrostatic pressure can be used to modulate the reactivity of lysine residues of the protein ubiquitin with a water-soluble amine-specific homobifunctional coupling agent. Fewer reactive lysine residues were observed when the reaction was carried out under elevated pressure of 3 kbar, consistent with a pressure-induced conformational change of ubiquitin that results in fewer exposed lysine residues. Additionally, modulation of the stereoselectivity of an enzymatic transamination reaction was observed at elevated hydrostatic pressure. In one case, the minor diasteromeric product formed at atmospheric pressure became the major product at elevated pressure. Such pressure-induced alterations of protein reactivity may provide an important new tool for enzymatic reactions and the chemical modification of proteins.

  5. Chemical modifications and applications of alternating aliphatic polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun

    2008-01-01

    Alternating aliphatic polyketones, produced by co- and terpolymerization of carbon monoxide and olefins (mixtures of ethylene and propylene) using palladium-based homogeneous catalysis represent a very promising class of polymers for a wide range of applications. Besides many interesting chemical

  6. A novel fabrication method of carbon electrodes using 3D printing and chemical modification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pan; Chen, Chaoyang; Hu, Jie; Qi, Jin; Wang, Qianghua; Chen, Jimmy Ching-Ming; Cavanaugh, John; Peng, Yinghong; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2017-11-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical engineering and electronics. This paper presents a novel biofabrication method of implantable carbon electrodes with several advantages including fast prototyping, patient-specific and miniaturization without expensive cleanroom. The method combines stereolithography in additive manufacturing and chemical modification processes to fabricate electrically conductive carbon electrodes. The stereolithography allows the structures to be 3D printed with very fine resolution and desired shapes. The resin is then chemically modified to carbon using pyrolysis to enhance electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characteristics of 3D printing carbon electrodes are assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 3D printing carbon electrodes is much higher than the same sized platinum (Pt) electrode. In-vivo electromyography (EMG) recording, 3D printing carbon electrodes exhibit much higher signal-to-noise ratio (40.63 ± 7.73) than Pt electrodes (14.26 ± 6.83). The proposed biofabrication method is envisioned to enable 3D printing in many emerging applications in biomedical engineering and electronics.

  7. Studies on chemical modification of cold agglutinin from the snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Mitra, D; Sen, A K

    1987-01-01

    The cold agglutinin isolated from the albumin gland of the snail Achatina fulica was modified with various chemical reagents in order to detect the amino acids and/or carbohydrate residues present in its carbohydrate-binding sites. Treatment with reagents considered specific for modification of lysine, arginine and tryptophan residues of the cold agglutinin did not affect the carbohydrate-binding activity of the agglutinin. Modification of tyrosine residues showed some change. However, modification with carbodiimide followed by alpha-aminobutyric acid methyl ester causes almost complete loss of its binding activity, indicating the involvement of aspartic acid and glutamic acid in its carbohydrate-binding activity. The carbohydrate residues of the cold agglutinin were removed by beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to protein part of the molecule. Removal of galactose residues from the cold agglutinin by the action of beta-galactosidase indicated that the galactose molecules are beta-linked. These carbohydrate-modified glycoproteins showed a marked change in agglutination property, i.e. they agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at both 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C, indicating that the galactose residues of the glycoprotein play an important role in the cold-agglutination property of the glycoprotein. The c.d. data showed the presence of an almost identical type of random-coil conformation in the native cold agglutinin at 10 degrees C and in the carbohydrate-modified glycoprotein at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C. This particular random-coil conformation is essential for carbohydrate-binding property of the agglutinin. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3118867

  8. Chemical Modification Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Sultana Mir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber has a vital role as a reinforcing agent due to its renewable, low cost, biodegradable, less abrasive and eco-friendly nature. Whereas synthetic fibers like glass, boron, carbon, metallic, ceramic and inorganic fibers are expensive and not eco-friendly. Coir is one of the natural fibers easily available in Bangladesh and cheap. It is derived from the husk of the coconut (Cocos nucifera. Coir has one of the highest concentrations of lignin, which makes it stronger. In recent years, wide range of research has been carried out on fiber reinforced polymer composites [4-13].The aim of the present research is to characterize brown single coir fiber for manufacturing polymer composites reinforced with characterized fibers. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the strength of manufactured composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the coir fiber was chemically treated separately in single stage (with Cr2(SO43•12(H2O and double stages (with CrSO4 and NaHCO3. Both the raw and treated fibers were characterized by tensile testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopic analysis. The result showed that the Young’s modulus increased, while tensile strength and strain to failure decreased with increase in span length. Tensile properties of chemically treated coir fiber was found higher than raw coir fiber, while the double stage treated coir fiber had better mechanical properties compared to the single stage treated coir fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed rougher surface in case of the raw coir fiber. The surface was found clean and smooth in case of the treated coir fiber. Thus the performance of coir fiber composites in industrial application can be improved by chemical treatment.

  9. Chemical modifications of Au/SiO2 template substrates for patterned biofunctional surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Elisabeth; Humblot, Vincent; Landoulsi, Jessem; Petronis, Sarunas; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-01-18

    The aim of this work was to create patterned surfaces for localized and specific biochemical recognition. For this purpose, we have developed a protocol for orthogonal and material-selective surface modifications of microfabricated patterned surfaces composed of SiO(2) areas (100 μm diameter) surrounded by Au. The SiO(2) spots were chemically modified by a sequence of reactions (silanization using an amine-terminated silane (APTES), followed by amine coupling of a biotin analogue and biospecific recognition) to achieve efficient immobilization of streptavidin in a functional form. The surrounding Au was rendered inert to protein adsorption by modification by HS(CH(2))(10)CONH(CH(2))(2)(OCH(2)CH(2))(7)OH (thiol-OEG). The surface modification protocol was developed by testing separately homogeneous SiO(2) and Au surfaces, to obtain the two following results: (i) SiO(2) surfaces which allowed the grafting of streptavidin, and subsequent immobilization of biotinylated antibodies, and (ii) Au surfaces showing almost no affinity for the same streptavidin and antibody solutions. The surface interactions were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), and chemical analyses were performed by polarization modulation-reflexion absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to assess the validity of the initial orthogonal assembly of APTES and thiol-OEG. Eventually, microscopy imaging of the modified Au/SiO(2) patterned substrates validated the specific binding of streptavidin on the SiO(2)/APTES areas, as well as the subsequent binding of biotinylated anti-rIgG and further detection of fluorescent rIgG on the functionalized SiO(2) areas. These results demonstrate a successful protocol for the preparation of patterned biofunctional surfaces, based on microfabricated Au/SiO(2) templates and supported by careful surface analysis. The strong immobilization of the biomolecules resulting from the described

  10. Chemical modification of graphene aerogels for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Wie, Jeong Jae; Xu, Yu; Park, Ho Seok

    2015-12-14

    Graphene aerogel is a relatively new type of aerogel that is ideal for energy storage applications because of its large surface area, high electrical conductivity and good chemical stability. Also, three dimensional interconnected macropores offer many advantages such as low density, fast ion and mass transfer, and easy access to storage sites. Such features allow graphene aerogels to be intensively applied for electrochemical capacitor applications. Despite the growing interest in graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors, however, the graphene aerogels still suffer from their low capacitive performances and high fragility. Both relatively low capacitance and brittleness of physically crosslinked graphene aerogels remain a critical challenge. Until now, a number of alternative attempts have been devoted to overcome these shortcomings. In this perspective, we summarize the recent research progress towards the development of advanced graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors according to the different approaches (e.g. porosity, composition and structure controls). Then, the recently proposed chemical strategies to improve the capacitive performances and mechanical durability of graphene aerogels for practical applications are highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and perspectives in this emerging material are also discussed.

  11. Extracellular sugar modifications provide instructive and cell-specific information for axon-guidance choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulow, H.E.; Tjoe, N.; Townley, R.A.; Didiano, D.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Hobert, O.

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulfates (HSs) are extraordinarily complex extracellular sugar molecules that are critical components of multiple signaling systems controlling neuronal development. The molecular complexity of HSs arises through a series of specific modifications, including sulfations of sugar residues and

  12. Posttranscriptional RNA Modifications: playing metabolic games in a cell's chemical Legoland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Mark; Alfonzo, Juan D

    2014-02-20

    Nature combines existing biochemical building blocks, at times with subtlety of purpose. RNA modifications are a prime example of this, where standard RNA nucleosides are decorated with chemical groups and building blocks that we recall from our basic biochemistry lectures. The result: a wealth of chemical diversity whose full biological relevance has remained elusive despite being public knowledge for some time. Here, we highlight several modifications that, because of their chemical intricacy, rely on seemingly unrelated pathways to provide cofactors for their synthesis. Besides their immediate role in affecting RNA function, modifications may act as sensors and transducers of information that connect a cell's metabolic state to its translational output, carefully orchestrating a delicate balance between metabolic rate and protein synthesis at a system's level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Applications to Biosensors and Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svítková, Jana; Ignat, Teodora; Švorc, Ľubomír; Labuda, Ján; Barek, Jiří

    2016-05-03

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a prospective electrode material that possesses many exceptional properties including wide potential window, low noise, low and stable background current, chemical and mechanical stability, good biocompatibility, and last but not least exceptional resistance to passivation. These characteristics extend its usability in various areas of electrochemistry as evidenced by increasing number of published articles over the past two decades. The idea of chemically modifying BDD electrodes with molecular species attached to the surface for the purpose of creating a rational design has found promising applications in the past few years. BDD electrodes have appeared to be excellent substrate materials for various chemical modifications and subsequent application to biosensors and biosensing. Hence, this article presents modification strategies that have extended applications of BDD electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Different methods and steps of surface modification of this electrode material for biosensing and construction of biosensors are discussed.

  14. Laser and chemical surface modifications of titanium grade 2 for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwaśniak, P. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Pura, J., E-mail: jaroslawpura@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Zwolińska, M.; Wieciński, P. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Skarżyński, H.; Olszewski, L. [Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw (Poland); World Hearing Center, Kajetany (Poland); Marczak, J. [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Garbacz, H.; Kurzydłowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • DLIL technique and etching were used for functionalization of Ti grade 2 surface. • Modification was performed on semi-finished flat and curved Ti surfaces. • Modification results in periodic multimodal (micro and nano-size) Ti topography. - Abstract: The article presents combined, chemical and physical approach to titanium surface functionalization designed for biomedical applications. The topography modification has been obtained by employing the double laser beam interference technique and chemical etching. In the outcome, clean and smooth Ti surface as well as periodic striated topography with the roughness range from nano- to micrometers were created. The obtained structures were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructures. In order to achieve all information, numerous of research methods have been used: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and microhardness measurements. Demonstrated methodology can be used as an effective tool for manufacturing controlled surface structures improving the bone–implants interactions.

  15. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  16. Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is a revision of Safety Series No. 35-G2 on safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors. It provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for the categorization, safety assessment and approval of research reactor experiments and modification projects. Specific safety considerations in different phases of utilization and modification projects are covered, including the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases. Guidance is also provided on the operational safety of experiments, including in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices. Examples of the application of the safety categorization process for experiments and modification projects and of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment are also provided. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system for the utilization and modification of a research reactor; 3. Categorization, safety assessment and approval of an experiment or modification; 4. Safety considerations for the design of an experiment or modification; 5. Pre-implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 6. Implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 7. Post-implementation phase of a utilization or modification project; 8. Operational safety of experiments at a research reactor; 9. Safety considerations in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices; 10. Safety aspects of out-of-reactor-core installations; Annex I: Example of a checklist for the categorization of an experiment or modification at a research reactor; Annex II: Example of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment at a research reactor; Annex III: Examples of reasons for a modification at a research reactor.

  17. Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This Safety Guide is a revision of Safety Series No. 35-G2 on safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors. It provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for the categorization, safety assessment and approval of research reactor experiments and modification projects. Specific safety considerations in different phases of utilization and modification projects are covered, including the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases. Guidance is also provided on the operational safety of experiments, including in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices. Examples of the application of the safety categorization process for experiments and modification projects and of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment are also provided. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system for the utilization and modification of a research reactor; 3. Categorization, safety assessment and approval of an experiment or modification; 4. Safety considerations for the design of an experiment or modification; 5. Pre-implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 6. Implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 7. Post-implementation phase of a utilization or modification project; 8. Operational safety of experiments at a research reactor; 9. Safety considerations in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices; 10. Safety aspects of out-of-reactor-core installations; Annex I: Example of a checklist for the categorization of an experiment or modification at a research reactor; Annex II: Example of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment at a research reactor; Annex III: Examples of reasons for a modification at a research reactor.

  18. Evaluation of electrode surface modification techniques for the development of chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiatsatos, C.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis covers several aspects of electrode surface modification techniques. The successful application of gamma-radiation to create polymer-coated electrodes, where the polymers can be ion exchangers and consequently of great analytical interest by themselves (such as the polymer poly(diallyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride) or where some other neutral polymers can function as convenient matrices for the introduction of biomolecules and/or other electrochemically interesting species is reported. This is demonstrated by using the neutral polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) as a matrix for immobilization of the enzyme glucose oxidase and the mediator methyl viologen. The effect of γ-radiation on PVAL is discussed, as well as swelling properties of the irradiated polymers and specific characteristics of the created chemical sensors. Results of an experiment where the various kinds of interactions between the ion-exchange polymer Nafion and some positively charged species are explored are reported, and a model system for competition (methyl viologen vs. ruthenium hexaamine) which increases significantly our understanding of the interaction is mentioned. The effect of γ-radiation on Nafion and its ion-exchange compabilities is discussed also. A system of conduction polymers primarily polypyrrole, used as a detector of electroinactive anions due to their doping-undergoing in the film is discussed. Preliminary results on a new method that involves chemical cross-linking of a triisocyane molecule with -OH containing polymers in the presence of enzymes are reported

  19. Chemically Patterned Inverse Opal Created by a Selective Photolysis Modification Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Gao, Ning; Gu, Chen; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Lan, Yue; Yin, Xianpeng; Li, Guangtao

    2015-09-02

    Anisotropic photonic crystal materials have long been pursued for their broad applications. A novel method for creating chemically patterned inverse opals is proposed here. The patterning technique is based on selective photolysis of a photolabile polymer together with postmodification on released amine groups. The patterning method allows regioselective modification within an inverse opal structure, taking advantage of selective chemical reaction. Moreover, combined with the unique signal self-reporting feature of the photonic crystal, the fabricated structure is capable of various applications, including gradient photonic bandgap and dynamic chemical patterns. The proposed method provides the ability to extend the structural and chemical complexity of the photonic crystal, as well as its potential applications.

  20. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Part 1. Design of Biomimetic Catalysts Based on Amphiphilic Systems The overall objective of our research is to create biomimetic catalysts from amphiphilic molecules. More specifically, we aim to create supramolecular systems that can be used to control the microenvironment around a catalytic center in a biomimetic fashion and apply the learning to construct supramolecular catalysts with novel functions found in enzymatic catalysts. We have prepared synthetic molecules (i.e., foldamers) that could fold into helical structures with nanometer-sized internal hydrophilic cavities. Cavities of this size are typically observed only in the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins but were formed in our foldamer prepared in just a few steps from the monomer. Similar to many proteins, our foldamers displayed cooperativity in the folding/unfolding equilibrium and followed a two-state conformational transition. In addition, their conformational change could be triggered by solvent polarity, pH, or presence of metal ions and certain organic molecules. We studied their environmentally dependent conformational changes in solutions, surfactant micelles, and lipid bilayer membranes. Unlike conventional rigid supramolecular host, a foldamer undergoes conformational change during guest binding. Our study in the molecular recognition of an oligocholate host yielded some extremely exciting results. Cooperativity between host conformation and host–guest interactions was found to “magnify” weak binding interactions. In other words, since binding affinity is determined by the overall change of free energy during the binding, guest-induced conformational change of the host, whether near or far from the binding site, affects the binding. This study has strong implications in catalysis because enzymes have been hypothesized to harvest similar intramolecular forces to strengthen their binding with the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The supramolecular and

  1. Chemical Modification of Uniform Soils and Soils with High/Low Plasticity Index

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuanchi; Tao, Fei; Bobet, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Lime and/or cement are used to treat weak subgrade soils during construction of highways. These chemicals are mixed with the soil to improve its workability, compactability and engineering properties. INDOT (Indiana Department of Transportation) has been using chemical modification of native soils for the past 20 years. In fact, 90% of current subgrade is treated, typically with quick lime, lime byproducts or cement. For pavement design, it is customary to not include any improvement of the s...

  2. Stage-specific histone modification profiles reveal global transitions in the Xenopus embryonic epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias D Schneider

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryos are derived from a transitory pool of pluripotent cells. By the process of embryonic induction, these precursor cells are assigned to specific fates and differentiation programs. Histone post-translational modifications are thought to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of stable gene expression patterns underlying these processes. While on gene level histone modifications are known to change during differentiation, very little is known about the quantitative fluctuations in bulk histone modifications during development. To investigate this issue we analysed histones isolated from four different developmental stages of Xenopus laevis by mass spectrometry. In toto, we quantified 59 modification states on core histones H3 and H4 from blastula to tadpole stages. During this developmental period, we observed in general an increase in the unmodified states, and a shift from histone modifications associated with transcriptional activity to transcriptionally repressive histone marks. We also compared these naturally occurring patterns with the histone modifications of murine ES cells, detecting large differences in the methylation patterns of histone H3 lysines 27 and 36 between pluripotent ES cells and pluripotent cells from Xenopus blastulae. By combining all detected modification transitions we could cluster their patterns according to their embryonic origin, defining specific histone modification profiles (HMPs for each developmental stage. To our knowledge, this data set represents the first compendium of covalent histone modifications and their quantitative flux during normogenesis in a vertebrate model organism. The HMPs indicate a stepwise maturation of the embryonic epigenome, which may be causal to the progressing restriction of cellular potency during development.

  3. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  4. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  5. Milk whey protein modification by coffee-specific phenolics: effect on structural and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mostafa; Homann, Thomas; Khalil, Mahmoud; Kruse, Hans-Peter; Rawel, Harshadrai

    2013-07-17

    A suitable vehicle for integration of bioactive plant constituents is proposed. It involves modification of proteins using phenolics and applying these for protection of labile constituents. It dissects the noncovalent and covalent interactions of β-lactoglobulin with coffee-specific phenolics. Alkaline and polyphenol oxidase modulated covalent reactions were compared. Tryptic digestion combined with MALDI-TOF-MS provided tentative allocation of the modification type and site in the protein, and an in silico modeling of modified β-lactoglobulin is proposed. The modification delivers proteins with enhanced antioxidative properties. Changed structural properties and differences in solubility, surface hydrophobicity, and emulsification were observed. The polyphenol oxidase modulated reaction provides a modified β-lactoglobulin with a high antioxidative power, is thermally more stable, requires less energy to unfold, and, when emulsified with lutein esters, exhibits their higher stability against UV light. Thus, adaptation of this modification provides an innovative approach for functionalizing proteins and their uses in the food industry.

  6. Negative thermal expansion in functional materials: controllable thermal expansion by chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Hu, Lei; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2015-06-07

    Negative thermal expansion (NTE) is an intriguing physical property of solids, which is a consequence of a complex interplay among the lattice, phonons, and electrons. Interestingly, a large number of NTE materials have been found in various types of functional materials. In the last two decades good progress has been achieved to discover new phenomena and mechanisms of NTE. In the present review article, NTE is reviewed in functional materials of ferroelectrics, magnetics, multiferroics, superconductors, temperature-induced electron configuration change and so on. Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) of functional materials is emphasized due to the importance for practical applications. The NTE functional materials present a general physical picture to reveal a strong coupling role between physical properties and NTE. There is a general nature of NTE for both ferroelectrics and magnetics, in which NTE is determined by either ferroelectric order or magnetic one. In NTE functional materials, a multi-way to control thermal expansion can be established through the coupling roles of ferroelectricity-NTE, magnetism-NTE, change of electron configuration-NTE, open-framework-NTE, and so on. Chemical modification has been proved to be an effective method to control thermal expansion. Finally, challenges and questions are discussed for the development of NTE materials. There remains a challenge to discover a "perfect" NTE material for each specific application for chemists. The future studies on NTE functional materials will definitely promote the development of NTE materials.

  7. Artificial specific binders directly recovered from chemically modified nucleic acid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yuuya; Kuwahara, Masayasu

    2012-01-01

    Specific binders comprised of nucleic acids, that is, RNA/DNA aptamers, are attractive functional biopolymers owing to their potential broad application in medicine, food hygiene, environmental analysis, and biological research. Despite the large number of reports on selection of natural DNA/RNA aptamers, there are not many examples of direct screening of chemically modified nucleic acid aptamers. This is because of (i) the inferior efficiency and accuracy of polymerase reactions involving transcription/reverse-transcription of modified nucleotides compared with those of natural nucleotides, (ii) technical difficulties and additional time and effort required when using modified nucleic acid libraries, and (iii) ambiguous efficacies of chemical modifications in binding properties until recently; in contrast, the effects of chemical modifications on biostability are well studied using various nucleotide analogs. Although reports on the direct screening of a modified nucleic acid library remain in the minority, chemical modifications would be essential when further functional expansion of nucleic acid aptamers, in particular for medical and biological uses, is considered. This paper focuses on enzymatic production of chemically modified nucleic acids and their application to random screenings. In addition, recent advances and possible future research are also described.

  8. Artificial Specific Binders Directly Recovered from Chemically Modified Nucleic Acid Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuya Kasahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific binders comprised of nucleic acids, that is, RNA/DNA aptamers, are attractive functional biopolymers owing to their potential broad application in medicine, food hygiene, environmental analysis, and biological research. Despite the large number of reports on selection of natural DNA/RNA aptamers, there are not many examples of direct screening of chemically modified nucleic acid aptamers. This is because of (i the inferior efficiency and accuracy of polymerase reactions involving transcription/reverse-transcription of modified nucleotides compared with those of natural nucleotides, (ii technical difficulties and additional time and effort required when using modified nucleic acid libraries, and (iii ambiguous efficacies of chemical modifications in binding properties until recently; in contrast, the effects of chemical modifications on biostability are well studied using various nucleotide analogs. Although reports on the direct screening of a modified nucleic acid library remain in the minority, chemical modifications would be essential when further functional expansion of nucleic acid aptamers, in particular for medical and biological uses, is considered. This paper focuses on enzymatic production of chemically modified nucleic acids and their application to random screenings. In addition, recent advances and possible future research are also described.

  9. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2001-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of 1 H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  10. Plant Sterols: Chemical and Enzymatic Structural Modifications and Effects on Their Cholesterol-Lowering Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Sen; Zhu, Hanyue; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2018-03-28

    Plant sterols have attracted increasing attention due to their excellent cholesterol-lowering activity. However, free plant sterols have some characteristics of low oil solubility, water insolubility, high melting point, and low bioavailability, which greatly limit their application in foods. Numerous studies have been undertaken to modify their chemical structures to improve their chemical and physical properties in meeting the needs of various applications. The present review is to summarize the literature and update the progress on structural modifications of plant sterols in the following aspects: (i) synthesis of plant sterol esters by esterification and transesterification with hydrophobic fatty acids and triacylglycerols to improve their oil solubility, (ii) synthesis of plant sterol derivatives by coupling with various hydrophilic moieties to enhance their water solubility, and (iii) mechanisms by which plant sterols reduce plasma cholesterol and the effect of structural modifications on plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols.

  11. Modification of chemical reactivity of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin by ultrasound treatment in dilute alkaline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhuoming; Li, Shujun; Fang, Guizhen; Patil, Nikhil; Yan, Ning

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we have explored various ultrasound treatment conditions for structural modification of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) for enhanced chemical reactivity. The key structural modifications were characterized by using a combination of analytical methods, including, Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H NMR), Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) method. Chemical reactivity of the modified EHL samples was determined by both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and their reactivity towards formaldehyde. It was observed that the modified EHL had a higher phenolic hydroxyl group content, a lower molecular weight, a higher reactivity towards formaldehyde, and a greater antioxidant property. The higher reactivity demonstrated by the samples after treatment suggesting that ultrasound is a promising method for modifying enzymatic hydrolysis lignin for value-added applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of major-groove chemical modifications of DNA on transcription by bacterial RNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raindlová, Veronika; Janoušková, Martina; Slavíčková, Michaela; Perlíková, Pavla; Boháčová, Soňa; Milisavljevič, Nemanja; Šanderová, Hana; Benda, Martin; Barvík, Ivan; Krásný, Libor; Hocek, Michal

    2016-04-20

    DNA templates containing a set of base modifications in the major groove (5-substituted pyrimidines or 7-substituted 7-deazapurines bearing H, methyl, vinyl, ethynyl or phenyl groups) were prepared by PCR using the corresponding base-modified 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). The modified templates were used in an in vitro transcription assay using RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli Some modified nucleobases bearing smaller modifications (H, Me in 7-deazapurines) were perfectly tolerated by both enzymes, whereas bulky modifications (Ph at any nucleobase) and, surprisingly, uracil blocked transcription. Some middle-sized modifications (vinyl or ethynyl) were partly tolerated mostly by the E. colienzyme. In all cases where the transcription proceeded, full length RNA product with correct sequence was obtained indicating that the modifications of the template are not mutagenic and the inhibition is probably at the stage of initiation. The results are promising for the development of bioorthogonal reactions for artificial chemical switching of the transcription. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Effect of chemical modification on reduction and sorptive properties of chars from hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanczyk, K.; Miga, K.; Fabis, G.; Jastrzab, K. [Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Gliwice (Poland)

    1998-01-01

    Hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal and lignite as way of synthesis of adsorbents has been applied. Chemical modification of chars based on simultaneous carbonization of coal and plastics containing sulfur and nitrogen has been carried out. It was stated that modified chars exhibit better reduction and sorptive properties than non-modified and that modified adsorbents made of lignite exceed commercial ones. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effect of chemical modifications of cellulose on the activity of a cellulase from Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, R.F.; Redmond, M.A.

    1983-05-01

    Five chemically modified forms of cellulose were prepared, characterized, and tested as substrates for a homogeneous glucanohydrolase from A. niger. The relative order of reactivity at pH 4.0 was DEAE = PEI more than benzyl DEAE more than cellulose more than P more than CM. This indicates that positively charged cellulose substrates are more susceptible to hydrolysis by the cellulase. This observation strengthens an earlier proposal that carboxyl groups on the enzyme are involved in substrate binding and catalytic action. Chemical modification is suggested as a method to increase the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, a process now in the commercial development stage. (Refs. 27).

  15. Patterns of development of unspecific reaction of cells and modification of chemical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Korystov, Yu.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of a correlation between radioprotective efficiency of different chemical agents (weak electrolytes) and conditions of treatment. It was demonstrated that the pattern of changes in the protection efficiency, with modification thereof, is similar to that of the development of unspecific reaction and determined by the intracellular concentration of the chemical agents, which, in turn, is function of physicochemical parameters of the substance and pH gradient between cell and medium. With similar intracellular concentration, caffeine-benzoate, thioglicolic acid and caffeine proved to be equally effective, while the protective effect of cysteamine was appreciably higher

  16. Chemical modification and pH dependence of kinetic parameters to identify functional groups in a glucosyltransferase from Strep. Mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.E.; Leone, A.; Bell, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    A glucosyltransferase, forming a predominantly al-6 linked glucan, was partially purified from the culture filtrate of S. mutans GS-5. The kinetic properties of the enzyme, assessed using the transfer of 14 C glucose from sucrose into total glucan, were studied at pH values from pH 3.5 to 6.5. From the dependence of km on pH, a group with pKa = 5.5 must be protonated to maximize substrate binding. From plots of V/sub max/ vs pH two groups, with pKa's of 4.5 and 5.5 were indicated. The results suggest the involvement of either two carboxyl groups (one protonated, one unprotonated in the native enzyme) or a carboxyl group (unprotonated) and some other protonated group such as histidine, cysteine. Chemical modification studies showed that Diethylyrocarbonate (histidine specific) had no effect on enzyme activity while modification with p-phydroxy-mercuribenzoate or iodoacetic acid (sulfhydryl reactive) and carbodimide reagents (carboxyl specific) resulted in almost complete inactivation. Activity loss was dependent upon time of incubation and reagent concentration. The disaccharide lylose, (shown to be an inhibitor of the enzyme with similar affinity to sucrose) offers no protection against modification by the sulfhydryl reactive reagents

  17. The behavior of various chemical forms of nickel in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry under different chemical modification approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Various organic and inorganic Ni forms were investigated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Experiments without chemical modification showed a wide range of characteristic mass values for Ni (from 6.7 to 29 pg) and the importance of interaction with graphite. With the aim of achieving signal unification of organic Ni forms, different ways of chemical modification were tested. Some rules that govern the behavior of Ni were found and confirmed a significant role of the organic component of the analyte molecule in the analytical process. The application of air as an internal furnace gas in the pyrolysis phase and the Pd modifier injected with the sample solution improved the signal of porphyrins, while the application of iodine and methyltrioctylammonium chloride was required for organic compounds containing oxygen-bound Ni atoms. The Ni signal was strongly diminished when an aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid was measured with the Pd modifier injected over the sample. Using the developed analytical methods, the range of characteristic mass values for various Ni forms totally dissolved in organic or aqueous solution was 6.5–7.9 pg. - Highlights: ► Some rules that govern behavior of organic Ni forms during GFAAS analysis were found. ► Interaction with graphite can significantly influence evaporation of porphyrins. ► Determination of Ni in form of porphyrins needs Pd organic modifier and air ashing. ► Determination of Ni in O-bound organic compounds needs pretreatment with I2+MTOACl. ► Chemical modification for GFAAS determination of Ni in HCl-containing solution.

  18. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  19. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase and Aspergillus niger. beta. -glucosidase after pH and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger ..beta..-glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  20. Soft X-ray induced chemical modification of polysaccharides in vascular plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, George D.; Brandes, Jay; Jacobsen, Chris; Wirick, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and micro carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (C-XANES) can provide quantitative information regarding the distribution of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in vascular plant cell walls. In the case of angiosperms, flowering plants, C-XANES may also be able to distinguish variations in lignin monomer distributions throughout the cell wall. Polysaccharides are susceptible to soft X-ray irradiation induced chemical transformations that may complicate spectral analysis. The stability of a model polysaccharide, cellulose acetate, to variable doses of soft X-rays under conditions optimized for high quality C-XANES spectroscopy was investigated. The primary chemical effect of soft X-ray irradiation on cellulose acetate involves mass loss coincident with de-acetylation. A lesser amount of vinyl ketone formation also occurs. Reduction in irradiation dose via defocusing does enable high quality pristine spectra to be obtained. Radiation induced chemical modification studies of oak cell wall reveals that cellulose and hemicellulose are less labile to chemical modification than cellulose acetate. Strategies for obtaining pristine C-XANES spectra of polysaccharides are presented.

  1. Chemical Modification of Waste Cotton Linters for Oil Spill Cleanup Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debapriya; Umrigar, Keval

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of use of waste cotton linters as oil sorbents by chemical modification such as acetylation and cyanoethylation was studied. The acetylation process was carried out in presence of acetic anhydride using either H2SO4 or HClO4 as catalyst. The acetylation treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min and treatment temperature was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C. For cyanoethylation, the waste cotton linters were pre-treated with 2, 5 and 10% NaOH. The treatment temperature for cyanoethylation was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C and treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min. Both the chemical modification processes were optimized on the basis of oil absorption capacity of the chemically modified cotton fibre with the help of MATLAB software. The modified samples were tested for its oleophilicity in terms of oil absorption capacity, oil retention capacity, oil recovery capacity, reusability of sample and water uptake and buoyancy as oil sorbent. Chemically modified fibres were characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and degree of substitutions.

  2. Effect of different chemical modification of carbon nanotubes for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Anca; Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of oxygen on chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes in 1 M KOH solution has been studied using the rotating ring disc electrode (RDE). The surface modification of CNTs has been estimated by XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of different oxygen functionalities on the surface of carbon nanotube for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is considered in terms of the number of electrons (n) involved. Electrochemical studies indicate that in the case of the modification of CNTs with citric acid and diazonium salts the n values were close to two in the measured potential range, and the electrochemical reduction is limited to the production of peroxide as the final product. In the case of the modification of carbon nanotubes with peroxymonosulphuric acid, in the measured potential range, the n value is close to 4 indicating the four-electron pathway for the ORR. By correlating ORR measurements with the XPS analysis, we propose that the increase in electrocatalytic activity towards the ORR, for CNT can be attributed to the increase in C-O groups on the surface of CNTs after modification with peroxymonosulphuric acid

  3. Chemical modification of jute fibers for the production of green-composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales, F. [Group Lepamap, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain)]. E-mail: farners.corrales@udg.es; Vilaseca, F. [Group Lepamap, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain); Llop, M. [Group Lepamap, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain); Girones, J. [Group Lepamap, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain); Mendez, J.A. [Group Lepamap, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain); Mutje, P. [Group Lepamap, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    Natural fiber reinforced composites is an emerging area in polymer science. Fibers derived from annual plants are considered a potential substitute for non-renewable synthetic fibers like glass and carbon fibers. The hydrophilic nature of natural fibers affects negatively its adhesion to hydrophobic polymeric matrices. To improve the compatibility between both components a surface modification has been proposed. The aim of the study is the chemical modification of jute fibers using a fatty acid derivate (oleoyl chloride) to confer hydrophobicity and resistance to biofibers. This reaction was applied in swelling and non-swelling solvents, pyridine and dichloromethane, respectively. The formation of ester groups, resulting from the reaction of oleoyl chloride with hydroxyl group of cellulose were studied by elemental analysis (EA) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization methods applied has proved the chemical interaction between the cellulosic material and the coupling agent. The extent of the reactions evaluated by elemental analysis was calculated using two ratios. Finally electron microscopy was applied to evaluate the surface changes of cellulose fibers after modification process.

  4. Chemical modification of glass surface with a monolayer of nonchromophoric and chromophoric methacrylate terpolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Ryszard [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Kucharski, Stanislaw, E-mail: stanislaw.kucharski@pwr.wroc.pl [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Sobolewska, Anna [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Barille, Regis [Institut des Sciences et Techniques Moleculaires d' Angers ' Moltech Anjou' , CNRS UMR 6200, 49045 Angers (France)

    2010-11-15

    The methacrylate terpolymers, a nonchromophoric and chromophoric one, containing 2-hydroxyethyl groups were reacted with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain reactive polymers able to form covalent bonding with -SiOH groups of the glass surface via triethoxysilane group condensation. Chemical modification of the Corning 2949 glass plates treated in this way resulted in increase of wetting angle from 11{sup o} to ca. 70-73{sup o}. Determination of ellipsometric parameters revealed low value of the substrate refractive index as compared with that of bulk Corning 2949 glass suggesting roughness of the surface. The AFM image of the bare glass surface and that modified with terpolymer monolayer confirmed this phenomenon. Modification of the glass with the terpolymer monolayer made it possible to create the substrate surface well suited for deposition of familiar chromophore film by spin-coating. The chromophore polymer film deposited onto the modified glass surface was found to be resistant to come unstuck in aqueous solution.

  5. Modification of surface/neuron interfaces for neural cell-type specific responses: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Lee, In-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Surface/neuron interfaces have played an important role in neural repair including neural prostheses and tissue engineered scaffolds. This comprehensive literature review covers recent studies on the modification of surface/neuron interfaces. These interfaces are identified in cases both where the surfaces of substrates or scaffolds were in direct contact with cells and where the surfaces were modified to facilitate cell adhesion and controlling cell-type specific responses. Different sources of cells for neural repair are described, such as pheochromocytoma neuronal-like cell, neural stem cell (NSC), embryonic stem cell (ESC), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS). Commonly modified methods are discussed including patterned surfaces at micro- or nano-scale, surface modification with conducting coatings, and functionalized surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules. These approaches to control cell-type specific responses have enormous potential implications in neural repair. (paper)

  6. Comparison the performance of different catalysts in chemical modification of Poplar wood with Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ندا اسماعیلی

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different catalysts on chemical modification of poplar wood and physical properties of the resulting product was evaluated. 12.5% HCl and water soluble salts containing ZnCl2, CaCl2, AlCl3, MgCl2 (based on the weight of glutaraldehyde and 1% Al2O3, SiO2 and ZnO nano particles (based on the weight of glutaraldehyde were used. After heating in oven for 48 hour, modification with glutaraldehyde and MgCl2, ZnO nano particles, SiO2, Al2O3, ZnCl2, AlCl3, CaCl2 and HCl as catalysts were resulted to 14.5, 12.57, 10.62, 8.69, 8.51, 7.19, 5.97 and 5.41 % weight gain respectively. After 24h soaking in water, the physical properties of modified specimens, such as water absorption, volume swelling and ASE were measured. The highest and lowest bulking were calculated for Mgcl2 and Hcl catalysts with 6.98 and 2.37% respectively. The modification in presence of Mgcl2 catalyst was shown highest increase of density with average of 0.55 g/cm3. The highest and lowest water absorption was measured 79.61 and 45.32% in the modification with HCl and MgCl catalysts. Hcl with acidic quality, can break ether bonds in hemiacetal and even acetal structure. Modification with MgCl2 was shown best result in comparison with other catalysts. It is likely that the formation a complex of magnesium with oxygen, could resulted to activate carbonyl groups in glutaraldehyde and created the crosslink.

  7. Establishment of first engineering specifications for environmental modification to eliminate schistosomiasis epidemic foci in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shibo; Tan, Xiaodong; Deng, Zhiqing; Xie, Yaofei; Yang, Fen; Zheng, Zengwang

    2017-08-01

    Snail control is a key link in schistosomiasis control, but no unified methods for eliminating snails have been produced to date. This study was conducted to explore an engineering method for eliminating Oncomelania hupensis applicable to urban areas. The engineering specifications were established using the Delphi method. An engineering project based on these specifications was conducted in Hankou marshland to eliminate snails, including the transformation of the beach surface and ditches. Molluscicide was used as a supplement. The snail control effect was evaluated by field investigation. The engineering results fulfilled the requirements of the design. The snail density decreased to 0/0.11m 2 , and the snail area dropped to 0m 2 after the project. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of frames with snails before and after the project (Pengineering specifications for environmental modification were successfully established. Environmental modification, mainly through beach and ditch remediation, can completely change the environment of Oncomelania breeding. This method of environmental modification combined with mollusciciding was highly effective at eliminating snails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of electron-transfer chemical modification on the electrical characteristics of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaoyan; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Nouchi, Ryo; Yin Lichang

    2010-01-01

    Because of the large reactivity of single layer graphene to electron-transfer chemistries, 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate is employed to modify the electrical properties of graphene field-effect transistors. After modification, the transfer characteristics of chemically modified graphene show a reduction in the minimum conductivity, electron-hole mobility asymmetry, a decrease in the electron/hole mobility, and a positive shift of the charge neutrality point with broadening of the minimum conductivity region. These phenomena are attributed to a dediazoniation reaction and the adsorbates on the graphene surface.

  9. Effects of electron-transfer chemical modification on the electrical characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaoyan; Tanigaki, Katsumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nouchi, Ryo [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yin Lichang, E-mail: nouchi@sspns.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-11-26

    Because of the large reactivity of single layer graphene to electron-transfer chemistries, 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate is employed to modify the electrical properties of graphene field-effect transistors. After modification, the transfer characteristics of chemically modified graphene show a reduction in the minimum conductivity, electron-hole mobility asymmetry, a decrease in the electron/hole mobility, and a positive shift of the charge neutrality point with broadening of the minimum conductivity region. These phenomena are attributed to a dediazoniation reaction and the adsorbates on the graphene surface.

  10. Chemical modifications and stability of diamond nanoparticles resolved by infrared spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozak, Halyna; Remeš, Zdeněk; Houdková, Jana; Stehlík, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2013), "1568-1"-"1568-9" ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GPP205/12/P331; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond nanoparticles * chemical modification * GAR-FTIR * AFM * KFM * XPS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11051-013-1568-7

  11. Improving lead adsorption through chemical modification of wheat straw by lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ruimin; Wang, Minxiang; Bu, Qingwei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Yanli

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the creation of a new cellulosic material derived from wheat straw modified by lactic acid for adsorption of lead in aqueous solution, called 0.3LANS (the concentration of the lactic acid were 0.3mol/L). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of initial pH value, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Elemental analysis, BET surface area and Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) analysis were used to investigate the chemical modification. Adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich were used to analyse the equilibrium data, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the best correlation, means that the adsorption was chemical monolayer adsorption and the adsorption capacity qm was increased with increasing temperature, and reached 51.49mg/g for 0.3LANS at 35°C, showing adsorption was exothermic.

  12. Altering protein surface charge with chemical modification modulates protein–gold nanoparticle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, Jennifer A.; Bryant, Erika L.; Kadali, Shyam B.; Wong, Michael S.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Calabretta, Michelle K.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can interact with a wide range of molecules including proteins. Whereas significant attention has focused on modifying the nanoparticle surface to regulate protein–AuNP assembly or influence the formation of the protein “corona,” modification of the protein surface as a mechanism to modulate protein–AuNP interaction has been less explored. Here, we examine this possibility utilizing three small globular proteins—lysozyme with high isoelectric point (pI) and established interactions with AuNP; α-lactalbumin with similar tertiary fold to lysozyme but low pI; and myoglobin with a different globular fold and an intermediate pI. We first chemically modified these proteins to alter their charged surface functionalities, and thereby shift protein pI, and then applied multiple methods to assess protein–AuNP assembly. At pH values lower than the anticipated pI of the modified protein, AuNP exposure elicits changes in the optical absorbance of the protein–NP solutions and other properties due to aggregate formation. Above the expected pI, however, protein–AuNP interaction is minimal, and both components remain isolated, presumably because both species are negatively charged. These data demonstrate that protein modification provides a powerful tool for modulating whether nanoparticle–protein interactions result in material aggregation. The results also underscore that naturally occurring protein modifications found in vivo may be critical in defining nanoparticle–protein corona compositions.

  13. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  14. Conductivity enhancement via chemical modification of chitosan based green polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Ahmad, A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ramli, N.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of carboxymethyl chitosan as a green polymer electrolyte has been explored. Chitosan produced from partial deacetylation of chitin was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to form carboxymethyl chitosan. A green polymer electrolyte based chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The powder and films were characterized by reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The shift of wavenumber that represents hydroxyl and amine stretching confirmed the polymer solvent complex formation. The XRD spectra results show that chemical modification of chitosan has improved amorphous properties of chitosan. The ionic conductivity was found to increase by two magnitudes higher with the chemical modification of chitosan. The highest conductivity achieved was 3.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 for carboxymethyl chitosan at room temperature and 3.7 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 60 °C

  15. Influence of Chemical Surface Modification of Woven Fabrics on Ballistic and Stab Protection of Multilayer Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GRINEVIČIŪTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve enhanced protective and wear (flexibility, less bulkiness properties of ballistic and stab protecting panels the investigation of chemical surface modification of woven p-aramid fabrics was performed applying different chemical composition shear thickening fluid (STF which improves friction inside fabric structure. For the chemical treatment silicic acid and acrylic dispersion water solutions were used and influence of their different concentrations on panels’ protective properties were investigated. Results of ballistic tests of multilayer protective panel have revealed that shear thickening effect was negligible when shooting at high energy range (E > 440 J. Determination of stab resistance of p-aramid panels has shown that different chemical composition of STFs had different influence on protective properties of the panels. Application of low concentrations of silicic acid determined higher stab resistance values comparing to higher concentrations of acrylic dispersion water solutions. At this stage of research stab tests results as ballistic ones determined that STF application for multilayer p-aramid fabrics protective panels is more efficient at low strike energy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3138

  16. Research supporting potential modification of the NASA specification for dry heat microbial reduction of spacecraft hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, James A.; Beaudet, Robert; Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary method currently used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts to comply with planetary protection re-quirements. However, manufacturing processes often involve heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. At present, the specifica-tion in NASA document NPR8020.12, describing the process lethality on B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) bacterial spores, does not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit for processing outside a narrow temperature, time and humidity window. Our results from a comprehensive multi-year laboratory research effort have generated en-hanced data sets on four aspects of the current specification: time and temperature effects in combination, the effect that humidity has on spore lethality, and the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance (so called "hardies"). This paper describes potential modifications to the specification, based on the data set gener-ated in the referenced studies. The proposed modifications are intended to broaden the scope of the current specification while still maintaining confidence in a conservative interpretation of the lethality of the DHMR process on microorganisms.

  17. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen

    2018-05-01

    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. N-terminal modifications of cellular proteins: The enzymes involved, their substrate specificities and biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varland, Sylvia; Osberg, Camilla; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of eukaryotic proteins are N-terminally modified by one or more processing enzymes. Enzymes acting on the very first amino acid of a polypeptide include different peptidases, transferases, and ligases. Methionine aminopeptidases excise the initiator methionine leaving the nascent polypeptide with a newly exposed amino acid that may be further modified. N-terminal acetyl-, methyl-, myristoyl-, and palmitoyltransferases may attach an acetyl, methyl, myristoyl, or palmitoyl group, respectively, to the α-amino group of the target protein N-terminus. With the action of ubiquitin ligases, one or several ubiquitin molecules are transferred, and hence, constitute the N-terminal modification. Modifications at protein N-termini represent an important contribution to proteomic diversity and complexity, and are essential for protein regulation and cellular signaling. Consequently, dysregulation of the N-terminal modifying enzymes is implicated in human diseases. We here review the different protein N-terminal modifications occurring co- or post-translationally with emphasis on the responsible enzymes and their substrate specificities. PMID:25914051

  19. Histone posttranslational modifications predict specific alternative exon subtypes in mammalian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwen Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A compelling body of literature, based on next generation chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA sequencing of reward brain regions indicates that the regulation of the epigenetic landscape likely underlies chronic drug abuse and addiction. It is now critical to develop highly innovative computational strategies to reveal the relevant regulatory transcriptional mechanisms that may underlie neuropsychiatric disease. We have analyzed chromatin regulation of alternative splicing, which is implicated in cocaine exposure in mice. Recent literature has described chromatin-regulated alternative splicing, suggesting a novel function for drug-induced neuroepigenetic remodeling. However, the extent of the genome-wide association between particular histone modifications and alternative splicing remains unexplored. To address this, we have developed novel computational approaches to model the association between alternative splicing and histone posttranslational modifications in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a brain reward region. Using classical statistical methods and machine learning to combine ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq data, we found that specific histone modifications are strongly associated with various aspects of differential splicing. H3K36me3 and H3K4me1 have the strongest association with splicing indicating they play a significant role in alternative splicing in brain reward tissue.

  20. Highly specific detection of genetic modification events using an enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Zhang, X F; Chen, X M; Chen, X; Wu, S; Xu, L L

    2015-08-10

    The enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip utilizes a method based on ligase-hybridizing probe chip technology, with the principle of using thio-primers for protection against enzyme digestion, and using lambda DNA exonuclease to cut multiple PCR products obtained from the sample being tested into single-strand chains for hybridization. The 5'-end amino-labeled probe was fixed onto the aldehyde chip, and hybridized with the single-stranded PCR product, followed by addition of a fluorescent-modified probe that was then enzymatically linked with the adjacent, substrate-bound probe in order to achieve highly specific, parallel, and high-throughput detection. Specificity and sensitivity testing demonstrated that enzyme-linked probe hybridization technology could be applied to the specific detection of eight genetic modification events at the same time, with a sensitivity reaching 0.1% and the achievement of accurate, efficient, and stable results.

  1. The effect of chemical modification on the physico-chemical characteristics of halloysite: FTIR, XRF, and XRD studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Beata; Słomkiewicz, Piotr; Garnuszek, Magdalena; Czech, Kamil; Banaś, Dariusz; Kubala-Kukuś, Aldona; Stabrawa, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The effect of chemical modification of halloysite from a Polish strip mine "Dunino" on the chemical composition and structure of this clay mineral was studied using infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods. The results obtained by the WDXRF technique confirm that the content of silica and alumina was the highest for bleached halloysite samples and the lowest for acid-treated halloysite. A higher content of Fe2O3 in comparison to halloysite samples coming from other countries was observed for raw halloysite samples. XRPD diffraction pattern obtained for raw halloysite confirmed the presence of halloysite, kaolinite, hematite, and calcite minerals in the sample. Bleaching the halloysite removes (or significantly reduces) the content of other minerals present in the raw halloysite. The FT-IR spectra of the studied halloysite samples show in the 3700-3600 cm-1 region well-defined hydroxyl stretching bands characteristic for the kaolin-group minerals and bands associated with the vibrations of the aluminium-silicon skeleton in the 1400-1000 cm-1 region. Modifying halloysite with 4-chloro-aniline causes successive incorporation of amine into the BH sample.

  2. Proximity-activated nanoparticles: in vitro performance of specific structural modification by enzymatic cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Smith, R; Sewell, Sarah L; Giorgio, Todd D

    2008-01-01

    The development and in vitro performance of a modular nanoscale system capable of specific structural modification by enzymatic activity is described in this work. Due to its small physical size and adaptable characteristics, this system has the potential for utilization in targeted delivery systems and biosensing. Nanoparticle probes were synthesized containing two distinct fluorescent species including a quantum dot base particle and fluorescently labeled cleavable peptide substrate. Activity of these probes was monitored by gel electrophoresis with quantitative cleavage measurements made by fluorometric analysis. The model proximity-activated nanoparticles studied here exhibit significant susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloprotease-7 (MMP-7) at physiologically relevant concentrations, with nearly complete cleavage of available substrate molecules after 24 hours. This response is specific to MMP-7 enzyme activity, as cleavage is completely inhibited with the addition of EDTA. Utilization of enzyme-specific modification is a sensitive approach with broad applications for targeted therapeutics and biosensing. The versatility of this nanoparticle system is highlighted in its modular design, as it has the capability to integrate characteristics for detection, biosensing, targeting, and payload delivery into a single, multifunctional nanoparticle structure. PMID:18488420

  3. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan; Suo Jinping; Luo Tianzhi

    2010-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 ± 3 deg. to 30 ± 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K 0.27 MnO 2 .0.54H 2 O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  4. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S.; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C (ΔH = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C (ΔH = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  5. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Suo Jinping, E-mail: jpsuo@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Luo Tianzhi [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 {+-} 3 deg. to 30 {+-} 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K{sub 0.27}MnO{sub 2}.0.54H{sub 2}O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  6. Chemical modification of Art v 1, a major mugwort pollen allergen, by cis-aconitylation and citraconylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA STANIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Art v 1 is the major allergen of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris pollen, a significant cause of hay fever all over Europe. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment modality for allergic disease. Application of modified allergens makes the treatment safer and more efficient. In this work, two out of three (citraconic anhydride, cis-aconitic anhydride, 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride tested anhydrides were proven to be suitable for chemical modifications of allergens. Art v 1 was modified by cis-aconitylation and citraconylation in order to obtain derivatives of Art v 1 that may be suitable for further immunological testing. Acylation of Art v 1 gave derivatives (caaArt v 1 and citArt v 1 with about 80 % modified amino groups. The derivatives were in the monomeric form and had dramatically reduced pI values. Both derivatives were relatively stable at neutral pH values, while the acyl groups undergo hydrolysis under acidic conditions. Modification of allergens by cis-aconitylation and citraconylation could be a new tool for obtaining allergoids.

  7. Modification of the surface energy in isovalent nano-oxides prepared by chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miagava, J.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    The phase stability of the nano-oxides depends on the bulk energy but it also depends on the surface energy. The difference of surface energy of the rutile and anatase phases result in a change of phase stability: TiO_2 without additives is stable as anatase when particles have nanometric size and a high specific surface area whereas rutile is stable when particles are larger. But this stability can be modified through the use of additives. Different studies demonstrate that additives segregate on the particle surface modifying the surface energy. In this work (1-X)TiO_2-XSnO_2 powders were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method with concentrations of 0 ≤ X ≤ 1. The specific surface area measurements demonstrate that the modification of the composition change the specific surface areas and it reaches a maximum at X = 0.005. The Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that a modification on the stability of the TiO_2 polymorphs occurs and the phase rutile is stabilized when SnO_2 is added to the nano powders.(author)

  8. Chemical modification with phthalic anhydride and chitosan: Viable options for the stabilization of raw starch digesting amylase from Aspergillus carbonarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, Tochukwu Nwamaka; Okolo, Bartholomew; Aoyagi, Hideki; Yoshida, Shigeki

    2017-06-01

    The raw starch digesting type of amylase (RSDA) presents greater opportunities for process efficiency at cheaper cost and shorter time compared to regular amylases. Chemical modification is a simple and rapid method toward their stabilization for a wider application. RSDA from Aspergillus carbonarius was modified with either phthalic anhydride (PA) or chitosan. Activity retention was 87.3% for PA-modified and 80.9% for chitosan-modified RSDA. Optimum pH shifted from 5 to 7 after PA-modification. Optimum temperature changed from 30°C (native) to 30-40°C and 60°C for PA-modified and chitosan-modified, respectively. Activation energy (kJmol -1 ) for hydrolysis was 13.5, 12.7, and 10.2 while the activation energy for thermal denaturation was 32.8, 80.3, 81.9 for free, PA-modified and chitosan-modified, respectively. The specificity constants (V max /K m ) were 73.2 for PA-modified, 63.1 for chitosan-modified and 77.1 for native RSDA. The half-life (h) of the RSDA at 80°C was increased from 6.1 to 25.7 for the PA-modified and 138.6 for the chitosan derivative. Modification also led to increase in D value, activation enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of enzyme deactivation. Fluorescence spectra showed that center of spectral mass decreased for the PA-modified RSDA but increased for chitosan modified RSDA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil-release behaviour of polyester fabrics after chemical modification with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, T. M. R.; Santos, J.; Soares, G. M. B.

    2017-10-01

    The fibres cleanability depends, among other characteristics, on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic fibres are easy-wash materials but hydrophobic fibres are difficult to clean due to their higher water-repellent surfaces. This type of surfaces, like polyester (PET), produce an accumulation of electrostatic charges, which favors adsorption and retention of dirt. Thus, the polyester soil-release properties can be increased by finishing processes that improve fiber hydrophilicity. In present study, PET fabric modification was described by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N´-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) chemically modified resin. Briefly, the modification process was carried out in two steps, one to hydrolyse the polyester and create hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups on the surface and other to crosslink the PEG chains. The resulting materials were characterized by contact angle, DSC and FTIR-ATR methods. Additionally, the soil release behavior and the mechanical properties of modified PET were evaluated. For the best process conditions, the treated PET presented 0° contact angle, grade 5 stain release and acceptable mechanical performance.

  10. Glycan Reader is improved to recognize most sugar types and chemical modifications in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jumin; Patel, Dhilon S; Ma, Hongjing; Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Im, Wonpil

    2017-10-01

    Glycans play a central role in many essential biological processes. Glycan Reader was originally developed to simplify the reading of Protein Data Bank (PDB) files containing glycans through the automatic detection and annotation of sugars and glycosidic linkages between sugar units and to proteins, all based on atomic coordinates and connectivity information. Carbohydrates can have various chemical modifications at different positions, making their chemical space much diverse. Unfortunately, current PDB files do not provide exact annotations for most carbohydrate derivatives and more than 50% of PDB glycan chains have at least one carbohydrate derivative that could not be correctly recognized by the original Glycan Reader. Glycan Reader has been improved and now identifies most sugar types and chemical modifications (including various glycolipids) in the PDB, and both PDB and PDBx/mmCIF formats are supported. CHARMM-GUI Glycan Reader is updated to generate the simulation system and input of various glycoconjugates with most sugar types and chemical modifications. It also offers a new functionality to edit the glycan structures through addition/deletion/modification of glycosylation types, sugar types, chemical modifications, glycosidic linkages, and anomeric states. The simulation system and input files can be used for CHARMM, NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, GENESIS, LAMMPS, Desmond, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. Glycan Fragment Database in GlycanStructure.Org is also updated to provide an intuitive glycan sequence search tool for complex glycan structures with various chemical modifications in the PDB. http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/glycan and http://www.glycanstructure.org. wonpil@lehigh.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. The effects of high electronic energy loss on the chemical modification of polyimide

    CERN Document Server

    SunYouMei; Jin Yun Fan; Liu Chang Long; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhu Zhi Yong

    2002-01-01

    In order to observe the role of electronic energy loss (dE/dX) sub e on chemical modification of polyimide (PI), the multi-layer stacks (corresponding to different dE/dX) were irradiated by different swift heavy ions (1.37 GeV Ar sup 4 sup 0 , 1.98 GeV Kr sup 8 sup 4 , 1.755 GeV Xe sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 and 2.636 GeV U sup 2 sup 3 sup 8) under vacuum and room temperature. The chemical changes of modified PI films were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The degradation of PI was investigated in the fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5.5x10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 and different electronic energy loss from 0.77 to 11.5 keV/nm. The FTIR results show the absorbance of the typical function group decrease exponentially as a function of fluence. The alkyne end group was found after irradiation and its formation radii were 5.6 and 5.9 nm corresponding to 8.8 and 11.5 keV/nm Xe irradiation respectively. UV/Vis analysis indicates the radiation induced...

  12. Ultrastructural demonstration of chemical modification of melanogenesis in hairless mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, M.; Gellin, G.A.; Hoshino, S.; Epstein, J.H.; Epstein, W.L.; Fukuyama, K.

    1982-01-01

    We investigated chemical and physical modifications of the genetically determined ultrastructure of melanosomes. The flank skin of hairless mice was treated with ultraviolet energy (UV) shorter than 320 nm or with a combination of a photosensitizer and UV (PUVA treatment). All melanosomes in the induced melanocytes and those in resident melanocytes in the ear skin showed eumelanogenesis, although the degree of melanin deposition differed considerably according to the induction process. Eumelanogenesis was most advanced in the resident melanocytes while PUVA-induced melanocytes showed more immature premelanosomes. We then topically applied 4-tertiary butyl catechol on the skin. The depigmenting agent caused an appearance of pheomelanosomes. The alteration in melanogenesis was seen most distinctly in premelanosomes of the PUVA-induced cells. Altered ultrastructure was also observed in matured melanosomes; this change was most apparent in the resident melanocytes. These findings indicate that cells with eumelanogenesis may undergo pheomelanogenesis. The present study demonstrated effects of chemicals on genetically determined function of melanocytes by quantitative analysis of melanosome ultrastructure

  13. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION AND HOT-PRESS DRYING ON POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and hot-press drying were used to improve the properties of poplar wood. The wood was impregnated with the prepolymer using a pulse-dipping machine. The impregnated timbers were compressed and dried by a multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The drying rate was more rapid during the chemical modification and hot-press drying than conventional kiln-drying. In addition, the properties of timber were also enhanced obviously. When the compression rate was 28.6%, the basic density, oven dry density and air-dried density of modified wood improved 22%, 71%, and 70%, respectively. The bending strength and compressive strength parallel to grain increased 60% and 40%. The water uptake of treated wood was significantly decreased compared with the untreated wood. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that the intensity of hydroxyl and carbonyl absorption peaks decreased significantly, which was attributed to a reaction of the NHCH2OH of urea-formaldehyde prepolymer with the wood carboxyl (C=O and hydroxyl (-OH groups. The XRD results indicated that the degree of crystallinity increased from 35.09% to 36.91%. The morphologic models of chemical within wood were discovered by SEM.

  14. Effect of mechanical activation on structure changes and reactivity in further chemical modification of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yanjuan; Hu, Huayu; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei; Chen, Dong; Huang, Kai; Huang, Aimin; Qin, Xingzhen; Feng, Zhenfei

    2016-10-01

    Lignin was treated by mechanical activation (MA) in a customized stirring ball mill, and the structure and reactivity in further esterification were studied. The chemical structure and morphology of MA-treated lignin and the esterified products were analyzed by chemical analysis combined with UV/vis spectrometer, FTIR,NMR, SEM and particle size analyzer. The results showed that MA contributed to the increase of aliphatic hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups but the decrease of methoxyl groups. Moreover, MA led to the decrease of particle size and the increase of specific surface area and roughness of surface in lignin. The reactivity of lignin was enhanced significantly for the increase of hydroxyl content and the improvement of mass transfer in chemical reaction caused by the changes of molecular structure and morphological structure. The process of MA is green and simple, and is an effective method for enhancing the reactivity of lignin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemoproteomics Reveals Chemical Diversity and Dynamics of 4-Oxo-2-nonenal Modifications in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Fu, Ling; Liu, Keke; Tian, Caiping; Yang, Yong; Tallman, Keri A; Porter, Ned A; Liebler, Daniel C; Yang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    4-Oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) derived from lipid peroxidation modifies nucleophiles and transduces redox signaling by its reactions with proteins. However, the molecular interactions between ONE and complex proteomes and their dynamics in situ remain largely unknown. Here we describe a quantitative chemoproteomic analysis of protein adduction by ONE in cells, in which the cellular target profile of ONE is mimicked by its alkynyl surrogate. The analyses reveal four types of ONE-derived modifications in cells, including ketoamide and Schiff-base adducts to lysine, Michael adducts to cysteine, and a novel pyrrole adduct to cysteine. ONE-derived adducts co-localize and exhibit crosstalk with many histone marks and redox sensitive sites. All four types of modifications derived from ONE can be reversed site-specifically in cells. Taken together, our study provides much-needed mechanistic insights into the cellular signaling and potential toxicities associated with this important lipid derived electrophile. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Redirecting adenovirus tropism by genetic, chemical, and mechanical modification of the adenovirus surface for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, A-Rum; Hong, Jinwoo; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-06-01

    Despite remarkable advancements, clinical evaluations of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated cancer gene therapies have highlighted the need for improved delivery and targeting. Genetic modification of Ad capsid proteins has been extensively attempted. Although genetic modification enhances the therapeutic potential of Ad, it is difficult to successfully incorporate extraneous moieties into the capsid and the engineering process is laborious. Recently, chemical modification of the Ad surface with nanomaterials and targeting moieties has been found to enhance Ad internalization into the target by both passive and active mechanisms. Alternatively, external stimulus-mediated targeting can result in selective accumulation of Ad in the tumor and prevent dissemination of Ad into surrounding nontarget tissues. In the present review, we discuss various genetic, chemical, and mechanical engineering strategies for overcoming the challenges that hinder the therapeutic efficacy of Ad-based approaches. Surface modification of Ad by genetic, chemical, or mechanical engineering strategies enables Ad to overcome the shortcomings of conventional Ad and enhances delivery efficiency through distinct and unique mechanisms that unmodified Ad cannot mimic. However, although the therapeutic potential of Ad-mediated gene therapy has been enhanced by various surface modification strategies, each strategy still possesses innate limitations that must be addressed, requiring innovative ideas and designs.

  17. Effects of chemical modifications on photophysics and exciton dynamics on {pi}-conjugation attenuated and metal-chelated photoconducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L. X.; Jager, W. J. H.; Gosztola, D. J.; Niemczyk, M. P.; Wasielewski, M. R.

    2000-03-11

    Effects of two types of chemical modifications on photoconducting polymers consisting of polyphenylenevinylene (PPV) derivatives are studied by static and ultrafast transient optical spectroscopy as well as semi-empirical ZINDO calculations. The first type of modification inserts 2,2{prime}-bipyridyl-5-vinylene units (bpy V) in the PPV backbone, and the second type involves metal-chelation with the bpy sites. Photoluminescence and exciton dynamics of polymers 1 and 2 with PV:bpyV ratios of 1 and 3 were examined in solution, and compared to those of the homopolymer, poly(2,5-bis(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEH-PPV). Similar studies were carried out for several metal-chelated polymers. These results can be explained by changes in {pi}-conjugation throughout the polymer backbone. The attenuation in {pi}-conjugation by the chemical modifications transforms a conducting polymer from one-dimensional semiconductor to molecular aggregates.

  18. Chemical modification of protein a chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol. II: Effects on resin robustness and process selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Zhang, Shaojie; Kirkby, Allison; Shachar, Enosh; Carta, Giorgio; Przybycien, Todd

    2018-04-20

    We have proposed chemical modification of Protein A (ProA) chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) as a strategy to increase the resin selectivity and robustness by providing the ligand with a steric repulsion barrier against non-specific binding. Here, we report on robustness and selectivity benefits for Repligen CaptivA PriMAB resin with ligands modified with 5.2 kDa and 21.5 kDa PEG chains, respectively. PEGylation of ProA ligands allowed the resin to retain a higher percentage of static binding capacity relative to the unmodified resin upon digestion with chymotrypsin, a representative serine protease. The level of protection against digestion was independent of the PEG molecular weight or modification extent for the PEGylation chemistry used. Additionally, PEGylation of the ligands was found to decrease the level of non-specific binding of fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates to the surface of the resin particles as visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The level of aggregate binding decreased as the PEG molecular weight increased, but increasing the extent of modification with 5.2 kDa PEG chains had no effect. Further examination of resin particles via CLSM confirmed that the PEG chains on the modified ligands were capable of blocking the "hitchhiking" association of BSA, a mock contaminant, to an adsorbed mAb that is prone to BSA binding. Ligands modified with 21.5 kDa PEG chains were effective at blocking the association, while ligands modified with 5.2 kDa PEG chains were not. Finally, ligands with 21.5 kDa PEG chains increased the selectivity of the resin against host cell proteins (HCPs) produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by up to 37% during purification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) from harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) using a standard ProA chromatography protocol. The combined work suggests that PEGylating ProA chromatography media is a viable pathway for

  19. A Chemical-Adsorption Strategy to Enhance the Reaction Kinetics of Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes via Double-Shell Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lichao; Li, Jiajun; Cao, Tingting; Wang, Huayu; Zhao, Naiqin; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-21

    Sluggish surface reaction kinetics hinders the power density of Li-ion battery. Thus, various surface modification techniques have been applied to enhance the electronic/ionic transfer kinetics. However, it is challenging to obtain a continuous and uniform surface modification layer on the prime particles with structure integration at the interface. Instead of classic physical-adsorption/deposition techniques, we propose a novel chemical-adsorption strategy to synthesize double-shell modified lithium-rich layered cathodes with enhanced mass transfer kinetics. On the basis of experimental measurement and first-principles calculation, MoO2S2 ions are proved to joint the layered phase via chemical bonding. Specifically, the Mo-O or Mo-S bonds can flexibly rotate to bond with the cations in the layered phase, leading to the good compatibility between the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and layered cathode. Followed by annealing treatment, the lithium-excess-spinel inner shell forms under the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and functions as favorable pathways for lithium and electron. Meanwhile, the nanothick MoO3-x(SO4)x outer shell protects the transition metal from dissolution and restrains electrolyte decomposition. The double-shell modified sample delivers an enhanced discharge capacity almost twice as much as that of the unmodified one at 1 A g(-1) after 100 cycles, demonstrating the superiority of the surface modification based on chemical adsorption.

  20. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  1. Deposition of chemically reactive and repellent sites on biosensor chips for reduced non-specific binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, R P; Gubala, V; Le, N C H; Nam, Le Cao Hoai; Volcke, C; Doyle, C; James, B; Daniels, S; Williams, D E

    2010-08-01

    The performances of new polymeric materials with excellent optical properties and good machinability have led the biomedical diagnostics industry to develop cheap disposable biosensor platforms appropriate for point of care applications. Zeonor, a type of cycloolefin polymer (COP), is one such polymer that presents an excellent platform for biosensor chips. These polymer substrates have to be modified to have suitable physico-chemical properties for immobilizing proteins. In this work, we have demonstrated the amine functionalization of COP substrates, by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), through codeposition of ethylene diamine and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane precursors, for building chemistries on the plastic chip. The elemental composition, adhesion, ageing and reactivity of the plasma polymerized film were examined. The Si-O functionality present in amino silane contributed for a good interfacial adhesion of the coating to COP substrates and also acted as a network building layer for plasma polymerization. Wet chemical modification was then carried out on the amine functionalized chips to create chemically reactive isothiocyanate sites and protein repellent fluorinated sites on the same chip. The density of the reactive and repellent sites was altered by choosing appropriate mixtures of homofunctional phenyldiisothiocyanate (PDITC), pentafluoroisothiocyanate (5FITC) and phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) compounds. By tailoring the density of reactive binding sites and protein repellent sites, the non-specific binding of ssDNA has been decreased to a significant extent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Sun Youmei; Liu Changlong; Liu Jie; Jin Yunfan

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u 40 Ar, 25 MeV/u 84 Kr, 15.1 MeV/u 136 Xe and 11.4 MeV/u 238 U to fluences ranging from 9x10 9 to 5.5x10 12 ions/cm 2 . The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer

  3. Critical role of surface chemical modifications induced by length shortening on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussy Cyrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNT in composite materials and their possible expansion to new areas such as nanomedicine which will both lead to higher human exposure, a better understanding of their potential to cause adverse effects on human health is needed. Like other nanomaterials, the biological reactivity and toxicity of CNT were shown to depend on various physicochemical characteristics, and length has been suggested to play a critical role. We therefore designed a comprehensive study that aimed at comparing the effects on murine macrophages of two samples of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT specifically synthesized following a similar production process (aerosol-assisted CVD, and used a soft ultrasonic treatment in water to modify the length of one of them. We showed that modification of the length of MWCNT leads, unavoidably, to accompanying structural (i.e. defects and chemical (i.e. oxidation modifications that affect both surface and residual catalyst iron nanoparticle content of CNT. The biological response of murine macrophages to the two different MWCNT samples was evaluated in terms of cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and oxidative stress. We showed that structural defects and oxidation both induced by the length reduction process are at least as responsible as the length reduction itself for the enhanced pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative response observed with short (oxidized compared to long (pristine MWCNT. In conclusion, our results stress that surface properties should be considered, alongside the length, as essential parameters in CNT-induced inflammation, especially when dealing with a safe design of CNT, for application in nanomedicine for example.

  4. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Zujovic, Zoran [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2016-04-15

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. - Highlights: • Waste derived biochars were used to make polymer based biocomposites. • Composites were characterised by NMR, ESR, DSC, XRD, TEM etc. • Biochar increased the thermal conductivity of composites. • Biochar did not disrupt the crystal structure of polypropylene. • NMR revealed aromatic nature of biochar in composites.

  5. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Zujovic, Zoran; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2016-01-01

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. - Highlights: • Waste derived biochars were used to make polymer based biocomposites. • Composites were characterised by NMR, ESR, DSC, XRD, TEM etc. • Biochar increased the thermal conductivity of composites. • Biochar did not disrupt the crystal structure of polypropylene. • NMR revealed aromatic nature of biochar in composites.

  6. Safe genetic modification of cardiac stem cells using a site-specific integration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feng; Liu, Junwei; Narsinh, Kazim H; Hu, Shijun; Han, Leng; Lee, Andrew S; Karow, Marisa; Nguyen, Patricia K; Nag, Divya; Calos, Michele P; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2012-09-11

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) are a promising cell source for regenerative repair after myocardial infarction. Exploitation of their full therapeutic potential may require stable genetic modification of the cells ex vivo. Safe genetic engineering of stem cells, using facile methods for site-specific integration of transgenes into known genomic contexts, would significantly enhance the overall safety and efficacy of cellular therapy in a variety of clinical contexts. We used the phiC31 site-specific recombinase to achieve targeted integration of a triple fusion reporter gene into a known chromosomal context in hCPCs and human endothelial cells. Stable expression of the reporter gene from its unique chromosomal integration site resulted in no discernible genomic instability or adverse changes in cell phenotype. Namely, phiC31-modified hCPCs were unchanged in their differentiation propensity, cellular proliferative rate, and global gene expression profile when compared with unaltered control hCPCs. Expression of the triple fusion reporter gene enabled multimodal assessment of cell fate in vitro and in vivo using fluorescence microscopy, bioluminescence imaging, and positron emission tomography. Intramyocardial transplantation of genetically modified hCPCs resulted in significant improvement in myocardial function 2 weeks after cell delivery, as assessed by echocardiography (P=0.002) and MRI (P=0.001). We also demonstrated the feasibility and therapeutic efficacy of genetically modifying differentiated human endothelial cells, which enhanced hind limb perfusion (Pmodification system is a safe, efficient tool to enable site-specific integration of reporter transgenes in progenitor and differentiated cell types.

  7. Novel method for chemical modification and patterning of the SU-8 photoresist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    the wetting behaviour of SU-8. The resolution limit of the AQ photopatterning method was 20 μm when using an uncollimated light source. AQ modification followed by a reaction with amino groups of Alexa-647 cadaverine and a Biotin-amino derivative proved possible modification and patterning of polymeric...

  8. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In-medium Modifications of Hadron Masses and Chemical Freeze-out in Ultra-relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.; Broniowski, W.

    1999-10-01

    We confront the hypothesis of chemical freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions with the hypothesis of large modifications of hadron masses in nuclear medium. We find that the thermal-model predictions for the ratios of particle multiplicities are sensitive to the values of in-medium hadronic masses. In particular, the π + /p ratio decreases by 35% when the masses of all hadrons (except for pseudo-Goldstone bosons) are scaled down by 30%. (author)

  10. Sequence-engineered mRNA Without Chemical Nucleoside Modifications Enables an Effective Protein Therapy in Large Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Thess, Andreas; Grund, Stefanie; Mui, Barbara L; Hope, Michael J; Baumhof, Patrick; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Schlake, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics require chemical nucleoside modifications to obtain sufficient protein expression and avoid activation of the innate immune system. Here we sh...

  11. Regularities of development of unspecific reaction of cells, and modification of chemical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Korystov, Yu.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Regularities of development of a unspecific reaction of cells under the effect of different substances belonging to weak electrolytes have been studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of the unspecific reaction development under the effect of cysteamine and caffeine-benzoate depends on the agent concentration, temperature and pH of a medium. It was established that the response of a cell is determined by the overall intracellular concentration of the agent rather than by its specific character. The total concentration of the substance inside the cell depends on its physico-chemical characteristics and, with a pH gradient between cell and medium, can markedly vary from that in the medium. With similar intracellular content, both substances proved to be virtually equally effective. This suggests that it is possible to assess the effectiveness of some other biologically active substances many of which are weak electrolytes

  12. The influence of chemical methods (acid modification) on elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by acid modification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour of the experimental result discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using acid modification method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour of the experimental result sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The resulting tuber flour weighed 50 grams and the soaked in acid solution with various concentrations 5 %, 10 % and 15 % with soaking duration 30, 60 and 90 minutes at temperature 35 °C. The resulting suspension was washed 3 times, filtered and then dried by cabinet dryer using 46 °C for 2 days. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was acid modification to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The acid modification as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 80, a = 8 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 72%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 11%. The content of protein and fiber on the elephant foot yam flour also can be maintained at a level of 8% and 1.9% levels.

  13. Enhanced understanding of the relationship between chemical modification and mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Robert J. Moon; Donald S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes

    2008-01-01

    Chemical additions to wood often change its bulk properties, which can be determined using conventional macroscopic mechanical tests. However, the controlling interactions between chemicals and wood take place at and below the scale of individual cells and cell walls. To better understand the effects of chemical additions to wood, we have adapted and extended two...

  14. DbPTM 3.0: an informative resource for investigating substrate site specificity and functional association of protein post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Huang, Kai-Yao; Su, Min-Gang; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Chang, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yu-Ju; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2013-01-01

    Protein modification is an extremely important post-translational regulation that adjusts the physical and chemical properties, conformation, stability and activity of a protein; thus altering protein function. Due to the high throughput of mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods in identifying site-specific post-translational modifications (PTMs), dbPTM (http://dbPTM.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/) is updated to integrate experimental PTMs obtained from public resources as well as manually curated MS/MS peptides associated with PTMs from research articles. Version 3.0 of dbPTM aims to be an informative resource for investigating the substrate specificity of PTM sites and functional association of PTMs between substrates and their interacting proteins. In order to investigate the substrate specificity for modification sites, a newly developed statistical method has been applied to identify the significant substrate motifs for each type of PTMs containing sufficient experimental data. According to the data statistics in dbPTM, >60% of PTM sites are located in the functional domains of proteins. It is known that most PTMs can create binding sites for specific protein-interaction domains that work together for cellular function. Thus, this update integrates protein-protein interaction and domain-domain interaction to determine the functional association of PTM sites located in protein-interacting domains. Additionally, the information of structural topologies on transmembrane (TM) proteins is integrated in dbPTM in order to delineate the structural correlation between the reported PTM sites and TM topologies. To facilitate the investigation of PTMs on TM proteins, the PTM substrate sites and the structural topology are graphically represented. Also, literature information related to PTMs, orthologous conservations and substrate motifs of PTMs are also provided in the resource. Finally, this version features an improved web interface to facilitate convenient access to the resource.

  15. mRNA Display Selection of a High-Affinity, Modification-Specific Phospho-IκBα-Binding Fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. Anders; Liao, Hsiang-I; Sun, Ren; Roberts, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of the human proteome is greatly expanded by post-translational modifications. New tools capable of recognizing these modifications in a sequence-specific fashion provide a route to purify these modified proteins, to alter protein trafficking, and to visualize signal transduction in real time. Here, we have evolved novel, modification-specific ligands that target phosphorylated IκBα. To do this, we employed mRNA display-based in vitro selection using a 30-trillion-member protein library based on the fibronectin type III domain. The selection yielded one fibronectin molecule, 10C17C25, that binds a phospho-IκBα peptide with Kd = 18 nM and is over 1000-fold specific compared to the nonphosphorylated peptide. 10C17C25 specifically recognizes endogenous phosphorylated IκBα from mammalian cell extract and stabilizes phospho-IκBα in vivo. We also incorporated 10C17C25 into a FRET indicator that detects IκB kinase (IKK) activity in vitro, demonstrating the utility of selecting designed adaptors for kinase activity sensors. PMID:18590330

  16. mRNA display selection of a high-affinity, modification-specific phospho-IkappaBalpha-binding fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C Anders; Liao, Hsiang-I; Sun, Ren; Roberts, Richard W

    2008-08-15

    The complexity of the human proteome is greatly expanded by post-translational modifications. New tools capable of recognizing these modifications in a sequence-specific fashion provide a route to purify these modified proteins, to alter protein trafficking, and to visualize signal transduction in real time. Here, we have evolved novel, modification-specific ligands that target phosphorylated IkappaBalpha. To do this, we employed mRNA display-based in vitro selection using a 30-trillion-member protein library based on the fibronectin type III domain. The selection yielded one fibronectin molecule, 10C17C25, that binds a phospho-IkappaBalpha peptide with K d = 18 nM and is over 1000-fold specific compared to the nonphosphorylated peptide. 10C17C25 specifically recognizes endogenous phosphorylated IkappaBalpha from mammalian cell extract and stabilizes phospho-IkappaBalpha in vivo. We also incorporated 10C17C25 into a FRET indicator that detects IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity in vitro, demonstrating the utility of selecting designed adaptors for kinase activity sensors.

  17. Identification of Maillard reaction induced chemical modifications on Ara h 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic glycation reaction between proteins and reducing sugars that can modify nut allergens during thermal processing. These modifications can alter the structural and immunological properties of these allergens, and may result in increased IgE binding. Here, we ...

  18. Comparison of some effects of modification of a polylactide surface layer by chemical, plasma, and laser methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof, E-mail: kmm@ukw.edu.pl [Department of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Materials Engineering, ul. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Rytlewski, Piotr [Department of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Materials Engineering, ul. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Malinowski, Rafał [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, ul. M. Skłodowskiej–Curie 55, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Żenkiewicz, Marian [Department of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Materials Engineering, ul. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We modified polylactide surface layer with chemical, plasma or laser methods. • We tested selected properties and surface structure of modified samples. • We stated that the plasma treatment appears to be the most beneficial. - Abstract: The article presents the results of studies and comparison of selected properties of the modified PLA surface layer. The modification was carried out with three methods. In the chemical method, a 0.25 M solution of sodium hydroxide in water and ethanol was utilized. In the plasma method, a 50 W generator was used, which produced plasma in the air atmosphere under reduced pressure. In the laser method, a pulsed ArF excimer laser with fluency of 60 mJ/cm{sup 2} was applied. Polylactide samples were examined by using the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Images of surfaces of the modified samples were recorded, contact angles were measured, and surface free energy was calculated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of the PLA surface layer were performed as well. Based on the survey it was found that the best modification results are obtained using the plasma method.

  19. Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Umesh P. Agarwal; Kolby C. Hirth; Laurent M. Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), produced from dissolving wood pulp, were chemically functionalized by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester (CME). CME performs as both the reaction reagent and solvent. Transesterified CNC (CNCFE) was characterized for their chemical structure, morphology, crystalline structure, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity...

  20. Modification of Knee Flexion Angle Has Patient-Specific Effects on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors During Jump Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Julien; Clancy, Caitlin; Dowling, Ariel V; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries may be decreased through the use of intervention programs that focus on increasing the knee flexion angle during jump landing, which decreases strain on the ACL. To investigate whether intervention training designed to change the knee flexion angle during landing causes secondary changes in other known measures associated with the risk of ACL injuries and to examine the time points when these secondary measures change. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 39 healthy recreational athletes performed a volleyball block jump task in an instrumented gait laboratory. The participants first completed the jumps without any modification to their normal landing technique. They were then given oral instruction to land softly and to increase their knee flexion angle during landing. Lower body kinematics and kinetics were measured before and after the modification using an optoelectronic motion capture system. The knee flexion angle after the modification significantly increased from 11.2° to 15.2° at initial contact and from 67.8° to 100.7° at maximum flexion, and the time between initial contact and maximum flexion increased from 177.4 to 399.4 milliseconds. The flexion modification produced a substantial reduction in vertical ground-reaction force (243.1 to 187.8 %BW) with a concomitant reduction in the maximum flexion moment. Interestingly, the flexion modification only affected the abduction angle and abduction moment for the group of participants that landed in an initial adducted position before the modification and had no significant effect on the group that landed in an abducted position. Increasing the knee flexion angle during jump landing may be an effective intervention to improve knee biomechanical risk factors associated with an ACL injury. However, the fact that the flexion modification only influenced critical risk factors (the abduction angle and abduction moment) in participants who initially

  1. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wang, Chaoxia

    2017-05-01

    Multifunctional silk fabrics with electrical conductive, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent were successfully prepared by surface modification with graphene oxide (GO). The yellow-brown GO deposited on the surface of silk fabric was converted into graphitic black reduced graphene (RGO) by sodium hydrosulfite. The surface properties of silk fabrics were changed by repeatedly RGO coating process, which have been proved by SEM and XPS. The SEM results showed that the RGO sheets were successive form a continuously thin film on the surface of silk fabrics, and the deposition of GO or RGO also can be proved by XPS. The electrical conductivity was tested by electrical surface resistance value of the silk fabric, the surface resistance decreased with increasing of RGO surface modification times, and a low surface resistance value reached to 3.24 KΩ cm-1 after 9 times of modification, indicating the silk obtained excellent conductivity. The UPF value of one time GO modification silk fabric (silk-1RGO) was enhanced significantly to 24.45 in comparison to 10.40 of original silk. The contact angle of RGO coating silk samples was all above of 120°. The durability of RGO coated silk fabrics was tested by laundering. The electrical surface resistance of silk-4RGO (65.74 KΩ cm-1), silk-6RGO (15.54 KΩ cm-1) and silk-8RGO (3.86 KΩ cm-1) fabrics was up to 86.82, 22.30 and 6.57 KΩ cm-1 after 10 times of standard washing, respectively. The UPF value, contact angle and color differences of RGO modified silk fabric slightly changed before and after 10 times of standard washing. Therefore, the washing fastness of electric conduction, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent multifunctional silk fabrics was excellent.

  2. Chemical and morphological modifications of single layer graphene submitted to annealing in water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Guilherme Koszeniewski; Corrêa, Silma Alberton; Galves, Lauren Aranha; Lopes, João Marcelo J.; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Radtke, Cláudio

    2018-01-01

    Modifications of single layer graphene transferred to SiO2/Si substrates resulting from annealing in water vapor were investigated. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy evidenced graphene puckering between 400 and 500 °C. Synchrotron radiation based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed variation of sp2 and sp3C bonding configurations specially in this same temperature range. Moreover, oxygen related functionalities are formed as a result of water vapor annealing. Based on these results and complementary Raman and nuclear reaction analysis, one distinguishes three different regimes of water interaction with graphene concerning modifications of the graphene layer. In the low temperature range (200-400 °C), no prominent modification of graphene itself is observed. At higher temperatures (400-500 °C), to accommodate newly formed oxygen functionalities, the flat and continuous sp2 bonding network of graphene is disrupted, giving rise to a puckered layer. For 600 °C and above, shrinking of graphene domains and a higher doping level take place.

  3. Chemical modification as a probe of the topography and reactivity of horse-spleen apoferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetz, K.; Crichton, R.R.; Louvain Univ.

    1976-01-01

    In apoferritin, but not in ferritin, 1.0 +- 0.1 cysteine residue per subunit can be modified. In ferritin 3.3 +- 0.3 lysine residues and 7.1 +- 0.7 carboxyl groups per subunit can be modified, whilst the corresponding values for apoferritin are 4.4 +- 0.4 lysine residues and 11.0 +- 0.4 carboxyl groups per subunit. Modification of lysine residues with maleic anhydride and of carboxyl groups with glycineamide in apoferritin which has been dissociated and denatured in guanidine hydrochloride leads to the introduction of 9.1 +- 0.5 maleyl groups per subunit and 22.0 +- 0.9 glycineamide residues per subunit. Whereas unmodified apoferritin subunit can be reassociated from guanidine hydrochloride to apoferritin monomer, the ability of maleylated apoferritin to reassociate is impaired. Apoferritin in which all the carboxyl group have been blocked with glycineamide cannot be reassociated to apoferritin and exists in solution as stable subunits. The modification of one cysteine residue per subunit, of 3 or 4 lysine per subunit or of 7 carboxyl groups per subunit has no effect on the catalytic activity of apoferritin. In contrast, the modification of 11 carboxyl groups per subunit completely abolishes the catalytic properties of the protein. We conclude that one or more carboxyl groups are essential for the catalytic activity of horse spleen apoferritin. (orig.) [de

  4. A generalizable platform for interrogating target- and signal-specific consequences of electrophilic modifications in redox-dependent cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Yu; Haegele, Joseph A; Disare, Michael T; Lin, Qishan; Aye, Yimon

    2015-05-20

    Despite the known propensity of small-molecule electrophiles to react with numerous cysteine-active proteins, biological actions of individual signal inducers have emerged to be chemotype-specific. To pinpoint and quantify the impacts of modifying one target out of the whole proteome, we develop a target-protein-personalized "electrophile toolbox" with which specific intracellular targets can be selectively modified at a precise time by specific reactive signals. This general methodology, T-REX (targetable reactive electrophiles and oxidants), is established by (1) constructing a platform that can deliver a range of electronic and sterically different bioactive lipid-derived signaling electrophiles to specific proteins in cells; (2) probing the kinetics of targeted delivery concept, which revealed that targeting efficiency in cells is largely driven by initial on-rate of alkylation; and (3) evaluating the consequences of protein-target- and small-molecule-signal-specific modifications on the strength of downstream signaling. These data show that T-REX allows quantitative interrogations into the extent to which the Nrf2 transcription factor-dependent antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is activated by selective electrophilic modifications on Keap1 protein, one of several redox-sensitive regulators of the Nrf2-ARE axis. The results document Keap1 as a promiscuous electrophile-responsive sensor able to respond with similar efficiencies to discrete electrophilic signals, promoting comparable strength of Nrf2-ARE induction. T-REX is also able to elicit cell activation in cases in which whole-cell electrophile flooding fails to stimulate ARE induction prior to causing cytotoxicity. The platform presents a previously unavailable opportunity to elucidate the functional consequences of small-molecule-signal- and protein-target-specific electrophilic modifications in an otherwise unaffected cellular background.

  5. Surface Modification of α-Fe Metal Particles by Chemical Surface Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structure of α-Fe metal magnetic recording particles coated with silane coupling agents have been studied by TEM, FT-IR, EXAFS, Mossbauer. The results show that a close, uniform, firm and ultra thin layer, which is beneficial to the magnetic and chemical stability, has been formed by the cross-linked chemical bond Si-O-Si. And the organic molecule has chemically bonded to the particle surface, which has greatly affected the surface Fe atom electronic structure. Furthermore, the covalent bond between metal particle surface and organic molecule has obvious effect on the near edge structure of the surface Fe atoms.

  6. Probing ion-specific effects on aqueous acetate solutions: Ion pairing versus water structure modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Lange, Kathrin M; Conrad, Gerrit; Yamamoto, Kenji; Schwanke, Christoph; Hodeck, Kai F; Dantz, Marcus; Brandenburg, Tim; Suljoti, Edlira; Aziz, Emad F

    2014-05-01

    The effect of monovalent cations (Li(+), K(+), NH4 (+), Na(+)) on the water structure in aqueous chloride and acetate solutions was characterized by oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) of a liquid microjet. We show ion- and counterion dependent effects on the emission spectra of the oxygen K-edge, which we attribute to modifications of the hydrogen bond network of water. For acetates, ion pairing with carboxylates was also probed selectively by XAS and RIXS. We correlate our experimental results to speciation data and to the salting-out properties of the cations.

  7. Site-specific mapping of the human SUMO proteome reveals co-modification with phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriks, Ivo A; Lyon, David; Young, Clifford

    2017-01-01

    that were co-modified by ubiquitylation, acetylation and methylation. Notably, 9% of the identified SUMOylome occurred proximal to phosphorylation, and numerous SUMOylation sites were found to be fully dependent on prior phosphorylation events. SUMO-proximal phosphorylation occurred primarily in a proline......-directed manner, and inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases dynamically affected co-modification. Collectively, we present a comprehensive analysis of the SUMOylated proteome, uncovering the structural preferences for SUMO and providing system-wide evidence for a remarkable degree of cross-talk between...

  8. Chemical modification of clay from the state of vermiculite Paraiba for use in nanocomposites of thermoset matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, W.A.; Alves, T.S.; Barbosa, R.

    2011-01-01

    Vermiculite is a hydrated aluminosilicate of magnesium, iron and aluminum flake shape, formed by stacking cells 2:1 and feature high cation exchange capacity. In the present study was performed the treatment of an expanded vermiculite clay from Paraiba state with surfactant agent, in order to make it organophilic and allow its use in thermoset matrix nanocomposites. The natural clay and organophilizated one were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling of Foster's swelling. The results indicated a change in the chemical composition of clay, related to the presence of characteristic groups of the salt in the clay and an increase of up to 124% in the basal interlayer distance. The chemical modification of the clay was efficient, indicating the possibility to apply the clay in polymeric nanocomposites. (author)

  9. Mechanistic understanding of the cysteine capping modifications of antibodies enables selective chemical engineering in live mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaotian; He, Tao; Prashad, Amar S; Wang, Wenge; Cohen, Justin; Ferguson, Darren; Tam, Amy S; Sousa, Eric; Lin, Laura; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Gatto, Scott; D'Antona, Aaron; Luan, Yen-Tung; Ma, Weijun; Zollner, Richard; Zhou, Jing; Arve, Bo; Somers, Will; Kriz, Ronald

    2017-04-20

    Protein modifications by intricate cellular machineries often redesign the structure and function of existing proteins to impact biological networks. Disulfide bond formation between cysteine (Cys) pairs is one of the most common modifications found in extracellularly-destined proteins, key to maintaining protein structure. Unpaired surface cysteines on secreted mammalian proteins are also frequently found disulfide-bonded with free Cys or glutathione (GSH) in circulation or culture, the mechanism for which remains unknown. Here we report that these so-called Cys-capping modifications take place outside mammalian cells, not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where oxidoreductase-mediated protein disulfide formation occurs. Unpaired surface cysteines of extracellularly-arrived proteins such as antibodies are uncapped upon secretion before undergoing disulfide exchange with cystine or oxidized GSH in culture medium. This observation has led to a feasible way to selectively modify the nucleophilic thiol side-chain of cell-surface or extracellular proteins in live mammalian cells, by applying electrophiles with a chemical handle directly into culture medium. These findings provide potentially an effective approach for improving therapeutic conjugates and probing biological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying the nature of surface chemical modification for directed self-assembly of block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Evangelio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, block copolymer lithography has emerged as a viable alternative technology for advanced lithography. In chemical-epitaxy-directed self-assembly, the interfacial energy between the substrate and each block copolymer domain plays a key role on the final ordering. Here, we focus on the experimental characterization of the chemical interactions that occur at the interface built between different chemical guiding patterns and the domains of the block copolymers. We have chosen hard X-ray high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy as an exploration technique because it provides information on the electronic structure of buried interfaces. The outcome of the characterization sheds light onto key aspects of directed self-assembly: grafted brush layer, chemical pattern creation and brush/block co-polymer interface.

  11. Crosstalk between histone modifications maintains the developmental pattern of gene expression on a tissue-specific locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Alison M; Chaturvedi, Chandra-Prakash; Brand, Marjorie

    2010-05-16

    Genome wide studies have provided a wealth of information related to histone modifications. Particular modifications, which can encompass both broad and discrete regions, are associated with certain genomic elements and gene expression status. Here we focus on how studies on the beta-globin gene cluster can complement the genome wide effort through the thorough dissection of histone modifying protein crosstalk. The beta-globin locus serves as a model system to study both regulation of gene expression driven at a distance by enhancers and mechanisms of developmental switching of clustered genes. We investigate recent studies, which uncover that histone methyltransferases, recruited at the beta-globin enhancer, control gene expression by long range propagation on chromatin. Specifically, we focus on how seemingly antagonistic complexes, such as those including MLL2, G9a and UTX, can cooperate to functionally regulate developmentally controlled gene expression. Finally, we speculate on the mechanisms of chromatin modifying complex propagation on genomic domains.

  12. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  13. Control of peptide nanotube diameter by chemical modifications of an aromatic residue involved in a single close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabout, Christophe; Roux, Stéphane; Gobeaux, Frédéric; Fay, Nicolas; Pouget, Emilie; Meriadec, Cristelle; Ligeti, Melinda; Thomas, Daniel; IJsselstijn, Maarten; Besselievre, François; Buisson, David-Alexandre; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Petitjean, Michel; Valéry, Céline; Perrin, Lionel; Rousseau, Bernard; Artzner, Franck; Paternostre, Maité; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly is an attractive pathway for bottom-up synthesis of novel nanomaterials. In particular, this approach allows the spontaneous formation of structures of well-defined shapes and monodisperse characteristic sizes. Because nanotechnology mainly relies on size-dependent physical phenomena, the control of monodispersity is required, but the possibility of tuning the size is also essential. For self-assembling systems, shape, size, and monodispersity are mainly settled by the chemical structure of the building block. Attempts to change the size notably by chemical modification usually end up with the loss of self-assembly. Here, we generated a library of 17 peptides forming nanotubes of monodisperse diameter ranging from 10 to 36 nm. A structural model taking into account close contacts explains how a modification of a few Å of a single aromatic residue induces a fourfold increase in nanotube diameter. The application of such a strategy is demonstrated by the formation of silica nanotubes of various diameters. PMID:21518895

  14. Topological surface states of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se are robust against surface chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Conor R.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Kushwaha, Satya Kumar; Cava, Robert J.; Schwartz, Jeffrey [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Xiong, Jun [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The robustness of the Dirac-like electronic states on the surfaces of topological insulators (TIs) during materials process-ing is a prerequisite for their eventual device application. Here, the (001) cleavage surfaces of crystals of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se (BTS) were subjected to several surface chemical modification procedures that are common for electronic materials. Through measurement of Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) oscillations, which are the most sensitive measure of their quality, the surface states of the treated surfaces were compared to those of pristine BTS that had been exposed to ambient conditions. In each case - surface oxidation, deposition of thin layers of Ti or Zr oxides, or chemical modification of the surface oxides - the robustness of the topological surface electronic states was demonstrated by noting only very small changes in the frequency and amplitude of the SdH oscillations. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. The chemical modification and characterization of polypropylene membrane with environment response by in-situ chlorinating graft copolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jiankai; Hu, Wenjie; Feng, Ying; Zhao, Jiruo

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a novel chemical surface modification method of polyolefin membranes is applied following the in-situ chlorinating graft copolymerization (ISCGC). Polypropylene (PP)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) system was used as an example. A unique structure was formed by the modification process on the original membrane surface and the product exhibited an environmental response. Chlorine free radicals were generated using ultraviolet and heat and were used to capture the hydrogen in the polymer chains on the substrate surface. The formed macromolecular radicals could react with MMA over 2 h to achieve a high coverage ratio polymer on the PP membrane surface. The graft copolymers were characterized using FTIR, 1H-NMR, DSC, and XPS, which all proved the feasibility of chemically modifying the PP membrane surface by ISCGC. The surface morphology of the grafted PP membrane was characterized using SEM and AFM. The results showed that the grafted product presents a uniform, neat, and dense mastoid structure with an average thickness of 4.44 μm, which was expected to be similar to the brush-like surface structure. The contact angle and AFM tests indicated that the product surface is responsive to solvent and pH. The experimental results showed that the PP membrane surface structure can be reconstructed using ISCGC, a method that can be used for environment-responsive polymer materials. Moreover, the product has the characteristics of polymer interfacial brush.

  16. Comparison of some effects of modification of a polylactide surface layer by chemical, plasma, and laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof; Rytlewski, Piotr; Malinowski, Rafał; Żenkiewicz, Marian

    2015-08-01

    The article presents the results of studies and comparison of selected properties of the modified PLA surface layer. The modification was carried out with three methods. In the chemical method, a 0.25 M solution of sodium hydroxide in water and ethanol was utilized. In the plasma method, a 50 W generator was used, which produced plasma in the air atmosphere under reduced pressure. In the laser method, a pulsed ArF excimer laser with fluency of 60 mJ/cm2 was applied. Polylactide samples were examined by using the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Images of surfaces of the modified samples were recorded, contact angles were measured, and surface free energy was calculated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of the PLA surface layer were performed as well. Based on the survey it was found that the best modification results are obtained using the plasma method.

  17. Probing ion-specific effects on aqueous acetate solutions: Ion pairing versus water structure modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Petit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of monovalent cations (Li+, K+, NH4+, Na+ on the water structure in aqueous chloride and acetate solutions was characterized by oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, X-ray emission spectroscopy, and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS of a liquid microjet. We show ion- and counterion dependent effects on the emission spectra of the oxygen K-edge, which we attribute to modifications of the hydrogen bond network of water. For acetates, ion pairing with carboxylates was also probed selectively by XAS and RIXS. We correlate our experimental results to speciation data and to the salting-out properties of the cations.

  18. Chemical modification, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhan; Chen, Haixia; Tian, Jingge; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha; Wang, Jia

    2013-10-15

    Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and α-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  20. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains,

  1. Combined chemical shift changes and amino acid specific chemical shift mapping of protein-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Frank H.; Riepl, Hubert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Maurer, Till [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Analytical Sciences Department (Germany); Gronwald, Wolfram [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Neidig, Klaus-Peter [Bruker BioSpin GmbH, Software Department (Germany); Kalbitzer, Hans Robert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)], E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-12-15

    Protein-protein interactions are often studied by chemical shift mapping using solution NMR spectroscopy. When heteronuclear data are available the interaction interface is usually predicted by combining the chemical shift changes of different nuclei to a single quantity, the combined chemical shift perturbation {delta}{delta}{sub comb}. In this paper different procedures (published and non-published) to calculate {delta}{delta}{sub comb} are examined that include a variety of different functional forms and weighting factors for each nucleus. The predictive power of all shift mapping methods depends on the magnitude of the overlap of the chemical shift distributions of interacting and non-interacting residues and the cut-off criterion used. In general, the quality of the prediction on the basis of chemical shift changes alone is rather unsatisfactory but the combination of chemical shift changes on the basis of the Hamming or the Euclidian distance can improve the result. The corrected standard deviation to zero of the combined chemical shift changes can provide a reasonable cut-off criterion. As we show combined chemical shifts can also be applied for a more reliable quantitative evaluation of titration data.

  2. Proton-Conducting Sulfonated Ionomers by Chemical Modification and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller

    The cornerstone in this dissertation is made up by three individual assessments of the diversity in the macromolecular landscape that can be obtained by applying relatively few efficient chemical tools. The intention is to gain deeper knowledge on the chemical tuning of proton exchange membranes...... of hydrocarbon macromolecular architectures, PSU with postsulfonated polystyrene (PS) grafts are investigated. Here, IEC is controlled through the degree of substitution, the graft length and DS. The grafting is performed with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The third assessment is dedicated...... of control by ATRP and click chemistry enables a wide selection of polymer structures with the handles: degree of substitution (DS), polymerization and sulfonation, and blending....

  3. Graphite anode surface modification with controlled reduction of specific aryl diazonium salts for improved microbial fuel cells power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Matthieu; Lapinsonnière, Laure; Rothballer, Michael; Barrière, Frédéric

    2011-10-15

    Graphite electrodes were modified with reduction of aryl diazonium salts and implemented as anodes in microbial fuel cells. First, reduction of 4-aminophenyl diazonium is considered using increased coulombic charge density from 16.5 to 200 mC/cm(2). This procedure introduced aryl amine functionalities at the surface which are neutral at neutral pH. These electrodes were implemented as anodes in "H" type microbial fuel cells inoculated with waste water, acetate as the substrate and using ferricyanide reduction at the cathode and a 1000 Ω external resistance. When the microbial anode had developed, the performances of the microbial fuel cells were measured under acetate saturation conditions and compared with those of control microbial fuel cells having an unmodified graphite anode. We found that the maximum power density of microbial fuel cell first increased as a function of the extent of modification, reaching an optimum after which it decreased for higher degree of surface modification, becoming even less performing than the control microbial fuel cell. Then, the effect of the introduction of charged groups at the surface was investigated at a low degree of surface modification. It was found that negatively charged groups at the surface (carboxylate) decreased microbial fuel cell power output while the introduction of positively charged groups doubled the power output. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microbial anode modified with positively charged groups was covered by a dense and homogeneous biofilm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that this biofilm consisted to a large extent of bacteria from the known electroactive Geobacter genus. In summary, the extent of modification of the anode was found to be critical for the microbial fuel cell performance. The nature of the chemical group introduced at the electrode surface was also found to significantly affect the performance of the microbial fuel cells. The method used for

  4. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  5. First experimental observations on melting and chemical modification of volcanic ash during lightning interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S P; Helo, C; Keller, F; Taddeucci, J; Castro, J M

    2018-01-23

    Electrification in volcanic ash plumes often leads to syn-eruptive lightning discharges. High temperatures in and around lightning plasma channels have the potential to chemically alter, re-melt, and possibly volatilize ash fragments in the eruption cloud. In this study, we experimentally simulate temperature conditions of volcanic lightning in the laboratory, and systematically investigate the effects of rapid melting on the morphology and chemical composition of ash. Samples of different size and composition are ejected towards an artificially generated electrical arc. Post-experiment ash morphologies include fully melted spheres, partially melted particles, agglomerates, and vesiculated particles. High-speed imaging reveals various processes occurring during the short lightning-ash interactions, such as particle melting and rounding, foaming, and explosive particle fragmentation. Chemical analyses of the flash-melted particles reveal considerable bulk loss of Cl, S, P and Na through thermal vaporization. Element distribution patterns suggest convection as a key process of element transport from the interior of the melt droplet to rim where volatiles are lost. Modeling the degree of sodium loss delivers maximum melt temperatures between 3290 and 3490 K. Our results imply that natural lighting strikes may be an important agent of syn-eruptive morphological and chemical processing of volcanic ash.

  6. Chemical modification of polysulfone: composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, PT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -chemical properties studied by means of SEM and XRD techniques suggested the uniform and homogeneous distribution of TiO2 at 2.5wt. % loading, and negligible agglomeration at 10wt % loading, also indicated enhancement of crystalline character of these membranes...

  7. Chemical modification of fibers and fabrics with high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.; Walsh, W.K.; Bittencourt, E.; Liepins, R.; Surles, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Some fundamental considerations related to the radiation modification of fibers and fabrics are discussed. Experiments are described on the radiation ''grafting'' of various phosphorus- and bromine-containing vinyl monomers to polyester, cotton, and their blends to impart flame resistance. It was found that the flame retardancy was more efficient when the grafted polymer was located inside the fiber. The efficiency of the bromine containing polymers was found to be related to the bromine/aliphatic hydrogen ratio and to the thermal stability of the polymers. Experiments are also described illustrating the successful use of radiation processing with a number of vinyl monomers and oligomers to impart water sorbancy, for the bonding of nonwoven fabrics for fabric coating, and for the binding of pigment prints. 11 tables, 18 figures

  8. Laser assisted modification and chemical metallization of electron-beam deposited ceria thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumov, E.; Starbov, N.; Starbova, K.; Perea, A.; Solis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Excimer laser processing is applied for tailoring the surface morphology and phase composition of CeO 2 ceramic thin films. E-beam evaporation technique is used to deposit samples on stainless steel and silicate glass substrates. The films are then irradiated with ArF* excimer laser pulses under different exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, optical spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and EDS microanalysis are used to characterize the non-irradiated and laser-processed films. Upon UV laser exposure there is large increase of the surface roughness that is accompanied by photo-darkening and ceria reduction. It is shown that the laser induced changes in the CeO 2 films facilitate the deposition of metal nano-aggregates in a commercial copper electroless plating bath. The significance of laser modification as a novel approach for the production of CeO 2 based thin film catalysts is discussed.

  9. Laser assisted modification and chemical metallization of electron-beam deposited ceria thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumov, E., E-mail: emodk@clf.bas.bg [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Starbov, N.; Starbova, K. [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Perea, A.; Solis, J. [Instituto de Optica ' Daza de Valdes' , CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Excimer laser processing is applied for tailoring the surface morphology and phase composition of CeO{sub 2} ceramic thin films. E-beam evaporation technique is used to deposit samples on stainless steel and silicate glass substrates. The films are then irradiated with ArF* excimer laser pulses under different exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, optical spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and EDS microanalysis are used to characterize the non-irradiated and laser-processed films. Upon UV laser exposure there is large increase of the surface roughness that is accompanied by photo-darkening and ceria reduction. It is shown that the laser induced changes in the CeO{sub 2} films facilitate the deposition of metal nano-aggregates in a commercial copper electroless plating bath. The significance of laser modification as a novel approach for the production of CeO{sub 2} based thin film catalysts is discussed.

  10. Modification of polyetherurethane for biomedical application by radiation-induced grafting. I. Grafting procedure, determination of mechanical properties, and chemical modification of grafted films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, B.; Ellinghorst, G.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation grafting of monomers onto suitable trunk polymers is a useful tool for tailoring new polymers for special purposes. This technique has been used in the past for the development of biocompatible materials, e.g., by grafting hydrogels onto mechanically stable polymers. In this first part of our work, the radiation grafting of hydrophilic or reactive monomers onto a polyetherurethane film using the pre-swelling technique is described. Following this technique the trunk polymer was swollen in the monomer before irradiation. As monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GMA), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (GOMA), and acrylamide (AAm) were used. The kinetics of the grafting reactions were examined, and the distribution of the graft component inside the trunk polymer was investigated by means of infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Surface-grafted as well as bulk- and surface-grafted products could be obtained. The mechanical behavior of the grafted films--especially in the water-swollen state--was examined and compared with that of the pure trunk polymer. In nearly all cases it was found that the tensile strength sigma B and the elongation at break epsilon R decreases as the grafting yield increases. Modification of GMA- and AAm-grafted films via chemical reactions was performed to create new functional groups of biomedical interest. In this manner a diol structure, a carboxylic acid structure, and a sulfonic acid group could be introduced in the grafted polymer. The water uptake of such modified films is increased markedly when compared with that of the unmodified samples

  11. The hydrophobic modification of gypsum binder by peat products: physico-chemical and technological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Misnikov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum binder is a quick-setting and fast-hardening material that is used widely in the construction industry for plastering and as an ingredient of concrete, other binding materials, etc. The issue addressed here is its short shelf life (around three months which arises because it is hygroscopic, i.e. it readily absorbs moisture and begins to set during transport and storage. The main methods that are currently available for protecting gypsum binder against unwanted exposure to moisture and water vapour are considered, and hydrophobic modification with the bitumen released during peat thermolysis (a method previously considered for cement is proposed as a promising alternative. Because there is overlap in the temperature ranges used in the manufacture of gypsum binder and those required for the initial stages of thermal decomposition of the organic matter in peat, it is expected that hydrophobisation could be achieved during the established manufacturing process without any changes to plant or procedures. The optimum concentration of organic (peat additive for gypsum rock mined from the Shushokskoye deposit in Russia is derived experimentally. With 0.5–1 % of peat additive, the strength grading of the gypsum plaster is preserved and its storage time without caking and hydration increases, even under adverse conditions (100 % relative humidity. The proposed method is compatible with current gypsum production technology, it does not require any changes in equipment, and the prices of mineral raw materials and semi-finished peat products are approximately the same. Thus, the incorporation of hydrophobic modification using peat into the manufacturing process for gypsum binder is unlikely to increase the cost of the product.

  12. Specific modifications of histone tails, but not DNA methylation, mirror the temporal variation of mammalian recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Yi, Soojin V

    2014-10-16

    Recombination clusters nonuniformly across mammalian genomes at discrete genomic loci referred to as recombination hotspots. Despite their ubiquitous presence, individual hotspots rapidly lose their activities, and the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying such frequent hotspot turnovers (the so-called "recombination hotspot paradox") remain unresolved. Even though some sequence motifs are significantly associated with hotspots, multiple lines of evidence indicate that factors other than underlying sequences, such as epigenetic modifications, may affect the evolution of recombination hotspots. Thus, identifying epigenetic factors that covary with recombination at fine-scale is a promising step for this important research area. It was previously reported that recombination rates correlate with indirect measures of DNA methylation in the human genome. Here, we analyze experimentally determined DNA methylation and histone modification of human sperms, and show that the correlation between DNA methylation and recombination in long-range windows does not hold with respect to the spatial and temporal variation of recombination at hotspots. On the other hand, two histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) overlap extensively with recombination hotspots. Similar trends were observed in mice. These results indicate that specific histone modifications rather than DNA methylation are associated with the rapid evolution of recombination hotspots. Furthermore, many human recombination hotspots occupy "bivalent" chromatin regions that harbor both active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) marks. This may explain why human recombination hotspots tend to occur in nongenic regions, in contrast to yeast and Arabidopsis hotspots that are characterized by generally active chromatins. Our results highlight the dynamic epigenetic underpinnings of recombination hotspot evolution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  13. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains, floor covering, and upholstery of furniture) and consumers are in contact with these products for up to 24 hours a day. The Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) commissioned RIVM to mak...

  14. Modification of the radiation resistance of Aspergillus flavus mycelial units by some chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohyuddin, M.; Skoropad, W.P.

    1977-01-01

    Survival curves for the mycelium of Aspergillus flavus Link var. columnaris Raper and Fennell were constructed after irradiation with gamma rays in the presence of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, KBr, KI, CaCl 2 , CaBr 2 , CaI 2 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 2 , NaNO 3 , KNO 2 , iodoacetic acid, iodoacetamide and vitamin K 5 . In addition iodized salt was also tested. All the chemicals tested exhibited initial toxicity at zero dose. However, most of the chemicals demonstrated a synergism when present during irradiation. Compounds containing iodine were invariably the strongest radiosensitizers. The iodine present as an admixture in salt also retained its radiosensitizing character. Sodium bromide and calcium bromide behaved in a different way. The initial toxicity was reduced along with an increase in radiation dose resulting in more survival. (orig.) [de

  15. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  16. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  17. Chemical Ligation: A Versatile Method for Nucleoside Modification with Boron Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wojtczak, B. A.; Andrysiak, A.; Grüner, Bohumír; Lesnikowski, Z. J.

    -, č. 14 (2008), s. 10675-10682 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Grant - others:MSHE(PL) N405 051 32/3592; MSHE(PL) K152/H03/2007/10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : alkynes * azides * chemical ligation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.454, year: 2008

  18. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Silica Spheres before and after Modification by Silanization for Trypsin Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, silica particles of a variety of sizes and shapes have been characterized and chemically modified for several applications, from chromatographic separation to dental supplies. The present study proposes the use of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS silanized silica particles to immobilize the proteolytic enzyme trypsin for the development of a bioreactor. The major advantage of the process is that it enables the polypeptides hydrolysis interruption simply by removing the silica particles from the reaction bottle. Silanized silica surfaces showed significant morphological changes at micro- and nanoscale level. Chemical characterization showed changes in elemental composition, chemical environment, and thermal degradation. Their application as supports for trypsin immobilization showed high immobilization efficiency at reduced immobilization times, combined with more acidic conditions. Indirect immobilization quantification by reversed-phase ultrafast high performance liquid chromatography proved to be a suitable approach due to its high linearity and sensitivity. Immobilized trypsin activities on nonmodified and silanized silica showed promising features (e.g., selective hydrolysis for applications in proteins/peptides primary structure elucidation for proteomics. Silanized silica system produced some preferential targeting peptides, probably due to the hydrophobicity of the nanoenvironment conditioned by silanization.

  19. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zamri; Ismail, Siti Salwa

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature

  20. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zamri, E-mail: zamriab@petronas.com.my; Ismail, Siti Salwa [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  1. Functionalization and Chemical Modification of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate with Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Nasirtabrizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical polymerization of the resulting monomers methyl methacrylate (MMA, ethyl methacrylate (EMA, methylacrylate (MA and ethylacrylate (EA with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA (in 1:1 mole ratio were carried out using azobis(isoboutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator at the temperature ranges 60-70°C. The modification of polymers were carried out by 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (9-ACA via the esterification reaction between —OH of poly(HEMA and —COOH of 9-ACA, in presence of N,N′-dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide (DCC, 4-(dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP and N,N-dimethyl formamid (DMF. It was found that the molar ratio acid/alcohol/catalysts= 0.02: 0.02: 0.02 and 0.002, optimal for preparation of the ester. As demonstrated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The Tg value of methacrylate and acrylate copolymers containing 9-ACA groups was found to increase with incorporation of 9-ACA groups in polymer structures. The presence of 9-ACA groups in the polymer side chains created new polymers with novel modified properties that find some applications in polymer industry. These anthracenic factors could take part in cyclo addition reaction with other factors such as anhydrides and kinons.

  2. Chemical modification of organoclay cloisite ®30B with silane 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuoli, P.T.; Frizzo, V.P.; Zattera, A.J.; Scienza, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    The montmorillonite (MMT) is the inorganic phase more used in obtaining polymer nanocomposites. To improve the compatibility and dispersion of MMT in the polymer resin, many researchers have performed the process of functionalization of the clay with silane. This study was performed with the objective of modifying the Cloisite®30B clay with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS). The modification was carried out by ion-exchange method using 10 g of clay Cloisite®30B (MMT-30B), 500 mL of hydroalcoholic solution (75/25 v/v) and 10 g of silane. The clay modified with silane (S-MMT_3_0_B) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Through the XRD was observed an increase in the basal spacing d_0_0_1 of 1.82 to 2.2 nm. With the analysis of TGA was observed that S-MMT_3_0_B showed greater weight loss than MMT-30B due to decomposition of the silane. The presence of band at 1562 cm-1 in the FTIR spectrum of S-MMT_3_0_B confirmed the presence of silane in the structure of the modified clay. (author)

  3. Chemical modification of chitosan film via surface grafting of citric acid molecular to promote the biomineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Shen, Xin; Zhou, Huan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Yingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Deng, Linhong, E-mail: dlh@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chitosan film was modified by surface grafting of citric acid. • The modified film has good hydrophilicity and moisture-retaining capacity. • The citric acid grafting treatment significantly promote the biomineralization. • MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts research confirms the biocompatibility of the film. - Abstract: We develop a novel chitosan–citric acid film (abbreviated as CS–CA) suitable for biomedical applications in this study. In this CS–CA film, the citric acid, which is a harmless organic acid has been extensively investigated as a modifying agent on carbohydrate polymers, was cross-linked by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto the surface of chitosan (CS) film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the graft copolymerization of the modified chitosan film (CS–CA). Surface wettability, moisturizing performance, the capacity of mineralization in vitro and biocompatibility of the films were characterized. After modification, this CS–CA film has good hydrophilicity. It is very evident that the citric acid grafting treatment significantly promotes the biomineralization of the chitosan based substrates. Cell experiments show that the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts can adhere and proliferate well on the surface of CS–CA film. This CS–CA film, which can be prepared in large quantities and at low cost, should have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Influence of the chemical modification and content of the clay on the mechanical properties of polypropylene and national bentonite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libano, Elaine V.D.G.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The polypropylene/national clay composite was prepared by melt intercalation in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder, using bentonite as filler either in the natural (BENT) form or modified with the ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (BENT-org). The clay was used in 1, 3 and 5%w. The influence of the modification and content of clay on the mechanical properties of this system was analysed. The analyses of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that clay organophilization did occur. The tensile modulus and the tensile strength at the yield point were not affected by chemical modification (BENT and BENT-org) or clay content. On the other hand, it was evidenced that the elongation at the yield point decreased with the addition of BENT and BENT-org to polypropylene. According to the thermogravimetric results, it was evidenced that the incorporation of clay into polypropylene improved thermal stability of the polymer in the composites with 5%w of BENT and 3 and 5%w of BENT-org. (author)

  5. Wet-chemical approach for the cell-adhesive modification of polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Matthias; Dahm, Manfred; Vahl, Christian-F

    2011-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a frequently utilized polymer for the fabrication of synthetic vascular grafts, was surface-modified by means of a wet-chemical process. The inherently non-cell-adhesive polymer does not support cellular attachment, a prerequisite for the endothelialization of luminal surface grafts in small diameter applications. To impart the material with cell-adhesive properties a treatment with sodium-naphthalene provided a basis for the subsequent immobilization of the adhesion promoting RGD-peptide using a hydroxy- and amine-reactive crosslinker. Successful conjugation was shown with cell culture experiments which demonstrated excellent endothelial cell growth on the modified surfaces.

  6. Enhanced tumor retention of a radiohalogen label for site-specific modification of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, C Andrew; Marik, Jan; Elowson, Michael J; Reyes, Noe A; Ulufatu, Sheila; Bumbaca, Daniela; Yip, Victor; Mundo, Eduardo E; Majidy, Nicholas; Van Hoy, Marjie; Goriparthi, Saritha N; Trias, Anthony; Gill, Herman S; Williams, Simon P; Junutula, Jagath R; Fielder, Paul J; Khawli, Leslie A

    2013-12-12

    A known limitation of iodine radionuclides for labeling and biological tracking of receptor targeted proteins is the tendency of iodotyrosine to rapidly diffuse from cells following endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. In contrast, radiometal-chelate complexes such as indium-111-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (In-111-DOTA) accumulate within target cells due to the residualizing properties of the polar, charged metal-chelate-amino acid adduct. Iodine radionuclides boast a diversity of nuclear properties and chemical means for incorporation, prompting efforts to covalently link radioiodine with residualizing molecules. Herein, we describe the Ugi-assisted synthesis of [I-125]HIP-DOTA, a 4-hydroxy-3-iodophenyl (HIP) derivative of DOTA, and demonstration of its residualizing properties in a murine xenograft model. Overall, this study displays the power of multicomponent synthesis to yield a versatile radioactive probe for antibodies across multiple therapeutic areas with potential applications in both preclinical biodistribution studies and clinical radioimmunotherapies.

  7. Peptidomics of Peptic Digest of Selected Potato Tuber Proteins: Post-Translational Modifications and Limited Cleavage Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C K Rajendran, Subin R; Mason, Beth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-03-23

    Bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting bioactive peptides from food proteins. This study was focused on using bioinformatics and peptidomics to evaluate the specificity of peptide release and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptic digest of potato protein isolate. Peptides in the protein hydrolysate were identified by LC-MS/MS and subsequently aligned to their parent potato tuber proteins. Five major proteins were selected for further analysis, namely, lipoxygenase, α-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, annexin, patatin, and polyubiquitin, based on protein coverage, abundance, confidence levels, and function. Comparison of the in silico peptide profile generated with ExPASy PeptideCutter and experimental peptidomics data revealed several differences. The experimental peptic cleavage sites were found to vary in number and specificity from PeptideCutter predictions. Average peptide chain length was also found to be higher than predicted with hexapeptides as the smallest detected peptides. Moreover, PTMs, particularly Met oxidation and Glu/Asp deamidation, were observed in some peptides, and these were unaccounted for during in silico analysis. PTMs can be formed during aging of potato tubers, or as a result of processing conditions during protein isolation and hydrolysis. The findings provide insights on the limitations of current bioinformatics tools for predicting bioactive peptide release from proteins, and on the existence of structural modifications that can alter the peptide bioactivity and functionality.

  8. Chemical modification of magnetite nanoparticles and preparation of acrylic-base magnetic nanocomposite particles via miniemulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Athar; Mahdavian, Ali Reza, E-mail: a.mahdavian@ippi.ac.ir; Salehi-Mobarakeh, Hamid

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, magnetic nanocomposite particles have attracted many interests because of their versatile applications. A new method for chemical modification of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with polymerizable groups is presented here. After synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by co-precipitation method, they were modified sequentially with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), acryloyl chloride (AC) and benzoyl chloride (BC) and all were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and TGA analyses. Then the modified magnetite nanoparticles with unsaturated acrylic groups were copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA) through miniemulsion polymerization. Although several reports exist on preparation of magnetite-base polymer particles, but the efficiency of magnetite encapsulationwith reasonable content and obtaining final stable latexes with limited aggregation ofFe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are still important issues. These were considered here by controlling reaction parameters. Hence, a seriesofmagneticnanocomposites latex particlescontaining different amounts of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (0–10 wt%) were prepared with core-shell morphology and diameter below 200 nm and were characterized by FT-IR, DSC and TGA analyses. Their morphology and size distribution were studied by SEM, TEM and DLS analyses too. Magnetic properties of all products were also measuredby VSM analysis and the results revealed almost superparamagnetic properties for the obtained nanocomposite particles. - Highlights: • Chemical modification of magnetite nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of modified magnetite with acrylic copolymer. • Superparamagnetic Fe3O4/polyacrylic nanocomposite particles.

  9. Chemical surface modification of glass beads for the treatment of paper machine process waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jradi, Khalil; Daneault, Claude; Chabot, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of detrimental contaminants on a solid sorbent is proposed to remove these contaminants from process waters to increase water recycling and reduce effluent loads in the papermaking industry. A self-assembly process of attaching (covalent grafting) cationic aminosilane molecules to glass beads was investigated. The existence and the hydrolytic stability of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers were confirmed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects of reaction time and curing on aminosilane layer structures are also discussed. The curing step after silanization seems to be crucial in the hydrophobization of the quaternary ammonium silane coated onto glass beads, and curing could affect the final chemical structure of the ammonium groups of grafted organosilane. Results indicated that modified glass beads have a strong hydrophobicity, which is attributed to the hydrophobic property of the longest carbon chain grafted onto the glass surface. Adsorption of a model contaminant (stearic acid) onto chemically modified glass beads was determined using colloidal titration. Hydrophobic interactions could be the main driving force involved between the long carbon chains of stearic acid and the carbon chains of the aminosilane layers on glass bead surfaces. Finally, self-assembly processes applied onto glass beads may have two promising applications for papermaking and self-cleaning systems.

  10. Direct synthesis of hydrophobic graphene-based nanosheets via chemical modification of exfoliated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Haiteng; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bingyang; Xu, Haiteng; Fu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Hydrophobic graphene-based material at the nanoscale was prepared by treatment of exfoliated graphene oxide with organic isocyanates. The lipophilic modified graphene oxide (LMGO) can then be exfoliated into the functionalized graphene nanoplatelets that can form a stable dispersion in polar aprotic solvents. AFM image shows the thickness of LMGO is approximately 1 nm. Characterization of LMGO by elemental analysis suggested that the chemical treatment results in the functionalization of the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in GO via formation of amides and carbamate esters, respectively. The degree of GO functionalization can be controlled via either the reactivity of the isocyanate or the reaction time. Then we investigated the thermal properties of the SPFGraphene by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the TGA curve shows a greater weight loss of approximately 20% occurred indicating removal of functional groups from the LMGO sheets and an obvious exothermic peak at 176 degrees can be observed from 150 to 250 degrees. We also compared the structure of graphene oxide with the structure of chemical treated graphene oxide by FT-IR spectroscopy. The morphology and microstructure of the LMGO nanosheets were also characterized by SEM and XRD. Graphene can be used to fabricate a wide range of simple electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, resonators, quantum dots and some other extensive industrial manufacture such as super capacitor, li ion battery, solar cells and even transparent electrodes in device applications.

  11. Sensitive and Specific Guest Recognition through Pyridinium-Modification in Spindle-Like Coordination Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Nagarajan; Dai, Feng-Rong; Chen, Zhong-Ning

    2018-05-02

    An elaborately designed pyridinium-functionalized octanuclear zinc(II) coordination container 1-Zn was prepared through the self-assembly of Zn 2+ , p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene, and pyridinium-functionalized angular flexible dicarboxylate linker (H 2 BrL1). The structure was determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffractometer. 1-Zn displays highly sensitive and specific recognition to 2-picolylamine as revealed by drastic blueshifts of the absorption and emission spectra, ascribed to the decrease of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character of the container and the occurrence of intermolecular charge transfer between the host and guest molecules. The intramolecular charge transfer plays a key role in the modulation of the electronic properties and is tunable through endo-encapsulation of specific guest molecules. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Detection of neuronal tissue in meat using tissue specific DNA modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed to differentiate between non-muscle tissues such as liver, kidney and heart and that of muscle in meat samples using tissue specific DNA detection. Only muscle tissue is considered meat from the point of view of labelling (Food Labelling [Amendment] (England Regulations 2003 and Quantitative Ingredient Declaration (QUID, and also certain parts of the carcass are prohibited to be used in raw meat products (Meat Products [England] Regulations 2003. Included in the prohibited offal are brain and spinal cord. The described methodology has therefore been developed primarily to enforce labelling rules but also to contribute to the enforcement of BSE legislation on the detection of Central Nervous System (CNS tissue. The latter requires the removal of Specified Risk Material (SRM, such as bovine and ovine brain and spinal cord, from the food chain. Current methodologies for detection of CNS tissue include histological examination, analysis of cholesterol content and immunodetection. These can potentially be time consuming, less applicable to processed samples and may not be readily adapted to high throughput sample analysis. The objective of this work was therefore to develop a DNAbased detection assay that exploits the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and is potentially applicable to more highly processed food samples. For neuronal tissue, the DNA target selected was the promoter for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP, a gene whose expression is restricted to astroglial cells within CNS tissue. The promoter fragments from both cattle and sheep have been isolated and key differences in the methylation patterns of certain CpG dinucleotides in the sequences from bovine and sheep brain and spinal cord and the corresponding skeletal muscle identified. These have been used to design a PCR assay exploiting Methylation Specific PCR (MSP to specifically amplify the neuronal tissue derived sequence and therefore identify the

  13. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  14. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  15. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E., E-mail: geiza.oliveira@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCE/DQUI/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Souza Junior, F.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2013-11-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  16. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.W., E-mail: lynnww@sohu.com [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Li, J.X. [Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Gao, C.Y. [Chinese Peoples Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfang 065000 (China); Chang, M. [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  17. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E.; Souza Junior, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  18. Structural modification of titanium surface by octacalcium phosphate via Pulsed Laser Deposition and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was applied to coat titanium for orthopaedic and dental implant applications. Calcium carbonate (CC was used as starting coating material. The deposited CC films were transformed into octacalcium phosphate (OCP by chemical treatments. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies revealed that the final OCP thin films are formed on the titanium surface. Human myofibroblasts from peripheral vessels and the primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSs were cultured on the investigated materials. It was shown that all the investigated samples had no short-term toxic effects on cells. The rate of division of myofibroblast cells growing on the surface and saturated BMMSs concentration for the OCP coating were about two times faster than of cells growing on the CC films.

  19. Radiolabeled hydroxamate-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors: How chemical modifications affect pharmacokinetics and metabolic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenberg, Verena; Hermann, Sven; Galla, Fabian; Schäfers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dysregulated MMP expression or activation is associated with several diseases. To study MMP activity in vivo by means of PET a radiolabeled MMP inhibitor (MMPI) functioning as radiotracer has been developed by our group based on the lead structure CGS 25966. Materials and methods: Aiming at the modification of the pharmacokinetics of this lipophilic model tracer a new class of MMPIs has been discovered, consisting of additional fluorinated hydrophilic substructures, such as mini-PEG and/or 1,2,3-triazole units. To identify the best candidate for further clinical applications, radiofluorinated compounds of each subgroup have been (radio) synthesized and evaluated regarding their biodistribution behavior and their metabolic stability. Results: Radiosyntheses of different triazole based MMPIs could be realized using two step “click chemistry” procedures. Compared to lead structure [ 18 F]FEtO-CGS 25966 ([ 18 F]1e, log D(exp) = 2.02, IC 50 = 2–50 nM) all selected candidates showed increased hydrophilicities and inhibition potencies (log D(exp) = 0.23–1.25, IC 50 = 0.006–6 nM). Interestingly, despite different hydrophilicities most triazole based MMPIs showed no significant differences in their in vivo biodistribution behavior and were cleared predominantly via the hepatobiliary excretion route. Biostability and metabolism studies in vitro and in vivo revealed significant higher metabolic stability for the triazole moiety compared to the benzyl ring in the lead structure. Cleavage of ethylene glycol subunits of the mini-PEG chain led to a faster metabolism of mini-PEG containing MMPIs. Conclusion: The introduction of hydrophilic groups such as mini-PEG and 1,2,3-triazole units did not lead to a significant shift of the hepatobiliary elimination towards renal clearance. Particularly the introduction of mini-PEG chains led to an intense metabolic decomposition. Substitution of the benzyl moiety in lead structure 1e by a 1,2,3-trizole ring resulted

  20. Chemical modifications to vesicle forming diblock copolymers: Development of smart functional polymersome membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joshua S.

    2011-07-01

    softer vesicles but does not have a major affect on release rates or toxicity. Composite vesicles assembled from CL/TOSUO copolymers loaded with a zinc porphyrin undergo UV-induced deformation. Together, these modifications offer novel routes to the preparation of enhanced polymersomes that hold promise for the development of improved materials for the treatment of disease.

  1. Technical evaluation report on the proposed design modifications and technical-specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the San Onofre Nuclear Genetating Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation finds that the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes will ensure that the Class 1E equipment will be protected from sustained voltage degradation

  2. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  3. Effect of pH-induced chemical modification of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide on supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Chen, Wei; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of reduced graphene oxides are prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions and their pseudocapacitive performances are evaluated using full-cell supercapacitor devices. The pH values are found to have great influence on the performance of the supercapacitors, achieving the highest specific capacitance value reported for hydrothermal reduced graphene oxide supercapacitors. Acidic and neutral media yield reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups and lower surface areas but with broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. The graphene produced in the basic solution (nitrogen-doped graphene) presents mainly electrochemical double layer (ECDL) behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F g-1, while the graphene produced under neutral or acidic conditions show both ECDL and pseudocapacitive behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F g-1 (acidic) and 230 F g-1 (neutral), respectively, at a constant current density of 1 A g-1. The influence of pH on cycling performance and electrochemical impedance of the supercapacitive devices is also presented. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of pH-induced chemical modification of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide on supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2013-07-01

    Three kinds of reduced graphene oxides are prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions and their pseudocapacitive performances are evaluated using full-cell supercapacitor devices. The pH values are found to have great influence on the performance of the supercapacitors, achieving the highest specific capacitance value reported for hydrothermal reduced graphene oxide supercapacitors. Acidic and neutral media yield reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups and lower surface areas but with broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. The graphene produced in the basic solution (nitrogen-doped graphene) presents mainly electrochemical double layer (ECDL) behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F g-1, while the graphene produced under neutral or acidic conditions show both ECDL and pseudocapacitive behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F g-1 (acidic) and 230 F g-1 (neutral), respectively, at a constant current density of 1 A g-1. The influence of pH on cycling performance and electrochemical impedance of the supercapacitive devices is also presented. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of chemical modifications of a Nafion membrane by incorporation of different room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de Yuso, M.V.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain); Neves, L.A.; Coelhoso, I.M.; Crespo, J.G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Benavente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Surface and bulk chemical changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) incorporation were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elemental analysis, respectively. RTILs with different physicochemical properties were selected. Two imidazolium based RTIL-cations (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) were used to detect the effect of cation size on membrane modification, while the effect of the RTIL hydrophilic/hydrophobic character was also considered by choosing different anions. Angle resolved XPS measurements (ARXPS) were carried out varying the angle of analysis between 15 and 75 to get elemental information on the Nafion/RTIL-modified membranes interactions for a deepness of around 10 nm. Moreover, changes in the RTIL-modified membranes associated to thermal effect were also considered by analyzing the samples after their heating at 120 C for 24 h. Agreement between both chemical techniques, bulk and destructive elemental analysis and surface and non-destructive XPS, were obtained. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Sequence-engineered mRNA Without Chemical Nucleoside Modifications Enables an Effective Protein Therapy in Large Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thess, Andreas; Grund, Stefanie; Mui, Barbara L; Hope, Michael J; Baumhof, Patrick; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Schlake, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics require chemical nucleoside modifications to obtain sufficient protein expression and avoid activation of the innate immune system. Here we show that chemically unmodified mRNA can achieve those goals as well by applying sequence-engineered molecules. Using erythropoietin (EPO) driven production of red blood cells as the biological model, engineered Epo mRNA elicited meaningful physiological responses from mice to nonhuman primates. Even in pigs of about 20 kg in weight, a single adequate dose of engineered mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) induced high systemic Epo levels and strong physiological effects. Our results demonstrate that sequence-engineered mRNA has the potential to revolutionize human protein therapies. PMID:26050989

  7. Air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Pun, Vivian C.; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9–1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO 2 , and SO 2 . People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6–2.3% additional increase in PM and NO 2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the effect modification. • We identified the subpopulations particularly vulnerable to air pollution related death. • Elderly, female and those economically inactive would increase the risk of air pollution. • Specific causes of cardiorespiratory death showed vulnerability to air pollution. - We conducted a case-only study to identify several personal characteristics and specific cardiorespiratory causes that vulnerable to air pollution related mortality

  8. Specific genetic modifications of domestic animals by gene targeting and animal cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiangfeng

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this review, the principles of gene targeting in somatic cells and the challenges of nuclear transfer using gene-targeted cells are discussed. The relevance of gene targeting in domestic animals for applications in bio-medicine and agriculture are also examined.

  9. Modification of tolerance of oats to crown rust induced by chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, M.D.; Browning, J.A.; Frey, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds of crown rust (Puccinia coronata) susceptible cultivated oats (Avena sativa) were treated with the mutagenic chemical ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), and pure lines derived from these treated seeds were tested in later generations for the relative amount of reduction in yield and seed weight caused by crown rust infection. In the absence of crown rust, the yield of most of the treated lines was greatly reduced. The overall means of the treated lines for both yield and seed weight response to infection were significantly lower than the control, but 10 lines significantly exceeded the control for yield response and 15 exceeded it for seed weight response. Recurrent EMS treatment of once-treated lines rated as tolerant resulted in groups of lines that were more tolerant, on the average, than groups of lines from recurrently treated lines rated as susceptible. A few of the recurrently treated individual lines derived from tolerant parents had a higher degree of tolerance than their parental lines. EMS treatment of diploid (A. strigosa) and tetraploid (A. abyssinica) oats resulted in groups of lines showing significant genetic variance for response to crown rust, indicating that treatment had induced real genetic change. A few diploid lines were a little more tolerant than their control, but none of the tetraploid lines showed any consistent improvement. (author)

  10. Chemical modification of silicon surfaces for the application in soft lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, S.

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this work was to chemically modify silicon surfaces by anchoring functional molecules. A major part was devoted to the investigation and improvement of the self-assembly process of organosilanes on oxidized silicon surfaces. The formation of a release agent layer with perfluorinated alkylsilanes was performed by vapor phase deposition. An advanced vapor phase deposition device, called CASINO device, was built to enhance the qualities of the thin films. It is possible to carry out cleaning and silanization in a closed chamber without exposing the samples to air in between. Thereby surface contamination is avoided. Experiments with the new device were performed following examples given in literature. To optimize the silanization process in the CASINO device, it was also planned to apply heat treatment of the sample during or after the deposition process. Surface layers of thiolterminated and of aminoterminated molecules were investigated as adhesive layer for the linkage of metal structures to silicon surfaces, e.g. Shuttle-Transfer Printing with gold crossbar electrodes. First, thiol- and aminoterminated organosilane SAMs were tested as adhesive layers for gold. The surface modified with thiolterminated silane molecules was further examined. Adhesion was promoted only after heat treatment of a thiolmodified silicon substrate with a gold layer on top. (orig.)

  11. Mechanisms of chemical modification of neoplastic cell transformation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts will be continuously exposed to ionizing radiation; therefore, it is necessary to minimize the radiation damage by all possible means. The authors' studies show that DMSO (when present during irradiation) can protect cells from being killed and transformed by X rays and that low concentration of DMSO can reduce the transformation frequency significantly when it is applied to cells, even many days after irradiation. The process of neoplastic cell transformation is a complicated one and includes at least two different stages: induction and expression. DMSO apparently can modify the radiation damage during both stages. There are several possible mechanisms for the DMSO effect: (1) changing the cell membrane structure and properties; (2) inducing cell differentiation by acting on DNA; and (3) scavanging free radicals in the cell. Recent studies with various chemical agents, e.g., 5-azacytidine, dexamethane, rhodamin-123, etc., indicate that the induction of cell differentiation by acting on DNA may be an important mechanism for the suppression of expression of neoplastic cell transformation by DMSO

  12. Impacts of chemical modification on the toxicity of diverse nanocellulose materials to developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Bryan J; Clendaniel, Alicea; Sinche, Federico; Way, Daniel; Hughes, Michael; Schardt, Jenna; Simonsen, John; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-06-01

    Cellulose is an abundant and renewable resource currently being investigated for utility in nanomaterial form for various promising applications ranging from medical and pharmaceutical uses to mechanical reinforcement and biofuels. The utility of nanocellulose and wide implementation ensures increasing exposure to humans and the environment as nanocellulose-based technologies advance. Here, we investigate how differences in aspect ratio and changes to surface chemistry, as well as synthesis methods, influence the biocompatibility of nanocellulose materials using the embryonic zebrafish. Investigations into the toxicity of neutral, cationic and anionic surface functionalities revealed that surface chemistry had a minimal influence on the overall toxicity of nanocellulose materials. Higher aspect ratio cellulose nanofibers produced by mechanical homogenization were, in some cases, more toxic than other cellulose-based nanofibers or nanocrystals produced by chemical synthesis methods. Using fluorescently labeled nanocellulose we were able to show that nanocellulose uptake did occur in embryonic zebrafish during development. We conclude that the benign nature of nanocellulose materials makes them an ideal platform to systematically investigate the inherent surface features driving nanomaterial toxicity in order to create safer design principles for engineered nanoparticles.

  13. Effect of pH on the chemical modification of quercetin and structurally related flavonoids characterized by optical (UV-visible and Raman) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasekova, Z; Domingo, C; Garcia-Ramos, J V; Sanchez-Cortes, S

    2014-07-07

    In this work we report the study of the chemical modifications undergone by flavonoids, especially by quercetin (QUC), under alkaline conditions by UV-visible absorption, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the study was performed in aqueous solution and also on Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). Several processes are involved in the effect of alkaline pH both in solution and on AgNPs: autoxidation affecting mainly the C-ring of the molecule and giving rise to the molecular fragmentation leading to simpler molecular products, and/or the dimerization and further polymerization leading to species with a higher molecular weight. In addition, there exists a clear structure-instability correlation concerning mainly particular groups in the molecule: the C3-OH group in the C-ring, the catechol moiety in the B-ring and the C2=C3 bond also existing in the C-ring. QUC possesses all these groups and exhibits high instability in alkaline solution. The SERS spectra registered at different pH revealed a change in the dimerization protocol of QUC going from the A- and C-rings-like-condensation to B-ring-like-condensation. Increasing the knowledge of the chemical properties of these compounds and determining the structure-activity relationship under specific environmental factors allow us to improve their beneficial properties for health as well as the preservation of Cultural Heritage objects, for example, by preventing their degradation.

  14. Geometrical modification transfer between specific meshes of each coupled physical codes. Application to the Jules Horowitz research reactor experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplex, B.

    2011-01-01

    The CEA develops and uses scientific software, called physical codes, in various physical disciplines to optimize installation and experimentation costs. During a study, several physical phenomena interact, so a code coupling and some data exchanges between different physical codes are required. Each physical code computes on a particular geometry, usually represented by a mesh composed of thousands to millions of elements. This PhD Thesis focuses on the geometrical modification transfer between specific meshes of each coupled physical code. First, it presents a physical code coupling method where deformations are computed by one of these codes. Next, it discusses the establishment of a model, common to different physical codes, grouping all the shared data. Finally, it covers the deformation transfers between meshes of the same geometry or adjacent geometries. Geometrical modifications are discrete data because they are based on a mesh. In order to permit every code to access deformations and to transfer them, a continuous representation is computed. Two functions are developed, one with a global support, and the other with a local support. Both functions combine a simplification method and a radial basis function network. A whole use case is dedicated to the Jules Horowitz reactor. The effect of differential dilatations on experimental device cooling is studied. (author) [fr

  15. Chemical silicon surface modification and bioreceptor attachment to develop competitive integrated photonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorihuela, Jorge; Bañuls, María José; García Castelló, Javier; Toccafondo, Veronica; García-Rupérez, Jaime; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2012-12-01

    Methodology for the functionalization of silicon-based materials employed for the development of photonic label-free nanobiosensors is reported. The studied functionalization based on organosilane chemistry allowed the direct attachment of biomolecules in a single step, maintaining their bioavailability. Using this immobilization approach in probe microarrays, successful specific detection of bacterial DNA is achieved, reaching hybridization sensitivities of 10 pM. The utility of the immobilization approach for the functionalization of label-free nanobiosensors based on photonic crystals and ring resonators was demonstrated using bovine serum albumin (BSA)/anti-BSA as a model system.

  16. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity Modification of Acetyl Xylan Esterase from Aspergillus luchuensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Dai; Hori, Akane; Ishida, Takuya; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Koseki, Takuya; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2017-10-15

    Acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl bonds present in plant cell wall polysaccharides. Here, we determined the crystal structure of AXE from Aspergillus luchuensis ( Al AXEA), providing the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme in the Esterase_phb family. Al AXEA shares its core α/β-hydrolase fold structure with esterases in other families, but it has an extended central β-sheet at both its ends and an extra loop. Structural comparison with a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger indicated that Al AXEA has a conserved catalytic machinery: a catalytic triad (Ser119, His259, and Asp202) and an oxyanion hole (Cys40 and Ser120). Near the catalytic triad of A lAXEA, two aromatic residues (Tyr39 and Trp160) form small pockets at both sides. Homology models of fungal FAEs in the same Esterase_phb family have wide pockets at the corresponding sites because they have residues with smaller side chains (Pro, Ser, and Gly). Mutants with site-directed mutations at Tyr39 showed a substrate specificity similar to that of the wild-type enzyme, whereas those with mutations at Trp160 acquired an expanded substrate specificity. Interestingly, the Trp160 mutants acquired weak but significant type B-like FAE activity. Moreover, the engineered enzymes exhibited ferulic acid-releasing activity from wheat arabinoxylan. IMPORTANCE Hemicelluloses in the plant cell wall are often decorated by acetyl and ferulic acid groups. Therefore, complete and efficient degradation of plant polysaccharides requires the enzymes for cleaving the side chains of the polymer. Since the Esterase_phb family contains a wide array of fungal FAEs and AXEs from fungi and bacteria, our study will provide a structural basis for the molecular mechanism of these industrially relevant enzymes in biopolymer degradation. The structure of the Esterase_phb family also provides information for bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerases that are involved in biodegradation of

  17. Chemical Modification and Structure-property Relationships of Acrylic and Ionomeric Thermoplastic Elastomer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargantwar, Pruthesh Hariharrao

    Block copolymers (BCs) have remained at the forefront of materials research due to their versatility in applications ranging from hot-melt/pressure-sensitive adhesives and impact modifiers to compatibilizing agents and vibration-dampening/nanotemplating media. Of particular interest are macromolecules composed of two or more chemically dissimilar blocks covalently linked together to form triblock or pentablock copolymers. If the blocks are sufficiently incompatible and the copolymer behaves as a thermoplastic elastomer, the molecules can spontaneously self-assemble to form nanostructured materials that exhibit shape memory due to the formation of a supramolecular network. The BCs of these types are termed as conventional. When BCs contain blocks having ionic moieties such as sulfonic acid groups, they are termed as block ionomers. Designing new systems based on either conventional or ionic BCs, characterizing their structure-property relationships and later using them as electroacive polymers form the essential objectives of this work. Electroactive polymers (EAPs) exhibit electromechanical actuation when stimulated by an external electric field. In the first part of this work, it is shown that BCs resolve some of the outstanding problems presently encountered in the design of two different classes of EAP actuators: dielectric elastomers (DEs) and ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). All-acrylic triblock copolymer gels used as DEs actuate with high efficacy without any requirement of mechanical prestrain and, thus, eliminate the need for bulky and heavy hardware essential with prestrained dielectric actuators, as well as material problems associated with stress relaxation. The dependence of actuation behavior on gel morphology as evaluated from mechanical and microstructure studies is observed. In the case of IPMCs, ionic BCs employed in this study greatly facilitate processing compared to other contenders such as NafionRTM, which is commonly used in this class

  18. Swift heavy ion induced modification in morphological and physico-chemical properties of tin oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2})/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) were grown on silicon (1 0 0) substrates by electron beam evaporation deposition technique using sintered nanocomposite pellet of SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} in the percentage ratio of 95:5. Sintering of the nanocomposite pellet was done at 1300 °C for 24 h. The thicknesses of these films were measured to be 100 nm during deposition using piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. TiO{sub 2} doped SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite films were irradiated by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ion beam at fluence range varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, India. Chemical properties of pristine and ion irradiation modified thin films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR peak at 610 cm{sup −1} confirms the presence of O–Sn–O bridge of tin (IV) oxide signifying the composite nature of pristine and irradiated thin films. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in tapping mode was used to study the surface morphology and grain growth due to swift heavy ion irradiation at different fluencies. Grain size calculations obtained from sectional analysis of AFM images were compared with results obtained from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) measurements using Scherrer’s formulae. Phase transformation due to irradiation was observed from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) results. The prominent 2θ peaks observed in GAXRD spectrum are at 30.67°, 32.08°, 43.91°, 44.91° and 52.35° in the irradiated films.

  19. Enhanced performance of electrostatic precipitators through chemical modification of particle resistivity and cohesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Control of fine particles, including particulate air toxics, from utility boilers is required near-term by state and federal air regulations. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern united States. Cost-effective retrofit technologies for fine particle control, including flue gas conditioning, are needed for the large base of existing ESPs. Flue has conditioning is an attractive option because it requires minimal structural changes and lower capital costs. For flue gas conditioning to be effective for fine particle control, cohesive and particle agglomerating agents are needed to reduce reentrainment losses, since a large percentage of particulate emissions from well-performing ESPs are due to erosion, rapping, and non-rapping reentrainment. A related and somewhat ironic development is that emissions reductions of SO{sub 2} from utility boilers, as required by the Title IV acid rain program of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, has the potential to substantially increase particulate air toxics from existing ESPs. The switch to low-sulfur coals as an SO{sub 2} control strategy by many utilities has exacerbated ESP performance problems associated with high resistivity flyash. The use of flue gas conditioning has increased in the past several years to maintain adequate performance in ESPs which were not designed for high resistivity ash. However, commercially available flue gas conditioning systems, including NH{sub 3}/SO{sub 3} dual gas conditioning systems, have problems and inherent drawbacks which create a need for alternative conditioning agents. in particular, NH{sub 3}/SO{sub 3} systems can create odor and ash disposal problems due to ammonia outgassing. In addition, there are concerns over chemical handling safety and the potential for accidental releases.

  20. Solid Waste Information Tracking System (SWITS), Backlog Waste Modifications, Software Requirements Specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose of this document is to define the system requirements necessary to improve computer support for the WHC backlog waste business process through enhancements to the backlog waste function of the SWITS system. This SRS document covers enhancements to the SWITS system to support changes to the existing Backlog Waste screens including new data elements, label changes, and new pop-up screens. The pop-ups will allow the user to flag the processes that a waste container must have performed on it, and will provide history tracking of changes to data. A new screen will also be provided allowing Acceptable Services to perform mass updates to specific data in Backlog Waste table. The SWITS Backlog Waste enhancements in this document will support the project goals in WHC-SD-WM-003 and its Revision 1 (Radioactive Solid Waste Tracking System Conceptual Definition) for the control, tracing, and inventory management of waste as the packages are generated and moved through final disposal (cradle-to-grave)

  1. 45S5 bioglass: modifications in the structural arrangement to meet specific needs in bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.C.; Braga, J.F.C.; Aparecida, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    After surgical implantation the osteoinductivity property, observed in bioactive materials, is mainly due to the formation of calcium phosphate on these materials surface when in body fluids contact. The dissolution and diffusion phenomena in bioglass are result of it's structural arrangement and govern the osteoinductivity property. In structural arrangement of bioglass, silica segments are linked by phosphate groups, defining the distance between the vitreous network segments and thereby influence of cations diffusion rate through the network and the dissolution rate. Thus, the induced changes in arrangement of phosphate groups can control the intensity of material osteoinductivity in order to fit bone regeneration requirements. In this study, P_2O_5 nanoclusters formation were induced in bioglass 45S5 network structure. The bioactive glasses were prepared by melting at 1500°C in platinum crucibles and annealed between 2 and 24 h at 500°C. The characterization was performed using the following techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and hydrolytic resistance. In bioglasses 24 hours heat-treated, there was evidence of nanocrystals formation, dissolution rate, significant increase and consequently the property of osteoinductive. The obtained results indicated the potential of development of biomaterials for specific applications in bone regeneration. (author)

  2. Muscle-Specific PPARβ/δ Agonism May Provide Synergistic Benefits with Life Style Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Erol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ has emerged as a powerful metabolic regulator in diverse tissues including fat, skeletal muscle, and the heart. It is now established that activation of PPARβ/δ promotes fatty acid oxidation in several tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In muscle, PPARβ/δ appears to act as a central regulator of fatty acid catabolism. PPARβ/δ contents are increased in muscle during physiological situations such as physical exercise or long-term fasting, characterized by increased fatty acid oxidation. Targeted expression of an activated form of PPARβ/δ in skeletal muscle induces a switch to form increased numbers of type I muscle fibers resembling the fiber type transition by endurance training. Activation of PPARβ/δ also enhances mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle that resembles the effect of regular exercise. Therefore, it is hypothesized that muscle-specific PPARβ/δ agonists could be a key strategy to support the poor cardiorespiratory fitness associated with metabolic disorders.

  3. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhi [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Daly, Michael [Mergon International, Castlepollard, Westmeath (Ireland); Clémence, Lopez [Polytech Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L. [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Devine, Declan M., E-mail: ddevine@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland)

    2016-08-15

    strength than the composites containing untreated and “dry” treated CaCO{sub 3}. This is mainly because the “wet” and “complex” treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the “complex” method minimised the negative effects of void coalescence provides key information for the improvement of existing processes.

  4. Modifications in the chemical compounds and sensorial attributes of Engraulis anchoita fillet during marinating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Yeannes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Marinated fish are fish products preserved by the combined action of salt and organic acids. The objective of this work was to analyze the variations in the chemical compounds of anchovy fillets that give them sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita. The protein content decreased slightly and the TVB-N level decreased significantly in both the brining and marinating stages. In the marinating stage an increase in the total free aminoacids was observed. The NBV level in the brining and marinating solutions increased during these stages due to the solubilization of the non-protein nitrogenous compounds and the degradation of some protein compounds.The decrease of the contents of protein and TVB-N, and the increase of the acidity and the free aminoacids content during the marinating process give the marinated fillets the characteristic texture and aroma.Peixes marinados são produtos obtidos pela ação combinada de sal e ácidos orgânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações químicas e sensoriais em filés de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita durante o processo de marinado. O conteúdo de proteína apresentou decréscimo significativo durante a salga. O teor de Bases Voláteis Totais-N-BVT, apresentou uma diminuição considerável durante a salga e marinacão. Na fase de marinado, foi observado um aumento em aminoácidos livres totais. Foi constatada a presença de N-BVT na salmoura e na solução oriunda do processo de obtenção de marinado, devido à solubilização de nitrogênio não protéico, que podem ter sido acrescidos de alguns compostos de degradação protéica. A redução do conteúdo de proteína e N-BVT e o aumento de acidez e de aminoácidos livres gerados durante ou processo de elaboração do marinado fazem com que os filés marinados adquiram textura e aroma característicos.

  5. EDF's approach to determine specifications for nuclear power plant bulk chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, Alix; Dijoux, Michel; Le-Calvar, Marc; Gressier, Frederic; Mole, Didier

    2012-09-01

    Chemical impurities in the primary, secondary and auxiliary nuclear power plants circuits generate risks of corrosion of the fuel cladding, steel and nickel based alloys. The PMUC (Products and Materials Used in plants) organization established by EDF intends to limit this risk by specifying maximum levels of impurities in products and materials used for the operation and maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Bulk chemicals specifications, applied on primary and secondary circuit chemicals and hydrogen and nitrogen gases, are particularly important to prevent chemical species to be involved in the corrosion of the NPPs materials. The application of EDF specifications should lead to reasonably exclude any risk of degradation of the first and second containment barriers and auxiliary circuits Important to Safety (IPS) by limiting the concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, sulfates... The risk of metal embrittlement by elements with low melting point (mercury, lead...) is also included. For the primary circuit, the specifications intend to exclude the risk of activation of impurities introduced by the bulk chemicals. For the first containment barrier, to reduce the risk of deposits like zeolites, PMUC products specifications set limit values for calcium, magnesium, aluminum and silica. EDF's approach for establishing specifications for bulk chemicals is taking also into account the capacity of industrial production, as well as costs, limitations of analytical control methods (detection limits) and environmental releases issues. This paper aims to explain EDF's approach relative to specifications of impurities in bulk chemicals. Also presented are the various parameters taken into account to determine the maximum pollution levels in the chemicals, the theoretical hypothesis to set the specifications and the calculation method used to verify that the specifications are suitable. (authors)

  6. Effect of chemical modification on behavior of various organic vanadium forms during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of various organic V forms dissolved in xylene during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was compared. The investigated analyte forms included compounds with vanadium at the oxidation state III, IV or V, as well as N, O or S atoms in molecules. Another group consisted of petroleum products containing naturally-occurring V species. Although the characteristic mass determined under different analytical conditions was in the very wide range from 11 up to 55 pg, some rules of V behavior were found. In the case of porphyrins and petroleum products, the application of Pd as a chemical modifier (xylene solution of Pd(II) acetylacetonate) seemed to be crucial. It was shown that Pd must be introduced to a furnace together with a sample. Pd injected and thermally pretreated before the sample injection was less effective for porphyrins and the petroleum products, but it increased signals of V compounds containing O as donor atom. The iodine pretreatment followed by the methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOACl) pretreatment was advantageous for these V forms. The air ashing in a graphite tube appeared to be important to improve decomposition of the petroleum products. No significant influence of the V oxidation state on the analytical signal was observed. The behavior of V contained in two Conostan oil standards, the single-element and the S21 multielement standard, was different in many situations. Probably, the joint action of other elements is responsible for this effect. In general, chemical modification was applied in the work for two reasons: to reduce the V volatility (in some cases losses at about 300 deg. C were observed) and to enhance the atomization efficiency. For routine analysis air ashing, modification by Pd introduced into the furnace together with the sample solution and petroleum products with known V content as standard is recommended. Using this procedure the characteristic mass varied from 16 to 19 pg for

  7. Chemical modification of lysine residues in lysozyme may dramatically influence its amyloid fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedi, Dina; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2010-04-01

    Studies on the aggregation of mutant proteins have provided new insights into the genetics of amyloid diseases and the role of the net charge of the protein on the rate, extent, and type of aggregate formation. In the present work, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was employed as the model protein. Acetylation and (separately) citraconylation were employed to neutralize the charge on lysine residues. Acetylation of the lysine residues promoted amyloid formation, resulting in more pronounced fibrils and a dramatic decline in the nucleation time. In contrast, citraconylation produced the opposite effect. In both cases, native secondary and tertiary structures appeared to be retained. Studies on the effect of pH on aggregation suggested greater possibilities for amorphous aggregate formation rather than fibrillation at pH values closer to neutrality, in which the protein is known to take up a conformation more similar to its native form. This is in accord with reports in the literature suggesting that formation of amorphous aggregates is more favored under relatively more native conditions. pH 5 provided a critical environment in which a mixture of amorphous and fibrillar structures were observed. Use of Tango and Aggrescan software which describe aggregation tendencies of different parts of a protein structure suggested critical importance of some of the lysine residues in the aggregation process. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of the net charge in control of protein-protein interactions leading to aggregate formation and possible specific roles of lysine residues 96 and 97. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical modification of human muscle aldose reductase by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morjana, N.A.; Lyons, C.; Flynn, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a monomeric oxidoreductase (Mr, 37,000). This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. The ability to reduce D-glucose and utilize NADH distinguishes ALR2 from aldehyde reductase (ALR1) which is exclusively NADPH-dependent. As part of a study to determine active site residues critical for binding and catalysis they have investigated the behavior of ALR2 with pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). In contrast to ALR1, which is inactivated by PLP, the reaction of ALR2 with PLP results in a 2-3 fold activation with the incorporation of 1 mol of PLP/mol enzyme. However, despite a 3-fold increase in k/sub cat/, there is also a 13-14 fold increase in the Km for both coenzyme and substrate and catalytic efficiency (k/sub cat//Km) is actually decreased. Reaction of ALR2 with 3 [H] PLP followed by digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C enabled the separation and purification by HPLC of a peptide containing a single pyridoxyllysine residue. The sequence of this 32 residue peptide is highly homologous with a peptide similarly obtained from pig and human ALR1 and is identical with one from pig ALR2. In all four enzymes, pig ALR1, ALR2; human ALR1, ALR2, a tetrapeptide containing the pyridoxylated lysine (I-P-K-S) shows absolute identity. Thus, despite differences in substrate and coenzyme specificity, the active site in both ALR1 and ALR2 is relatively conserved

  9. ReportSites - A Computational Method to Extract Positional and Physico- Chemical Information from Large-Scale Proteomic Post-Translational Modification Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair; Edwards, Gregory; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2012-01-01

    -translational modification data sets, wherein patterns of sequence surrounding processed sites may reveal more about the functional and structural requirements of the modification and the biochemical processes that regulate them. Results: We developed Report Sites using a test set of phosphoproteomic data from rat......-chemical environment (local pI and hydrophobicity). These were then also compared to corresponding values extracted from the full database to allow comparison of phosphorylation trends. Conclusions: Report Sites enabled physico-chemical aspects of protein phosphorylation to be deciphered in a test set of eleven...... thousand phospho sites. Basic properties of modified proteins, such as site location in the context of the complete protein, were also documented. This program can be easily adapted to any post-translational modification (or, indeed, to any defined amino acid sequence), or expanded to include more...

  10. Identification of sex-specific DNA methylation changes driven by specific chemicals in cord blood in a Faroese birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ouyang, Bin; Niu, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Faroe islanders consume marine foods contaminated with methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other toxicants associated with chronic disease risks. Differential DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in cord blood may serve as a surrogate biomarker of health impacts from...... chemical exposures. We aimed to identify key environmental chemicals in cord blood associated with DNA methylation changes in a population with elevated exposure to chemical mixtures. We studied 72 participants of a Faroese birth cohort recruited between 1986 and 1987 and followed until adulthood. The cord...... blood DNA methylome was profiled using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We determined the associations of CpG site changes with concentrations of MeHg, major PCBs, other organochlorine compounds [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p...

  11. Cellular uptake and cytotoxic potential of respirable bentonite particles with different quartz contents and chemical modifications in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geh, Stefan; Rettenmeier, Albert W.; Dopp, Elke [University Hospital, Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, Essen (Germany); Yuecel, Raif [University Hospital, Institute of Cell Biology (Cancer Research), Essen (Germany); Duffin, Rodger [Institute of Environmental Health Research (IUF), Duesseldorf (Germany); University of Edinburgh, ELEGI COLT Lab, Scotland (United Kingdom); Albrecht, Catrin; Borm, Paul J.A. [Institute of Environmental Health Research (IUF), Duesseldorf (Germany); Armbruster, Lorenz [Verein fuer Technische Sicherheit und Umweltschutz e.V., Gotha (Germany); Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Bruening, Thomas [Research Institute for Occupational Medicine of the Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Hoffmann, Eik [University of Rostock, Institute of Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Biosystems Technology, Rostock (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    Considering the biological reactivity of pure quartz in lung cells, there is a strong interest to clarify the cellular effects of respirable siliceous dusts, like bentonites. In the present study, we investigated the cellular uptake and the cytotoxic potential of bentonite particles (Oe< 10 {mu}m) with an {alpha}-quartz content of up to 6% and different chemical modifications (activation: alkaline, acidic, organic) in human lung fibroblasts (IMR90). Additionally, the ability of the particles to induce apoptosis in IMR90-cells and the hemolytic activity was tested. All bentonite samples were tested for endotoxins with the in vitro-Pyrogen test and were found to be negative. Cellular uptake of particles by IMR90-cells was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity was analyzed in IMR90-cells by determination of viable cells using flow cytometry and by measuring of the cell respiratory activity. Induced apoptotic cells were detected by AnnexinV/Propidiumiodide-staining and gel electrophoresis. Our results demonstrate that activated bentonite particles are better taken up by IMR90-cells than untreated (native) bentonite particles. Also, activated bentonite particles with a quartz content of 5-6% were more cytotoxic than untreated bentonites or bentonites with a quartz content lower than 4%. The bentonite samples induced necrotic as well as apoptotic cell death. In general, bentonites showed a high membrane-damaging potential shown as hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. We conclude that cellular effects of bentonite particles in human lung cells are enhanced after chemical treatment of the particles. The cytotoxic potential of the different bentonites is primarily characterized by a strong lysis of the cell membrane. (orig.)

  12. Cobalt surface modification during γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle synthesis by chemical-induced transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junming [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Jian, E-mail: aizhong@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen, Longlong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Gong, Xiaomin [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Decai [School of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-02-01

    In the chemical-induced transition of FeCl{sub 2} solution, the FeOOH/Mg(OH){sub 2} precursor was transformed into spinel structured γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites, coated with a FeCl{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O layer. CoCl{sub 2} surface modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by adding Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} during the synthesis. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by adding NaOH during the surface modification with Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer grew epitaxially on the γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallite to form a composite crystallite, which was coated by CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. The composite could not be distinguished using X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, since CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} possess similar spinel structures and lattice constants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to distinguish them. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the spinel structured γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based nanoparticles were related to the grain size. - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical induced transition. • CoCl{sub 2} modified nanoparticles were prepared by additional Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} during synthesization. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified nanoparticles were prepared by additional Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOH. • The magnetism of the nanoparticles is related to the grain size.

  13. Cobalt surface modification during γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle synthesis by chemical-induced transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junming; Li, Jian; Chen, Longlong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Gong, Xiaomin; Li, Decai

    2015-01-01

    In the chemical-induced transition of FeCl 2 solution, the FeOOH/Mg(OH) 2 precursor was transformed into spinel structured γ-Fe 2 O 3 crystallites, coated with a FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O layer. CoCl 2 surface modified γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared by adding Co(NO 3 ) 2 during the synthesis. CoFe 2 O 4 modified γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared by adding NaOH during the surface modification with Co(NO 3 ) 2 . The CoFe 2 O 4 layer grew epitaxially on the γ-Fe 2 O 3 crystallite to form a composite crystallite, which was coated by CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O. The composite could not be distinguished using X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, since CoFe 2 O 4 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 possess similar spinel structures and lattice constants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to distinguish them. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the spinel structured γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based nanoparticles were related to the grain size. - Highlights: • γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical induced transition. • CoCl 2 modified nanoparticles were prepared by additional Co(NO 3 ) 2 during synthesization. • CoFe 2 O 4 modified nanoparticles were prepared by additional Co(NO 3 ) 2 and NaOH. • The magnetism of the nanoparticles is related to the grain size

  14. Modifications of structural, chemical, and electrical characteristics of Er2O3/Si interface under Co-60 gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Senol; Yilmaz, Ercan

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the influences of gamma radiation on the structural, electrical, and chemical characteristics of erbium oxide (Er2O3) thin films and the possible mechanisms underlying these irradiation-induced effects. The crystallographic and morphological modifications under gamma irradiation were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively, while radiation influences on electrochemical characteristics were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, changes in electrical characteristics were analyzed on the basis of capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/ω-V) measurements. The XRD results demonstrated that small atomic displacement was observed and that the grain size of the nanostructure slightly increased. Improvements in surface roughness were observed in AFM measurements. The observed variations in the XRD and AFM measurements can be attributed to the radiation-induced local heating and microscopic atomic mobility. In addition, the XPS analysis obviously demonstrated that the oxygen vacancies increased with irradiation dose because of the breaking of Er2O3 and ErxOy bonds. Significant influences of the generated oxygen vacancies on the electrical measurements were observed, and the radiation-induced hole traps, which caused large flat band shifts, can be attributed to the generated oxygen vacancies. The results show that radiation does not degrade the physical characteristics significantly, but the generation of oxygen vacancies considerably increases the electrical sensitivity of the Er2O3 dielectric.

  15. Determination of copper binding in Pseudomonas putida CZ1 by chemical modifications and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, XinCai; Shi, JiYan; Chen, YingXu; Xu, XiangHua; Chen, LiTao; Wang, Hui; Hu, TianDou

    2007-03-01

    Previously performed studies have shown that Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biomass can bind an appreciable amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of Cu- and Zn-binding by P. putida CZ1 were ascertained by chemical modifications of the biomass followed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of the living or nonliving cells. A dramatic decrease in Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-binding resulted after acidic methanol esterification of the nonliving cells, indicating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metal to the biomaterial. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the speciation of Cu ions bound by living and nonliving cells, as well as to elucidate which functional groups were involved in binding of the Cu ions. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra analysis showed that the majority of the Cu was bound in both samples as Cu(II). The fitting results of Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra showed that N/O ligands dominated in living and nonliving cells. Therefore, by combining different techniques, our results indicate that carboxyl functional groups are the major ligands responsible for the metal binding in P. putida CZ1.

  16. Kinetic, spectroscopic and chemical modification study of iron release from transferrin; iron(III) complexation to adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Amino acids other than those that serve as ligands have been found to influence the chemical properties of transferrin iron. The catalytic ability of pyrophosphate to mediate transferrin iron release to a terminal acceptor is largely quenched by modification non-liganded histine groups on the protein. The first order rate constants of iron release for several partially histidine modified protein samples were measured. A statistical method was employed to establish that one non-liganded histidine per metal binding domain was responsible for the reduction in rate constant. These results imply that the iron mediated chelator, pyrophosphate, binds directly to a histidine residue on the protein during the iron release process. EPR spectroscopic results are consistent with this interpretation. Kinetic and amino acid sequence studies of ovotransferrin and lactoferrin, in addition to human serum transferrin, have allowed the tentative assignment of His-207 in the N-terminal domain and His-535 in the C-terminal domain as the groups responsible for the reduction in rate of iron release. The above concepts have been extended to lysine modified transferrin. Complexation of iron(II) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was also studied to gain insight into the nature of iron-ATP species present at physiological pH. 31 P NMR spectra are observed when ATP is presented in large excess

  17. Chemical bonding modifications of tetrahedral amorphous carbon and nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films induced by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.; Roy, S.S.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Bain, M.F.; Gamble, H.S.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films (ta-CN x ), deposited by double bend off plane Filtered Vacuum Cathodic Arc were annealed up to 1000 deg. C in flowing argon for 2 min. Modifications on the chemical bonding structure of the rapidly annealed films, as a function of temperature, were investigated by NEXAFS, X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The interpretation of these spectra is discussed. The results demonstrate that the structure of undoped ta-C films prepared at floating potential with an arc current of 80 A remains stable up to 900 deg. C, whereas that of ta-CN x containing 12 at.% nitrogen is stable up to 700 deg. C. At higher temperatures, all the spectra indicated the predominant formation of graphitic carbon. Through NEXAFS studies, we clearly observed three π* resonance peaks at the ' N K edge structure. The origin of these three peaks is not well established in the literature. However our temperature-dependant study ascertained that the first peak originates from C=N bonds and the third peak originates from the incorporation of nitrogen into the graphite like domains

  18. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited SnS using O{sub 2} plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Martínez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Calixto-Rodríguez, M. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Reyes, P.G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Flores, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, we report modifications of structural and optical, electrical properties that occur in tin sulphide (SnS) treated in O{sub 2} plasma. The SnS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were treated in an O{sub 2} plasma discharge at 3 Torr of pressure discharge, a discharge voltage of 2.5 kV and 20 mA of discharge current. The prepared and treated thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The photoconductivity and electrical effects of SnS have been studied. The SnS thin films had an orthorhombic crystalline structure. With the plasma treatment the optical gap and electrical properties of the SnS films changed from 1.61 to 1.84 eV, for 3.9 × 10{sup 5} to 10.42 Ω cm, respectively. These changes can be attributed to an increase in electron density, percolation effects due to porosity, surface degradation/etching that is an increase in surface roughness, where some structural changes related to crystallinity occurs like a high grain size as revealed by SEM images.

  19. Chemical modification of protein A chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol. I: Effects on IgG adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Zhang, Shaojie; Crews, Gillian; Carta, Giorgio; Przybycien, Todd

    2018-04-20

    Chemical modification of Protein A (ProA) chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) has been proposed as a strategy to increase the process selectivity and resin robustness by providing the ligand with a steric repulsion barrier against non-specific binding. This article comprises a comprehensive study of IgG adsorption and transport in Repligen CaptivA PriMAB resin with PEGylated ProA ligands that are modified using 5.2 and 21.5 kDa PEG chains. We studied the impact of the molecular weight of the PEG as well as the extent of PEGylation for the 5.2 kDa PEG modification. In all cases, PEGylation of ProA ligands decreases the resin average pore size, particle porosity, and static binding capacity for IgG proportional to the volume of conjugated PEG in the resin. Resin batch uptake experiments conducted in bulk via a stirred-tank system and with individual resin particles under confocal laser scanning microscopy suggests that PEGylation introduces heterogeneity into IgG binding kinetics: a fraction of the IgG binding sites are transformed from typical fast association kinetic behavior to slow kinetic behavior. pH gradient elution experiments of an IgG molecule on the modified resins show an increase in IgG elution pH for all modified resins, implying a decrease in IgG-ProA binding affinity on modification. Despite losses in static binding capacity for all resins with PEGylated ligands, the loss of dynamic binding capacity at 10% breakthrough (DBC 10% ) ranged more broadly from almost 0-47% depending on the PEG molecular weight and the extent of PEGylation. Minimal losses in DBC 10% were observed with a low extent of PEGylation with a smaller molecular weight PEG, while higher losses were observed at higher extents of PEGylation and with higher molecular weight PEG due to decreased static binding capacity and increased mass transfer resistance. This work provides insight into the practical implications for resin performance if PEGylation is

  20. Zinc injection implementation process at EDF: risk analysis, chemical specifications and operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, A.; Stutzmann, A.; Bremnes, O.; Claeys, M.; Ranchoux, G.; Segura, J.C.; Errera, J.; Bonne, S.

    2010-01-01

    's strategy and the different measures adopted by EDF to provide the necessary tools to the French units : zinc injection procedures, risk analysis, chemistry -radiochemistry surveillance programs, and chemical specifications. This work can be useful for other utilities, assisting them in optimizing and/or implementing the zinc injection in the most suitable conditions, which would help to obtain the expected results in the current and the future reactors. (author)

  1. Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: port of Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Selene; Colman, Joan; Tylenda, Carolyn; De Rosa, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide support for assessing the public health implications of hazardous chemical exposure, primarily through drinking water, related to releases of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in the port of Djibouti. CCA from a shipment, apparently intended for treating electric poles, is leaking into the soil in the port area. CCA is a pesticide used to protect wood against decay-causing organisms. This mixture commonly contains chromium(VI) (hexavalent chromium) as chromic acid, arsenic(V) (pentavalent arsenic) as arsenic pentoxide and copper (II) (divalent copper) as cupric oxide, often in an aqueous solution or concentrate. Experimental studies of the fate of CCA in soil and monitoring studies of wood-preserving sites where CCA was spilled on the soil indicate that the chromium(VI), arsenic and copper components of CCA can leach from soil into groundwater and surface water. In addition, at CCA wood-preserving sites, substantial concentrations of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper remained in the soil and were leachable into water four years after the use of CCA was discontinued, suggesting prolonged persistence in soil, with continued potential for leaching. The degree of leaching depended on soil composition and the extent of soil contamination with CCA. In general, leaching was highest for chromium(VI), intermediate for arsenic and lowest for copper. Thus, the potential for contamination of sources of drinking water exists. Although arsenic that is leached from CCA-contaminated soil into surface water may accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish, most of the arsenic in these animals will be in a form (often called fish arsenic) that is less harmful. Copper, which leaches less readily than the other components, can accumulate in tissues of mussels and oysters. Chromium is not likely to accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish. Limited studies of air

  2. Site-specific modification of genome with cell-permeable Cre fusion protein in preimplantation mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Kim, Hwain; Lee, Daekee

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific recombination (SSR) by Cre recombinase and its target sequence, loxP, is a valuable tool in genetic analysis of gene function. Recently, several studies reported successful application of Cre fusion protein containing protein transduction peptide for inducing gene modification in various mammalian cells including ES cell as well as in the whole animal. In this study, we show that a short incubation of preimplantation mouse embryos with purified cell-permeable Cre fusion protein results in efficient SSR. X-Gal staining of preimplantation embryos, heterozygous for Gtrosa26 tm1Sor , revealed that treatment of 1-cell or 2-cell embryos with 3 μM of Cre fusion protein for 2 h leads to Cre-mediated excision in 70-85% of embryos. We have examined the effect of the concentration of the Cre fusion protein and the duration of the treatment on embryonic development, established a condition for full term development and survival to adulthood, and demonstrated the germ line transmission of excised Gtrosa26 allele. Potential applications and advantages of the highly efficient technique described here are discussed.

  3. Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene-styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene – styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate. This paper presents the results of the study of physical – mechanical and service properties of the asphaltic concrete modified with the mineral polymeric composition. Calcium carbonate is used both as a filler and a coagulant. The chalk was preliminarily ground and hydrophobizated by stearic acid. These operations contribute to even distribution of the filler and interfere with lump coagulation. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the best results were obtained by combining the operations of dispersion and hydrophobization. The optimal amount of stearic acid providing the finest grinding in a ball mill is a content from 3 to 5% by weight. The optimal grinding time of the filler was found (4–6 hours. With increasing dispersion time the particles form agglomerates. Filling the butadiene styrene latex with the hydrophobic fine-grained calcium carbonate was carried out in the laboratory mixer. As a result of the experimental works, it was found that the best distribution of the filler takes place with ratio of rubber: chalk – 100:400. The resulting modifier was subjected to the thermal analysis on the derivatograph to determine its application temperature interval. A marked reduction in weight of the mineral polymeric modifier begins at 350 °C. Thus, high temperature of the modifier destruction allows to use it at the temperature of the technological process of asphaltic concrete preparation (up to 170 °C. It was found that an increase in the amount of the carbonate filler in the rubber SKS 30АRК significantly increases its thermal resistance and connection of the polymer with the chalk in the composition.

  4. Nanoparticle-triggered in situ catalytic chemical reactions for tumour-specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2018-03-21

    Tumour chemotherapy employs highly cytotoxic chemodrugs, which kill both cancer and normal cells by cellular apoptosis or necrosis non-selectively. Catalysing/triggering the specific chemical reactions only inside tumour tissues can generate abundant and special chemicals and products locally to initiate a series of unique biological and pathologic effects, which may enable tumour-specific theranostic effects to combat cancer without bringing about significant side effects on normal tissues. Nevertheless, chemical reaction-initiated selective tumour therapy strongly depends on the advances in chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and biomedicine. This emerging cross-disciplinary research area is substantially different from conventional cancer-theranostic modalities in clinics. In response to the fast developments in cancer theranostics based on intratumoural catalytic chemical reactions, this tutorial review summarizes the very-recent research progress in the design and synthesis of representative nanoplatforms with intriguing nanostructures, compositions, physiochemical properties and biological behaviours for versatile catalytic chemical reaction-enabled cancer treatments, mainly by either endogenous tumour microenvironment (TME) triggering or exogenous physical irradiation. These unique intratumoural chemical reactions can be used in tumour-starving therapy, chemodynamic therapy, gas therapy, alleviation of tumour hypoxia, TME-responsive diagnostic imaging and stimuli-responsive drug release, and even externally triggered versatile therapeutics. In particular, the challenges and future developments of such a novel type of cancer-theranostic modality are discussed in detail to understand the future developments and prospects in this research area as far as possible. It is highly expected that this kind of unique tumour-specific therapeutics by triggering specific in situ catalytic chemical reactions inside tumours would provide a novel but efficient

  5. Role of low density lipoprotein in the activation of plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase activity. Effect of chemical and enzymatic modifications of the lipoprotein on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, P V; Chen, C H; Bagdade, J D; Albers, J J

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various chemical and enzymatic modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL) on its ability to activate the isolated human plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase (LAT) was studied. Removal of all lipids from LDL resulted in the complete loss of LAT activation. Removal of only neutral lipids by extraction with heptane retained up to 50% of the original activity, which was not increased further by reconstitution of the LDL with the extracted lipids. Hydrolysis of the diacylphosphoglycerides of the LDL with phospholipases resulted in complete loss of LAT activation which was partially restored by the addition of egg lecithin. Hydrolysis of more than 4% of LDL protein by trypsin led to a linear decrease in activity with complete loss of activity occurring when about 25% of the LDL protein is hydrolyzed. Modification of the arginine groups of LDL reversibly inhibited the activation of LAT. Modification of lysine residues of LDL by acetylation, acetoacetylation or succinylation also abolished its ability to activate lysolecithin acylation.

  6. [Relativity of commercial specification of Menthae Herba based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Zhao, Ming; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen; Peng, Hua-sheng; Han Bang-xing; Zhang, Wei-wan-qi; Gu, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the differences of 35 Menthae Herba samples collected on the market and at producing areas, the contents of six total terpenoids, the essential oil and chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed, which provided evidences for drawing up the commodity specifications and grading criteria of Menthae Herba. GC-MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of 35 different samples. The chromatographic fingerprints obtained by using GC were then evaluated by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The relativity between the content of six terpenoids and the essential oil were studied. In this study, the chemical profiles of 35 samples from different producing areas had significant disparity. All samples collected in the report could be categorized into four chemical types, L-menthol, pulegone, carvone and L-menthone, but the chemical profiles had no relationship with the areas. The chromatographic fingerprints of the samples from different types were dissimilar, while the different producing areas were difficult to be separated. It was indicated that the content of volatile oil was positively correlated with the content of L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids. The content of the essential oil, L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids of Menthae Herba were considered as one of the commercial specifications and grading criteria. These results in the research could be helpful to draw up the commercial specification and grading criteria of Menthae Herba from a view of chemical information.

  7. Evolution of chemical specifications following the working group of international inter-comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc-Brunet, Murielle; Gressier, F.; Mole, D.; Massias, O.; Marescot, O.; Bretelle, Jean Luc

    2012-09-01

    As part of a continuous improvement process and the inclusion of Experience Feedback, EDF has launched a working group to analyse its reference of Chemical Specifications with regard to the guidelines of EPRI and VGB.. As a result of the analysis of over 1000 lines of specifications, a large number of recommendations were issued, referring either to control of new chemical parameters or to an enhancement of measurement frequencies. These recommendations are to be developed by preliminary studies which will provide supporting evidence for future decisions. To implement these recommendations, EDF launched a dedicated project in 2011, whose main objectives were to: - raise the requirements of chemical specifications in line with international standards and compare the technical basis of the different international standards, - strengthen monitoring and anticipation of corrective actions in the field of plant chemistry with a view to extending nuclear plant lifetime to 60 years. This project, scheduled for 2011 to 2016, covers the following activities: - studies on the technical background of the specifications (2011-14), - study of the possibility of adopting an 'Actions Levels' approach in EDF's own specifications (2012-14), - new propositions evolution of the specifications (2015-16). (authors)

  8. 40 CFR 268.36 - Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes 268.36 Section 268.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... generator may use knowledge of the waste. If the waste contains regulated constituents in excess of the...

  9. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gas-discharge plasma processes for surface modification and conversion of chemical substances. Application for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, K.; Meyer, D.; Rohland, B.; Heintze, M.; Zahn, R.J.; Hannemann, M.; Meusinger, J.; Ohl, A. [Institute of Non-Thermal Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Technik mbH Greifswald (Germany)]|[GAPC, Adam Opel AG, IPC, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The potential of plasma processes towards hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be demonstrated by two examples with preliminary results: 1. plasma modification of polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells, and 2. plasma supported steam reforming.

  11. Modification of alumina matrices through chemical etching and electroless deposition of nano-Au array for amperometric sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valinčius Gintaras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSimple nanoporous alumina matrix modification procedure, in which the electrically highly insulating alumina barrier layer at the bottom of the pores is replaced with the conductive layer of the gold beds, was described. This modification makes possible the direct electron exchange between the underlying aluminum support and the redox species encapsulated in the alumina pores, thus, providing the generic platform for the nanoporous alumina sensors (biosensors with the direct amperometric signal readout fabrication.

  12. Rational modification of Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate reductase to switch the nucleotide-cofactor specificity for increasing l-lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Han-Kun; Liu, Li-Ming; Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-25

    l-lysine is an important amino acid in animals and humans and NADPH is a vital cofactor for maximizing the efficiency of l-lysine fermentation. Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR), an NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme, shows a variance in nucleotide-cofactor affinity in bacteria. In this study, we rationally engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum DHDPR (CgDHDPR) to switch its nucleotide-cofactor specificity resulting in an increase in final titer (from 82.6 to 117.3 g L -1 ), carbon yield (from 0.35 to 0.44 g [g glucose] -1 ) and productivity (from 2.07 to 2.93 g L -1  hr -1 ) of l-lysine in JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C in fed-batch fermentation. To do this, we comparatively analyzed the characteristics of CgDHDPR and Escherichia coli DHDPR (EcDHDPR), indicating that hetero-expression of NADH-dependent EcDHDPR increased l-lysine production. Subsequently, we rationally modified the conserved structure of cofactor-binding motif, and results indicated that introducing the mutation K11A or R13A in CgDHDPR and introducing the mutation R16A or R39A in EcDHDPR modifies the nucleotide-cofactor affinity of DHDPR. Lastly, the effects of these mutated DHDPRs on l-lysine production were investigated. The highest increase (26.2%) in l-lysine production was observed for JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C , followed by JL-6 Cg-dapB C37G,G38C (21.4%) and JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C46G,G47C (15.2%). This is the first report of a rational modification of DHDPR that enhances the l-lysine production and yield through the modulation of nucleotide-cofactor specificity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Herbivore specificity and the chemical basis of plant-plant communication in Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Nell, Colleen S; Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-09-06

    It is well known that plant damage by leaf-chewing herbivores can induce resistance in neighbouring plants. It is unknown whether such communication occurs in response to sap-feeding herbivores, whether communication is specific to herbivore identity, and the chemical basis of communication, including specificity. We carried out glasshouse experiments using the California-native shrub Baccharis salicifolia and two ecologically distinct aphid species (one a dietary generalist and the other a specialist) to test for specificity of plant-plant communication and to document the underlying volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We show specificity of plant-plant communication to herbivore identity, as each aphid-damaged plant only induced resistance in neighbours against the same aphid species. The amount and composition of induced VOCs were markedly different between plants attacked by the two aphid species, providing a putative chemical mechanism for this specificity. Furthermore, a synthetic blend of the five major aphid-induced VOCs (ethanone, limonene, methyl salicylate, myrcene, ocimene) triggered resistance in receiving plants of comparable magnitude to aphid damage of neighbours, and the effects of the blend exceeded those of individual compounds. This study significantly advances our understanding of plant-plant communication by demonstrating the importance of sap-feeding herbivores and herbivore identity, as well as the chemical basis for such effects. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Localized Chemical Remodeling for Live Cell Imaging of Protein-Specific Glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jingjing; Bao, Lei; Li, Siqiao; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Yimei; Ding, Lin; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-07-03

    Live cell imaging of protein-specific glycoforms is important for the elucidation of glycosylation mechanisms and identification of disease states. The currently used metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) technology permits routinely global chemical remodeling (GCM) for carbohydrate site of interest, but can exert unnecessary whole-cell scale perturbation and generate unpredictable metabolic efficiency issue. A localized chemical remodeling (LCM) strategy for efficient and reliable access to protein-specific glycoform information is reported. The proof-of-concept protocol developed for MUC1-specific terminal galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) combines affinity binding, off-on switchable catalytic activity, and proximity catalysis to create a reactive handle for bioorthogonal labeling and imaging. Noteworthy assay features associated with LCM as compared with MOE include minimum target cell perturbation, short reaction timeframe, effectiveness as a molecular ruler, and quantitative analysis capability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Site-specific chemical conjugation of human Fas ligand extracellular domain using trans-cyclooctene - methyltetrazine reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Michiro; Hirota, Kiyonori

    2017-07-03

    Fas ligand plays a key role in the human immune system as a major cell death inducing protein. The extracellular domain of human Fas ligand (hFasLECD) triggers apoptosis of malignant cells, and therefore is expected to have substantial potentials in medical biotechnology. However, the current application of this protein to clinical medicine is hampered by a shortage of the benefits relative to the drawbacks including the side-effects in systemic administration. Effective procedures for the engineering of the protein by attaching useful additional functions are required to overcome the problem. A procedure for the site-specific chemical conjugation of hFasLECD with a fluorochrome and functional proteins was devised using an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction between trans-cyclooctene group and methyltetrazine group. The conjugations in the present study were attained by using much less molar excess amounts of the compounds to be attached as compared with the conventional chemical modification reactions using maleimide derivatives in the previous study. The isolated conjugates of hFasLECD with sulfo-Cy3, avidin and rabbit IgG Fab' domain presented the functional and the structural integrities of the attached molecules without impairing the specific binding activity toward human Fas receptor extracellular domain. The present study provided a new fundamental strategy for the production of the engineered hFasLECDs with additional beneficial functions, which will lead to the developments of the improved diagnostic systems and the effective treatment methods of serious diseases by using this protein as a component of novel molecular tools.

  16. Novel approach for classifying chemicals according to skin sensitizing potency by non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Iida, Kenji; Shiraishi, Keiji; Hoshuyama, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is currently recognized as a stand-alone sensitization test for determining the sensitizing potential of chemicals, and it has the advantage of yielding a quantitative endpoint that can be used to predict the sensitization potency of chemicals. The EC3 has been proposed as a parameter for classifying chemicals according to the sensitization potency. We previously developed a non-radioisotopic endpoint for the LLNA based on 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (non-RI LLNA), and we are proposing a new procedure to predict the sensitization potency of chemicals based on comparisons with known human contact allergens. Nine chemicals (i.e. diphencyclopropenone, p-phenylenediamine, glutaraldehyde, cinnamicaldehyde, citral, eugenol, isopropyl myristate, propyleneglycol and hexane) categorized as human contact allergen classes 1-5 were tested by the non-RI LLNA with the following reference allergens: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as a class 1 human contact allergen, isoeugenol as a class 2 human contact allergen and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA) as a class 3 human contact allergen. Consequently, nine test chemicals were almost assigned to their correct allergen class. The results suggested that the new procedure for non-RI LLNA can provide correct sensitization potency data. Sensitization potency data are useful for evaluating the sensitization risk to humans of exposure to new chemical products. Accordingly, this approach would be an effective modification of LLNA with regard to its experimental design. Moreover, this procedure can be applied also to the standard LLNA with radioisotopes and to other modifications of the LLNA. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p<0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ) and significant differences between all groups for total areca- specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  18. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p < 0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Chemical Modification of a Dehydratase Enzyme Involved in Bacterial Virulence by an Ammonium Derivative: Evidence of its Active Site Covalent Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bello, Concepción; Tizón, Lorena; Lence, Emilio; Otero, José M; van Raaij, Mark J; Martinez-Guitian, Marta; Beceiro, Alejandro; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R

    2015-07-29

    The first example of an ammonium derivative that causes a specific modification of the active site of type I dehydroquinase (DHQ1), a dehydratase enzyme that is a promising target for antivirulence drug discovery, is described. The resolution at 1.35 Å of the crystal structure of DHQ1 from Salmonella typhi chemically modified by this ammonium derivative revealed that the ligand is covalently attached to the essential Lys170 through the formation of an amine. The detection by mass spectroscopy of the reaction intermediates, in conjunction with the results of molecular dynamics simulations, allowed us to explain the inhibition mechanism and the experimentally observed differences between S. typhi and Staphylococcus aureus enzymes. The results presented here reveal that the replacement of Phe225 in St-DHQ1 by Tyr214 in Sa-DHQ1 and its hydrogen bonding interaction with the conserved water molecule observed in several crystal structures protects the amino adduct against further dehydration/aromatization reactions. In contrast, for the St-DHQ1 enzyme, the carboxylate group of Asp114, with the assistance of this water molecule, would trigger the formation of a Schiff base that can undergo further dehydration reactions until full aromatization of the cyclohexane ring is achieved. Moreover, in vitro antivirulence studies showed that the reported compound is able to reduce the ability of Salmonella Enteritidis to kill A459 respiratory cells. These studies have identified a good scaffold for the design of irreversible inhibitors that can be used as drugs and has opened up new opportunities for the development of novel antivirulence agents by targeting the DHQ1 enzyme.

  1. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  2. Chemical modification of chitosan in the absence of solvent for diclofenac sodium removal: pH and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Kerlaine Alexandre Araujo; Osorio, Luizangela Reis; Silva, Marcos Pereira; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI/CCN), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Lab. Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avancados; Sousa, Kaline Soares [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB/CCEN), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Dept. de Quimica

    2014-08-15

    Chitosan was modified with acetylacetone and ethylenediamine in the absence of solvent. The new biopolymer obtained from the modification was characterized by elemental analysis and NMR 13C and applied in the removal of diclofenac sodium aqueous solution varying the pH and time. Through elemental analysis was possible to verify a decreasing in C/N relation after reaction with acetylacetone and an increasing after modification with ethylenediamine. From NMR analysis was verified the appearance of peaks around 160-210 ppm in both materials due to free carbonyl groups in the first step of the modification, besides the formation of imine bonds. The adsorption tests showed that the highest value occurred at pH 4 and from the results of the kinetic study was found that maximum adsorption occurred within 45 minutes and experimental data adjusted better to linear adjustment, following pseudo second-order model. The results show a material efficient in the removal of emerging pollutants. (author)

  3. Chemical mixtures: Evaluation of risk for child-specific exposures in a multi-stressor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, H.R.; Abadin, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the health impact from exposure to chemical mixtures is multifaceted. One component is exposure. Exposure, and consequently risk assessment for mixtures and chemicals in general, are often viewed in terms of a given exposure to a given population at a given location over a given time period. However, environmental exposures are present throughout human lifetime. As a result, an evaluation of risk must include the distinctive characteristics related to chemical exposures which will impact risk depending upon the particular life stage where exposure occurs. Risks to offspring may be associated with unique exposures in utero, during infancy, childhood, or adolescent periods. For example, exposure of infants to anthropogenic chemicals via breast milk may be of concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) approach to evaluating risks associated with exposure to mixtures of chemicals is presented. In addition to the breast milk issues, indoor exposure to combined air pollutants, drinking water contaminants, and soil and dust contaminants are discussed. The difference between a mixture's risk evaluation for children and adults is in the distinct exposure scenarios resulting from variations in behavior, physiology, and/or pharmacokinetics between adults and children rather than in the method for the specific mixtures evaluation per se

  4. All-organic microelectromechanical systems integrating specific molecular recognition--a new generation of chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayela, Cédric; Dubourg, Georges; Pellet, Claude; Haupt, Karsten

    2014-09-03

    Cantilever-type all-organic microelectromechanical systems based on molecularly imprinted polymers for specific analyte recognition are used as chemical sensors. They are produced by a simple spray-coating-shadow-masking process. Analyte binding to the cantilever generates a measurable change in its resonance frequency. This allows label-free detection by direct mass sensing of low-molecular-weight analytes at nanomolar concentrations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Towards protective MOFs: post-synthetic modification of MIL-101 with oxime groups and their interactions with toxic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, M. van; Gorzkowska-Sobasb, A.A.; Koning, M.C. de

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to broaden the scope of protective MOFs towards toxic compounds, we decided to introduce a reactive (nucleophilic) functionality in MIL101 by post-synthesis modification 1,2. This functionality would complement already existing adsorptive properties with an ability to capture or

  6. Cause-specific stillbirth and exposure to chemical constituents and sources of fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Malig, Brian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos; Basu, Rupa

    2018-01-01

    The stillbirth rate in the United States is relatively high, but limited evidence is available linking stillbirth with fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), its chemical constituents and sources. In this study, we explored associations between cause-specific stillbirth and prenatal exposures to those pollutants with using live birth and stillbirth records from eight California locations during 2002-2009. ICD-10 codes were used to identify cause of stillbirth from stillbirth records. PM 2.5 total mass and chemical constituents were collected from ambient monitors and PM 2.5 sources were quantified using Positive Matrix Factorization. Conditional logistic regression was applied using a nested case-control study design (N = 32,262). We found that different causes of stillbirth were associated with different PM 2.5 sources and/or chemical constituents. For stillbirths due to fetal growth, the odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range increase in gestational age-adjusted exposure to PM 2.5 total mass was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.44). Similar associations were found with resuspended soil (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.42), and secondary ammonium sulfate (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.78). No associations were found between any pollutants and stillbirths caused by maternal complications. This study highlighted the importance of investigating cause-specific stillbirth and the differential toxicity levels of specific PM 2.5 sources and chemical constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation (Part A) for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation compares the submittals made by the licensee with the NRC staff positions and the review criteria and presents the reviewer's conclusion on the acceptability of the proposed system

  8. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Miao, Jin-Ru

    2018-02-01

    To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  9. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Dar Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  10. Guidelines for application of chemical-specific adjustment factors in dose/concentration-response assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, M.E.; Renwick, A.; Ohanian, E.; Dourson, M.; Lake, B.; Naumann, B.D.; Vu, V.

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript addresses guidance in the use of kinetic and dynamic data to inform quantitatively extrapolations for interspecies differences and human variability in dose-response assessment developed in a project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) initiative on Harmonisation of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. The guidance has been developed and refined through a series of planning and technical meetings and larger workshops of a broad range of participants from academia, government agencies and the private sector. The guidance for adequacy of data for replacement of common defaults for interspecies differences and human variability is presented in the context of several generic categories including: determination of the active chemical species, choice of the appropriate metric (kinetic components) or endpoint (dynamic components) and nature of experimental data, the latter which includes reference to the relevance of population, route and dose and the adequacy of the number of subjects/samples. The principal objective of this guidance developed primarily as a resource for risk assessors, is to foster better understanding of the components of and criteria for adequacy of chemical-specific data to quantitate interspecies differences and human variability in kinetics and dynamics. It is anticipated that this guidance will also encourage the development of appropriate data and facilitate their incorporation in a consistent fashion in dose-response assessment for regulatory purposes (IPCS, 2001)

  11. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  12. Supramolecular engineering through temperature-induced chemical modification of 2H-tetraphenylporphyrin on Ag(111): flat phenyl conformation and possible dehydrogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Giovanni; Blankenburg, Stephan; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Fanetti, Mattia; Borghetti, Patrizia; Sangaletti, Luigi; Floreano, Luca; Verdini, Alberto; Magnano, Elena; Bondino, Federica; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Gaspari, Roberto; Passerone, Daniele; Goldoni, Andrea

    2011-12-16

    Scratching the surface: Formation of a monolayer of 2H-tetraphenylporphyrins (2H-TPP) on Ag(111), either by sublimation of a multilayer in the range 525-600 K or by annealing (at the same temperature) a monolayer deposited at room temperature, induces a chemical modification of the molecules. Rotation of the phenyl rings into a flat conformation is observed and tentatively explained, by using DFT calculations, as a peculiar reaction due to molecular dehydrogenation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Probing the reactivity of nucleophile residues in human 2,3-diphosphoglycerate/deoxy-hemoglobin complex by aspecific chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaloni, A; Ferranti, P; De Simone, G; Mamone, G; Sannolo, N; Malorni, A

    1999-06-11

    The use of aspecific methylation reaction in combination with MS procedures has been employed for the characterization of the nucleophilic residues present on the molecular surface of the human 2,3-diphosphoglycerate/deoxy-hemoglobin complex. In particular, direct molecular weight determinations by ESMS allowed to control the reaction conditions, limiting the number of methyl groups introduced in the modified globin chains. A combined LCESMS-Edman degradation approach for the analysis of the tryptic peptide mixtures yielded to the exact identification of methylation sites together with the quantitative estimation of their degree of modification. The reactivities observed were directly correlated with the pKa and the relative surface accessibility of the nucleophilic residues, calculated from the X-ray crystallographic structure of the protein. The results here described indicate that this methodology can be efficiently used in aspecific modification experiments directed to the molecular characterization of the surface topology in proteins and protein complexes.

  14. The Chemically-Specific Structure of an Amorphous Molybdenum Germanium Alloy by Anomalous X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H. A.

    2002-06-11

    Since its inception in the late 1970s, anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) has been employed for chemically-specific structure determination in a wide variety of noncrystalline materials. These studies have successfully produced differential distribution functions (DDFs) which provide information about the compositionally-averaged environment of a specific atomic species in the sample. Despite the wide success in obtaining DDFs, there are very few examples of successful extraction of the fully-chemically-specific partial pair distribution functions (PPDFs), the most detailed description of an amorphous sample possible by x-ray scattering. Extracting the PPDFs is notoriously difficult since the matrix equation involved is ill-conditioned and thus extremely sensitive to errors present in the experimental quantities that enter the equation. Instead of addressing this sensitivity by modifying the data through mathematical methods, sources of error have been removed experimentally: A focusing analyzer crystal was combined with a position-sensitive linear detector to experimentally eliminate unwanted inelastic scattering intensity over most of the reciprocal space range probed. This instrumentation has been used in data collection for the extraction of PPDFs from amorphous (a)-MoGe{sub 3}. This composition arises as a phase separation endpoint in the Ge-rich region of the vapor-deposited Mo-Ge amorphous alloy system but is not present at equilibrium. Since the first Ge-rich compound in the Mo-Ge equilibrium system is MoGe{sub 2}, previous workers have speculated that perhaps a unique MoGe{sub 3} compound exists in the amorphous system. Rather than indicating a distinct MoGe{sub 3} compound with definitive local structure, however, the coordination results are more consistent with a densely-packed alloy having a wide range of solid solubility. Significant improvement in the quality and reliability of experimental PPDFs from a-MoGe{sub 3} by AXS has been achieved solely

  15. Specific character of bacterial biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates with different chemical structure in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudnikova, S V; Vinogradova, O N; Trusova, M Y

    2017-03-01

    The study addresses the influence of the physicochemical properties of the reserve cellular macromolecules (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) with different chemical composition on their biodegradation in the agro-transformed field soil of the Siberian region (Krasnoyarsk Territory, Russia). It was shown that the degradation of the PHA samples depends on the degree of polymer crystallinity (C x ). For the first time, it was shown that the range of PHA-degrading microorganisms differs for each of PHA types. The study defines the primary degraders specific to each PHA type and common to all types of examined polymers.

  16. Histone modification profiles are predictive for tissue/cell-type specific expression of both protein-coding and microRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Michael Q

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated at both the DNA sequence level and through modification of chromatin. However, the effect of chromatin on tissue/cell-type specific gene regulation (TCSR is largely unknown. In this paper, we present a method to elucidate the relationship between histone modification/variation (HMV and TCSR. Results A classifier for differentiating CD4+ T cell-specific genes from housekeeping genes using HMV data was built. We found HMV in both promoter and gene body regions to be predictive of genes which are targets of TCSR. For example, the histone modification types H3K4me3 and H3K27ac were identified as the most predictive for CpG-related promoters, whereas H3K4me3 and H3K79me3 were the most predictive for nonCpG-related promoters. However, genes targeted by TCSR can be predicted using other type of HMVs as well. Such redundancy implies that multiple type of underlying regulatory elements, such as enhancers or intragenic alternative promoters, which can regulate gene expression in a tissue/cell-type specific fashion, may be marked by the HMVs. Finally, we show that the predictive power of HMV for TCSR is not limited to protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells, as we successfully predicted TCSR targeted genes in muscle cells, as well as microRNA genes with expression specific to CD4+ T cells, by the same classifier which was trained on HMV data of protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells. Conclusion We have begun to understand the HMV patterns that guide gene expression in both tissue/cell-type specific and ubiquitous manner.

  17. Chemical-modification studies of a unique sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail Achatina fulica. Involvement of tryptophan and histidine residues in biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Mandal, C; Allen, A K

    1988-01-01

    A unique sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH (ATNH) was purified in single step from the haemolymph of the snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography on sheep submaxillary-gland mucin coupled to Sepharose 4B. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Amino acid analysis showed that the lectin has a fairly high content of acidic amino acid residues (22% of the total). About 1.3% of the residues are half-cystine. The glycoprotein contains 21% carbohydrate. The unusually high content of xylose (6%) and fucose (2.7%) in this snail lectin is quite interesting. The protein was subjected to various chemical modifications in order to detect the amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues present in its binding sites. Modification of tyrosine and arginine residues did not affect the binding activity of ATNH; however, modification of tryptophan and histidine residues led to a complete loss of its biological activity. A marked decrease in the fluorescence emission was found as the tryptophan residues of ATNH were modified. The c.d. data showed the presence of an identical type of conformation in the native and modified agglutinin. The modification of lysine and carboxy residues partially diminished the biological activity. The activity was completely lost after a beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to the glycoprotein's protein moiety. This result confirms that the carbohydrate moiety also plays an important role in the agglutination property of this lectin. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3140796

  18. Synthesis and investigation of novel shelf-stable, brain-specific chemical delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M.; Farag, Hassan A.; Khalil, Ashraf A.; Hamide, Sami G. Abdel; Ahmed, Hassan S.; Al-Affifi, Ahmed M.; Gadkariem Elrasheed, A.; El-Subbagh, Hussein I.; Al-Shabanah, Othman A.; El-Kashef, Hassan A.

    2006-01-01

    A 1, 4-dihydropyridine pyridinium salt type redox system is described as a general and flexible method for site-specific and sustained delivery of drugs into the brain. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were used as a model example to be delivered into the brain. Chemical and biological oxidations of these compounds were investigated. The prepared 1, 4-dihydropyridines were subjected to various chemical and biological oxidations to evaluate their ability to cross blood brain barrier (BBB), and to be oxidized biologically into their corresponding quaternary compounds. 1-(Ethioxy-carbonylmethyl)-3, 5-bis[N-(2-fluoro-benzylideneamino)carbamoyl]-1, 4-dyhydropyridine (31) proved to cross BBB in adequate rate and converted by the oxidizing enzymes into the corresponding quaternary salt N-(ethoxycarbolynmethyl)-3, 5-bis[N-(2-fluorobenylideneamino)carbamoyl]pyridimium bromide(20). Stability studies of the synthesized chemical delivery systems (CDSs) at various pH values and temperatures showed the shelf life time of a solution containing compound 31 is 20.53 days at 5C, which recommended a lower storage temperature for such solutions. The prepared CDSs proved to be fairly stable for powder form storage. The stability of the prepared compounds is attributed to the conjugation of the two carboxylic functions at C3 and C5 of the pyridine ring with their adjacent double bonds. These results are in consistency with the original rationale design. (author)

  19. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Estudo da modificação química de polidienos do tipo SBR e BR Study of chemical modification of SBR and BR polydiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. A. C. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de modificações químicas de polidienos comerciais tem sido estudada como um meio alternativo à síntese de novos polímeros, para otimização das propriedades finais destes materiais através da introdução de diferentes grupamentos reativos na cadeia polimérica. A modificação química pode ser feita através de diferentes métodos, os quais podem ser realizados tanto em solução como em massa, onde podem ser destacadas as reações de epoxidação, sulfonação, maleinização, carboxilação, etc. Neste trabalho foi estudado o método de epoxidação de borrachas do tipo SBR e BR. Foi possível observar que mesmo pequenos graus de modificação química causam mudanças marcantes nas propriedades finais dos polímeros, como determinado para a temperatura de transição vítrea.Chemical modification of polydiene has been studied as an alternative route to obtain modified polymers with improved final properties. This improvement is due to the introduction of different kinds of reactive groups into a polymer chain, and it can be done in solution as well as in bulk. The chemical modification can be carried out by different methods such as epoxidation, maleination, carboxylation, sulfonation etc. In this work we show that in the epoxidation of SBR and BR even a small degree of modification can change the final properties of the polymer, as it occurred for the glass transition temperature.

  1. Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal.

  2. Effect of Cooling Rate and Chemical Modification on the Tensile Properties of Mg-5wt% Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Farshid; Meratian, Mahmood; Zahrani, Mohsen Mohammadi; Zahrani, Ehsan Mohammadi

    Hypereutectic Mg-Si alloys are a new class of light materials usable for aerospace and other advanced engineering applications. In this study, the effects of both cooling rate and bismuth modification on the micro structure and tensile properties of hypereutectic Mg-5wt% Si alloy were investigated. It was found that the addition of 0.5% Bi, altered the morphology of primary Mg2Si particles from bulky to polygonal shape and reduced their mean size from more than 70 μm to about 30 (am. Also, the tensile strength and elongation of the modified alloy increased about 10% and 20%, respectively, which should be ascribed to the modification of Mg2Si morphology and more uniform distribution of the primary particles. Moreover, an increase in tensile strength value with increase in cooling rate were observed which is attributed to finer micro structure of alloy in higher cooling rates. It was observed that Bi addition is significantly more effective in refining the morphology of primary Mg2Si particles than applying faster cooling rates.

  3. IN VIVO SCREENING OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF siRNAs FOR EFFECT ON THE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN FISH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, J. B.

    Abstract Due to their sequence specific gene silencing activity siRNAs are regarded as promising new active compounds in gene medicine and functional studies. But one serious problem with delivering siRNAs as treatment is the now well-established non-specific activities of some RNAs duplexes. Cel...... of siRNAs into RISC for specific gene silencing....

  4. Metabolomic and proteomic biomarkers for III-V semiconductors: Chemical-specific porphyrinurias and proteinurias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Bruce A.; Conner, Elizabeth A.; Yamauchi, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    A pressing need exists to develop and validate molecular biomarkers to assess the early effects of chemical agents, both individually and in mixtures. This is particularly true for new and chemically intensive industries such as the semiconductor industry. Previous studies from this laboratory and others have demonstrated element-specific alterations of the heme biosynthetic pathway for the III-V semiconductors gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium arsenide (InAs) with attendant increased urinary excretion of specific heme precursors. These data represent an example of a metabolomic biomarker to assess chemical effects early, before clinical disease develops. Previous studies have demonstrated that the intratracheal or subcutaneous administration of GaAs and InAs particles to hamsters produces the induction of the major stress protein gene families in renal proximal tubule cells. This was monitored by 35-S methionine labeling of gene products followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis after exposure to InAs particles. The present studies examined whether these effects were associated with the development of compound-specific proteinuria after 10 or 30 days following subcutaneous injection of GaAs or InAs particles in hamsters. The results of these studies demonstrated the development of GaAs- and InAs-specific alterations in renal tubule cell protein expression patterns that varied at 10 and 30 days. At the 30-day point, cells in hamsters that received InAs particles showed marked attenuation of protein expression, suggesting inhibition of the stress protein response. These changes were associated with GaAs and InAs proteinuria patterns as monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The intensity of the protein excretion patterns increased between the 10- and 30-day points and was most pronounced for animals in the 30-day InAs treatment group. No overt morphologic signs of cell death were seen in renal tubule cells of these animals

  5. Surface modification on PMMA : PVDF polyblend: hardening under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Polyblend; surface modification; microhardness; hardening; plasticization; segmental mobility. 1. Introduction. Polymeric materials have a specific feature of stability towards various aggressive chemical environments, which depends on a multiplicity of factors like structure and nature of the polymers and chemical ...

  6. Technical evaluation report on the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification change for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation finds that the licensee has not provided sufficient information on the undervoltage protection system to allow a complete evaluation into the adequacy of protecting the Class 1E equipment from sustained voltage degradation

  7. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia

    2015-01-01

    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  8. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48 h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.

  9. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  10. Human Tregs Made Antigen Specific by Gene Modification: The Power to Treat Autoimmunity and Antidrug Antibodies with Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. Adair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs are potent immunosuppressive lymphocytes responsible for immune tolerance and homeostasis. Since the seminal reports identifying Tregs, vast research has been channeled into understanding their genesis, signature molecular markers, mechanisms of suppression, and role in disease. This research has opened the doors for Tregs as a potential therapeutic for diseases and disorders such as multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, transplantation, and immune responses to protein therapeutics, like factor VIII. Seminal clinical trials have used polyclonal Tregs, but the frequency of antigen-specific Tregs among polyclonal populations is low, and polyclonal Tregs may risk non-specific immunosuppression. Antigen-specific Treg therapy, which uses genetically modified Tregs expressing receptors specific for target antigens, greatly mitigates this risk. Building on the principles of T-cell receptor cloning, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, and a novel CAR derivative, called B-cell antibody receptors, our lab has developed different types of antigen-specific Tregs. This review discusses the current research and optimization of gene-modified antigen-specific human Tregs in our lab in several disease models. The preparations and considerations for clinical use of such Tregs also are discussed.

  11. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  12. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene; Avaliacao das modificacoes quimicas no cimento asfaltico de petroleo com a adicao de polipropileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S., E-mail: mjsales@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2010-07-01

    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C ({Delta}H = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C ({Delta}H = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  13. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  14. Chemical display of pyrimidine bases flipped out by modification-dependent restriction endonucleases of MspJI and PvuRts1I families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zagorskaitė

    Full Text Available The epigenetic DNA modifications 5-methylcytosine (5mC and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC in eukaryotes are recognized either in the context of double-stranded DNA (e.g., by the methyl-CpG binding domain of MeCP2, or in the flipped-out state (e.g., by the SRA domain of UHRF1. The SRA-like domains and the base-flipping mechanism for 5(hmC recognition are also shared by the recently discovered prokaryotic modification-dependent endonucleases of the MspJI and PvuRts1I families. Since the mechanism of modified cytosine recognition by many potential eukaryotic and prokaryotic 5(hmC "readers" is still unknown, a fast solution based method for the detection of extrahelical 5(hmC would be very useful. In the present study we tested base-flipping by MspJI- and PvuRts1I-like restriction enzymes using several solution-based methods, including fluorescence measurements of the cytosine analog pyrrolocytosine and chemical modification of extrahelical pyrimidines with chloroacetaldehyde and KMnO4. We find that only KMnO4 proved an efficient probe for the positive display of flipped out pyrimidines, albeit the method required either non-physiological pH (4.3 or a substitution of the target cytosine with thymine. Our results imply that DNA recognition mechanism of 5(hmC binding proteins should be tested using a combination of all available methods, as the lack of a positive signal in some assays does not exclude the base flipping mechanism.

  15. Non-specific chemical inhibition of the Fanconi anemia pathway sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemont Céline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum compounds such as cisplatin and carboplatin are DNA crosslinking agents widely used for cancer chemotherapy. However, the effectiveness of platinum compounds is often tempered by the acquisition of cellular drug resistance. Until now, no pharmacological approach has successfully overcome cisplatin resistance in cancer treatment. Since the Fanconi anemia (FA pathway is a DNA damage response pathway required for cellular resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, identification of small molecules that inhibit the FA pathway may reveal classes of chemicals that sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin. Results Through a cell-based screening assay of over 16,000 chemicals, we identified 26 small molecules that inhibit ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced FANCD2 foci formation, a marker of FA pathway activity, in multiple human cell lines. Most of these small molecules also compromised ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair, indicating that they are not selective toward the regulation of FANCD2. These compounds include known inhibitors of the proteasome, cathepsin B, lysosome, CHK1, HSP90, CDK and PKC, and several uncharacterized chemicals including a novel proteasome inhibitor (Chembridge compound 5929407. Isobologram analyses demonstrated that half of the identified molecules sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Among them, 9 demonstrated increased efficiency toward FA pathway-proficient, cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Six small molecules, including bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor, CA-074-Me (cathepsin B inhibitor and 17-AAG (HSP90 inhibitor, synergized with cisplatin specifically in FA-proficient ovarian cancer cells (2008 + FANCF, but not in FA-deficient isogenic cells (2008. In addition, geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor and two CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01 and SB218078 exhibited a significantly stronger synergism with cisplatin in FA

  16. Novel Fabrication of Biodegradable Superabsorbent Microspheres with Diffusion Barrier through Thermo-Chemical Modification and Their Potential Agriculture Applications for Water Holding and Sustained Release of Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Diejing; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2017-07-26

    Synergistic utilization of water and fertilizer has vital contribution to the modern production of agriculture. This work reports on a simple and facile strategy to prepare biodegradable yeast/sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) superabsorbent microspheres with a diffusion barrier merit by thermo-chemical modification route. The integrated performances, including water absorbency, water retention, water evaporation ratio, leaching loss control, sustained-release behaviors, and degradation in soil, were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the modified microspheres were a triumphant water and fertilizer manager to effectively hold water and control the unexpected leakage of fertilizer for sustained release. Therefore, this work provides a promising approach to ameliorate the utilization efficiency of water and fertilizer in potential agriculture applications.

  17. Chemical Modification of Activated Carbon and Its Application for Solid Phase Extraction of Copper(II and Iron(III Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Powder activated carbon surface (AC was grinded and modified and altered procedure thorough a facile and easy chemical reaction to appearance of 2-((3silylpropylimino1-methyl phenol (AC- (SPIMP. Subsequently, this novel sorbent efficiently applied for the extraction and preconcentration of some metal ions from real samples. Preliminary the influences of variables such as pH, amounts of reagents and porous AC, eluting solution conditions (type and concentrations, sample volume and influence of interference of many ions on the analytes recoveries was studied and optimized. This new sorbents property including pore size, pore volume and surface properties was evaluated and monitored by BET, while structure and homogeneously of sorbent was identified by SEM. The surface modification was traced by FT-IR as powerful and strong identification techniques. The proposed sorbent has high surface area(>1317.1346 m2 g-1 and small pore size(

  18. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  19. Using sequence-specific chemical and structural properties of DNA to predict transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Bauer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the DNA binding sites recognized by each transcription factor (TF. Conventional approaches to prediction of TF binding sites involve the definition of consensus sequences or position-specific weight matrices and rely on statistical analysis of DNA sequences of known binding sites. Here, we present a method called SiteSleuth in which DNA structure prediction, computational chemistry, and machine learning are applied to develop models for TF binding sites. In this approach, binary classifiers are trained to discriminate between true and false binding sites based on the sequence-specific chemical and structural features of DNA. These features are determined via molecular dynamics calculations in which we consider each base in different local neighborhoods. For each of 54 TFs in Escherichia coli, for which at least five DNA binding sites are documented in RegulonDB, the TF binding sites and portions of the non-coding genome sequence are mapped to feature vectors and used in training. According to cross-validation analysis and a comparison of computational predictions against ChIP-chip data available for the TF Fis, SiteSleuth outperforms three conventional approaches: Match, MATRIX SEARCH, and the method of Berg and von Hippel. SiteSleuth also outperforms QPMEME, a method similar to SiteSleuth in that it involves a learning algorithm. The main advantage of SiteSleuth is a lower false positive rate.

  20. Structure-Function, Stability, and Chemical Modification of the Cyanobacterial Cytochrome b6f Complex from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniulis, Danas; Yamashita, Eiki; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Zatsman, Anna I.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Hasan, S. Saif; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f complex has previously been solved to 3.0-Å resolution using the thermophilic Mastigocladus laminosus whose genome has not been sequenced. Several unicellular cyanobacteria, whose genomes have been sequenced and are tractable for mutagenesis, do not yield b6f complex in an intact dimeric state with significant electron transport activity. The genome of Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 has been sequenced and is closer phylogenetically to M. laminosus than are unicellular cyanobacteria. The amino acid sequences of the large core subunits and four small peripheral subunits of Nostoc are 88 and 80% identical to those in the M. laminosus b6f complex. Purified b6f complex from Nostoc has a stable dimeric structure, eight subunits with masses similar to those of M. laminosus, and comparable electron transport activity. The crystal structure of the native b6f complex, determined to a resolution of 3.0Å (PDB id: 2ZT9), is almost identical to that of M. laminosus. Two unique aspects of the Nostoc complex are: (i) a dominant conformation of heme bp that is rotated 180° about the α- and γ-meso carbon axis relative to the orientation in the M. laminosus complex and (ii) acetylation of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (PetC) at the N terminus, a post-translational modification unprecedented in cyanobacterial membrane and electron transport proteins, and in polypeptides of cytochrome bc complexes from any source. The high spin electronic character of the unique heme cn is similar to that previously found in the b6f complex from other sources. PMID:19189962

  1. Improvement of thermal and mechanical properties of composite based on polylactic acid and microfibrillated cellulose through chemical modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanegara, L.; Nugraha, R. A.; Achmadi, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most representative sustainable and bio-based polymer environmentally friendly that has a great potential to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, brittleness, low heat resistance, and slow crystallization limit the wide application of PLA. One of strategies to improve PLA properties is by reinforcing with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Unfortunately, the hydrophilic properties of MFC make it difficult to attain good dispersion in a hydrophobic PLA matrix. Therefore, modification of MFC was needed to increase its compatibility with PLA in the composite formation. In this experiment, MFC was modified with partial acetylation (degree of substitution: 1) and further grafted with lactide monomers through ring-opening polymerization using Sn(Oct)2 catalyst. The result of acetylation and grafting were verified by infrared spectra. Composites were prepared by mixing PLA (molecular weight of 200,000) and the modified MFC at 9:1 ratio through organic solvent method. Followed by 8 min-kneading and hot pressing at 180°C, the resulted composites were evaluated for their mechanical and thermal properties. Thermal characterization carried out using differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the presence of modified MFC increased the temperature of glass transition and accelerated the crystallization of PLA. Mechanical properties measurement showed that the presence of modified MFC enhanced the elongation at break (1.1 to 1.8%), tensile strength (14.9 to 25.7 MPa), and modulus of elasticity (1.7 to 2.1 GPa). These results demonstrated that the modified MFC could extend the application of PLA in industry.

  2. Titanium dioxide as chemo-affinity chromatographic sorbent of biomolecular compounds - Applications in acidic modification-specific proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    biomolecules due to its unique ion and ligand exchange properties and high stability towards pH and temperature. Recently, titanium dioxide chromatography was introduced in proteomics as a highly specific method for enriching phosphorylated peptides - a method, which has been widely adapted by the field...... matrices for further characterization is affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction between an analyte in solution and a solid adsorbent. Titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography has proven to be a versatile tool in enrichment of various compounds such as phosphorylated....... The development of TiO(2)-based chromatographic strategies for separation of various biomolecules from its introduction for small molecules more than 20years ago until recent proteomics applications today will be reviewed here....

  3. Genome-wide Specificity of Highly Efficient TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 for T Cell Receptor Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Knipping

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In T cells with transgenic high-avidity T cell receptors (TCRs, endogenous and transferred TCR chains compete for surface expression and may pair inappropriately, potentially causing autoimmunity. To knock out endogenous TCR expression, we assembled 12 transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and five guide RNAs (gRNAs from the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas9 system. Using TALEN mRNA, TCR knockout was successful in up to 81% of T cells. Additionally, we were able to verify targeted gene addition of a GFP gene by homology-directed repair at the TALEN target site, using a donor suitable for replacement of the reporter transgene with therapeutic TCR chains. Remarkably, analysis of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 specificity using integrase-defective lentiviral vector capture revealed only one off-target site for one of the gRNAs and three off-target sites for both of the TALENs, indicating a high level of specificity. Collectively, our work shows highly efficient and specific nucleases for T cell engineering.

  4. Simultaneous chemical modification and structural transformation of Stöber silica spheres for integration of nanocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2012-01-10

    A synthetic approach has been devised to convert conventional Stöber silica (SiO 2) spheres into a new type of porous structural platform for supporting multicomponent catalysts. With this approach, we have first prepared zinc-doped SiO 2 (Zn-SiO 2) hollow spheres, on which zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have been deposited and assembled sequentially in solution phase. A series of complex Ru/ZnO/Zn-SiO 2 nanocatalysts has been thus been integrated onto the zinc-doped SiO 2 supports after additional thermal treatment and reduction. To test their workability under harsh reactive environments, we have further evaluated the above prepared catalysts using arene hydrogenation as model reactions. These integrated nanocatalysts have shown superior activity, high robustness, and easy recovery in the studied heterogeneous catalysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Sputtering yields and surface chemical modification of tin-doped indium oxide in hydrocarbon-based plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: hamaguch@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya [Device and Material R& D Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Sputtering yields and surface chemical compositions of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) by CH{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, and inert-gas ion (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, and Ar{sup +}) incidence have been obtained experimentally with the use of a mass-selected ion beam system and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that etching of ITO is chemically enhanced by energetic incidence of hydrocarbon (CH{sub x}{sup +}) ions. At high incident energy incidence, it appears that carbon of incident ions predominantly reduce indium (In) of ITO and the ITO sputtering yields by CH{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are found to be essentially equal. At lower incident energy (less than 500 eV or so), however, a hydrogen effect on ITO reduction is more pronounced and the ITO surface is more reduced by CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions. Although the surface is covered more with metallic In by low-energy incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions and metallic In is in general less resistant against physical sputtering than its oxide, the ITO sputtering yield by incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions is found to be lower than that by incident CH{sup +} ions in this energy range. A postulation to account for the relation between the observed sputtering yield and reduction of the ITO surface is also presented. The results presented here offer a better understanding of elementary surface reactions observed in reactive ion etching processes of ITO by hydrocarbon plasmas.

  6. Chemical modification of a phenoxyfuranone-type strigolactone mimic for selective effects on rice tillering or Striga hermonthica seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikuo; Fukui, Kosuke; Asami, Tadao

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported that a series of phenoxyfuranone compounds, designated 'debranones', mimic strigolactone (SL) activity. 4-Bromodebranone (4BD) is a functionally selective SL mimic that reduces the number of shoot branches on rice more potently than GR24, a typical synthetic SL analogue, but does not induce seed germination in the root-parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. To enhance the selective activity of debranones in stimulating the seed germination of root-parasitic plants, we prepared several analogues of 4BD in which the chlorine atom was substituted with an H atom at the o-, m- or p-position on the phenyl ring (designated 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorodebranone, respectively) or had a bicyclic group instead of the phenyl ring. We evaluated the biological activities of the compounds with rice tillering assays and S. hermonthica seed germination assays. Both assays showed that the substituent position affected debranone efficiency, and among the monochlorodebranones, 2-chlorodebranone was more effective than the other two isomers in both assays. When the activities of the bicyclic debranones were compared in the same two assays, one was more active than GR24 in the rice tillering assay. This debranone also stimulated the germination of S. hermonthica seeds. Thus, some debranone derivatives induced the germination of S. hermonthica seeds, although their activities were still ∼1/20 that of GR24. These results strongly suggest that further and rigorous structure-activity relationship studies of the debranones will identify derivatives that more potently stimulate the suicidal germination of S. hermonthica seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  8. Atom-specific look at the surface chemical bond using x-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    CO and N{sub 2} adsorbed on the late transition metals have become prototype systems regarding the general understanding of molecular adsorption. It is in general assumed that the bonding of molecules to transition metals can be explained in terms of the interaction of the frontier HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals with the d-orbitals. In such a picture the other molecular orbitals should remain essentially the same as in the free molecule. For the adsorption of the isoelectronic molecules CO and N{sub 2} this has led to the so called Blyholder model i.e., a synergetic {sigma} (HOMO) donor and {pi} (LUMO) backdonation bond. The authors results at the ALS show that such a picture is oversimplified. The direct observation and identification of the states related to the surface chemical bond is an experimental challenge. For noble and transition metal surfaces, the adsorption induced states overlap with the metal d valence band. Their signature is therefore often obscured by bulk substrate states. This complication has made it difficult for techniques such as photoemission and inverse photoemission to provide reliable information on the energy of chemisorption induced states and has left questions unanswered regarding the validity of the frontier orbitals concept. Here the authors show how x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), in spite of its inherent bulk sensitivity, can be used to investigate adsorbed molecules. Due to the localization of the core-excited intermediate state, XE spectroscopy allows an atomic specific separation of the valence electronic states. Thus the molecular contributions to the surface measurements make it possible to determine the symmetry of the molecular states, i.e., the separation of {pi} and {sigma} type states. In all the authors can obtain an atomic view of the electronic states involved in the formation of the chemical bond to the surface.

  9. In vitro study of morphological and chemical modification threshold of bovine dental enamel irradiated by the holmium laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduardo, Patricia Lerro de Paula

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the Ho:YLF laser effects on the dental enamel surface with regards to its morphology, thermal variations during its irradiation in the pulp chamber and its increased resistance to demineralization through quantitative analysis of calcium and phosphorous atoms reactive concentrations in samples. Twenty samples of bovine enamel were used and divided in four groups: control - acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application followed by demineralization treatment with lactic acid; irradiation with Ho:YLF laser (100 J/cm 2 ) followed by APF topic application and demineralization treatment with lactic acid; irradiation with Ho:YLF laser (350 J/cm 2 ) followed by APF topic application and demineralization treatment with lactic acid: and irradiation with Ho:YLF laser ( 450 J/cm 2 ) followed by APF topic application and demineralization treatment with lactic acid. Ali samples were quantified according to their calcium and phosphorous atoms relative concentrations before and after the treatments above. X-Ray fluorescence spectrochemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. It was observed an increase on the calcium and phosphorous atoms concentration ratio and therefore the enamel demineralization reduction as a result of the lactic acid treatment in the samples irradiated with the holmium laser followed by the APF application. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this study for clinical purposes, morphological changes caused by the holmium laser irradiation were analyzed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified regions of the enamel with consequent changes on its permeability and solubility. Temperature changes of ten human pre-molars teeth irradiated with 350 J/cm 2 and 450 J/cm 2 were also monitored in the pulp chamber in real time. Temperature increases over 4,20 C did not occur. The results obtained from this study along with the results from previous researches developed at

  10. ELISA-PLA: A novel hybrid platform for the rapid, highly sensitive and specific quantification of proteins and post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing-He; Tao, Tao; Xie, Li-Qi; Lu, Hao-Jie

    2016-06-15

    Detection of low-abundance proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) remains a great challenge. A conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is not sensitive enough to detect low-abundance PTMs and suffers from nonspecific detection. Herein, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific platform integrating ELISA with a proximity ligation assay (PLA), termed ELISA-PLA, was developed. Using ELISA-PLA, the specificity was improved by the simultaneous and proximate recognition of targets through multiple probes, and the sensitivity was significantly improved by rolling circle amplification (RCA). For GFP, the limit of detection (LOD) was decreased by two orders of magnitude compared to that of ELISA. Using site-specific phospho-antibody and pan-specific phospho-antibody, ELISA-PLA was successfully applied to quantify the phosphorylation dynamics of ERK1/2 and the overall tyrosine phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, respectively. ELISA-PLA was also used to quantify the O-GlcNAcylation of AKT, c-Fos, CREB and STAT3, which is faster and more sensitive than the conventional immunoprecipitation and western blotting (IP-WB) method. As a result, the sample consumption of ELISA-PLA was reduced 40-fold compared to IP-WB. Therefore, ELISA-PLA could be a promising platform for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of proteins and PTMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium-labelled chloroethylcyclohexylnitrosourea and its application to the study of DNA modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, E.L. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Habraken, Yvette; Ludlum, D.B. (Massachusetts Univ., Worcester, MA (USA). Medical School)

    1991-02-01

    A small-scale synthesis of high specific activity, N-(2-chloro-2-{sup 3}H-ethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea ({sup 3}H-CCNU) has been accomplished from tritium-labelled ethanolamine. The product is pure by TLC and HPLC analysis and has been used successfully to modify DNA. The overall yield on radioactivity including losses in HPLC purification is approximately 4 percent. The availability of this tritium-labelled compound makes studies of DNA repair and of cellular resistance to N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea possible. (author).

  12. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium-labelled chloroethylcyclohexylnitrosourea and its application to the study of DNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew, E.L.; Habraken, Yvette; Ludlum, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    A small-scale synthesis of high specific activity, N-(2-chloro-2-[ 3 H-ethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea ([ 3 H]-CCNU) has been accomplished from tritium-labelled ethanolamine. The product is pure by TLC and HPLC analysis and has been used successfully to modify DNA. The overall yield on radioactivity including losses in HPLC purification is approximately 4 percent. The availability of this tritium-labelled compound makes studies of DNA repair and of cellular resistance to N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea possible. (author)

  13. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  14. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  15. Sulphate Removal from Water by Carbon Residue from Biomass Gasification: Effect of Chemical Modification Methods on Sulphate Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Runtti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate removal from mine water is a problem because traditional chemical precipitation does not remove all sulphates. In addition, it creates lime sediment as a secondary waste. Therefore, an inexpensive and environmental-friendly sulphate removal method is needed in addition to precipitation. In this study, carbon residues from a wood gasification process were repurposed as precursors to a suitable sorbent for SO42- ion removal. The raw material was modified using ZnCl2, BaCl2, CaCl2, FeCl3, or FeCl2. Carbon residues modified with FeCl3 were selected for further consideration because the removal efficiency toward sulphate was the highest. Batch sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, initial SO42- ion concentration, and contact time on sulphate removal. The removal of SO42- ions using Fe-modified carbon residue was notably higher compared with unmodified carbon residue and commercially available activated carbon. The sorption data exhibited pseudo-second-order kinetics. The isotherm analysis indicated that the sorption data of Fe-modified carbon residues can be represented by the bi-Langmuir isotherm model.

  16. Modification of chemical, optical and structural properties of Bayfol CR-6-2 using gamma and neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehata, Mohamed M.; Radwan, Samh I.; Hassan, Amin [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre; Waly, Sayed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Second Research Reactor; Badawy, Zaynab M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Experimental Nuclear Physics Dept.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on the chemical, optical and structural properties of Bayfol CR-6-2 were investigated. The samples were irradiated by γ-rays from a {sup 60}Co source at various doses ranging between 16 and 900 kGy at room temperature in atmospheric air. For neutrons, an Am-Be neutron facility was used for the sample irradiation in thermal mode which had an activity of 185 GBq. Samples were irradiated with different doses of neutrons ranging from 15.7 to 564.2 mGy. The changes induced were analyzed using UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. The results demonstrated an occurrence of oxidative degradation, resulting in the formation of carbonyl groups at 1700 cm{sup -1}. Simultaneous thermo-gravimetric investigation (TGA) has been performed on the samples of 0.3 mm thickness. The results obtained indicate that cross-linking predominates at small neutron doses and main chain scission happens at higher doses.

  17. Thermal and chemical modifications on a low rank coal by iron addition in swept fixed by hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J.; Palacios, J.M. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1998-05-01

    The paper discusses the thermal and chemical changes taking place on a low rank coal when it is subjected to hydropyrolysis conditions with Red Mud as the catalytic precursor. For each run, 5 g of coal were pyrolysed in a swept fixed bed reactor at 40 kg/cm{sup 2} hydrogen pressure. The variables of the process were: temperatures ranging from 400 to 600{degree}C; 0.5 and 2 l/min of hydrogen flow; 10 and 30 min residence time; and in the presence and absence of Red Mud. Conversion products distribution and a wide battery of complementary analyses allow information to be gathered regarding the changes undergone by the coal structure, both in its organic and inorganic components, in its conversion into liquids and chars. From the data obtained, it can be deduced that: (1) at 400{degree}C the iron catalyst is not active; (2) at higher temperatures iron catalytic cracking is observed more than hydrogenating activity, due to the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} transformation into (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) crystallographically as spinel; (3) in this coal hydropyrolysis one third of the coal is converted into liquids; and (4) Red Mud helps to reduce sulfur emissions by H{sub 2}S fixation as Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Growth specificity of vertical ZnO nanorods on patterned seeded substrates through integrated chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Maniam, S.M. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sundaramurthy, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Arokiaraj, J. [3M R and D Center (Singapore); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Rajarathnam, D. [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA-5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Jian, L.K. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple integrated chemical process was adopted for specific ZnO nanorod growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and orientation of nanorods are well controlled by optimum reaction time and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different site-selective ZnO nanorod growths are demonstrated. - Abstract: A simple and cost effective method has been employed for the random growth and oriented ZnO nanorod arrays over as-prepared and patterned seeded glass substrates by low temperature two step growth process and growth specificity by direct laser writing (DLW) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the growth of vertical ZnO nanorods with perfect (0 0 2) orientation along c-axis which is in conjunction with optimizing the parameters at different reaction times and temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the formation of vertical ZnO nanorods with diameter and length of {approx}120 nm and {approx}400 nm respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies show a narrow emission at {approx}385 nm and a broad visible emission from 450 to 600 nm. Further, site-selective ZnO nanorod growth is demonstrated for its high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity on a positive photoresist ZnO seed layer by simple geometrical (line, circle and ring) patterns of 10 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m dimensions. The demonstrated control over size, orientation and periodicity of ZnO nanorods process opens up an opportunity to develop multifunctional properties which promises their potential applications in sensor, piezoelectric, and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Organization of a system of guarantee of quality for the control of specifications of chemical reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante Gutierrez, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Analytic methods were implemented based on valuations acid-base and redox for the quantitative determination of sodium hidroxid, iodine and iron chloride III, like part of a system of quality for the technical specifications of these reagents. The planning of its system of quality includes two fundamental parts: insurance and control of quality. In the insurance part the state of operation of the team that you uses settled down, gauges the one that achieve to maintain under the supervision of a single operator (electronic equip and glassware) and the design of the appropriate documents settled down to carry out the periodic supervision of the acting of the same ones and other aspects characteristic of the system (experimental results). Also protocolized and validated the analytic methods to use following the approaches of precision given by ASTM, organism whose methodologies are recognized in the country like official; other procedures, as that of calibration of the volumetric equipments, they were also protocolized. In the part of control of quality, the limits settled down and procedures were applied the scales and used other, to the necessary distilled water to carry out the determinations and to the used chemical reagents. With base in the obtained results you determines that the analyzed reagents fulfill the specifications of ACS (and with those reported by the maker) at the same time settled down that the laboratory 09 of the Chemistry School, used in a large part of development of this project, it didn't fulfill the necessary requirements so that it works as laboratory of control of quality. As an alternative, the administration of the School outlines as solution the use of the Laboratory of Insurance of the Quality from the Unit of Service to the Industry for such end [es

  20. Drop drying on surfaces determines chemical reactivity - the specific case of immobilization of oligonucleotides on microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Drop drying is a key factor in a wide range of technical applications, including spotted microarrays. The applied nL liquid volume provides specific reaction conditions for the immobilization of probe molecules to a chemically modified surface. Results We investigated the influence of nL and μL liquid drop volumes on the process of probe immobilization and compare the results obtained to the situation in liquid solution. In our data, we observe a strong relationship between drop drying effects on immobilization and surface chemistry. In this work, we present results on the immobilization of dye labeled 20mer oligonucleotides with and without an activating 5′-aminoheptyl linker onto a 2D epoxysilane and a 3D NHS activated hydrogel surface. Conclusions Our experiments identified two basic processes determining immobilization. First, the rate of drop drying that depends on the drop volume and the ambient relative humidity. Oligonucleotides in a dried spot react unspecifically with the surface and long reaction times are needed. 3D hydrogel surfaces allow for immobilization in a liquid environment under diffusive conditions. Here, oligonucleotide immobilization is much faster and a specific reaction with the reactive linker group is observed. Second, the effect of increasing probe concentration as a result of drop drying. On a 3D hydrogel, the increasing concentration of probe molecules in nL spotting volumes accelerates immobilization dramatically. In case of μL volumes, immobilization depends on whether the drop is allowed to dry completely. At non-drying conditions, very limited immobilization is observed due to the low oligonucleotide concentration used in microarray spotting solutions. The results of our study provide a general guideline for microarray assay development. They allow for the initial definition and further optimization of reaction conditions for the immobilization of oligonucleotides and other probe molecule classes to different

  1. Best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries with examples from the industry sector and specifically from Nova Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will summarize best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries and will provide examples from both the industry sector and specifically from NOVA Chemicals. As a sponsor of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, NOVA Chemicals participates in a number of working groups to help develop best practices and tools for the chemical process and associated industries in order to advance chemical process safety. A recent project was to develop an update on guidelines for investigating chemical process incidents. A successful incident investigation management system must ensure that all incidents and near misses are reported, that root causes are identified, that recommendations from incident investigations identify appropriate preventive measures, and that these recommendations are resolved in a timely manner. The key elements of an effective management system for incident investigation will be described. Accepted definitions of such terms as near miss, incident, and root cause will be reviewed. An explanation of the types of incident classification systems in use, along with expected levels of follow-up, will be provided. There are several incident investigation methodologies in use today by members of the CCPS; most of these methodologies incorporate the use of several tools. These tools include: timelines, sequence diagrams, causal factor identification, brainstorming, checklists, pre-defined trees, and team-defined logic trees. Developing appropriate recommendations and then ensuring their resolution is the key to prevention of similar events from recurring, along with the sharing of lessons learned from incidents. There are several sources of information on previous incidents and lessons learned available to companies. In addition, many companies in the chemical process industries use their own internal databases to track recommendations from

  2. Colour and chemical changes of the lime wood surface due to CO{sub 2} laser thermal modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubovský, Ivan, E-mail: kubovsky@tuzvo.sk; Kačík, František

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Influences of CO{sub 2} laser on lime wood surface were studied. • With growth of the irradiation dose brightness decrease and increase of the total colour difference were observed. • Cellulose degradation and loss of hemicelluloses were observed. • Higher values at the input energy lead to accelerating the mutual reaction of the functional groups resulting in the subsequent condensation of lignin. • CO{sub 2} laser irradiation can be used as a new colouring method. - Abstract: We studied colour and main wood components changes of lime wood caused by CO{sub 2} laser beam irradiation. The dry surface of lime wood (Tilia vulgaris L.) was irradiated with the CO{sub 2} laser beam (wavelength of 10.6 μm) at different exposures (expressed as the irradiation dose). Colour changes were monitored by the spectrophotometer, chemical changes were observed by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and carbohydrates were analysed by the HPLC method. With the growth of the irradiation dose (from 8.1 to 28.7 J cm{sup −2}) lightness (ΔL{sup *}) decrease and increase of the total colour difference (ΔE{sup *}) were observed. Higher values of the input energy lead to accelerating the mutual reaction of the functional groups resulting in the subsequent condensation of lignin. The total decrease in saccharides at the highest irradiation dose reaches 27.39% of the initial amount of saccharides in the reference sample. We have observed degradation and loss of hemicelluloses.

  3. Site-Specific Variability in the Chemical Diversity of the Antarctic Red Alga Plocamium cartilagineum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plocamium cartilagineum is a common red alga on the benthos of Antarctica and can be a dominant understory species along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Algae from this region have been studied chemically, and like “P. cartilagineum” from other worldwide locations where it is common, it is rich in halogenated monoterpenes, some of which have been implicated as feeding deterrents toward sympatric algal predators. Secondary metabolites are highly variable in this alga, both qualitatively and quantitatively, leading us to probe individual plants to track the possible link of variability to genetic or other factors. Using cox1 and rbcL gene sequencing, we find that the Antarctic alga divides into two closely related phylogroups, but not species, each of which is further divided into one of five chemogroups. The chemogroups themselves, defined on the basis of Bray-Curtis similarity profiling of GC/QqQ chromatographic analyses, are largely site specific within a 10 km2 area. Thus, on the limited geographical range of this analysis, P. cartilagineum displays only modest genetic radiation, but its secondary metabolome was found to have experienced more extensive radiation. Such metabogenomic divergence demonstrated on the larger geographical scale of the Antarctic Peninsula, or perhaps even continent-wide, may contribute to the discovery of cryptic speciation.

  4. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  5. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-10

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely "suspense" or "comedy" caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  6. The "Janus face" of the thrombin binding aptamer: Investigating the anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties through straightforward chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Veronica; Russo, Annapina; Amato, Teresa; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Mayol, Luciano; Russo, Giulia; Virgilio, Antonella; Galeone, Aldo

    2018-02-01

    The thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is endowed with both anticoagulant and antiproliferative activities. Its chemico-physical and/or biological properties can be tuned by the site-specific replacement of selected residues. Four oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) based on the TBA sequence (5'-GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG-3') and containing 2'-deoxyuridine (U) or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (B) residues at positions 4 or 13 have been investigated by NMR and CD techniques. Furthermore, their anticoagulant (PT assay) and antiproliferative properties (MTT assay) have been tested and compared with two further ODNs containing 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (H) residues in the same positions, previously investigated. The CD and NMR data suggest that all the investigated ODNs are able to form G-quadruplexes strictly resembling that of TBA. The introduction of B residues in positions 4 or 13 increases the melting temperature of the modified aptamers by 7 °C. The replacement of thymidines with U in the same positions results in an enhanced anticoagulant activity compared to TBA, also at low ODN concentration. Although all ODNs show antiproliferative properties, only TBA derivatives containing H in the positions 4 and 13 lose the anticoagulant activity and remarkably preserve the antiproliferative one. All ODNs have shown antiproliferative activities against two cancer cell lines but only those with U and B are endowed with anticoagulant activities similar or improved compared to TBA. The appropriate site-specific replacement of the residues in the TT loops of TBA with commercially available thymine analogues is a useful strategy either to improve the anticoagulant activity or to preserve the antiproliferative properties by quenching the anticoagulant ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The restriction-modification genes of Escherichia coli K-12 may not be selfish: they do not resist loss and are readily replaced by alleles conferring different specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, M; Chen, A; Murray, N E

    1997-12-23

    Type II restriction and modification (R-M) genes have been described as selfish because they have been shown to impose selection for the maintenance of the plasmid that encodes them. In our experiments, the type I R-M system EcoKI does not behave in the same way. The genes specifying EcoKI are, however, normally residents of the chromosome and therefore our analyses were extended to monitor the deletion of chromosomal genes rather than loss of plasmid vector. If EcoKI were to behave in the same way as the plasmid-encoded type II R-M systems, the loss of the relevant chromosomal genes by mutation or recombination should lead to cell death because the cell would become deficient in modification enzyme and the bacterial chromosome would be vulnerable to the restriction endonuclease. Our data contradict this prediction; they reveal that functional type I R-M genes in the chromosome are readily replaced by mutant alleles and by alleles encoding a type I R-M system of different specificity. The acquisition of allelic genes conferring a new sequence specificity, but not the loss of the resident genes, is dependent on the product of an unlinked gene, one predicted [Prakash-Cheng, A., Chung, S. S. & Ryu, J. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 241, 491-496] to be relevant to control of expression of the genes that encode EcoKI. Our evidence suggests that not all R-M systems are evolving as "selfish" units; rather, the diversity and distribution of the family of type I enzymes we have investigated require an alternative selective pressure.

  8. Surface chemical reactions probed with scanning force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werts, M.P L; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    In this letter we report the study of surface chemical reactions with scanning force microscopy (SFM) with chemical specificity. Using chemically modified SFM probes, we can determine the local surface reaction conversion during a chemical surface modification. The adhesion forces between a

  9. Functionalised zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors: Enhanced NO(2) gas sensor response by chemical modification of nanowire surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waclawik, Eric R; Chang, Jin; Ponzoni, Andrea; Concina, Isabella; Zappa, Dario; Comini, Elisabetta; Motta, Nunzio; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Surface coating with an organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) can enhance surface reactions or the absorption of specific gases and hence improve the response of a metal oxide (MOx) sensor toward particular target gases in the environment. In this study the effect of an adsorbed organic layer on the dynamic response of zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors was investigated. The effect of ZnO surface functionalisation by two different organic molecules, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THMA) and dodecanethiol (DT), was studied. The response towards ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide was investigated for three sensor configurations, namely pure ZnO nanowires, organic-coated ZnO nanowires and ZnO nanowires covered with a sparse layer of organic-coated ZnO nanoparticles. Exposure of the nanowire sensors to the oxidising gas NO(2) produced a significant and reproducible response. ZnO and THMA-coated ZnO nanowire sensors both readily detected NO(2) down to a concentration in the very low ppm range. Notably, the THMA-coated nanowires consistently displayed a small, enhanced response to NO(2) compared to uncoated ZnO nanowire sensors. At the lower concentration levels tested, ZnO nanowire sensors that were coated with THMA-capped ZnO nanoparticles were found to exhibit the greatest enhanced response. ΔR/R was two times greater than that for the as-prepared ZnO nanowire sensors. It is proposed that the ΔR/R enhancement in this case originates from the changes induced in the depletion-layer width of the ZnO nanoparticles that bridge ZnO nanowires resulting from THMA ligand binding to the surface of the particle coating. The heightened response and selectivity to the NO(2) target are positive results arising from the coating of these ZnO nanowire sensors with organic-SAM-functionalised ZnO nanoparticles.

  10. A genome-wide screen in human embryonic stem cells reveals novel sites of allele-specific histone modification associated with known disease loci

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prendergast, James G D

    2012-05-19

    AbstractBackgroundChromatin structure at a given site can differ between chromosome copies in a cell, and such imbalances in chromatin structure have been shown to be important in understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling several disease loci. Human genetic variation, DNA methylation, and disease have been intensely studied, uncovering many sites of allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM). However, little is known about the genome-wide occurrence of sites of allele-specific histone modification (ASHM) and their relationship to human disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and characteristics of sites of ASHM in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).ResultsUsing a statistically rigorous protocol, we investigated the genomic distribution of ASHM in hESCs, and their relationship to sites of allele-specific expression (ASE) and DNA methylation. We found that, although they were rare, sites of ASHM were substantially enriched at loci displaying ASE. Many were also found at known imprinted regions, hence sites of ASHM are likely to be better markers of imprinted regions than sites of ASM. We also found that sites of ASHM and ASE in hESCs colocalize at risk loci for developmental syndromes mediated by deletions, providing insights into the etiology of these disorders.ConclusionThese results demonstrate the potential importance of ASHM patterns in the interpretation of disease loci, and the protocol described provides a basis for similar studies of ASHM in other cell types to further our understanding of human disease susceptibility.

  11. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  12. Comparative Studies on Dyeability with Direct, Acid and Reactive Dyes after Chemical Modification of Jute with Mixed Amino Acids Obtained from Extract of Waste Soya Bean Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Nilendu Sekhar; Konar, Adwaita; Roy, Alok Nath; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Jute fabric was treated with mixed natural amino acids obtained from waste soya bean seed extract for chemical modification of jute for its cataionization and to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes (like direct, reactive and acid dye) as well enabling soya modified jute for salt free dyeing with anionic reactive dyes maintaining its eco-friendliness. Colour interaction parameters including surface colour strength were assessed and compared for both bleached and soya-modified jute fabric for reactive dyeing and compared with direct and acid dye. Improvement in K/S value (surface colour strength) was observed for soya-modified jute even in absence of salt applied in dye bath for reactive dyes as well as for direct and acid dyes. In addition, reactive dye also shows good dyeability even in acid bath in salt free conditions. Colour fastness to wash was evaluated for bleached and soya-modified jute fabric after dyeing with direct, acid and reactive dyes are reported. Treatment of jute with soya-extracted mixed natural amino acids showed anchoring of some amino/aldemine groups on jute cellulosic polymer evidenced from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This amino or aldemine group incorporation in bleached jute causes its cationization and hence when dyed in acid bath for reactive dye (instead of conventional alkali bath) showed dye uptake for reactive dyes. Study of surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of said soya-modified jute as compared to bleached jute was studied and reported.

  13. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  14. B827 Chemical Synthhesis Project - Industrial Control System Integration - Statement of Work & Specification with Attachments 1-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, F. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The Chemical Synthesis Pilot Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 827 Complex will be used to synthesize small quantities of material to support research and development. The project will modernize and increase current capabilities for chemical synthesis at LLNL. The primary objective of this project is the conversion of a non-automated hands-on process to a remoteoperation process, while providing enhanced batch process step control, stored recipe-specific parameter sets, process variable visibility, monitoring, alarm and warning handling, and comprehensive batch record data logging. This Statement of Work and Specification provides the industrial-grade process control requirements for the chemical synthesis batching control system, hereafter referred to as the “Control System” to be delivered by the System Integrator.

  15. Specific and Optional Curriculum: An Experience in the Undergraduate Program of Chemical Engineering in Cienfuegos University, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yolanda García; Velázquez, Claudia Alvarado; Castillo, Rolando Delgado

    2016-01-01

    This paper pursues to define the pillars for designing the specific (SC) and optional curricula (OC) of Unit Operations and Processes (UOP) Discipline in the Chemical Engineering Program. To achieve this objective a methodology was developed, which was characterized by the participation of every member in the educational process: professors,…

  16. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  17. Can species-specific prey responses to chemical cues explain prey susceptibility to predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Čech, Martin; Vejřík, Lukáš; Blabolil, Petr; Vejříková, Ivana; Prchalová, Marie; Vašek, Mojmír; Souza, Allan T; Brönmark, Christer; Peterka, Jiří

    2018-05-01

    The perception of danger represents an essential ability of prey for gaining an informational advantage over their natural enemies. Especially in complex environments or at night, animals strongly rely on chemoreception to avoid predators. The ability to recognize danger by chemical cues and subsequent adaptive responses to predation threats should generally increase prey survival. Recent findings suggest that European catfish ( Silurus glanis ) introduction induce changes in fish community and we tested whether the direction of change can be attributed to differences in chemical cue perception. We tested behavioral response to chemical cues using three species of freshwater fish common in European water: rudd ( Scardinius erythrophthalmus ), roach ( Rutilus rutilus ), and perch ( Perca fluviatilis ). Further, we conducted a prey selectivity experiment to evaluate the prey preferences of the European catfish. Roach exhibited the strongest reaction to chemical cues, rudd decreased use of refuge and perch did not alter any behavior in the experiment. These findings suggest that chemical cue perception might be behind community data change and we encourage collecting more community data of tested prey species before and after European catfish introduction to test the hypothesis. We conclude that used prey species can be used as a model species to verify whether chemical cue perception enhances prey survival.

  18. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzenbach Heidi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. Methods In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Results Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. Conclusions This study is one

  19. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Imke; Wischnewski, Frank; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3) at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. This study is one of the first to reveal the histone code and MBD profile

  20. Engineering high Zn in tomato shoots through expression of AtHMA4 involves tissue-specific modification of endogenous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorek, Maria; Klimecka, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Borg, Sören; Rudzka, Justyna; Szczęsny, Paweł; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2016-08-12

    To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, those metal-homeostasis genes that were expressed differently in transgenic and wild-type plants were identified by microarray and RT-qPCR analysis using laser-assisted microdissected RNA isolated from two root sectors: (epidermis + cortex and stele), and leaf sectors (upper epidermis + palisade parenchyma and lower epidermis + spongy parenchyma). Zn-supply-dependent modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in AtHMA4-tomato (increase at 5 μM Zn, no change at 0.5 μM Zn) involved tissue-specific, distinct from that in the wild type, expression of tomato endogenous genes. First, it is suggested that an ethylene-dependent pathway underlies the detected changes in Zn root/shoot partitioning, as it was induced in transgenic plants in a distinct way depending on Zn exposure. Upon exposure to 5 or 0.5 μM Zn, in the epidermis + cortex of the transgenics' roots the expression of the Strategy I Fe-uptake system (ethylene-dependent LeIRT1 and LeFER) was respectively lower or higher than in the wild type and was accompanied by respectively lower or higher expression of the identified ethylene genes (LeNR, LeACO4, LeACO5) and of LeChln. Second, the contribution of LeNRAMP2 expression in the stele is shown to be distinct for wild-type and transgenic plants at both Zn exposures. Ethylene was also suggested as an important factor in a pathway induced in the leaves of transgenic plants by high Zn in the apoplast, which results in the initiation of loading of the excess Zn into the

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. Chemical modification as an approach for the identification of UDPG-binding polypeptides of UDPG-glucose: (1,3)-Beta-glucan synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The lysine-reactive chemical modification reagents uridine diphosphate pyridoxal (UDP-pyridoxal) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were used to identify UDPG-binding polypeptides of UDP-glucose: (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase (GS) from red beet storage tissue. Complete enzyme inactivation occurred after exposure to micromolar levels of UDP-pyridoxal and millimolar levels of HCHO. Divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , particularly Ca 2+ ) were required by both for inactivation. Substrate (UDPG) and chelators (EDTA and EGTA) protected plasma membrane GS (PMGS) against UDP-pyridoxal and HCHO inhibition. UDPG protected CHAPS solubilized GS (CSGS) against UDP-pyridoxal inactivation, but not against HCHO. It was concluded that beet GS contains a lysine residue at the UDPG-binding site. When PMGS was directly labeled with UDP[ 3 H]-pyridoxal or [ 14 C]HCHO, random labeling occurred. Therefore, a multi-step labeling procedure was developed. Nonessential lysine residues were first blocked with HCHO while 5 mM UDPG protected the active site lysine. Background labeling was reduced 4-fold. Membranes were recovered by centrifugation and the active site lysine exposed to [ 14 C] HCHO. Major labeled polypeptides were at 200, 76, and 54 kD. Minor polypeptides were seen at 94, 82, 68, 60, and 20-25 kD. CSGS was labeled by a modified multi-step procedure. CSGS was blocked by reaction with UDP-pyridoxal in the presence of UDPG. CSGS was then recovered by product entrapment and labeled with [ 14 C]HCHO. Background labeling was reduced by 8-fold and potential UDPG-binding polypeptides narrowed to 68, 54, 25 and 22 kD

  3. Evaluation of the effect of the acetic anhydride concentration, temperature and time in the acetylation reaction for chemical modification of Calophyllum brasiliense and Enterolobium cyclocarpum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Arias, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    A treatment is performed to increase the life of wood in Costa Rica. The effect of acetic anhydride concentration, temperature and time have been studied in the reaction of acetylation for the chemical modification of tropical species Calophyllum brasiliense (Cedar Maria) and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Guanacaste). Species have been characterized for quantifying the amount of OH groups available for the acetylation reaction. An important aspect is that the temperature conditions, the ratio of acetic anhydride with has dry wood mass and initial acetic acid concentration were assessed using a factorial design and have determined the conditions with which has obtained greater weight gain in the acetylation reaction. Furthermore, the acetylation reaction was conducted for times of 2 hours, 4,5 hours and 7 hours. The ATR infrared spectroscopy was used to verify the replacement of the OH group by acetyl groups and the increase in the different reaction time. The characteristics obtained from the OH groups have been 13,23 mmol and 13,85 mmol of OH per gram of wood of the Guanacaste species and Cedar Maria respectively. The temperature has been 90 degrees Celsius, one relationship acetic anhydride/dry wood 1,75 mL/g without the initial presence of acetic acid in the reaction medium. Also, percentages of profit of weight (WPG) have been obtained; maximums of 12,20% and 12,44% for Guanacaste for Cedar Maria in reaction time of 7 hours, 4,5 hours respectively. A decrease in the band has performed in the 3300 cm -1 characteristic of the OH group and the presence of bands at 1700 cm -1 characteristic of C=O. One of the main conclusions is that the acetylated wood has been an increase in resistance to biological degradation by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor of about 87% efficiency for both species [es

  4. Modification of REE distribution of ordinary chondrites from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) hot deserts: Insights into the chemical weathering of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Rochette, Pierre; Valenzuela, Millarca; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Mirnejad, Hassan; Sutter, Brad; Hutzler, Aurore; Aboulahris, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) during hot desert weathering of meteorites is investigated. Ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) deserts show different variations in REE composition during this process. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data reveal that hot desert OCs tend to show elevated light REE concentrations, relative to OC falls. Chondrites from Atacama are by far the most enriched in REEs and this enrichment is not necessarily related to their degree of weathering. Positive Ce anomaly of fresh chondrites from Atacama and the successive formation of a negative Ce anomaly with the addition of trivalent REEs are similar to the process reported from Antarctic eucrites. In addition to REEs, Sr and Ba also show different concentrations when comparing OCs from different hot deserts. The stability of Atacama surfaces and the associated old terrestrial ages of meteorites from this region give the samples the necessary time to interact with the terrestrial environment and to be chemically modified. Higher REE contents and LREE-enriched composition are evidence of contamination by terrestrial soil. Despite their low degrees of weathering, special care must be taken into account while working on the REE composition of Atacama meteorites for cosmochemistry applications. In contrast, chondrites from the Lut desert show lower degrees of REE modification, despite significant weathering signed by Sr content. This is explained by the relatively rapid weathering rate of the meteorites occurring in the Lut desert, which hampers the penetration of terrestrial material by forming voluminous Fe oxide/oxyhydroxides shortly after the meteorite fall.

  5. Performance of metal-organic framework MIL-101 after surfactant modification in the extraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-10-01

    The research presented in this paper explored the modification and application of a metal-organic framework, MIL-101, with nonionic surfactant-Triton X-114 in dispersive solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of four endocrine disrupting chemicals (estrone, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estriol and diethylstilbestrol) from environmental water samples. Triton X-114 molecules could be adsorbed by the hydrophobic surface of the MIL-101 crystals, and thus improved the dispersibility of MIL-101 in aqueous solution by serving as a hydrophilic coating. Cloud point phase separation from Triton X-114 accelerated the separation of extracts from the aqueous matrix. The proposed method combines the favorable attributes of strong adsorption capacity resulting from the porous structure of MIL-101 and self-assembly of Triton X-114 molecules. Post-extraction derivatization using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide was employed to facilitate the quantitative determination of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main factors affecting the preparation of modified MIL-101, and extraction of the analytes, such as the amount of surfactant, the ultrasonic and vortex durations, solution pH and desorption conditions, were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the present method yielded low limits of detection (0.006-0.023 ng/mL), good linearity from 0.09 to 45 ng/mL (coefficients of determination higher than 0.9980) and acceptable precision (relative standard deviations of 2.2-13%). The surface modified MIL-101 was demonstrated to be effective for the extraction of the selected estrogens from aqueous samples, giving rise to markedly improved extraction performance compared to the unmodified MIL-101. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  7. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  8. Directed modification of L-LcLDH1, an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei, to improve its specific activity and catalytic efficiency towards phenylpyruvic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Fang; Li, Xue-Qing; Liu, Yan; Yuan, Feng-Jiao; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Min-Chen; Zhang, Ji-Ru

    2018-05-22

    To improve the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of L-LcLDH1, an NADH-dependent allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase from L. casei, towards phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), its directed modification was conducted based on the semi-rational design. The three variant genes, Lcldh1 Q88R , Lcldh1 I229A and Lcldh1 T235G , were constructed by whole-plasmid PCR as designed theoretically, and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), respectively. The purified mutant, L-LcLDH1 Q88R or L-LcLDH1 I229A , displayed the specific activity of 451.5 or 512.4 U/mg towards PPA, by which the asymmetric reduction of PPA afforded L-phenyllactic acid (PLA) with an enantiomeric excess (ee p ) more than 99%. Their catalytic efficiencies (k cat /K m ) without D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate (D-FDP) were 4.8- and 5.2-fold that of L-LcLDH1. Additionally, the k cat /K m values of L-LcLDH1 Q88R and L-LcLDH1 I229A with D-FDP were 168.4- and 8.5-fold higher than those of the same enzymes without D-FDP, respectively. The analysis of catalytic mechanisms by molecular docking (MD) simulation indicated that substituting I229 in L-LcLDH1 with Ala enlarges the space of substrate-binding pocket, and that the replacement of Q88 with Arg makes the inlet of pocket larger than that of L-LcLDH1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential modification of oxic and anoxic radiation damage by chemicals. I. Simulation of the action of caffeine by certain inorganic radical scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Sharma, G.J.; Afzal, S.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Caffeine affords partial radioprotection against oxic damage, but potentiates anoxic damage in dry as well as presoaked barley seeds. Since our earlier studies have implicated a physicochemical pathway of action for such differential modification by caffeine, the effect of inorganic substances, known to scavenge specific categories of free radicals, on the oxic and anoxic components of radiation damage was investigated. It is found that the radiation-induced oxic damage is significantly reduced by potassium permanganate, potassium iodide, potassium nitrate, and potassium ferrocyanide which scavenge predominantly .H + e - /sub aq/, .OH, e - /sub aq/, and .OH radicals, respectively. Each of these four substances, like caffeine, also potentiates anoxic damage in dry seeds, but the anoxic damage in presoaked seeds is potentiated only by potassium ferrocyanide. These results do not confirm the view in the literature that the anoxic sensitization is largely mediated by .OH radicals. A discussion of these observations and the validity of comparing our seed data with those derived from experiments with bacterial spores and ''naked'' DNA solutions is presented

  10. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  11. Specifics of adsorption and chemical processes on the surface of gamma-irradiated vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurkovskaya, V.N.; Dzyubenko, L.S.; Doroshenko, V.N.; Chujko, A.A.; Shakhov, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of γ-irradiation on electrophysical properties and processes of thermal desorption of water from the surface of vanadium oxides V 2 O 3 -VO 2-δ -VO 2+δ -V 2 O 5 was investigated by derivatography and electric conductivity. Content of adsorbed water at the surface and phase composition of the surface was demonstrated to change under the action of low radiation doses. Surface electric conductivity of the irradiated samples VO 2-δ in the process of chemical reactions of adsorbed following irradiation benzoic acid and ethanol was established to be much above than in irradiated-free ones. It is presumed that metal-semiconductor phase transition at the surface of VO 2-δ during chemical reaction is intensified by irradiation [ru

  12. Modification of inorganic surface with 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter J.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification is important because it allows the tuning of surface properties, thereby enabling new applications of a material. It can change physical properties such as wettability and friction, but can also introduce chemical functionalities and binding specificity. Several techniques

  13. A Single Sex Pheromone Receptor Determines Chemical Response Specificity of Sexual Behavior in the Silkmoth Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z...

  14. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  15. Age-specific olfactory attraction between Western honey bee drones (Apis mellifera) and its chemical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Florian; Savarit, Fabrice; Lafon, Grégory; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    During the mating season, drones (males) of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) form congregations numbering thousands high in the air. Virgin queens arrive at these congregations after they have formed and mate on the fly with 15-20 drones. To explain the formation of drone congregations, a drone-produced aggregation pheromone has been proposed many years ago but due to the low accessibility of natural mating sites in bees, its study has progressed slowly. Recently, we used a walking simulator in controlled laboratory conditions to show that drones are indeed attracted by groups of other drones. Since these previous experiments were carried out with drones captured when flying out of the hive, it is currently unclear if this olfactory attraction behaviour is related to the drones' sexual maturity (usually reached between 9 and 12 days) and may thus be indicative of a possible role in congregation formation, or if it is observed at any age and may represent in-hive aggregation. We thus assessed here the dependency of drone olfactory attraction on their age. First, we performed behavioural experiments in the walking simulator to measure olfactory preferences of drones in three age groups from 2-3 to 12-15 days. Then, we performed chemical analyses in the same age groups to evaluate whether chemical substances produced by the drones may explain age differences in olfactory attraction. We show that honey bee drones are attracted by conspecifics of the same age when they are sexually mature (12-15 days old) but not when they are younger (2-3 and 7-8 days old). In parallel, our data show that drones' chemical profile changes with age, including its most volatile fraction. These results are discussed in the context of drone mutual attraction both within the hive and at drone congregations.

  16. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  17. Chemical synthesis of high specific-activity [35S]adenosylhomocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, P.H.; Hoffman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the family of transmethylases, critical to normal cellular function and often altered in cancer, can be facilitated by the availability of a high specific-activity S-adenosylhomocysteine. The authors report the two-step preparation of [ 35 S]adenosylhomocysteine from [ 35 S]methionine at a specific activity of 1420 Ci/mmol in an overall yield of 24% by a procedure involving demethylation of the [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]homocysteine followed by condensation with 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The ease of the reactions, ready availability and low cost of the reagents and high specific-activity and stability of the product make the procedure an attractive one with many uses, and superior to current methodology

  18. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)(2)-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%-70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%-70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with

  19. Electronic tongue - an array of non-specific chemical sensors - for analysis of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Babain, V.

    2006-01-01

    Multisensor systems, combining chemical sensor arrays with multivariate data processing engines (electronic tongue) rapidly and successfully developing in the last years are capable of simultaneous quantitative analysis of several species, e.g. metals, in complex real solutions. The expansion of the metals (metal ions) and species to be detected in radioactive waste requires permanent enhancement of sensing materials and sensors, with seriously different properties from those known earlier. A prospective direction of R and D of novel sensing materials is exploitation of radiochemical extraction systems and application of extraction substances as active components of new sensors. The sensors based on bidentate phosphorous organic compounds and their combinations with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide displayed high sensitivity and selectivity to rare-earth metal ions La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ . The results indicated good promise for the development of novel analytical tools for detection of multivalent metal cations in different media, particularly in corrosive solutions such as radioactive wastes and solutions derived from spent nuclear fuel. The sensors and sensor arrays made on their basis can play an important role in the development of 'electronic tongue' systems for rapid analytical determinations of different components in complex radioactive solutions

  20. An integrated chemical biology approach identifies specific vulnerability of Ewing's sarcoma to combined inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Georg E; Rix, Uwe; Lissat, Andrej; Stukalov, Alexey; Müllner, Markus K; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Nijman, Sebastian M; Kubicek, Stefan; Kovar, Heinrich; Kontny, Udo; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2011-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a pediatric cancer of the bone that is characterized by the expression of the chimeric transcription factor EWS-FLI1 that confers a highly malignant phenotype and results from the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). Poor overall survival and pronounced long-term side effects associated with traditional chemotherapy necessitate the development of novel, targeted, therapeutic strategies. We therefore conducted a focused viability screen with 200 small molecule kinase inhibitors in 2 different Ewing's sarcoma cell lines. This resulted in the identification of several potential molecular intervention points. Most notably, tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457) displayed unique nanomolar efficacy, which extended to other cell lines, but was specific for Ewing's sarcoma. Furthermore, tozasertib showed strong synergies with the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide and doxorubicin, the current standard agents for Ewing's sarcoma. To identify the relevant targets underlying the specific vulnerability toward tozasertib, we determined its cellular target profile by chemical proteomics. We identified 20 known and unknown serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase targets. Additional target deconvolution and functional validation by RNAi showed simultaneous inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B to be responsible for the observed tozasertib sensitivity, thereby revealing a new mechanism for targeting Ewing's sarcoma. We further corroborated our cellular observations with xenograft mouse models. In summary, the multilayered chemical biology approach presented here identified a specific vulnerability of Ewing's sarcoma to concomitant inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B by tozasertib and danusertib, which has the potential to become a new therapeutic option.

  1. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  2. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  3. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific

  4. Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas

    2009-07-22

    The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate.

  5. Tyrosine residues modification studied by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santrucek, Jiri; Strohalm, Martin; Kadlcik, Vojtech; Hynek, Radovan; Kodicek, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Amino acid residue-specific reactivity in proteins is of great current interest in structural biology as it provides information about solvent accessibility and reactivity of the residue and, consequently, about protein structure and possible interactions. In the work presented tyrosine residues of three model proteins with known spatial structure are modified with two tyrosine-specific reagents: tetranitromethane and iodine. Modified proteins were specifically digested by proteases and the mass of resulting peptide fragments was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results show that there are only small differences in the extent of tyrosine residues modification by tetranitromethane and iodine. However, data dealing with accessibility of reactive residues obtained by chemical modifications are not completely identical with those obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. These interesting discrepancies can be caused by local molecular dynamics and/or by specific chemical structure of the residues surrounding

  6. Identification of chlorinated solvents degradation zones in clay till by high resolution chemical, microbial and compound specific isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Bælum, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    subsampling of the clay till cores. The study demonstrates that an integrated approach combining chemical analysis, molecular microbial tools and compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was required in order to document biotic and abiotic degradations in the clay till system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes in clay till was investigated at a contaminated site (Vadsby, Denmark) by high resolution sampling of intact cores combined with groundwater sampling. Over decades of contamination, bioactive zones with degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1...

  7. Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegłowska, Marta; Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna; Kowalewska, Grażyna; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna

    2018-04-04

    In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current study, the presence of species-specific chemical and genetic markers in deep sediments were analyzed to increase the existing knowledge on the history of toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the Baltic Sea. As chemical markers, three cyclic nonribosomal peptides were applied: the hepatotoxic nodularin, which in the sea was detected solely in N. spumigena , and two anabaenopeptins (AP827 and AP883a) characteristic of two different chemotypes of this species. From the same sediment samples, DNA was isolated and the gene involved in biosynthesis of nodularin, as well as the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS), were amplified. The results of chemical and genetic analyses proved for the first time the thousands-year presence of toxic N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea. They also indicated that through all this time, the same two sub-populations of the species co-existed.

  8. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2012-06-01

    virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts.Conclusion/significance: α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with nanomaterials to be a targeting drug that can further decrease immunogenicity and side effects. Through nanotechnology we can make them low-release drugs, which can further prolong their half-life period in the human body.Keywords: ribosome-inactivating proteins, alpha-momorcharin, momordica anti-HIV protein, antitumor, antivirus, (mPEG2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa, immunogenicity

  9. Rational steering of insulin binding specificity by intra-chain chemical crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viková, Jitka; Collinsová, Michaela; Kletvíková, Emília; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kaplan, Vojtěch; Žáková, Lenka; Veverka, Václav; Hexnerová, Rozálie; Aviñó, Roberto J. Tarazona; Straková, Jana; Selicharová, Irena; Vaněk, Václav; Wright, Daniel W.; Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Jiráček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone of human metabolism with major therapeutic importance for both types of diabetes. New insulin analogues with more physiological profiles and better glycemic control are needed, especially analogues that preferentially bind to the metabolic B-isoform of insulin receptor (IR-B). Here, we aimed to stabilize and modulate the receptor-compatible conformation of insulin by covalent intra-chain crosslinking within its B22-B30 segment, using the CuI-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azides and alkynes. This approach resulted in 14 new, systematically crosslinked insulin analogues whose structures and functions were extensively characterized and correlated. One of the analogues, containing a B26-B29 triazole bridge, was highly active in binding to both IR isoforms, with a significant preference for IR-B. Our results demonstrate the potential of chemistry-driven modulation of insulin function, also shedding new light on the functional importance of hormone’s B-chain C-terminus for its IR-B specificity.

  10. Specific chemical and structural damage to proteins produced by synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, M; Ravelli, R B; Kryger, G; McSweeney, S; Raves, M L; Harel, M; Gros, P; Silman, I; Kroon, J; Sussman, J L

    2000-01-18

    Radiation damage is an inherent problem in x-ray crystallography. It usually is presumed to be nonspecific and manifested as a gradual decay in the overall quality of data obtained for a given crystal as data collection proceeds. Based on third-generation synchrotron x-ray data, collected at cryogenic temperatures, we show for the enzymes Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase and hen egg white lysozyme that synchrotron radiation also can cause highly specific damage. Disulfide bridges break, and carboxyl groups of acidic residues lose their definition. Highly exposed carboxyls, and those in the active site of both enzymes, appear particularly susceptible. The catalytic triad residue, His-440, in acetylcholinesterase, also appears to be much more sensitive to radiation damage than other histidine residues. Our findings have direct practical implications for routine x-ray data collection at high-energy synchrotron sources. Furthermore, they provide a direct approach for studying the radiation chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids at a detailed, structural level and also may yield information concerning putative "weak links" in a given biological macromolecule, which may be of structural and functional significance.

  11. Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Mineral Particles Collected in Dunhuang, China and those Collected in the Free Troposphere over Japan: Possible Chemical Modification during Long-Range Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trochkine, D.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Yamada, M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Zhang, D.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.; Li, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Asian continent is recognized as one of the most important sources of mineral (or soil) particles. These particles have a large potential to effect global changes through the biogeochemical cycle of particulates and through radiative balance (IPCC Third Assessment Report, 2001). Therefore, comparison of particle compositions near the source region and those after long-range transport is important in understanding the long-range particle transport phenomenon. Individual aerosol particles were collected in Dunhuang (40 o 09'N; 94 o 41'E), China. Particles were collected at the campus of the Meteorological Bureau of Dunhuang City (17 August 2001) and near the Mogao Grots, located approximately 30 km from Dunhuang (18 August 2001, 18 October 2001 and 13 January 2002) using a two-stage low-volume impactor. The morphology of individual aerosol particles and their elemental compositions were examined via a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, S-3000N) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer (Horiba, EMAX-500). The particles collected at these locations were comprised primarily of minerals, with the exception of sulphate particles in the submicron range that were contained in the sample collected on 18 October 2001 (likely, ammonium sulphate). The most abundant elements were found to be Si and Al. Approximately 46-77% of the collected particles were Si-rich particles (composed primarily of quartz and aluminosilicate),and 13-41% of the collected particles were Ca-rich particles,such as calcite (CaCO 3 ), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ),and gypsum (CaSO 4 c2H 2 O). The fractions of Fe-rich, Mg-rich, Ti-rich, K-rich, and Cl-rich were 3-10, 0-7, 0-3, 0-1, and 0-1%, respectively. Similar types of mineral particles were found in the free troposphere over Japan(Trochkine et al., 2002). A number of differences were found to exist between the particles collected in China and those collected in Japan, and these differences can be explained by chemical modification of

  12. Site-specific photoconjugation of antibodies using chemically synthesized IgG-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perols, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2014-03-19

    Site-specific labeling of antibodies can be performed using the immunoglobulin-binding Z domain, derived from staphylococcal protein A (SpA), which has a well-characterized binding site in the Fc region of antibodies. By introducing a photoactivable probe in the Z domain, a covalent bond can be formed between the Z domain and the antibody by irradiation with UV light. The aim of this study was to improve the conjugation yield for labeling of different subclasses of IgG having different sequence composition, using a photoactivated Z domain variant. Four different variants of the Z domain (Z5BPA, Z5BBA, Z32BPA, and Z32BBA) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the position of the photoactivable probe and the presence of a flexible linker between the probe and the protein. For two of the variants, the photoreactive benzophenone group was introduced as part of an amino acid side chain by incorporation of the unnatural amino acid benzoylphenylalanine (BPA) during peptide synthesis. For the other two variants, the photoreactive benzophenone group was attached via a flexible linker by coupling of benzoylbenzoic acid (BBA) to the ε-amino group of a selectively deprotected lysine residue. Photoconjugation experiments using human IgG1, mouse IgG1, and mouse IgG2A demonstrated efficient conjugation for all antibodies. It was shown that differences in linker length had a large impact on the conjugation efficiency for labeling of mouse IgG1, whereas the positioning of the photoactivable probe in the sequence of the protein had a larger effect for mouse IgG2A. Conjugation to human IgG1 was only to a minor extent affected by position or linker length. For each subclass of antibody, the best variant tested using a standard conjugation protocol resulted in conjugation efficiencies of 41-66%, which corresponds to on average approximately one Z domain attached to each antibody. As a combination of the two best performing variants, Z5BBA and Z32BPA, a Z domain variant with

  13. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  14. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  15. Effect of surface topological structure and chemical modification of flame sprayed aluminum coatings on the colonization of Cylindrotheca closterium on their surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; He, Xiaoyan; Suo, Xinkun; Huang, Jing; Gong, Yongfeng; Liu, Yi; Li, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems for the coatings used for protecting marine infrastructures during their long-term services. Regulation in surface structure and local chemistry is usually the key for adjusting antifouling performances of the coatings. In this study, flame sprayed multi-layered aluminum coatings with micropatterned surfaces were constructed and the effects of their surface structure and chemistry on the settlement of typical marine diatoms were investigated. Micropatterned topographical morphology of the coatings was constructed by employing steel mesh as a shielding plate during the coating deposition. A silicone elastomer layer for sealing and interconnection was further brush-coated on the micropatterned coatings. Additional surface modification was made using zwitterionic molecules via DOPA linkage. The surface-modified coatings resist effectively colonization of Cylindrotheca closterium. This is explained by the quantitative examination of a simplified conditioning layer that deteriorated adsorption of bovine calf serum proteins on the zwitterionic molecule-treated samples is revealed. The colonization behaviors of the marine diatoms are markedly influenced by the micropatterned topographical morphology. Either the surface micropatterning or the surface modification by zwitterionic molecules enhances antimicrobial ability of the coatings. However, the combined micropatterned structure and zwitterionic modification do not show synergistic effect. The results give insight into anti-corrosion/fouling applications of the modified aluminum coatings in the marine environment.

  16. Specificity in chemical profiles of workers, brood and mutualistic fungi in Atta, Acromyrmex, and Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Poulsen, Michael; Drijfhout, Falko

    2007-01-01

    , acids, and esters. The chemical profiles in all three species are likely to be sufficiently different to allow discrimination at the species and colony level and sufficiently similar within colonies to generate a relatively constant colony-specific chemical gestalt. The relative likelihood of individual...

  17. Chemically ignited thermonuclear reactions: A near-term means for a high specific impulse - High thrust propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1982-01-01

    A proposal for the fissionless ignition of small thermonuclear reactions is made which involves the combination of the magnetic booster target inertial fusion concept with the chemical implosion of metallic shells. The magnetic booster employs a very dense and magnetically confined low yield thermonuclear plasma to trigger an inertially confined high yield plasma. Fissionless ignition permits smaller yields than with fission- or fusion-induced fusion bombs, yields that are appropriate for use in a spacecraft propulsion system. Each bomb would release about 10 to the 18th erg or 100 tons of TNT, and with one explosion per second, an average thrust of 10 to the third tons and a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds can be expected

  18. Chemical modification of HTPB for application as polymeric additives for diesel fuel. 1 - phenyl ethers; Modificacao quimicado PBLH para aplicacao como aditivos polimericos para oleo diesel. 1. eteres fenilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Agne R.; Prezibella, Alysson M.; Ferraz, Fernando A.; Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum industry faces several problems related to the crystallization of paraffins, in petroleum and its derivatives, with the reduction of the service temperature. To solve this problem polymeric additives are used, of which the esters have been enough studied in several areas of the world, except in Brazil. In this work, this class of pour point depressant additives it was obtained through the chemical modification of Hydroxyl Terminate Polybutadiene (HTPB) that present a hydrocarbon chemical structure containing one double bound in each repetitive unit and hydroxyl groups of the primary and secondary allylic types - functional groups potentially reactive. The obtained products were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, and they are being tested as additive for the pour point reduction of a diesel oil samples (REPAR-PETROBRAS). (author)

  19. Engineering high Zn in tomato shoots through expression of AtHMA4 involves tissue-specific modification of endogenous genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kendziorek, Maria; Klimecka, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Borg, S?ren; Rudzka, Justyna; Szcz?sny, Pawe?; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, thos...

  20. Donor–Acceptor Copolymers of Relevance for Organic Photovoltaics: A Theoretical Investigation of the Impact of Chemical Structure Modifications on the Electronic and Optical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman; Risko, Chad; Norton, Joseph E.; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    We systematically investigate at the density functional theory level how changes to the chemical structure of donor-acceptor copolymers used in a number of organic electronics applications influences the intrinsic geometric, electronic, and optical

  1. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  2. Surface modification of protein enhances encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyani, Rina D.; Andrade, Mariana; Quester, Katrin; Gaytán, Paul; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have a huge potential as nanocarriers for environmental and biomedical purposes. Protein encapsulation in nano-sized chitosan provides protection against inactivation, proteolysis, and other alterations due to environmental conditions, as well as the possibility to be targeted to specific tissues by ligand functionalization. In this work, we demonstrate that the chemical modification of the protein surface enhances the protein loading in chitosan nanocarriers. Encapsulation of green fluorescent protein and the cytochrome P450 was studied. The increase of electrostatic interactions between the free amino groups of chitosan and the increased number of free carboxylic groups in the protein surface enhance the protein loading, protein retention, and, thus, the enzymatic activity of chitosan nanoparticles. The chemical modification of protein surface with malonic acid moieties reduced drastically the protein isoelectric point increasing the protein interaction with the polycationic biomaterial and chitosan. The chemical modification of protein does not alter the morphology of chitosan nanoparticles that showed an average diameter of 18 nm, spheroidal in shape, and smooth surfaced. The strategy of chemical modification of protein surface, shown here, is a simple and efficient technique to enhance the protein loading in chitosan nanoparticles. This technique could be used for other nanoparticles based on polycationic or polyanionic materials. The increase of protein loading improves, doubtless, the performance of protein-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  3. Ion beam-induced topographical and chemical modification on the poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) and its effect on the molecular interaction between the modified surface and liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae-Chang; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Ju Hwan; Jang, Sang Bok; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated uniform liquid crystal (LC) alignment on ion beam (IB)-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) by modifying the chemical bonding on the surface. An IB-irradiated copolymer was used for the alignment layer. We used physico-chemical analysis to determine the IB-irradiated surface modification and LC alignment mechanism on the surface. During IB treatment on poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol), IB irradiation induces breaking of chemical bonds on the surface to give rise to new bonds with oxygen atoms. This causes a strong Van der Waals interaction between LCs and the modified surface, thereby resulting in uniform LC alignment. The results of contact angle (CA) studies of the copolymer support the chemical bonding changes that were investigated by XPS. We achieved uniform homogeneous LC alignment and obtained stable electro-optical performance by controlling the IB energy. Therefore, the LC cells with IB-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) exhibited a good potential for alternative alignment of layers in LC applications.

  4. Ion beam-induced topographical and chemical modification on the poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) and its effect on the molecular interaction between the modified surface and liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae-Chang [Information Display Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong-Gyu [School of Electrical, Electronic & Control Engineering, Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Uichang-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, 51140 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hwan; Jang, Sang Bok [Information Display Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byeong-Yun [ZeSHTech Co., Ltd., Business Incubator, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123, Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dae-Shik, E-mail: dsseo@yonsei.ac.kr [Information Display Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrated uniform liquid crystal (LC) alignment on ion beam (IB)-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) by modifying the chemical bonding on the surface. An IB-irradiated copolymer was used for the alignment layer. We used physico-chemical analysis to determine the IB-irradiated surface modification and LC alignment mechanism on the surface. During IB treatment on poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol), IB irradiation induces breaking of chemical bonds on the surface to give rise to new bonds with oxygen atoms. This causes a strong Van der Waals interaction between LCs and the modified surface, thereby resulting in uniform LC alignment. The results of contact angle (CA) studies of the copolymer support the chemical bonding changes that were investigated by XPS. We achieved uniform homogeneous LC alignment and obtained stable electro-optical performance by controlling the IB energy. Therefore, the LC cells with IB-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) exhibited a good potential for alternative alignment of layers in LC applications.

  5. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  6. Consequences of intra-specific metabolic diversity in plants for soil organisms : a baseline approach for evaluating ecological effects of genetic modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.

    2012-01-01

    Plant intra-specific variation, i.e. variation within a plant species, is known to affect organisms that are directly associated to plants. These effects may be due to for example differences in nutritional quality or defensive metabolites. Plant intra-specific variation can also affect

  7. Enhancing the specificity of polymerase chain reaction by graphene oxide through surface modification: zwitterionic polymer is superior to other polymers with different charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yong; Huang, Lihong; Zhang, Zhisen; Xiong, Yunjing; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) with different surface characteristics, such as size, reduction degree and charge, are prepared, and their effects on the specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that GO with a large size and high reduction degree is superior to small and nonreduced GO in enhancing the specificity of PCR. Negatively charged polyacrylic acid (PAA), positively charged polyacrylamide (PAM), neutral polyethylene glycol (PEG) and zwitterionic polymer poly(sulfobetaine) (pSB) are used to modify GO. The PCR specificity-enhancing ability increases in the following order: GO-PAA Pfu DNA polymerase. Our data demonstrate that the size, reduction degree and surface charge of GO affect the specificity of PCR. Based on our results, zwitterionic polymer-modified GO may be used as an efficient additive for enhancing the specificity of PCR. PMID:27956830

  8. One-dimensional surface-imprinted polymeric nanotubes for specific biorecognition by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Gozde Ozaydin; Armagan, Efe; Erdogan, Hakan; Buyukserin, Fatih; Uzun, Lokman; Demirel, Gokhan

    2013-07-24

    Molecular imprinting is a powerful, generic, and cost-effective technique; however, challenges still remain related to the fabrication and development of these systems involving nonhomogeneous binding sites, insufficient template removing, incompatibility with aqueous media, low rebinding capacity, and slow mass transfer. The vapor-phase deposition of polymers is a unique technique because of the conformal nature of coating and offers new possibilities in a number of applications including sensors, microfluidics, coating, and bioaffinity platforms. Herein, we demonstrated a simple but versatile concept to generate one-dimensional surface-imprinted polymeric nanotubes within anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes based on initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) technique for biorecognition of immunoglobulin G (IgG). It is reported that the fabricated surface-imprinted nanotubes showed high binding capacity and significant specific recognition ability toward target molecules compared with the nonimprinted forms. Given its simplicity and universality, the iCVD method can offer new possibilities in the field of molecular imprinting.

  9. Donor–Acceptor Copolymers of Relevance for Organic Photovoltaics: A Theoretical Investigation of the Impact of Chemical Structure Modifications on the Electronic and Optical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman

    2012-08-28

    We systematically investigate at the density functional theory level how changes to the chemical structure of donor-acceptor copolymers used in a number of organic electronics applications influences the intrinsic geometric, electronic, and optical properties. We consider the combination of two distinct donors, where a central five-membered ring is fused on both sides by either a thiophene or a benzene ring, with 12 different acceptors linked to the donor either directly or through thienyl linkages. The interplay between the electron richness/deficiency of the subunits as well as the evolution of the frontier electronic levels of the isolated donors/acceptors plays a significant role in determining the electronic and optical properties of the copolymers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes for the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The present design uses undervoltage relays to sense the loss of offsite power. There are no Class 1E loads on the 4160-volt buses. This design consists of two relays per 480-volt Class 1E bus (two Class 1E buses per redundant load group) for the first level of undervoltage protection. An undervoltage condition (loss-of-voltage) will result in isolating the Class 1E buses from all offsite sources, initiating emergency diesel generator start and load shedding on the Class 1E buses, permitting closure of the diesel generator supply breakers, and lastly, the loads will be automatically time-sequenced onto the buses. Actuation begins with loss of voltage to 368 volts (77% of 480 volts). The existing system does not bypass the load-shedding feature once the emergency diesel generators are energizing the Class 1E buses. The licensee has proposed a design change which includes automatic degraded voltage protection. This modification consists of the addition of two time-delayed, undervoltage relays on each 480-volt Class 1E bus, to provide the second level of undervoltage protection

  11. Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Core Histones by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Reveals Unique Algae-Specific Variants and Post-Translational Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aliyya; Eikani, Carlo K; Khan, Hana; Iavarone, Anthony T; Pesavento, James J

    2018-01-05

    The unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has played an instrumental role in the development of many new fields (bioproducts, biofuels, etc.) as well as the advancement of basic science (photosynthetic apparati, flagellar function, etc.). Chlamydomonas' versatility ultimately derives from the genes encoded in its genome and the way that the expression of these genes is regulated, which is largely influenced by a family of DNA binding proteins called histones. We characterize C. reinhardtii core histones, both variants and their post-translational modifications, by chromatographic separation, followed by top-down mass spectrometry (TDMS). Because TDMS has not been previously used to study Chlamydomonas proteins, we show rampant artifactual protein oxidation using established nuclei purification and histone extraction methods. After addressing oxidation, both histones H3 and H4 are found to each have a single polypeptide sequence that is minimally acetylated and methylated. Surprisingly, we uncover a novel monomethylation at lysine 79 on histone H4 present on all observed molecules. Histone H2B and H2A are found to have two and three variants, respectively, and both are minimally modified. This study provides an updated assessment of the core histone proteins in the green alga C. reinhardtii by top-down mass spectrometry and lays the foundation for further investigation of these essential proteins.

  12. Specific environmental release categories--A tool for improving chemical safety assessment in the EC--report of a multi-stakeholder workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättler, Daniel; Schnöder, Frank; Aust, Nannett; Ahrens, Andreas; Bögi, Christian; Traas, Theo; Tolls, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    In April 2011, experts from industry and authorities met for a workshop to discuss experience and future developments regarding the use of specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) in chemicals safety assessment (CSA) under the European Chemicals Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). This article provides a summary of the workshop. It briefly explains what a SPERC is, why SPERCs are needed, where the challenges of the concept are, and what improvements are needed to make SPERCs a useful tool for assessments under REACH. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  14. Drug loading optimization and extended drug delivery of corticoids from pHEMA based soft contact lenses hydrogels via chemical and microstructural modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Millán, Eva; Koprivnik, Sandra; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-20

    This paper proposes an approach to improve drug loading capacity and release properties of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) soft contact lenses based on the optimization of the hydrogel composition and microstructural modifications using water during the polymerization process. P(HEMA) based soft contact lenses were prepared by thermal or photopolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) solutions containing ethylene glycol di-methacrylate as crosslinker and different proportions of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) or methacrylic acid (MA) as co-monomers. Transmittance, water uptake, swelling, microstructure, drug absorption isotherms and in vitro release were characterized using triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as model drug. Best drug loading ratios were obtained with lenses containing the highest amount (200 mM) of MA. Incorporation of 40% V/V of water during the polymerization increases the hydrogel porosity giving a better drug loading capacity. In vitro TA release kinetics shows that MA hydrogels released the drug significantly faster than NVP-hydrogels. Drug release was found to be diffusion controlled and kinetics was shown to be reproducible after consecutive drug loading/release processes. Results of p(HEMA) based soft contact lenses copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and different co-monomers could be a good alternative to optimize the loading and ocular drug delivery of this corticosteroid drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Chemical Modification of Radiation Copolymerized of [N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone/2-(4-Methoxy-Benzylidine)-Malononitrile] with Some Organic Compounds and Their Biological Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sawy, N.M.; Mostafa, T.B.

    2012-01-01

    N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NVP) was copolymerized with 2-(4-methoxy benzylidine)-malononitrile (MBM) monomers to form a new copolymer, P(MBM-co-NVP), containing nitrile groups. The characterization of copolymer and their modified with organic compounds such as thiourea, thiosemicarbazide,2-aminothiazole, N-Glycyl glycine, 4-amino-N-[5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl]benzene sulfonamide and 4-amino-N-[4-methyl-2-pyrimidnyl]benzene sulfonamide was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Elemental analysis (EA), Gel Permeation Chromatograph (GPC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermal Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes in surface morphology of the prepared copolymer and its modified copolymers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biological activity of the modified copolymers with some organic compounds containing with or without sulfur was investigated. The results revealed that the biological activity of the modified copolymers was higher than that of the copolymer ones, under the same conditions. An improvement of prepared copolymers by modification with various organic compounds showed great promise in some practical applications in the field of antibacterial activity.

  16. Evaluating the potential for site-specific modification of LiDAR DEM derivatives to improve environmental planning-scale wetland identification using Random Forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gina L.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Watson, Layne T.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems that provide many ecological benefits, and their quality and presence are protected by federal regulations. These regulations require wetland delineations, which can be costly and time-consuming to perform. Computer models can assist in this process, but lack the accuracy necessary for environmental planning-scale wetland identification. In this study, the potential for improvement of wetland identification models through modification of digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, derived from high-resolution and increasingly available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, at a scale necessary for small-scale wetland delineations is evaluated. A novel approach of flow convergence modelling is presented where Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), curvature, and Cartographic Depth-to-Water index (DTW), are modified to better distinguish wetland from upland areas, combined with ancillary soil data, and used in a Random Forest classification. This approach is applied to four study sites in Virginia, implemented as an ArcGIS model. The model resulted in significant improvement in average wetland accuracy compared to the commonly used National Wetland Inventory (84.9% vs. 32.1%), at the expense of a moderately lower average non-wetland accuracy (85.6% vs. 98.0%) and average overall accuracy (85.6% vs. 92.0%). From this, we concluded that modifying TWI, curvature, and DTW provides more robust wetland and non-wetland signatures to the models by improving accuracy rates compared to classifications using the original indices. The resulting ArcGIS model is a general tool able to modify these local LiDAR DEM derivatives based on site characteristics to identify wetlands at a high resolution.

  17. Systematic evaluation and optimization of modification reactions of oligonucleotides with amines and carboxylic acids for the synthesis of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Samain, Florent; Abd Elrahman, Maaly; Mikutis, Gediminas; Nauer, Angela; Zimmermann, Mauro; Scheuermann, Jörg; Hall, Jonathan; Neri, Dario

    2014-08-20

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries are collections of small molecules, attached to DNA fragments serving as identification barcodes, which can be screened against multiple protein targets, thus facilitating the drug discovery process. The preparation of large DNA-encoded chemical libraries crucially depends on the availability of robust synthetic methods, which enable the efficient conjugation to oligonucleotides of structurally diverse building blocks, sharing a common reactive group. Reactions of DNA derivatives with amines and/or carboxylic acids are particularly attractive for the synthesis of encoded libraries, in view of the very large number of building blocks that are commercially available. However, systematic studies on these reactions in the presence of DNA have not been reported so far. We first investigated conditions for the coupling of primary amines to oligonucleotides, using either a nucleophilic attack on chloroacetamide derivatives or a reductive amination on aldehyde-modified DNA. While both methods could be used for the production of secondary amines, the reductive amination approach was generally associated with higher yields and better purity. In a second endeavor, we optimized conditions for the coupling of a diverse set of 501 carboxylic acids to DNA derivatives, carrying primary and secondary amine functions. The coupling efficiency was generally higher for primary amines, compared to secondary amine substituents, but varied considerably depending on the structure of the acids and on the synthetic methods used. Optimal reaction conditions could be found for certain sets of compounds (with conversions >80%), but multiple reaction schemes are needed when assembling large libraries with highly diverse building blocks. The reactions and experimental conditions presented in this article should facilitate the synthesis of future DNA-encoded chemical libraries, while outlining the synthetic challenges that remain to be overcome.

  18. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housholder, W.R. [Nuclear Containers, Incorporated, Elizabethton, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  19. Sol-gel process preparation and evaluation of the analytical performances of an hydrazine specific chemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojon, C.

    1996-12-01

    The realisation of optical fibers active chemical collector to analyze hydrazine in line, in the spent fuel reprocessing process is the subject of this work. The p.dimethyl-amino-benzaldehyde has been chosen as reagent for its chemical and optical properties

  20. Control of oil-wetting on technical textiles by means of photo-chemical surface modification and its relevance to the performance of compressed air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahners, Thomas; Mölter-Siemens, Wolfgang; Haep, Stefan; Gutmann, Jochen S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil repellence of textile fabrics was increased following the Wenzel concept. • Fiber surfaces were micro-roughened by means of pulsed UV laser irradiation. • Subsequent UV-induced grafting yielded pronounced oil repellence. • The grafting process conserved the delicate topography of the fiber surfaces. • The modified fabrics showed favorable drainage behavior in oil droplet separation. - Abstract: A two-step process comprising a surface roughening step by excimer laser irradiation and a post-treatment by photo-grafting to decrease the surface free energy was employed to increase the oil repellence of technical fabrics made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The modification was designed to improve the performance of multi-layer filters for compressed air filtration, in which the fabrics served to remove, i.e. drain, oil separated from the air stream. In detail, the fibers surfaces were roughened by applying several laser pulses at a wavelength of 248 nm and subsequently photo-grafted with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decyl acrylate (PPFDA). The oil wetting behavior was increased by the treatments from full wetting on the as-received fabrics to highly repellent with oil contact angles of (131 ± 7)°. On surfaces in the latter state, oil droplets did not spread or penetrate even after one day. The grafting of PPFDA alone without any surface roughening yielded an oil contact angle of (97 ± 11)°. However, the droplet completely penetrated the fabric over a period of one day. The drainage performance was characterized by recording the pressure drop over a two-layer model filter as a function of time. The results proved the potential of the treatment, which reduced the flow resistance after 1-h operation by approximately 25%

  1. Inherited phenotype instability of inflorescence and floral organ development in homeotic barley double mutants and its specific modification by auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Kaselytė, Greta; Okockytė, Vaiva; Žukauskaitė, Justina; Žvingila, Donatas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2015-03-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) double mutants Hv-Hd/tw2, formed by hybridization, are characterized by inherited phenotypic instability and by several new features, such as bract/leaf-like structures, long naked gaps in the spike, and a wide spectrum of variations in the basic and ectopic flowers, which are absent in single mutants. Several of these features resemble those of mutations in auxin distribution, and thus the aim of this study was to determine whether auxin imbalances are related to phenotypic variations and instability. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on variation in basic and ectopic flowers were therefore examined, together with the effects of 2,4-D on spike structure. The character of phenotypic instability and the effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D were compared in callus cultures and intact plants of single homeotic Hv-tw2 and Hv-Hooded/Kap (in the BKn3 gene) mutants and alternative double mutant lines: offspring from individual plants in distal hybrid generations (F9-F10) that all had the same BKn3 allele as determined by DNA sequencing. For intact plants, two auxin inhibitors, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), were used. Callus growth and flower/spike structures of the Hv-tw2 mutant differed in their responses to HFCA and PCIB. An increase in normal basic flowers after exposure to auxin inhibitors and a decrease in their frequencies caused by 2,4-D were observed, and there were also modifications in the spectra of ectopic flowers, especially those with sexual organs, but the effects depended on the genotype. Exposure to 2,4-D decreased the frequency of short gaps and lodicule transformations in Hv-tw2 and of long naked gaps in double mutants. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D suggest that ectopic auxin maxima or deficiencies arise in various regions of the inflorescence/flower primordia. Based on the phenotypic instability observed, definite

  2. Chemical modification of silica gel with synthesized Schiff base hydrazone derivative and application for preconcentration and separation of U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamze Karayel Incili; Gul Asiye Aycik

    2014-01-01

    Schiff base hydrazone derivative (HL) sorbent was synthesized according to the literature to be used in the adsorption and preconcentration of U(VI) ions from aqueous solution and it was exposed to immobilization, and new solid support material was obtained. For this purpose, Schiff base hydrazone derivative (HL) was chemically bonded to silica gel surface immobilized 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane, then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The influence of the solution pH, amount of sorbent, contact time, temperature, foreign ion effect and initial U(VI) concentration was investigated. The maximum U(VI) uptake capacity was found to be 8.46 mg/g. (author)

  3. Chemical Modification of Oryza sativa Linnaeus Husk with Urea for Removal of Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide Dyes from Water by Adsorption in Environmentally Benign Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Mahmud, T.; Kanwal, F.; Aslam, M.N.; Nisar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oryza sativa Linnaeus is an important food item all around the world. Due to its huge consumption, a large amount of rice husk is generated as agrowaste which can be used for water treatment by adsorption. Its adsorption capacity further can be enhanced by chemical medication. In the present study, urea modified rice husk has been used for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide form water in an efficient way. After optimizing operating conditions, isothermal and thermodynamical studies were carried out, which showed that maximum adsorption capacity of urea modified rice husk for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide dyes were 28.93 and 30.74 mg.g/sup -1/. Adsorbent characterization was carried out by recording its FT-IR spectra. (author)

  4. Improved anti-inflammatory activity of three new terpenoids derived, by systematic chemical modifications, from the abundant triterpenes of the flowery plant Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, Hannes; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Sosa, Silvio; Altinier, Gianmario; Della Loggia, Roberto; Guerriero, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Rings A, D and E of faradiol (1), and ring E of both arnidiol (10) and calenduladiol (4) have been subjected to various selective chemical manipulations to modify polarity, water affinity, H-bonding, sterics, and number of aromatic groups of these anti-inflammatory natural compounds. A total of 15 new and four known pentacyclic triterpenoids have been obtained in this way. Some 13 terpenoids were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activities with respect to inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema in mouse. Three derivatives of 1, the C(16) benzyl ether 15, the C(30) aldehyde 24, and the C(30) primary alcohol 25 showed significantly improved anti-inflammatory potencies, which is relevant for (future) structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies.

  5. Cell signaling, post-translational protein modifications and NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theillet, Francois-Xavier; Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Liokatis, Stamatios; Thongwichian, Rossukon; Kosten, Jonas; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Landrieu, Isabelle; Lippens, Guy; Selenko, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Post-translationally modified proteins make up the majority of the proteome and establish, to a large part, the impressive level of functional diversity in higher, multi-cellular organisms. Most eukaryotic post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) denote reversible, covalent additions of small chemical entities such as phosphate-, acyl-, alkyl- and glycosyl-groups onto selected subsets of modifiable amino acids. In turn, these modifications induce highly specific changes in the chemical environments of individual protein residues, which are readily detected by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. In the following, we provide a concise compendium of NMR characteristics of the main types of eukaryotic PTMs: serine, threonine, tyrosine and histidine phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, lysine and arginine methylation, and serine, threonine O-glycosylation. We further delineate the previously uncharacterized NMR properties of lysine propionylation, butyrylation, succinylation, malonylation and crotonylation, which, altogether, define an initial reference frame for comprehensive PTM studies by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM, and that these can be used with gene set analysis (GSA methods for chemical treatment identification, for pharmacological mechanism elucidation, and for comparing compound toxicity profiles. Methods We created 30,211 chemical response-specific gene sets for human and mouse by next-gen TM, and derived 1,189 (human and 588 (mouse gene sets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD. We tested for significant differential expression (SDE (false discovery rate -corrected p-values Results Next-gen TM-derived gene sets matching the chemical treatment were significantly altered in three GE data sets, and the corresponding CTD-derived gene sets were significantly altered in five GE data sets. Six next-gen TM-derived and four CTD-derived fibrate gene sets were significantly altered in the PPARA knock-out GE dataset. None of the fibrate signatures in cMap scored significant against the PPARA GE signature. 33 environmental toxicant gene sets were significantly altered in the triazole GE data sets. 21 of these toxicants had a similar toxicity pattern as the triazoles. We confirmed embryotoxic effects, and discriminated triazoles from other chemicals. Conclusions Gene set analysis with next-gen TM-derived chemical response-specific gene sets is a scalable method for identifying similarities in gene responses to other chemicals, from which one may infer potential mode of action and/or toxic effect.

  7. In silico site-directed mutagenesis informs species-specific predictions of chemical susceptibility derived from the Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to address needs for rapid, cost effective methods of species extrapolation of chemical susceptibility. Specifically, the SeqAPASS tool compares the primary sequence (Level 1), functiona...

  8. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Hettne (Kristina); J. Boorsma (Jeffrey); D.A.M. van Dartel (Dorien A M); J.J. Goeman (Jelle); E.C. de Jong (Esther); A.H. Piersma (Aldert); R.H. Stierum (Rob); J. Kleinjans (Jos); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets) for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM), and that these can be used with

  9. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettne, K.M.; Boorsma, A.; Dartel, D.A. van; Goeman, J.J.; Jong, E. de; Piersma, A.H.; Stierum, R.H.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kors, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets) for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM), and that these can be used with gene set

  10. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettne, K.M.; Boorsma, A.; Dartel, van D.A.M.; Goeman, J.J.; Jong, de E.; Piersma, A.H.; Stierum, R.H.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kors, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets) for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM), and that these can be used with gene set

  11. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  12. Cell patterning without chemical surface modification: Cell cell interactions between printed bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) on a homogeneous cell-adherent hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Barron, J. A.; Ringeisen, B. R.

    2006-10-01

    Cell printing offers the unique ability to directly deposit one or multiple cell types directly onto a surface without the need to chemically pre-treat the surface with lithographic methods. We utilize biological laser printing (BioLP ™) to form patterns of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) onto a homogeneous cell adherent hydrogel surface. These normal cells are shown to retain near-100% viability post-printing. In order to determine whether BAECs encountered shear and/or heat stress during printing, immunocytochemical staining experiments were performed to detect potential expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) by the deposited cells. Printed BAECs expressed HSP at levels similar to negative control cells, indicating that the BioLP process does not expose cells to damaging levels of stress. However, HSP expression was slightly higher at the highest laser energy studied, suggesting more stress was present under these extreme conditions. Printed BAECs also showed preferential asymmetric growth and migration towards each other and away from the originally printed pattern, demonstrating a retained ability for the cells to communicate post-printing.

  13. Difference in chemical reactions in bulk plasma and sheath regions during surface modification of graphene oxide film using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Youp; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hong Tak, E-mail: zam89blue@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-14

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films were obtained from capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma treatment of spin-coated graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature. Variations were evaluated according to the two plasma treatment regions: the bulk plasma region (R{sub bulk}) and the sheath region (R{sub sheath}). Reduction and nitridation of the GO films began as soon as the NH{sub 3} plasma was exposed to both regions. However, with the increase in treatment time, the reduction and nitridation reactions differed in each region. In the R{sub bulk}, NH{sub 3} plasma ions reacted chemically with oxygen functional groups on the GO films, which was highly effective for reduction and nitridation. While in the R{sub sheath}, physical reactions by ion bombardment were dominant because plasma ions were accelerated by the strong electrical field. The accelerated plasma ions reacted not only with the oxygen functional groups but also with the broken carbon chains, which caused the removal of the GO films by the formation of hydrocarbon gas species. These results showed that reduction and nitridation in the R{sub bulk} using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma were very effective for modifying the properties of r-GO films for application as transparent conductive films.

  14. Modification of chemical properties, Cu fractionation and enzymatic activities in an acid vineyard soil amended with winery wastes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2017-11-01

    The effects of adding two winery wastes, perlite waste (PW) and bentonite waste (BW), to an acid vineyard soil were assessed using some chemical and biological soil properties in a field study that lasted 18 months. The addition of PW (up to 81 Mg ha -1 ) had neither significant nor permanent effects on soil characteristics such as the pH, organic matter content or nutrient concentrations, the amounts of copper or zinc, or the electrical conductivity. Moreover, no persistent negative effects were found on the enzymatic activities after PW application. In contrast, soil that was amended with up to 71 Mg BW ha -1 showed increases in its soil pH values, exchangeable potassium and water soluble potassium and phosphorus contents. In addition, it caused significant increases in the electrical conductivity and water-soluble Cu. In addition, the phosphomonoesterase enzymatic activity decreased significantly (up to 28%) in response to the amendment with 71 Mg BW ha -1 . These results showed that adding BW and PW to the soil may be a good agronomic practice for recycling these types of wastes. However, in the case of PW, its use as a soil amendment must be performed with caution to control its possible harmful effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-07-01

    This report covers work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context, three general areas were studied: (i) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes); (ii) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems; (iii) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the injection of caustic and foams. The studies completed under this contract involved ap three research tools, analysis, computation and experiments. We have focused on pore level modeling using pore networks and on flow visualization using Hele-Shaw cells. Experiments involving core samples were conducted for the chemical additives investigation. Finally, simulation at the pore scale, pore network scale and reservoir scale were also undertaken. Part of the work has been detailed in five DOE Technical Reports as shown at the end of this report.

  16. Modification of chemical and conformational properties of natural organic matter by click chemistry as revealed by ESI-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    A click reaction is reported here for the first time as a useful technique to control the conformational stability of natural organic matter (NOM) suprastructures. Click conjugates were successfully formed between a previously butynylated NOM hydrophobic fraction and a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG)-amino chain. The click products were shown by size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) hyphenated with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) in electrospray ionization (ESI) (+), while precursors were visible in ESI (-). Despite their increase in molecular weight, HPSEC elution of click conjugates occurred after that of precursors, thus showing their departure from the NOM supramolecular association. This indicates that the click-conjugated NOM molecules were varied in their hydrophilic and cationic character and lost the capacity to accommodate in the original hydrophobic suprastructures. The most abundant product had the C16H30O5N4 formula, a click conjugate of butanoic acid, while other products were short-chained (C4-C8) linear unsaturated and hydroxylated carboxylic acids. Tandem MS revealed formation of triazole rings in clicked conjugates and their two fragmentations at the ester and the C-N alkyl-aryl bonds. The behavior of NOM molecules modified by click chemistry confirms that hydrophobicity and ionic charge of humic molecules play a pivotal role in stabilizing intermolecular forces in NOM. Moreover, the versatility of the click reaction may become useful to decorate NOM molecules with a variety of substrates, in order to alter NOM conformational and chemical properties and diversify its applications in the environment.

  17. Chemical strategies for modifications of the solar cell process, from wafering to emitter diffusion; Chemische Ansaetze zur Neuordnung des Solarzellenprozesses ausgehend vom Wafering bis hin zur Emitterdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Kuno

    2009-11-06

    The paper describes the classic standard industrial solar cell based on monocrystalline silicon and describes new methods of fabrication. The first is an alternative wafering concept using laser microjet cutting instead of multiwire cutting. This method originally uses pure, deionized water; it was modified so that the liquid jet will not only be a liquid light conductor but also a transport medium for etching fluids supporting thermal abrasion of silicon by the laser jet. Two etching fluids were tested experimentally; it was found that water-free fluids based on perfluorinated solvents with very slight additions of gaseous chlorine are superior to all other options. In the second section, the wet chemical process steps between wafering and emitter diffusion (i.e. the first high-temperature step) was to be modified. Alternatives to 2-propanol were to be found in the experimental part. Purification after texturing was to be rationalized in order to reduce the process cost, either by using less chemical substances or by achieving shorter process times. 1-pentanol and p-toluolsulfonic acid were identified as two potential alternatives to 2-propanol as texture additives. Finally, it could be shown that wire-cut substrates processed with the new texturing agents have higher mechanical stabilities than substrates used with the classic texturing agent 2-propanol. [German] Im ersten Kapitel wird die klassische Standard-Industrie-Solarzelle auf der Basis monokristallinen Siliziums vorgestellt. Der bisherige Herstellungsprozess der Standard-Industrie-Solarzelle, der in wesentlichen Teilen darauf abzielt, diese Verluste zu minimieren, dient als Referenz fuer die Entwicklung neuer Fertigungsverfahren, wie sie in dieser Arbeit vorgestellt werden. Den ersten thematischen Schwerpunkt bildet die Entwicklung eines alternativen Wafering-Konzeptes zum Multi-Drahtsaegen. Die Basis des neuen, hier vorgestellten Wafering-Prozesses bildet das Laser-Micro-Jet-Verfahren. Dieses System

  18. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramos-Morales

    Full Text Available The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS. The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001. The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39% and lower butyrate (-32% and lower ammonia concentration (-64% than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45% and an increase in propionate (+43% molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42% observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05. It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an

  19. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  20. Microbiological, physico-chemical, and sensorial modifications during the useful life of the shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Mariana Del Ben

    2000-01-01

    During the last years, there has been an increase in the consumption of seafood and freshwater fish as a healthier diet option. Shrimps are the most important product in the international trade market. This kind of food easily deteriorates due to autolysis, oxidation and microbial action. This research was carried out in order to study the effectiveness of radiation in preserving shrimps. Samples of shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis and P. paulensi) were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O kGy, 1 kGy, 2 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy and stored under refrigeration. The microbiological analysis was performed on days O, 2, 4, 7 10 and 14 post processing. Simultaneously, the pH and total, volatile bases (TVBN) were determined. The psychotropic population varied from <2.0 log to 8.08 log CFU/g while the mesophilic ranged from <1.0 109 to 6.03 log CFU/g; pH varied from 7.52 to 8.33 and TVBN from 28.47 to 56.00 mg N/100g, according to the radiation dose and the day of analysis. Black spots, changes in the characteristic odour and TVBN levels showed the beginning of a chemical deterioration as of the 4 th day of analysis. Doses of 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy presented the best results. Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest sensitivity to radiation. Due to the lapse of time between capturing shrimps and returning to land together with inadequate manipulation and storage in the boat, the quality of raw material is prejudiced which makes the radiation process unfeasible. (author)

  1. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  2. Lithium-Induced Neuroprotection is Associated with Epigenetic Modification of Specific BDNF Gene Promoter and Altered Expression of Apoptotic-Regulatory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar eDwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD, one of the most debilitating mental disorders, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Lithium is the first line of treatment option for BD and is often used for maintenance therapy. Recently, the neuroprotective action of lithium has gained tremendous attention, given that BD is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the brain. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which lithium exerts its neuroprotective action is not clearly understood. In hippocampal neurons, the effects of lithium on neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, dendritic length and number, and expression and methylation of BDNF promoter exons and expression of apoptotic regulatory genes were studied. In rat hippocampal neurons, lithium not only increased dendritic length and number, but also neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. While lithium increased the expression of BDNF as well as genes associated with neuroprotection such as Bcl2 and Bcl-XL, it decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and caspases 3. Interestingly, lithium activated transcription of specific exon IV to induce BDNF gene expression. This was accompanied by hypomethylation of BDNF exon IV promoter. This study delineates mechanisms by which lithium mediates its effects in protecting neurons.

  3. Proton magnetic resonance study of the influence of chemical modification, mutation, quaternary state, and ligation state on dynamic stability of the heme pocket in hemoglobin as reflected in the exchange of the proximal histidyl ring labile proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.H.; La Mar, G.N.; Nagai, K.

    1989-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the rates of exchange with deuterium of the proximal histidyl ring protons in a series of chemically modified and mutated forms of Hb A. Differences in rates of exchange are related to differences in the stability of the deformed or partially unfolded intermediates from which exchange with bulk solvent takes place. Each modified/mutated Hb exhibited kinetic subunit heterogeneity in the reduced ferrous state, with the alpha subunit exhibiting faster exchange than the beta subunit. Modification or mutation resulted in significant increases in the His F8 ring NH exchange rates primarily for the affected subunit and only if the modification/mutation occurs at the allosterically important alpha 1 beta 2 subunit interface. Moreover, this enhancement in exchange rate is observed primarily in that quaternary state of the modified/mutated Hb in which the modified/substituted residue makes the intersubunit contact. This confirms the importance of allosteric constraints in determining the dynamic properties of the heme pocket. Using modified or mutated Hbs that can switch between the alternate quaternary states within a given ligation state or ligate within a given quaternary state, we show that the major portion of the enhanced exchange rate in R-state oxy Hb relative to T-state deoxy Hb originates from the quaternary switch rather than from ligation. However, solely ligation effects are not negligible. The exchange rates of the His F8 ring labile protons increase dramatically upon oxidizing the iron to the ferric state, and both the subunit kinetic heterogeneity and the allosteric sensitivity to the quaternary state are essentially abolished

  4. Requirement of Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Modification and Phosphatidylserine Binding for the Activation of Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk Receptors by Growth Arrest-Specific 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Geng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAM receptors are homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that have critical functions in the clearance of apoptotic cells in multicellular organisms. TAMs are activated by their endogenous ligands, growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6, and protein S (Pros1, that function as bridging molecules between externalized phosphatidylserine (PS on apoptotic cells and the TAM ectodomains. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Gas6/Pros1 promote TAM activation remains elusive. Using TAM/IFNγR1 reporter cell lines to monitor functional TAM activity, we found that Gas6 activity was exquisitely dependent on vitamin K-mediated γ-carboxylation, whereby replacing vitamin K with anticoagulant warfarin, or by substituting glutamic acid residues involved in PS binding, completely abrogated Gas6 activity as a TAM ligand. Furthermore, using domain and point mutagenesis, Gas6 activity also required both an intact Gla domain and intact EGF-like domains, suggesting these domains function cooperatively in order to achieve TAM activation. Despite the requirement of γ-carboxylation and the functional Gla domain, non-γ-carboxylated Gas6 and Gla deletion/EGF-like domain deletion mutants still retained their ability to bind TAMs and acted as blocking decoy ligands. Finally, we found that distinct sources of PS-positive cells/vesicles (including apoptotic cells, calcium-induced stressed cells, and exosomes bound Gas6 and acted as cell-derived or exosome-derived ligands to activate TAMs. Taken together, our findings indicate that PS is indispensable for TAM activation by Gas6, and by inference, provides new perspectives on how PS, regulates TAM receptors and efferocytosis.

  5. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets) for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM), and that these can be used with gene set analysis (GSA) methods for chemical treatment identification, for pharmacological mechanism elucidation, and for comparing compound toxicity profiles. Methods We created 30,211 chemical response-specific gene sets for human and mouse by next-gen TM, and derived 1,189 (human) and 588 (mouse) gene sets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). We tested for significant differential expression (SDE) (false discovery rate -corrected p-values sets and the CTD-derived gene sets in gene expression (GE) data sets of five chemicals (from experimental models). We tested for SDE of gene sets for six fibrates in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) knock-out GE dataset and compared to results from the Connectivity Map. We tested for SDE of 319 next-gen TM-derived gene sets for environmental toxicants in three GE data sets of triazoles, and tested for SDE of 442 gene sets associated with embryonic structures. We compared the gene sets to triazole effects seen in the Whole Embryo Culture (WEC), and used principal component analysis (PCA) to discriminate triazoles from other chemicals. Results Next-gen TM-derived gene sets matching the chemical treatment were significantly altered in three GE data sets, and the corresponding CTD-derived gene sets were significantly altered in five GE data sets. Six next-gen TM-derived and four CTD-derived fibrate gene sets were significantly altered in the PPARA knock-out GE dataset. None of the fibrate signatures in cMap scored significant against the PPARA GE signature. 33 environmental toxicant gene sets were significantly altered in the triazole GE data sets. 21 of these toxicants had a similar toxicity pattern as the

  6. Mechanisms of radio-resistance and its modification by chemicals. Coordinated programme on improvement in radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.B.; Shenoy, M.

    1982-01-01

    Several membrane specific drugs have been tested for their radiosensitizing effects under hypoxia/anoxia using E.Coli cells. Among these chlorpromazine (CPZ) proved most effective. Investigations on its mechanism of action revealed partial involvement of radiolytic transients and its inhibitory effect on DNA repair and synthesis. A ''coctail'' consisting of CPZ and other drugs like procaine lignocaine, or telsacaine sensitized hypoxic bacteria beyond ''oxygen effect''. CPZ also showed preferential cytotoxicity to anoxic/hypoxic bacteria. Prolonged treatment of cells with CPZ under hypoxia at elevated temperatures (up to 39 0 C) proved more lethal and the surviving cells showed extreme radiosensitivity (DMF=0.11). These results therefore wave situ extension of investigations to tumours. Two animal tumours viz a fibrosarcoma and sarcoma 180 were grown on Swiss mice. CPZ enhanced the radiation induced regression of these solid tumours. CPZ on its own showed chemotherapeutic effect and controlled the growth of these tumours. The chemotherapeutic effect was further enhanced at hyperthermic temperatures (41 and 42 0 C). Pharmokinetic investigations on distribution and retention of CPZ in plasma, tumours and other organs have been completed using S-35 labelled CPZ. Clinical trials with human patients are being initiated. Attempts are also being made to target such drugs to tumour sites by encapsulating them in artificial liposomes and blood cells

  7. Modeling the exposure of children and adults via diet to chemicals in the environment with crop-specific models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    role. Children take up more than twice the amount than adults per kg bodyweight, due to higher consumption per kg bodyweight. Contrary, the methods for indirect human exposure suggested in the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for chemical risk assessment in the EU lead to overprediction, due...

  8. Safety evaluation of the mixture of chemicals at a specific workplace : theoretical considerations and a suggested two-step procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Arts, J.H.E.; Cassee, F.R.; Vrijer, F. de; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1995-01-01

    Procedures for the selection of compounds with high health hazard potential are reviewed, and major aspects of the assessment of health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of chemicals are discussed. Examples are given of additivity and synergism of effects following exposure to mixtures.

  9. Catabolism of (+/-)-abscisic acid by excised leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan and its modification by chemical and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.K.; Railton, I.D.

    1987-01-01

    Excised light-grown leaves and etiolated leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan catabolized applied (+/-)-[2- 14 C]abscisic acid ([+/-]-[2- 14 C]ABA) to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and 2'-hydroxymethyl ABA (2'-HMABA). Identification of these catabolites was made by microchemical methods and by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following high dose feeds of nonlabeled substrate to leaves. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that 2'-HMABA was derived from the (-) enantiomer of ABA. Refeeding studies were used to confirm the catabolic route. The methyl ester of (+/-)-[2 14 C]-ABA was hydrolyzed efficiently by light-grown leaves of H. vulgare. Leaf age played a significant role in (+/-)-ABA catabolism, with younger leaves being less able than their older counterparts to catabolize this compound. The catabolism of (+/-)-ABA was inhibited markedly in water-stressed Hordeum leaves which was characterized by a decreased incorporation of label into 2'-HMABA, DPA, and conjugates. The specific, mixed function oxidase inhibitor, ancymidol, did not inhibit, dramatically (+/-)-ABA catabolism in light-grown leaves of Hordeum whereas the 80s ribosome, translational inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited this process markedly. The 70s ribosome translational inhibitors, lincomycin and chloramphenicol, were less effective than cycloheximide in inhibiting (+/-)-ABA catabolism, implying that cytoplasmic protein synthesis is necessary for the catabolism of (+/-)-ABA in Hordeum leaves whereas chloroplast protein synthesis plays only a minor role. This further suggests that the enzymes involved in (+/-)-ABA catabolism in this plant are cytoplasmically synthesized and are turned-over rapidly, although the enzyme responsible for glycosylating (+/-)-ABA itself appeared to be stable

  10. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  11. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  12. A novel class of chemicals that react with abasic sites in DNA and specifically kill B cell cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqiao Wei

    Full Text Available Most B cell cancers overexpress the enzyme activation-induced deaminase at high levels and this enzyme converts cytosines in DNA to uracil. The constitutive expression of this enzyme in these cells greatly increases the uracil content of their genomes. We show here that these genomes also contain high levels of abasic sites presumably created during the repair of uracils through base-excision repair. We further show that three alkoxyamines with an alkyne functional group covalently link to abasic sites in DNA and kill immortalized cell lines created from B cell lymphomas, but not other cancers. They also do not kill normal B cells. Treatment of cancer cells with one of these chemicals causes strand breaks, and the sensitivity of the cells to this chemical depends on the ability of the cells to go through the S phase. However, other alkoxyamines that also link to abasic sites- but lack the alkyne functionality- do not kill cells from B cell lymphomas. This shows that the ability of alkoxyamines to covalently link to abasic sites is insufficient for their cytotoxicity and that the alkyne functionality may play a role in it. These chemicals violate the commonly accepted bioorthogonality of alkynes and are attractive prototypes for anti-B cell cancer agents.

  13. Modification-specific proteomics in plant biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Jensen, Ole N

    2010-01-01

    and proteomics. In general, methods for PTM characterization are developed to study yeast and mammalian biology and later adopted to investigate plants. Our point of view is that it is advantageous to enrich for PTMs on the peptide level as part of a quantitative proteomics strategy to not only identify the PTM...

  14. Chemical-specific screening criteria for interpretation of biomonitoring data for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--application of steady-state PBPK model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Kirman, Chris R; Blount, Ben C; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) generates population-representative biomonitoring data for many chemicals including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood. However, no health or risk-based screening values are available to evaluate these data from a health safety perspective or to use in prioritizing among chemicals for possible risk management actions. We gathered existing risk assessment-based chronic exposure reference values such as reference doses (RfDs), reference concentrations (RfCs), tolerable daily intakes (TDIs), cancer slope factors, etc. and key pharmacokinetic model parameters for 47 VOCs. Using steady-state solutions to a generic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model structure, we estimated chemical-specific steady-state venous blood concentrations across chemicals associated with unit oral and inhalation exposure rates and with chronic exposure at the identified exposure reference values. The geometric means of the slopes relating modeled steady-state blood concentrations to steady-state exposure to a unit oral dose or unit inhalation concentration among 38 compounds with available pharmacokinetic parameters were 12.0 microg/L per mg/kg-d (geometric standard deviation [GSD] of 3.2) and 3.2 microg/L per mg/m(3) (GSD=1.7), respectively. Chemical-specific blood concentration screening values based on non-cancer reference values for both oral and inhalation exposure range from 0.0005 to 100 microg/L; blood concentrations associated with cancer risk-specific doses at the 1E-05 risk level ranged from 5E-06 to 6E-02 microg/L. The distribution of modeled steady-state blood concentrations associated with unit exposure levels across VOCs may provide a basis for estimating blood concentration screening values for VOCs that lack chemical-specific pharmacokinetic data. The screening blood concentrations presented here provide a tool for risk assessment-based evaluation of population biomonitoring data for VOCs and

  15. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE KONDENSITSIONNYH AEROSOLS WELDING AND METALLURGICHESKIH PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of surface kondensitsionnyh aerosols (KA which formation when heat treatment metals (process of weld, foundry processes with application chlorosilanes are suggested. Adsorbtion vapor of water on modification powders KA decreases and changes in varies from modifier and conditions modification are setted.

  16. Specific interactions of functionalised gold surfaces with ammonium perchlorate or starch; towards a chemical cartography of their mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, D.; Mercader, C.; Quere, S.; Hairault, L.; Méthivier, C.; Pradier, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    By functionalising gold samples, planar wafers or AFM tips, with an acid- or an amino acid-terminated thiols, mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and homocystein (H-Cyst) respectively, we were able to differentiate the interactions with ammonium perchlorate (AP) and starch (S), two components of a nanocomposition mixture. To do so, the interaction between gold functionalized surfaces and the two targeted compounds have been characterized and quantified by several complementary techniques. Polarisation modulation-infrared spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), providing chemical analyses of gold surfaces after contacting S or AP, proved that both compounds were retained on MUA or H-Cyst-modified surfaces, but to various extents. Quartz crystal microbalance on-line measurements enabled to monitor the kinetics of interaction and showed distinct differences in the behaviour of MUA and H-Cyst-surfaces towards the two compounds. Having observed that only H-Cyst-modified surfaces enables to get a contrast on the chemical force microscopy (CFM) images, this new result could be well explained by examining the data obtained by combining the above-mentioned surface characterisation techniques.

  17. Specific interactions of functionalised gold surfaces with ammonium perchlorate or starch; towards a chemical cartography of their mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, D. [CNRS, UMR CNRS 7609, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - UPMC Paris VI, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratoire de recherche conventionne CEA/UPMC n Degree-Sign 1, Paris (France); Mercader, C.; Quere, S.; Hairault, L. [CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, F-37260 Monts (France); Laboratoire de recherche conventionne CEA/UPMC n Degree-Sign 1, Paris (France); Methivier, C. [CNRS, UMR CNRS 7609, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - UPMC Paris VI, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratoire de recherche conventionne CEA/UPMC n Degree-Sign 1, Paris (France); Pradier, C.M., E-mail: claire-Marie.pradier@upmc.fr [CNRS, UMR CNRS 7609, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - UPMC Paris VI, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratoire de recherche conventionne CEA/UPMC n Degree-Sign 1, Paris (France)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements of interactions by Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM and CFM measurements, tip functionalisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface nano-imaging. - Abstract: By functionalising gold samples, planar wafers or AFM tips, with an acid- or an amino acid-terminated thiols, mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and homocystein (H-Cyst) respectively, we were able to differentiate the interactions with ammonium perchlorate (AP) and starch (S), two components of a nanocomposition mixture. To do so, the interaction between gold functionalized surfaces and the two targeted compounds have been characterized and quantified by several complementary techniques. Polarisation modulation-infrared spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), providing chemical analyses of gold surfaces after contacting S or AP, proved that both compounds were retained on MUA or H-Cyst-modified surfaces, but to various extents. Quartz crystal microbalance on-line measurements enabled to monitor the kinetics of interaction and showed distinct differences in the behaviour of MUA and H-Cyst-surfaces towards the two compounds. Having observed that only H-Cyst-modified surfaces enables to get a contrast on the chemical force microscopy (CFM) images, this new result could be well explained by examining the data obtained by combining the above-mentioned surface characterisation techniques.

  18. A chemical biology approach reveals period shortening of the mammalian circadian clock by specific inhibition of GSK-3beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Lewis, Warren G; Liu, Andrew C; Lee, Jae Wook; Schultz, Peter G; Kay, Steve A

    2008-12-30

    The circadian clock controls daily oscillations of gene expression at the cellular level. We report the development of a high-throughput circadian functional assay system that consists of luminescent reporter cells, screening automation, and a data analysis pipeline. We applied this system to further dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the mammalian circadian clock using a chemical biology approach. We analyzed the effect of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds with diverse structures on the circadian period length that is indicative of the core clock mechanism. Our screening paradigm identified many compounds previously known to change the circadian period or phase, demonstrating the validity of the assay system. Furthermore, we found that small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) consistently caused a strong short period phenotype in contrast to the well-known period lengthening by lithium, another presumed GSK-3 inhibitor. siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK-3beta also caused a short period, confirming the phenotype obtained with the small molecule inhibitors. These results clarify the role of GSK-3beta in the period regulation of the mammalian clockworks and highlight the effectiveness of chemical biology in exploring unidentified mechanisms of the circadian clock.

  19. Molecular-Level Thermodynamic Switch Controls Chemical Equilibrium in Sequence-Specific Hydrophobic Interaction of 35 Dipeptide Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the Planck-Benzinger methodology, the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions of 35 dipeptide pairs were examined over a temperature range of 273–333 K, based on data reported by Nemethy and Scheraga in 1962. The hydrophobic interaction in these sequence-specific dipeptide pairs is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of other biological systems. The results imply that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at a well-defined stable temperature, 〈Ts〉, where t...

  20. Specificity of HPLC to assess the chemical stability based on partenine from Parthenium hysterophorus L. powdered dry foliage (escoba amarga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo Hernandez, Yanelis; Mohamad Safa, Bassam; Gonzalez Bedia, Mirtha Mayra

    2010-01-01

    It is required a specific analysis technique allowing the follow-up to stability study intrinsic of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (escoba amarga) powdered dry foliage to achieve in a pharmaceutical way a antiparasitic usefulness with the quality, safety and effectiveness demanded requirements. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to P. hysterophorus degraded samples under degradation conditions in an oxidative, basic and acid medium. The analysis technique specificity was assessed to detect the interest component without interferences of its degradation products and its possible usefulness in studies on solid stability in the plant powder

  1. Individualizing pharmacotherapy in patients with renal impairment: the validity of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula in specific patient populations with a glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn L Eppenga

    Full Text Available The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula is widely used in clinical practice to assess the correct drug dose. This formula is based on serum creatinine levels which might be influenced by chronic diseases itself or the effects of the chronic diseases. We conducted a systematic review to determine the validity of the MDRD formula in specific patient populations with renal impairment: elderly, hospitalized and obese patients, patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and human immunodeficiency virus.We searched for articles in Pubmed published from January 1999 through January 2014. Selection criteria were (1 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min (/1.73 m2, (2 MDRD formula compared with a gold standard and (3 statistical analysis focused on bias, precision and/or accuracy. Data extraction was done by the first author and checked by a second author. A bias of 20% or less, a precision of 30% or less and an accuracy expressed as P30% of 80% or higher were indicators of the validity of the MDRD formula. In total we included 27 studies. The number of patients included ranged from 8 to 1831. The gold standard and measurement method used varied across the studies. For none of the specific patient populations the studies provided sufficient evidence of validity of the MDRD formula regarding the three parameters. For patients with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis, hospitalized patients and elderly with moderate to severe renal impairment we concluded that the MDRD formula is not valid. Limitations of the review are the lack of considering the method of measuring serum creatinine levels and the type of gold standard used.In several specific patient populations with renal impairment the use of the MDRD formula is not valid or has uncertain validity.

  2. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  3. Chemical probing of the human sirtuin 5 active site reveals its substrate acyl specificity and peptide-based inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Claudia; Nowak, Theresa; Pannek, Martin; Gertz, Melanie; Nguyen, Giang T T; Scharfe, Michael; Born, Ilona; Sippl, Wolfgang; Steegborn, Clemens; Schutkowski, Mike

    2014-09-26

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases acting as sensors in metabolic pathways and stress response. In mammals there are seven isoforms. The mitochondrial sirtuin 5 is a weak deacetylase but a very efficient demalonylase and desuccinylase; however, its substrate acyl specificity has not been systematically analyzed. Herein, we investigated a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 derived peptide substrate and modified the lysine side chain systematically to determine the acyl specificity of Sirt5. From that point we designed six potent peptide-based inhibitors that interact with the NAD(+) binding pocket. To characterize the interaction details causing the different substrate and inhibition properties we report several X-ray crystal structures of Sirt5 complexed with these peptides. Our results reveal the Sirt5 acyl selectivity and its molecular basis and enable the design of inhibitors for Sirt5. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A retrospective cohort study of shift work and risk of cancer-specific mortality in German male chemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Messerer, Peter; Oberlinner, Christoph; Lang, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Human evidence of carcinogenicity concerning shift work is inconsistent. In a previous study, we observed no elevated risk of total mortality in shift workers followed up until the end of 2006. The present study aimed to investigate cancer-specific mortality, relative to shift work. The cohort consisted of male production workers (14,038 shift work and 17,105 day work), employed at BASF Ludwigshafen for at least 1 year between 1995 and 2005. Vital status was followed from 2000 to 2009. Cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Exposure to shift work was measured both as a dichotomous and continuous variable. While lifetime job history was not available, job duration in the company was derived from personal data, which was then categorized at the quartiles. Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for potential confounders, in which job duration was treated as a time-dependent covariate. Between 2000 and 2009, there were 513 and 549 deaths among rotating shift and day work employees, respectively. Risks of total and cancer-specific mortalities were marginally lower among shift workers when taking age at entry and job level into consideration and were statistically significantly lower when cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, job duration, and chronic disease prevalence at entry to follow-up were included as explanatory factors. With respect to mortality risks in relation to exposure duration, no increased risks were found in any of the exposure groups after full adjustment and there was no apparent trend suggesting an exposure-response relation with duration of shift work. The present analysis extends and confirms our previous finding of no excess risk of mortality associated with work in the shift system employed at BASF Ludwigshafen. More specifically, there is also no indication of an increased risk of mortality due to cancer.

  5. Posttranslational Modifications and the Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jefferis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by its gene sequence, the final structure and function are determined by posttranslational modifications (PTMs, including quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and during passage through the Golgi apparatus. These processes are species and cell specific and challenge the biopharmaceutical industry when developing a production platform for the generation of recombinant biologic therapeutics. Proteins and glycoproteins are also subject to chemical modifications (CMs both in vivo and in vitro. The individual is naturally tolerant to molecular forms of self-molecules but nonself variants can provoke an immune response with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA; aggregated forms can exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and QC procedures are developed to avoid or remove them. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics (mAbs are a special case because their purpose is to bind the target, with the formation of immune complexes (ICs, a particular form of aggregate. Such ICs may be removed by phagocytic cells that have antigen presenting capacity. These considerations may frustrate the possibility of ameliorating the immunogenicity of mAbs by rigorous exclusion of aggregates from drug product. Alternate strategies for inducing immunosuppression or tolerance are discussed.

  6. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in breast milk of French, Danish and Finnish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antignac, J P; Main, K M; Virtanen, H E

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares concentrations and chemical profiles of an extended range of persistent organic pollutants (dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pesticides) in breast milk samples from French (n = 96), Danish (n = 438) and Finnish (n = 22) women....... Median exposure levels observed in French women (WHO-TEQ2005 PCDD/F = 6.1 pg/g l.w., WHO-TEQ2005 dl-PCB = 4.3 pg/g l.w., sum of 6 ndl-PCB = 85.2 ng/g l.w., sum of 7 i-PBDE = 1.5 ng/g l.w.) appeared overall lower than in Danish and Finnish women for all examined POPs, except for α-HBCD (2-fold higher...... level at 0.6 ng/g l.w.). Furthermore, the observed exposure levels of dioxins and PCBs were higher in Danish women (WHO-TEQ2005 PCDD/F = 13.2 pg/g l.w., WHO-TEQ2005 dl-PCB = 6.6 pg/g l.w., sum of 6 ndl-PCB = 162.8 ng/g l.w.) compared to Finnish women (WHO-TEQ2005 PCDD/F = 9.0 pg/g l.w., WHO-TEQ2005 dl...

  7. Developmental exposure to 50 parts-per-billion arsenic influences histone modifications and associated epigenetic machinery in a region- and sex-specific manner in the adult mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Hafez, Alexander K.; Solomon, Elizabeth R.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity has a profound effect on the epigenetic landscape, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50 ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3 K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region-specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3 K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development leads to long-lasting changes in histone methylation and acetylation in the adult

  8. Developmental exposure to 50 parts-per-billion arsenic influences histone modifications and associated epigenetic machinery in a region- and sex-specific manner in the adult mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Hafez, Alexander K.; Solomon, Elizabeth R.; Allan, Andrea M., E-mail: aallan@salud.unm.edu

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity has a profound effect on the epigenetic landscape, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50 ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3 K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region-specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3 K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development leads to long-lasting changes in histone methylation and acetylation in the adult

  9. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  10. Chemical modification of carbon powders with aminophenyl and aryl-aliphatic amine groups by reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations: Applicability of the grafted powder towards CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelie Grondein; Daniel Belanger [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Departement de Chimie

    2011-08-15

    Aminophenyl, p-aminobenzyl and p-aminoethylphenyl groups were grafted at the surface of carbon Vulcan XC72R by spontaneous reduction of the in situ generated diazonium cations from the corresponding amine. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed an amine loading of about 1 mmol/g. The grafting of amine functionalities leads to a decrease of specific surface area from 223 to about 110 m{sup 2}/g with a drastic loss of microporosity. Acid-base properties of the surface are also affected by the modification. Aminophenyl grafted groups make the surface more acidic while aryl-aliphatic amines groups tends to render it more basic. The grafted layer shows in each case a good thermal stability up to 250{sup o}C. The affinity of the modified powder towards CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} has been evaluated by thermal swing adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of CO{sub 2} of modified carbons is lower than the unmodified carbon but the presence of the amine functionalities involves a better selectivity of the material towards CO{sub 2} adsorption in comparison of N{sub 2} adsorption. 53 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Imaging Taurine in the Central Nervous System Using Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging at the Sulfur K-Edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, Mark J.; Paterson, Phyllis G.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N. (Curtin U.); (Saskatchewan)

    2016-11-15

    A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically “tagged” and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator, and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine’s neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo or in situ in tissue sections. We thus have developed chemically specific X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) at the sulfur K-edge to image the sulfonate group in taurine in situ in ex vivo tissue sections. To our knowledge, this represents the first undistorted imaging of taurine distribution in brain at 20 μm resolution. We report quantitative technique validation by imaging taurine in the cerebellum and hippocampus regions of the rat brain. Further, we apply the technique to image taurine loss from the vulnerable CA1 (cornus ammonis 1) sector of the rat hippocampus following global brain ischemia. The location-specific loss of taurine from CA1 but not CA3 neurons following ischemia reveals osmotic stress may be a key factor in delayed neurodegeneration after a cerebral ischemic insult and highlights the significant potential of chemically specific XFI to study the role of taurine in brain disease.

  12. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  13. Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting.

  14. Influence of prosthetic radioiodination on the chemical and biological behavior of chemotactic peptides labeled at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Oscar R.; Sajaroff, Elisa O.; Edreira, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of radioiodination made through prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-3-[ 131 I]iodo-benzoate ([ 131 I]SIB) on the behavior of small peptides was investigated using as model the chemotactic hexapeptide Nα-for-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys. No carrier added labeled peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with coupling efficiencies up to 59-75%. Biodistribution in normal and infected C57 mice showed mainly a hepatobiliary clearance, a very low thyroid uptake and the highest uptake at the infection site was within 1h of injection. Superoxide production and competitive binding assays studies in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed a preserved biological activity and high-affinity specific binding. However, the results indicated that the changes observed in the receptor-binding properties with an IC 50 almost twice than the unlabeled peptide and the increasing in the hepatobiliary excretion could be the consequence of the increased lipophicity observed due to the presence of the prosthetic group together with a strong influence of the radioisotope per se

  15. Influence of prosthetic radioiodination on the chemical and biological behavior of chemotactic peptides labeled at high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Oscar R. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: oscar.pozzi@duke.edu; Sajaroff, Elisa O. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Edreira, Martin M. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-06-15

    The influence of radioiodination made through prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-3-[{sup 131}I]iodo-benzoate ([{sup 131}I]SIB) on the behavior of small peptides was investigated using as model the chemotactic hexapeptide N{alpha}-for-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys. No carrier added labeled peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with coupling efficiencies up to 59-75%. Biodistribution in normal and infected C57 mice showed mainly a hepatobiliary clearance, a very low thyroid uptake and the highest uptake at the infection site was within 1h of injection. Superoxide production and competitive binding assays studies in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed a preserved biological activity and high-affinity specific binding. However, the results indicated that the changes observed in the receptor-binding properties with an IC{sub 50} almost twice than the unlabeled peptide and the increasing in the hepatobiliary excretion could be the consequence of the increased lipophicity observed due to the presence of the prosthetic group together with a strong influence of the radioisotope per se.

  16. Molecular modification of highly degenerate semiconductor as an active electrode to enhance the performance of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinamani, S. P.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Highly conducting antimony doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) films are electrografted with suitable organic molecules to study their electrolytic behavior. A series of organic molecules, such as heptanethiol, dodecanethiol and octadecanethiol are bonded to electrode surfaces. Electrolytic capacitors were formed on both unmodified and chemically modified electrodes using KCl and H2SO4 as electrolytes. This molecular modification significantly enhances the current levels in cyclic voltammograms, and there is a clear shift in oxidation/reduction peaks of these capacitors with scan rate. The results obey Randles-Sevcik relation, which indicates that there is enhancement of ionic diffusion at the electrode-electrolyte interface. There is a large enhancement in the values of specific capacitance (almost by 104 times) after the chemical modification. These measurements show that Faradaic reactions are responsible for charge storage/discharge process in these capacitors. Hence, the molecularly modified electrodes can be a good choice to increase the specific capacitance.

  17. Specificity enhancement by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry--a valuable tool for differentiation and identification of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberg, Avi; Tzanani, Nitzan; Dagan, Shai

    2013-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents has become an issue of emerging concern. One of the challenges in analytical monitoring of the extremely toxic 'V'-type chemical weapons [O-alkyl S-(2-dialkylamino)ethyl alkylphosphonothiolates] is to distinguish and identify compounds of similar structure. MS analysis of these compounds reveals mostly fragment/product ions representing the amine-containing residue. Hence, isomers or derivatives with the same amine residue exhibit similar mass spectral patterns in both classical EI/MS and electrospray ionization-MS, leading to unavoidable ambiguity in the identification of the phosphonate moiety. A set of five 'V'-type agents, including O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (RVX) and O-ethyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VM) were studied by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/MS, utilizing a QTRAP mass detector. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans and multistage MS(3) experiments were carried out. Based on the results, possible fragmentation pathways were proposed, and a method for the differentiation and identification of structural isomers and derivatives of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents was obtained. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans at various collision energies provided information-rich spectra, although many of the product ions obtained were at low abundance. Employing MS(3) experiments enhanced the selectivity for those low abundance product ions and provided spectra indicative of the different phosphonate groups. Study of the fragmentation pathways, revealing some less expected structures, was carried out and allowed the formulation of mechanistic rules and the determination of sets of ions typical of specific groups, for example, methylphosphonothiolates versus ethylphosphonothiolates. The new group-specific ions elucidated in this work are also useful for screening unknown 'V'-type agents and related

  18. The Listeria monocytogenes Bile Stimulon under Acidic Conditions Is Characterized by Strain-Specific Patterns and the Upregulation of Motility, Cell Wall Modification Functions, and the PrfA Regulon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia-Oropeza, Veronica; Orsi, Renato H.; Guldimann, Claudia; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes uses a variety of transcriptional regulation strategies to adapt to the extra-host environment, the gastrointestinal tract, and the intracellular host environment. While the alternative sigma factor SigB has been proposed to be a key transcriptional regulator that facilitates L. monocytogenes adaptation to the gastrointestinal environment, the L. monocytogenes' transcriptional response to bile exposure is not well-understood. RNA-seq characterization of the bile stimulon was performed in two L. monocytogenes strains representing lineages I and II. Exposure to bile at pH 5.5 elicited a large transcriptomic response with ~16 and 23% of genes showing differential transcription in 10403S and H7858, respectively. The bile stimulon includes genes involved in motility and cell wall modification mechanisms, as well as genes in the PrfA regulon, which likely facilitate survival during the gastrointestinal stages of infection that follow bile exposure. The fact that bile exposure induced the PrfA regulon, but did not induce further upregulation of the SigB regulon (beyond that expected by exposure to pH 5.5), suggests a model where at the earlier stages of gastrointestinal infection (e.g., acid exposure in the stomach), SigB-dependent gene expression plays an important role. Subsequent exposure to bile induces the PrfA regulon, potentially priming L. monocytogenes for subsequent intracellular infection stages. Some members of the bile stimulon showed lineage- or strain-specific distribution when 27 Listeria genomes were analyzed. Even though sigB null mutants showed increased sensitivity to bile, the SigB regulon was not found to be upregulated in response to bile beyond levels expected by exposure to pH 5.5. Comparison of wildtype and corresponding ΔsigB strains newly identified 26 SigB-dependent genes, all with upstream putative SigB-dependent promoters. PMID:29467736

  19. Nuclear transfer alters placental gene expression and associated histone modifications of the placental-specific imprinted gene pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel R; Gaspar, Roberta C; da Rocha, Carlos V; Sangalli, Juliano R; de Bem, Tiago H C; Corrêa, Carolina A P; Penteado, João C T; Meirelles, Flavio V; Lopes, Flavia L

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal placental development is frequent in nuclear transfer (NT) pregnancies and is likely to be associated with altered epigenetic reprogramming. In the present study, fetal and placental measurements were taken on Day 60 of gestation in cows with pregnancies produced by AI, IVF and NT. Placentas were collected and subjected to histological evaluation, the expression of genes important in trophoblast differentiation and expression of the placental imprinted gene pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2), as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for histone marks within the promoter of PHLDA2. Fewer binucleated cells were observed in NT cotyledons, followed by IVF and AI cotyledons (P<0.05). Expression of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 1 (HAND1), placental lactogen (PL), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 9 (PAG-9) and PHLDA2 was elevated in NT cotyledons compared with AI cotyledons. Expression of PHLDA2 was higher in IVF than AI samples (P<0.05). ChIP revealed an increase in the permissive mark dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me2), surprisingly associated with the silent allele of PHLDA2, and a decrease in the inhibitory mark H3K9me2 in NT samples. Thus, genes critical for placental development were altered in NT placentas, including an imprinted gene. Allele-specific changes in the permissive histone mark in the PHLDA2 promoter indicate misregulation of imprinting in clones. Abnormal trophoblast differentiation could have resulted in lower numbers of binucleated cells following NT. These results suggest that the altered expression of imprinted genes associated with NT are also caused by changes in histone modifications.

  20. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  1. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    . The adsorption capacities of these active carbon samples were almost three times that of zeolite. However, the un-modified active carbon had the highest adsorption capacity for butanol vapor (259.6 mg g-1), compared to 222.4 mg g-1 after 10% H2O2 hydrothermal treatment. Both modified and un-modified active carbon can be easily regenerated for repeatable adsorption by heating to 150 °C. Therefore, surface oxygen groups significantly reduced the adsorption capacity of active carbons for butanol vapor. In addition, original active carbon and AC samples modified by nitric acid hydrothermal modification were assessed for their ability to adsorb butanol vapor. The specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of AC were tested before and after modification. The adsorption capacity of unmodified AC samples were the highest. Hydrothermal oxidation of AC with HNO3 increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, micropore, mesopore and total pore volume of AC. Although the pore structure and specific surface area were greatly improved after hydrothermal oxidization with 4 M HNO3, the increased oxygen on the surface of AC decreased the dynamic adsorption capacity. In order to get high adsorption capacity adsorbents, we used corn stalk as precursor to fabricate porous carbon. ACs were prepared through chemical activation of biochar from whole corn stalk (WCS) and corn stalk pith (CSP) at varying temperatures using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. ACs were characterized via pore structural analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These adsorbents were then assessed for their adsorption capacity for butanol vapor. It was found that WCS activated at 900 °C for 1 h (WCS-900) had optimal butanol adsorption characteristics. The BET surface area and total pore volume of the WCS-900 were 2330 m2 g-1 and 1.29 cm3 g-1, respectively. The dynamic adsorption capacity of butanol vapor was 410.0 mg g-1, a 185.1 % increase

  2. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Ned