WorldWideScience

Sample records for species-specific behavioral patterns

  1. Forest Transpiration: Resolving Species-Specific Root Water Uptake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, T.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.; Stewart, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Transpiration and its spatio-temporal variability are still not fully understood, despite their importance for the global water cycle. This is in part due to our inability to measure transpiration comprehensively. Transpiration is usually either estimated with empirical equations based on climatic variables and crop factors, by measuring sap velocities, estimating sap wood area and scaling up to the forest stand based on a number of assumptions or by measuring the integral signal across a footprint with eddy flux towers. All these methods are focused on the cumulated loss of water to the atmosphere and do not provide information on where this water is coming from. In this study, spatio-temporal variability of root water uptake was investigated in a forest in the northeastern German lowlands. The soils are sandy and the depth of the unsaturated zone ranges from 1 to 30 m. We estimated root water uptake from different soil depths, from 0.1 m down to 2 m, based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content during rain-free days. The 15 field sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands: 4 pure stands of both mature and young beech and pine and 9 mixed stands. The resulting daily data set of root water uptake shows that the forest stands differ in total amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of uptake that changes with water availability. The relationship of these depth-resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. Using the physically-based soil hydrological model HYDRUS we investigated to what extent the observed patterns in uptake can be related to soil physical relationships alone and where tree species-specific aspects come into play. We furthermore used the model to test assumptions and estimate uncertainties of this soil moisture based estimation of plant water uptake. The

  2. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  3. Species-specific separation of lake plankton reveals divergent food assimilation patterns in rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Alfred; Kainz, Martin J; Schagerl, Michael; Yasindi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    1. The analysis of functional groups with a resolution to the individual species level is a basic requirement to better understand complex interactions in aquatic food webs. Species-specific stable isotope analyses are currently applied to analyse the trophic role of large zooplankton or fish species, but technical constraints complicate their application to smaller-sized plankton. 2. We investigated rotifer food assimilation during a short-term microzooplankton bloom in the East African soda lake Nakuru by developing a method for species-specific sampling of rotifers. 3. The two dominant rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus dimidiatus , were separated to single-species samples (purity >95%) and significantly differed in their isotopic values (4.1‰ in δ 13 C and 1.5‰ in δ 15 N). Bayesian mixing models indicated that isotopic differences were caused by different assimilation of filamentous cyanobacteria and particles plicatilis (48%), whereas it was hardly ingested by B. dimidiatus . Overall, A . fusiformis was, relative to its biomass, assimilated to small extents, demonstrating a high grazing resistance of this species. 5. In combination with high population densities, these results demonstrate a strong potential of rotifer blooms to shape phytoplankton communities and are the first in situ demonstration of a quantitatively important direct trophic link between rotifers and filamentous cyanobacteria.

  4. Species-Specific Responses of Juvenile Rockfish to Elevated pCO2: From Behavior to Genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L Hamilton

    Full Text Available In the California Current ecosystem, global climate change is predicted to trigger large-scale changes in ocean chemistry within this century. Ocean acidification-which occurs when increased levels of atmospheric CO2 dissolve into the ocean-is one of the biggest potential threats to marine life. In a coastal upwelling system, we compared the effects of chronic exposure to low pH (elevated pCO2 at four treatment levels (i.e., pCO2 = ambient [500], moderate [750], high [1900], and extreme [2800 μatm] on behavior, physiology, and patterns of gene expression in white muscle tissue of juvenile rockfish (genus Sebastes, integrating responses from the transcriptome to the whole organism level. Experiments were conducted simultaneously on two closely related species that both inhabit kelp forests, yet differ in early life history traits, to compare high-CO2 tolerance among species. Our findings indicate that these congeners express different sensitivities to elevated CO2 levels. Copper rockfish (S. caurinus exhibited changes in behavioral lateralization, reduced critical swimming speed, depressed aerobic scope, changes in metabolic enzyme activity, and increases in the expression of transcription factors and regulatory genes at high pCO2 exposure. Blue rockfish (S. mystinus, in contrast, showed no significant changes in behavior, swimming physiology, or aerobic capacity, but did exhibit significant changes in the expression of muscle structural genes as a function of pCO2, indicating acclimatization potential. The capacity of long-lived, late to mature, commercially important fish to acclimatize and adapt to changing ocean chemistry over the next 50-100 years is likely dependent on species-specific physiological tolerances.

  5. Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Tarsicio

    2009-12-01

    A series of stratified bongo net samples taken over a 2 day period at ca. 18°S, about 20 nm off the coast of Peru, South America, suggest species-specific patterns of diel vertical migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE). The OMZ was the most dramatic feature of the water column and seemed to determine the extent of migration: Stylocheiron affine migrated only to the shallow oxycline; whereas Euphausia mucronata, Euphausia eximia, Euphausia distinguenda and Euphausia tenera migrated to the core of the OMZ; and Nematoscelis gracilis to beneath the core of the OMZ. Some differences were also found in the timing and duration of the ascent and descent, and residence times in shallow and deep layers. E. mucronata, N. gracilis and E. distinguenda displayed a normal descent during sunrise, and ascent during sunset. E. eximia and E. tenera also descended during sunrise but seemed to begin their ascent earlier in the afternoon and consequently shortened their deep residence times. S. affine showed the most extended residence times at the shallow layer and the shortest vertical displacement. Day and night vertical stratification and differences in the timing of migration into and out of the OMZ of the HCE suggest a community structure based on habitat partitioning whereby species avoided co-occurrence in time and space. Species-specific patterns of vertical stratification and migratory chronology are examined with regard to body and gill sizes, feeding adaptations of euphausiids, and potential food resources at the OMZ.

  6. Species-specific modulation of food-search behavior by respiration and chemosensation in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeon; Alvarez, Mar; Lechuga, Laura M; Louis, Matthieu

    2017-09-05

    Animals explore their environment to encounter suitable food resources. Despite its vital importance, this behavior puts individuals at risk by consuming limited internal energy during locomotion. We have developed a novel assay to investigate how food-search behavior is organized in Drosophila melanogaster larvae dwelling in hydrogels mimicking their natural habitat. We define three main behavioral modes: resting at the gel's surface, digging while feeding near the surface, and apneic dives. In unstimulated conditions, larvae spend most of their time digging. By contrast, deep and long exploratory dives are promoted by olfactory stimulations. Hypoxia and chemical repellents impair diving. We report remarkable differences in the dig-and-dive behavior of D. melanogaster and the fruit-pest D. suzukii . The present paradigm offers an opportunity to study how sensory and physiological cues are integrated to balance the limitations of dwelling in imperfect environmental conditions and the risks associated with searching for potentially more favorable conditions.

  7. Spatio-temporal and species-specific variation in PBDE levels/patterns in British Columbia's coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, Michael G.; Fernandez, Marc P.; Hickman, Zachary L.

    2006-01-01

    Congener-specific levels of PBDEs were measured in the livers and some muscle tissues of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Highest concentrations (1200-560 ng/g lipid) were found in crab collected near heavily urbanized areas (pop. ∼0.3-1.8 million), followed by moderate levels at pulp/paper mills sites (∼150 ng/g), and lowest levels occurred in areas that were somewhat removed from industrial/populated areas (<24 ng/g). Temporal increases in total PBDEs and particularly in BDE-47 for Dungeness crab collected near pulp and paper and urbanized areas between 1994 and 2000 were observed. These correspond to Canadian and worldwide trends seen for PBDEs in biota. English sole and dogfish showed a pattern similar to that of the Columbia River whitefish samples, which corresponded closely to the patterns in the 'penta' commercial mixture. Conversely, Dungeness crab were enriched in lower chlorinated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47 and BDE-49, compared to the fish and shark species from BC. - PBDEs in biota and sediments from the West Coast of Canada reflect temporal, species-specific and geographic distributions

  8. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-09-01

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response trhough Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T.H.; Paludan, Søren Riis; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    activation by live bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis, the three principal causes of bacterial meningitis, use distinct sets of TLRs to trigger the inflammatory response. Using human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines......, each overexpressing one type of TLR, we found that S. pneumoniae triggered activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of interleukin-8, only in cells expressing TLR2 or -9. The same response was evoked by H. influenzae in cells expressing TLR2 or -4 and by N...... and confirmed the essential role of these TLRs and also identified differential functions of TLRs in activation of the inflammatory response. Collectively, we here demonstrate that S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis each activate several TLRs in species-specific patterns and show that infection...

  10. Spatio-temporal and species-specific variation in PBDE levels/patterns in British Columbia's coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomou, Michael G. [Marine Environmental Quality, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 W. Saanich Road, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2 (Canada)]. E-mail: ikonomoum@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Fernandez, Marc P. [Marine Environmental Quality, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 W. Saanich Road, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2 (Canada); Hickman, Zachary L. [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Congener-specific levels of PBDEs were measured in the livers and some muscle tissues of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Highest concentrations (1200-560 ng/g lipid) were found in crab collected near heavily urbanized areas (pop. {approx}0.3-1.8 million), followed by moderate levels at pulp/paper mills sites ({approx}150 ng/g), and lowest levels occurred in areas that were somewhat removed from industrial/populated areas (<24 ng/g). Temporal increases in total PBDEs and particularly in BDE-47 for Dungeness crab collected near pulp and paper and urbanized areas between 1994 and 2000 were observed. These correspond to Canadian and worldwide trends seen for PBDEs in biota. English sole and dogfish showed a pattern similar to that of the Columbia River whitefish samples, which corresponded closely to the patterns in the 'penta' commercial mixture. Conversely, Dungeness crab were enriched in lower chlorinated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47 and BDE-49, compared to the fish and shark species from BC. - PBDEs in biota and sediments from the West Coast of Canada reflect temporal, species-specific and geographic distributions.

  11. Species specificity in major urinary proteins by parallel evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren W Logan

    Full Text Available Species-specific chemosignals, pheromones, regulate social behaviors such as aggression, mating, pup-suckling, territory establishment, and dominance. The identity of these cues remains mostly undetermined and few mammalian pheromones have been identified. Genetically-encoded pheromones are expected to exhibit several different mechanisms for coding 1 diversity, to enable the signaling of multiple behaviors, 2 dynamic regulation, to indicate age and dominance, and 3 species-specificity. Recently, the major urinary proteins (Mups have been shown to function themselves as genetically-encoded pheromones to regulate species-specific behavior. Mups are multiple highly related proteins expressed in combinatorial patterns that differ between individuals, gender, and age; which are sufficient to fulfill the first two criteria. We have now characterized and fully annotated the mouse Mup gene content in detail. This has enabled us to further analyze the extent of Mup coding diversity and determine their potential to encode species-specific cues.Our results show that the mouse Mup gene cluster is composed of two subgroups: an older, more divergent class of genes and pseudogenes, and a second class with high sequence identity formed by recent sequential duplications of a single gene/pseudogene pair. Previous work suggests that truncated Mup pseudogenes may encode a family of functional hexapeptides with the potential for pheromone activity. Sequence comparison, however, reveals that they have limited coding potential. Similar analyses of nine other completed genomes find Mup gene expansions in divergent lineages, including those of rat, horse and grey mouse lemur, occurring independently from a single ancestral Mup present in other placental mammals. Our findings illustrate that increasing genomic complexity of the Mup gene family is not evolutionarily isolated, but is instead a recurring mechanism of generating coding diversity consistent with a species-specific

  12. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  13. Academic performance and behavioral patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassarnig, Valentin; Mones, Enys; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Previous studies have documented the importance of personality traits, class attendance, and social network structure. Because most of these analyses were based on a single behavioral aspect...

  14. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  15. Academic performance and behavioral patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassarnig, Valentin; Mones, Enys; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Previous studies have documented the importance of personality traits, class attendance, and social network structure. Because most of these analyses were based on a single behavioral aspect...... and/or small sample sizes, there is currently no quantification of the interplay of these factors. Here, we study the academic performance among a cohort of 538 undergraduate students forming a single, densely connected social network. Our work is based on data collected using smartphones, which...... the students used as their primary phones for two years. The availability of multi-channel data from a single population allows us to directly compare the explanatory power of individual and social characteristics. We find that the most informative indicators of performance are based on social ties...

  16. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  17. Are temperate canopy spiders tree-species specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Białowieża forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood.

  18. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people’s preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database), a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics. PMID:26322899

  19. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Calvão, Angelo M; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database), a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  20. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ramos

    Full Text Available Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database, a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  1. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  2. Patterns of behavior in an online community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros; Rybski, Diego; Liljeros, Fredrik; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    Human behavior can be seen as the expression of inherent motives. Despite the diverse range of these motives, social theorists have long identified a small number of distinct underlying mechanisms, where, consciously or unconsciously, every individual tries to exploit a different aspect of social interactions and/or optimize the efficiency of certain procedures for the benefit of the society or for personal gain. Here we show that users in an online community follow certain behavioral patterns and the choice of their favorite members is far from a random process. More importantly, these patterns are systematically modified with time as a member becomes more involved in such a community. We are able to identify a crossover in the average behavior of the members when their favorites list exceeds roughly 10 favorites. Additionally, this process allows us to identify individuals with a markedly different behavior than the average person. This study can help us understand the process of establishing friendships and the motives behind this process.

  3. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  4. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  6. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  7. Identification of DWI behavior patterns and methods for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of behavior leading to driving while intoxicated (DWI), and to propose countermeasures for altering these patterns before they result in DWI. Two samples were studied: Los Angeles high school student...

  8. Mining Temporal Patterns to Improve Agents Behavior: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Nkambou, Roger; Faghihi, Usef; Nguifo, Engelbert Mephu

    We propose two mechanisms for agent learning based on the idea of mining temporal patterns from agent behavior. The first one consists of extracting temporal patterns from the perceived behavior of other agents accomplishing a task, to learn the task. The second learning mechanism consists in extracting temporal patterns from an agent's own behavior. In this case, the agent then reuses patterns that brought self-satisfaction. In both cases, no assumption is made on how the observed agents' behavior is internally generated. A case study with a real application is presented to illustrate each learning mechanism.

  9. Greek PDO saffron authentication studies using species specific molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmali, I; Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z; Madesis, P

    2017-10-01

    Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C. sativus L. from the cultivation area of "Krokos Kozanis" as well as the potential differences with the band pattern produced by other Crocus species. Then, species-specific markers were developed taking advantage of an advanced molecular technique such as the HRM analysis coupled with universal DNA barcoding regions (trnL) (Bar-HRM) and applied to saffron admixtures with some of the most common plant adulterants (Calendula officinalis, Carthamus tinctorius, Gardenia jasminoides, Zea mays and Curcuma longa). The sensitivity of the procedure was tested for turmeric as a case study whereas HPLC-fluorescence determination of secondary metabolites was also employed for comparison. The overall results indicated that the Bar-HRM approach is quite effective in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Its effectiveness regarding the detection of turmeric was comparable to that of a conventional HPLC method (0.5% vs 1.0%, w/w). Yet, the proposed DNA-based method is much faster, cost-effective and can be used even by non-geneticists, in any laboratory having access to an HRM-capable real-time PCR instrumentation. It can be, thus, regarded as a strong analytical tool in saffron authentication studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiong, Y.; Newman, S.; Xiao, X.; Batbayar, N.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Balachandran, S.; Yan, B.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  11. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  12. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek eJaber-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0. However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1. The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder lose(s this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially towards the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (unethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  13. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  14. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest. PMID:25566002

  15. OXA-258 from Achromobacter ruhlandii: a Species Specific Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Papalia, Mariana Andrea; Almuzara, Marisa; Cejas, Daniela; Traglia, German Matias; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Galanternik, Laura; Vay, Carlos Alberto; Gutkind, Gabriel Osvaldo; Radice, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    A new blaOXA-258 gene is described as species specific taxonomic marker for Achromobacter ruhlandii isolates (all recovered from cystic fibrosis patients). Even if the OXA-258 differs from OXA-114 variants, isolates could be misidentified as A. xiloxosidans by the amplification of an inner fragment from the OXA coding gene. A robust Identification of A. ruhlandii can be achieved by sequencing this single OXA gene as well as a more laborious recently proposed MLST scheme Fil: Papalia, Maria...

  16. Patterns of Antenatal Care Seeking Behavior in South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on inequities on ANC seeking pattern among the pregnant women in Nigeria. Aim: The study ... behavior of women remains poor and poses one of the greatest ..... data – Or tears: An application to educational enrollments in states of. India.

  17. Symmetry pattern transition in cellular automata with complex behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Juan R.; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    A transition from asymmetric to symmetric patterns in time-dependent extended systems is described. It is shown that one dimensional cellular automata, started from fully random initial conditions, can be forced to evolve into complex symmetrical patterns by stochastically coupling a proportion p of pairs of sites located at equal distance from the center of the lattice. A nontrivial critical value of p must be surpassed in order to obtain symmetrical patterns during the evolution. This strategy is able to classify the cellular automata rules - with complex behavior - between those that support time-dependent symmetric patterns and those which do not support such kind of patterns

  18. Species-specific ant brain manipulation by a specialized fungal parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Quevillon, Lauren E; Smith, Philip B; Fleming, Kimberly R; Ghosh, Debashis; Patterson, Andrew D; Hughes, David P

    2014-08-29

    A compelling demonstration of adaptation by natural selection is the ability of parasites to manipulate host behavior. One dramatic example involves fungal species from the genus Ophiocordyceps that control their ant hosts by inducing a biting behavior. Intensive sampling across the globe of ants that died after being manipulated by Ophiocordyceps suggests that this phenomenon is highly species-specific. We advance our understanding of this system by reconstructing host manipulation by Ophiocordyceps parasites under controlled laboratory conditions and combining this with field observations of infection rates and a metabolomics survey. We report on a newly discovered species of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato from North America that we use to address the species-specificity of Ophiocordyceps-induced manipulation of ant behavior. We show that the fungus can kill all ant species tested, but only manipulates the behavior of those it infects in nature. To investigate if this could be explained at the molecular level, we used ex vivo culturing assays to measure the metabolites that are secreted by the fungus to mediate fungus-ant tissue interactions. We show the fungus reacts heterogeneously to brains of different ant species by secreting a different array of metabolites. By determining which ion peaks are significantly enriched when the fungus is grown alongside brains of its naturally occurring host, we discovered candidate compounds that could be involved in behavioral manipulation by O. unilateralis s.l.. Two of these candidates are known to be involved in neurological diseases and cancer. The integrative work presented here shows that ant brain manipulation by O. unilateralis s.l. is species-specific seemingly because the fungus produces a specific array of compounds as a reaction to the presence of the host brain it has evolved to manipulate. These studies have resulted in the discovery of candidate compounds involved in establishing behavioral manipulation

  19. Classroom Behavior Patterns of EMH, LD, and EH Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, James D.; Forman, Susan G.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether classroom teachers could differentiate among educable mentally handicapped (EMH), learning disabled (LD), and emotionally handicapped (EH) students based on perceptions of classroom behavior patterns. Ratings from classroom behavior inventory scales revealed that EMH students were distinguished by low intelligence, creativity,…

  20. Understanding User Behavioral Patterns in Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Song, Shuqiang; Zhao, Xinshuo; Yu, Shengquan

    2018-01-01

    Open knowledge communities (OKCs) have become popular in the era of knowledge economy. This study aimed to explore how users collaboratively create and share knowledge in OKCs. In particular, this research identified the behavior distribution and behavioral patterns of users by conducting frequency distribution and lag sequential analyses. Some…

  1. Determining intervention thresholds that change output behavior patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a semi-automated method that can calculate intervention thresholds—that is, the minimum required intervention sizes, over a given time frame, that result in a desired change in a system’s output behavior pattern. The method exploits key differences in atomic behavior profiles that

  2. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  3. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  4. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral Patterns of Children Involved in Bullying Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos V. Santoyo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a systematic observation strategy to identify coercive behavioral patterns in school environments. The aim was to describe stability and change in the behavioral patterns of children identified as victims of bullying. To this end, the following specific objectives were defined: (1 to identify episodes of bullying based on the frequency of negative behaviors received and power imbalances between bully and victim; (2 to describe stability and behavioral changes in student victims based on their social and academic conduct and the aggression they receive from peers and teachers; and (3 to describe the functional mechanisms responsible for the process of social organization (i.e., the Social Effectiveness, Social Responsiveness, and Social Reciprocity Indexes. The sample consisted of nine children identified as victims, nine classified as bullies, and nine matched controls, all elementary school students from the study developed at the National Autonomous University of Mexico files. A multidimensional/idiographic/follow-up observational design was used. Observational data describes asymmetry between victims and bullies based on microanalyses of the reciprocity of their behavioral exchanges. In addition, the behavioral patterns of victimized children were identified in relation to their academic activity and social relationships with peers. A model of coercive reciprocity accurately describes the asymmetry found among bullies, victims, and controls. A reduction in victimization was found to be related to: (1 responsiveness to the initiation of social interactions by peers and teachers; and (2 the time allocated to academic behavior during the study.

  6. Rethinking Hearing Aid Fitting by Learning From Behavioral Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Benjamin; Petersen, Michael Kai; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    users to remotely enhance auditory focus and attenuate background noise to improve speech intelligibility. N=5, participants changed program settings and adjusted volume on their hearing instruments using their smartphones. We found that individual behavioral patterns affected the usage of the devices....... A significant difference between program usage, and weekdays versus weekends, were found. Users not only changed programs to modify aspects of directionality and noise reduction, but also continuously adjusted the volume. Rethinking hearing instruments as devices that adaptively learn behavioral patterns based...

  7. Mental Programs and Social Behavior Patterns in Russian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubsky, Anatoly Vladimirovich; Kolesnykova, Elena Yuryevna; Lubsky, Roman Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the article is to reconstruct the mental programs, their cognitive, axiological and connotative structures, and construction on this basis of various modal patterns of social behavior in Russian society. Methodology of the article is based on an interdisciplinary scientific approach making it possible to conceptually disclose the…

  8. Recognition of periodic behavioral patterns from streaming mobility data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratchi, Mitra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Stojmenovic, Ivan; Cheng, Zixue; Guo, Song

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous location-aware sensing devices have facilitated collection of large volumes of mobility data streams from moving entities such as people and animals, among others. Extraction of various types of periodic behavioral patterns hidden in such large volume of mobility data helps in

  9. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  10. [A study of behavior patterns between smokers and nonsmokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S

    1990-04-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) have from time to time over the last three decades found associations between prevalence of CHD and behavioral attributes and cigarette smoking. The main purpose of this study is reduced to major risk factor of coronary heart disease through prohibition of smoking and control of behavior pattern. The subjects consisted of 120 smokers and 90 nonsmokers who were married men older than 30 years working in officers. The officers were surveyed by means of questionnaire September 26 through October 6, 1989. The Instruments used for this study was a self-administered measurement tool composed of 59 items was made through modifications of Jenkuns Activity Survey (JAS). The Data were analysed by SAS (Statistical Analysis System) program personal computer. The statistical technique used for this study were Frequency, chi 2-test, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The 15 items were chosen with items above 0.3 of the factor loading in the factor analysis. In the first factor analysis 19 factors were extracted and accounted for 86% of the total variance. However when the number of factors were limited to 3 in order to derive Jenkins classification, three factors were derived. There names are Job-Involvement, Speed & Impatience, Hard-Driving. Each of them includes 21 items, 21 and 9, respectively. The results of this study were as follow: 1. The score of the smoker group and non-smoker group in Job-Involvement (t = 5.7147, p less than 0.0001), Speed & Impatience (t = 4.6756, p less than .0001), Hard-Driving (t = 8.0822, p less than .0001) and total type A behavior pattern showed statistically significant differences (t = 8.1224, p less than .0001). 2. The score of type A behavior pattern by number of cigarettes smoked daily were not statistically significant differences. 3. The score of type A behavior pattern by duration of smoking were not significant differences. It was concluded that the

  11. Species specific anaesthetics for fish anaesthesia and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readman, Gareth D; Owen, Stewart F; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna C

    2017-08-02

    There is a need to ensure that the care and welfare for fish maintained in the laboratory are to the highest standards. This extends to the use of anaesthetics for both scientific study, humane killing and euthanasia at end of life. An anaesthetic should not induce negative behaviours and fish should not seek to avoid the anaesthetic. Surprisingly little information is available to facilitate a humane choice of anaesthetic agent for fish despite over 100 years of use and the millions of fish currently held in thousands of laboratories worldwide. Using a chemotaxic choice chamber we found different species specific behavioural responses among four closely related fish species commonly held in the laboratory, exposed to three widely used anaesthetic agents. As previously found for zebrafish (Danio rerio), the use of MS-222 and benzocaine also appears to induce avoidance behaviours in medaka (Oryzias latipes); but etomidate could provide an alternative choice. Carp (Cyprinus carpio), although closely related to zebrafish showed avoidance behaviours to etomidate, but not benzocaine or MS-222; and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) showed no avoidance to the three agents tested. We were unable to ascertain avoidance responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and suggest different test paradigms are required for that species.

  12. Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Kuniyoshi, Kyoko; Oshiro, Naomasa; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2017-06-29

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) contaminate fish worldwide and cause the foodborne illness ciguatera. In the Pacific, these toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus , which accumulates in fish through the food chain and undergoes oxidative modification, giving rise to numerous analogs. In this study, we examined the oxidation of CTXs in vitro with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using reference toxins, and found that CTX4A, CTX4B, and CTX3C, which are produced by the alga, are oxidized to the analogs found in fish, namely CTX1B, 52- epi -54-deoxyCTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, 2-hydroxyCTX3C, and 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C. This oxidation was catalyzed by human CYP3A4, fish liver S9 fractions, and microsomal fractions prepared from representative ciguateric fishes ( Lutjanus bohar , L. monostigumus , and Oplegnathus punctatus ). In addition, fish liver S9 fractions prepared from non-ciguateric fishes ( L. gibbus and L. fulviflamma ) in Okinawa also converted CTX4A and CTX4B to CTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52- epi -54-deoxyCTX1B in vitro. This is the first study to demonstrate the enzymatic oxidation of these toxins, and provides insight into the mechanism underlying the development of species-specific toxin profiles and the fate of these toxins in humans and fish.

  13. Influenza virus and endothelial cells: a species specific relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Renfree Short

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an important cause of respiratory disease in humans. The original reservoirs of influenza A virus are wild waterfowl and shorebirds, where virus infection causes limited, if any, disease. Both in humans and in wild waterbirds, epithelial cells are the main target of infection. However, influenza virus can spread from wild bird species to terrestrial poultry. Here, the virus can evolve into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Part of this evolution involves increased viral tropism for endothelial cells. HPAI virus infections not only cause severe disease in chickens and other terrestrial poultry species but can also spread to humans and back to wild bird populations. Here, we review the role of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in wild birds, terrestrial poultry and humans with a particular focus on HPAI viruses. We demonstrate that whilst the endothelium is an important target of virus infection in terrestrial poultry and some wild bird species, in humans the endothelium is more important in controlling the local inflammatory milieu. Thus, the endothelium plays an important, but species-specific, role in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection.

  14. Application of activity sensors for estimating behavioral patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Cain, James W.; Cox, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars in habitat selection studies provides large numbers of precise location data points with reduced field effort. However, inclusion of activity sensors in many GPS collars also grants the potential to remotely estimate behavioral state. Thus, only using GPS collars to collect location data belies their full capabilities. Coupling behavioral state with location data would allow researchers and managers to refine habitat selection models by using diel behavioral state changes to partition fine-scale temporal shifts in habitat selection. We tested the capability of relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors to estimate behavior throughout diel periods using free-ranging female elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, USA, 2013–2014. Collars recorded cumulative number of movements (hits) per 15-min recording period immediately preceding GPS fixes at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hr. We measured diel behavioral patterns of focal elk, categorizing active (i.e., foraging, traveling, vigilant, grooming) and inactive (i.e., resting) states. Active behaviors (foraging, traveling) produced more average hits (0.87 ± 0.69 hits/min, 4.0 ± 2.2 hits/min, respectively; 95% CI) and inactive (resting) behavior fewer hits (−1.1 ± 0.61 95% CI). We differentiated active and inactive behavioral states with a bootstrapped threshold of 5.9 ± 3.9 hits/15-min recording period. Mean cumulative activity-sensor hits corresponded with observed diel behavioral patterns: hits increased during crepuscular (0600, 1800 hr) observations when elk were most active (0000–0600 hr: d = 0.19; 1200–1800 hr: d = 0.64) and decreased during midday and night (0000 hr, 1200 hr) when elk were least active (1800–0000 hr: d = −0.39; 0600–1200 hr: d = −0.43). Even using relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors, managers can

  15. A species-specific nucleosomal signature defines a periodic distribution of amino acids in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintales, Luis; Soriano, Ignacio; Vázquez, Enrique; Segurado, Mónica; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Nucleosomes are the basic structural units of chromatin. Most of the yeast genome is organized in a pattern of positioned nucleosomes that is stably maintained under a wide range of physiological conditions. In this work, we have searched for sequence determinants associated with positioned nucleosomes in four species of fission and budding yeasts. We show that mononucleosomal DNA follows a highly structured base composition pattern, which differs among species despite the high degree of histone conservation. These nucleosomal signatures are present in transcribed and non-transcribed regions across the genome. In the case of open reading frames, they correctly predict the relative distribution of codons on mononucleosomal DNA, and they also determine a periodicity in the average distribution of amino acids along the proteins. These results establish a direct and species-specific connection between the position of each codon around the histone octamer and protein composition.

  16. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  17. [Study on feeding behavior patterns of rats on cariogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y

    1989-03-01

    The feeding behavior patterns of Jcl:Wistar rats fed on commercial stock diet and cariogenic diet (Diet #2000) were investigated with the newly developed autorecording system. They were caged separately under a regular light-dark cycle (L:D = 12:12). The results and conclusion were as follows. All rats have a circadian feeding rhythm, and 70-85% of feeding frequency were observed during the dark period. The group on the commercial stock diet showed a dual-peak pattern of feeding at 20:30 and 4:00. On the other hand, the cariogenic diet groups showed a more frequent feeding pattern during the dark period. The feeding frequency increased from 1:00 to 3:00 in the high sucrose diet group and more frequent feeding was observed. From these results, it was suggested that dental caries in the rats was caused by not only the local effect of sucrose in the mouth but also by the changing patterns of feeding behavior with cariogenic diet.

  18. Species-specific response-topography of chickens' and pigeons' water-induced autoshaped responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, Bertram O

    2014-07-01

    Four pigeons and eight chickens received autoshaping training where a keylight (conditioned stimulus) signaled response-independent deliveries of water (unconditioned stimulus). Pigeons drink while keeping their beaks submerged in water and moving their beaks to create suction ("mumbling"), whereas chickens drink by trapping a small amount of water in their mouths and then lifting their heads so the water trickles down. This experiment tested whether these and other species-specific differences in drinking and related behaviors of pigeons and chickens would be reflected in the form of conditioned (autoshaped) responding. Touchscreens and videotapes were used for data recording. Results showed that chickens moved their heads more than pigeons when drinking (unconditioned response). The birds also differed in conditioned responding in the presence of the keylight: Pigeons produced more keyswitch closures and mumbled at the keylight more than chickens whereas chickens scratched more than pigeons. In conclusion, with this unique comparative method that employed identical contingencies and comparable deprivation levels, species-specific differences in unconditioned responses and, more importantly, differences in their corresponding conditioned responses were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple models for studying complex spatiotemporal patterns of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyunov, Yuri V.; Titova, Lyudmila I.

    2017-06-01

    Minimal mathematical models able to explain complex patterns of animal behavior are essential parts of simulation systems describing large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of trophic communities, particularly those with wide-ranging species, such as occur in pelagic environments. We present results obtained with three different modelling approaches: (i) an individual-based model of animal spatial behavior; (ii) a continuous taxis-diffusion-reaction system of partial-difference equations; (iii) a 'hybrid' approach combining the individual-based algorithm of organism movements with explicit description of decay and diffusion of the movement stimuli. Though the models are based on extremely simple rules, they all allow description of spatial movements of animals in a predator-prey system within a closed habitat, reproducing some typical patterns of the pursuit-evasion behavior observed in natural populations. In all three models, at each spatial position the animal movements are determined by local conditions only, so the pattern of collective behavior emerges due to self-organization. The movement velocities of animals are proportional to the density gradients of specific cues emitted by individuals of the antagonistic species (pheromones, exometabolites or mechanical waves of the media, e.g., sound). These cues play a role of taxis stimuli: prey attract predators, while predators repel prey. Depending on the nature and the properties of the movement stimulus we propose using either a simplified individual-based model, a continuous taxis pursuit-evasion system, or a little more detailed 'hybrid' approach that combines simulation of the individual movements with the continuous model describing diffusion and decay of the stimuli in an explicit way. These can be used to improve movement models for many species, including large marine predators.

  20. Behavioral Patterns in Special Education. Good Teaching Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorta, Manuela; Borges, África

    2017-01-01

    Providing quality education means to respond to the diversity in the classroom. The teacher is a key figure in responding to the various educational needs presented by students. Specifically, special education professionals are of great importance as they are the ones who lend their support to regular classroom teachers and offer specialized educational assistance to students who require it. Therefore, special education is different from what takes place in the regular classroom, demanding greater commitment by the teacher. There are certain behaviors, considered good teaching practices, which teachers have always been connected with to achieve good teaching and good learning. To ensure that these teachers are carrying out their educational work properly it is necessary to evaluate. This means having appropriate instruments. The Observational Protocol for Teaching Functions in Primary School and Special Education (PROFUNDO-EPE, v.3., in Spanish) allows to capture behaviors from these professionals and behavioral patterns that correspond to good teaching practices. This study evaluates the behavior of two special education teachers who work with students from different educational stages and educational needs. It reveals that the analyzed teachers adapt their behavior according the needs and characteristics of their students to the students responding more adequately to the needs presented by the students and showing good teaching practices. The patterns obtained indicate that they offer support, help and clear guidelines to perform the tasks. They motivate them toward learning by providing positive feedback and they check that students have properly assimilated the contents through questions or non-verbal supervision. Also, they provide a safe and reliable climate for learning.

  1. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  2. Diurnal Patterns and Correlates of Older Adults' Sedentary Behavior.

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    Jelle Van Cauwenberg

    Full Text Available Insights into the diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and the identification of subgroups that are at increased risk for engaging in high levels of sedentary behavior are needed to inform potential interventions for reducing older adults' sedentary time. Therefore, we examined the diurnal patterns and sociodemographic correlates of older adults' sedentary behavior(s.Stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 508 non-institutionalized Belgian older adults (≥ 65 years. Morning, afternoon, evening and total sedentary time was assessed objectively using accelerometers. Specific sedentary behaviors, total sitting time and sociodemographic attributes were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Participants self-reported a median of 475 (Q1-Q3 = 383-599 minutes/day of total sitting time and they accumulated a mean of 580 ± 98 minutes/day of accelerometer-derived sedentary time. Sedentary time was lowest during the morning and highest during the evening. Older participants were as sedentary as younger participants during the evening, but they were more sedentary during daytime. Compared to married participants, widowers were more sedentary during daytime. Younger participants (< 75 years, men and the higher educated were more likely to engage in (high levels of sitting while driving a car and using the computer. Those with tertiary education viewed 29% and 22% minutes/day less television compared to those with primary or secondary education, respectively. Older participants accumulated 35 sedentary minutes/day more than did younger participants and men accumulated 32 sedentary minutes/day more than did women.These findings highlight diurnal variations and potential opportunities to tailor approaches to reducing sedentary time for subgroups of the older adult population.

  3. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  4. Personality patterns and Smoking behavior among students in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharri, Ali; Jahani, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Asl, Asghar Mohammadpour

    2017-03-01

    Psychological factors have always been considered for their role on risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, risky driving and smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking behavior and potential personality patterns among high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Through a multistage sampling in a cross-sectional study, 1000 students were enrolled to represent the final grade high school student population of Tabriz, Iran in 2013. The personality patterns along with smoking status and some background information were collected through standard questionnaires along with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Fourteen personality patterns and ten clinical syndromes. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare numeric scales among the study participants, with respect to their smoking status. Stata version 13 statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict likelihood of smoking by personality status. Two logistic models were developed in both of whom male sex was identified as a determinant of regular smoking (1 st model) and ever-smoking (2 nd model). Depressive personality increased the likelihood of being a regular smoker by 2.8 times (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). The second personality disorder included in the model was sadistic personality with an odds ratio of 7.9 (96% CI: 1.2-53%). Histrionic personality increased the likelihood of experiencing smoking by 2.2 times (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.1) followed by borderline personality (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 0.97-8.1). Histrionic and depressive personalities could be considered as strong associates of smoking, followed by borderline and sadistic personalities. A causal relationship couldn't be assumed unless well controlled longitudinal studies reached the same findings using psychiatric interviews.

  5. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  6. Species-specific variation in nesting and postfledging resource selection for two forest breeding migrant songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna M A Jenkins

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015. We used Bayesian discrete choice modeling to evaluate support for local vegetation characteristics on the probability of selection for nest sites and locations utilized by different ages of postfledging juveniles. Patterns of resource selection variation were species-specific. Resource selection models indicated that Acadian flycatcher habitat selection criteria were similar for nesting and dependent postfledging juveniles and selection criteria diverged when juveniles became independent from adults. After independence, flycatcher resource selection was more associated with understory foliage density. Ovenbirds differed in selection criteria between the nesting and postfledging periods. Fledgling ovenbirds selected areas with higher densities of understory structure compared to nest sites, and the effect of foliage density on selection increased as juveniles aged and gained independence. The differences observed between two sympatric forest nesting species, in both the timing and degree of change in resource selection criteria over the course of the breeding season, illustrates the importance of considering species-specific traits and postfledging requirements when developing conservation efforts, especially when foraging guilds or

  7. Subcellular location and species specificity of pipecolate degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalik, S.J.; Rhead, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Defects in pipecolic acid (PA) catabolism are characteristic of several inherited metabolic diseases including hyperpipecolic acidemia, Zellweger's Syndrome, neonatal-onset adrenoleukodystrophy, and infantile Refsum's disease. In the latter three diseases, peroxisomes are abnormal. The authors have studied the subcelluar distribution of the PA degradation to determine a mammalian model for the normal pathway. Crude light and heavy mitochondrial fractions (including lysosomes and peroxisomes) from kidney cortex or liver were separated on Percoll gradients. Individual fractions were then incubated at 37 0 C with 3H-2,3,4,5,6 L-PA. Using ion exchange chromatography, the production of 3H α-aminoadipic acid (AAA) and 3H-H2O were quantitated. AAA production paralleled the activity of the mitochondrial marker enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase, in the rabbit, guinea pig, dog, pig, and sheep. 3H-AAA production ranged from 382 to 13,900 pmol/mg prot/h. Guinea pig kidney cortex exhibited highest specific activity. The mitochondrial enzyme was absent from human liver (n=3) and liver and kidney cortex from rat, mouse, and monkey. In these tissues, the activity followed the pattern of the peroxisomal core enzyme, urate oxidase

  8. Body adiposity, behavior pattern and stress in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Cesar Pires

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between the body adiposity index (BAI, behavior pattern and stress of adolescents starting their courses at the Federal Technical School in Santa Catarina, Brazil. 170 subjects participated in the study, comprising 94 male subjects (mean age =14.9±1.0 and 76 female subjects (mean age =14.7±0.7. In addition to measuring body mass (BM and stature (ST in order to characterize the sample, adiposity index was calculated from triciptal and subscapular skinfolds and their sums. The data related to behavior patterns and stress were obtained using a Behavior Inventory and a Stress Symptom Inventory. It was observed, from analysis of the results, that BM and ST were within the percentage range of normality, according to the standard of Santo André, SP. When BAI for male and female subjects was compared, it was higher for female subjects. The sum of skinfolds for both male and female subjects was within the ideal range. BAI was also observed above the ideal level in 24.5% of the male subjects and in 44.7% of the female subjects. In relation to behavior pattern, most of the subjects (59.1% of males and 64.1% of females exhibited Type “A”. Female subjects exhibited more vulnerability to stress (55.2% when compared to male subjects (29.8%. The stress stage with the highest number of subjects was the resistance stage, with 53.9% and 29.8% for female and male subjects, respectively. The results failed to demonstrate an association between BAI and behavior pattern, between BAI and stress or between behavior pattern and stress. It can be concluded that behavior pattern and stress do not infl uence BAI in adolescents. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a relação entre índice de adiposidade corporal (IAC, padrão de comportamento e estresse em adolescentes ingressantes na Escola Técnica Federal de Santa Catarina. Participaram da amostra 170 adolescentes, 94 do gênero masculino (m

  9. Rapid species specific identification and subtyping of Yersinia enterocolitica by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Ziegler, Dominik; Pflüger, Valentin; Tonolla, Mauro; Ravasi, Damiana; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Hächler, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica are Gram-negative pathogens and known as important causes of foodborne infections. Rapid and reliable identification of strains of the species Y. enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia and the differentiation of the pathogenic from the non-pathogenic biotypes has become increasingly important. We evaluated here the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid species identification and subtyping of Y. enterocolitica. To this end, we developed a reference MS database library including 19 Y. enterocolitica (non-pathogenic biotype 1A and pathogenic biotypes 2 and 4) as well as 24 non-Y. enterocolitica strains, belonging to eleven different other Yersinia spp. The strains provided reproducible and unique mass spectra profiles covering a wide molecular mass range (2000 to 30,000 Da). Species-specific and biotype-specific biomarker protein mass patterns were determined for Y. enterocolitica. The defined biomarker mass patterns (SARAMIS SuperSpectrum™) were validated using 117 strains from various Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes in a blind-test. All strains were correctly identified and for all strains the mass spectrometry-based identification scheme yielded identical results compared to a characterization by a combination of biotyping and serotyping. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF-MS is a reliable and powerful tool for the rapid identification of Y. enterocolitica strains to the species level and allows subtyping of strains to the biotype level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetization behavior of nanomagnets for patterned media application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, S.; Kikuchi, N.; Kato, T.; Kitakami, O. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mitsuzuka, K.; Shimatsu, T.; Muraoka, H.; Aoi, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Lodder, J.C. [Information Storage Group, MESA, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.c.lodder@el.utwente.nl

    2008-11-15

    Bit patterned media (BPM) which utilize each magnetic nanostructured dot as one recorded bit has attracted much interest as a promising candidate for future high-density magnetic recording. In this study, the magnetization reversal behaviors of nanostructured L1{sub 0}-FePt, Co/Pt multilayer (ML), and CoPt/Ru dots are investigated. For Co/Pt and CoPt/Ru nanodots, the bi-stable state is maintained in a very wide size range up to several hundred nm, and the magnetization reversal is dominated by the nucleation of a small reversed nucleus with the dimension of domain wall width. On the other hand, the critical size for the bi-stability of L1{sub 0}-FePt is about 60 nm, and its magnetization reversal proceeds via domain wall displacement even for such a small dot size. These reversal behaviors, depending on the magnetic materials, might be attributed to the difference in structural inhomogeneity, such as defects. In addition to the magnetic properties, the structural uniformity of the material could be crucial for the BPM application.

  11. Introduction of the human AVPR1A gene substantially alters brain receptor expression patterns and enhances aspects of social behavior in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Charles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A modulates a wide range of behaviors, including stress management and territorial aggression, as well as social bonding and recognition. Inter- and intra-species variations in the expression pattern of AVPR1A in the brain and downstream differential behavioral phenotypes have been attributed to differences in the non-coding regions of the AVPR1A gene, including polymorphic elements within upstream regulatory areas. Gene association studies have suggested a link between AVPR1A polymorphisms and autism, and AVPR1A has emerged as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of social cognitive impairments and mood and anxiety disorders. To further investigate the genetic mechanism giving rise to species differences in AVPR1A expression patterns and associated social behaviors, and to create a preclinical mouse model useful for screening drugs targeting AVPR1A, we engineered and extensively characterized bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice harboring the entire human AVPR1A locus with the surrounding regulatory elements. Compared with wild-type animals, the humanized mice displayed a more widely distributed ligand-AVPR1A binding pattern, which overlapped with that of primates. Furthermore, humanized AVPR1A mice displayed increased reciprocal social interactions compared with wild-type animals, but no differences in social approach and preference for social novelty were observed. Aspects of learning and memory, specifically novel object recognition and spatial relocation recognition, were unaffected. The biological alterations in humanized AVPR1A mice resulted in the rescue of the prepulse inhibition impairments that were observed in knockout mice, indicating conserved functionality. Although further behavioral paradigms and additional cohorts need to be examined in humanized AVPR1A mice, the results demonstrate that species-specific variations in the genomic content of regulatory

  12. Species-specific intrinsic water use efficiency and its mediation of carbon assimilation during the drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Wenzel, M. K.; Maxwell, J. T.; Novick, K. A.; Gray, A.; Roman, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future, and many studies have suggested frequent and intense droughts can significantly alter carbon and water cycling in forest ecosystems, consequently decreasing the ability of forests to assimilate carbon. Predicting the impact of drought on forest ecosystem processes requires an understanding of species-specific responses to drought, especially in eastern US where species composition is highly dynamic. An emerging approach for describing species-specific drought response is to classify the plant water use strategy into isohydric and anisohydric behaviors. Trees utilizing isohydric behavior regulate water potential by closing stomata to reduce water loss during drought conditions, while anisohydric trees allow water potential to drop by sustaining stomatal conductance, but with the risk of hydraulic failure caused by cavitation of xylem tissues. Since catastrophic cavitation occurs infrequently in the relatively wet eastern U.S., we hypothesize that 1) tree growth of isohydric trees will be more limited during the drought than the anisohydric trees due to decreased stomatal conductance, but 2) variation in intrinsic water use efficient (iWUE) during drought in isohydric trees will mediate the effects of drought on carbon assimilation. We will test these hypotheses by 1) analyzing tree-ring chronologies and dendrometer data on productivity, and 2) estimating intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) at multiple scales by analyzing gas exchange data for the leaf-level, inter-annual variability of d13C in tree stem cores for the tree-level, and eddy covariance technique for the stand-level. Our study site is the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). A 46 m flux tower has been continuously recording the carbon, water and energy fluxes, and tree diameter has been measured every 2 weeks using dendrometers, since 1998. Additional research, including gas exchange measurements performed during the

  13. Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7% were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6% were genus-specific PCR positive. Species-specific nested PCR was significantly more sensitive (P<0.001 than the genus-specific PCR in semen and urine from experimentally infected rams. In conclusion, the species-specific nested PCR developed in this study may be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples from suspected rams.

  14. Species-specific AFLP markers for identification of Zingiber officinale, Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Majumder, P B; Sen Mandi, S

    2011-02-08

    The Zingiber genus, which includes the herbs known as gingers, commonly used in cooking, is well known for its medicinal properties, as described in the Indian pharmacopoeia. Different members of this genus, although somewhat similar in morphology, differ widely in their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The most important species of this genus, with maximal therapeutic properties, is Zingiber officinale (garden ginger), which is often adulterated with other less-potent Zingiber sp. There is an existing demand in the herbal drug industry for an authentication system for the Zingiber sp in order to facilitate their commercial use as genuine phytoceuticals. To this end, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to produce DNA fingerprints for three Zingiber species. Sixteen collections (six of Z. officinale, five of Z. montanum, and five of Z. zerumbet) were used in the study. Seven selective primer pairs were found to be useful for all the accessions. A total of 837 fragments were produced by these primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all three Zingiber species (91 for Z. officinale, 82 for Z. montanum, and 55 for Z. zerumbet). The dendogram analysis generated from AFLP patterns showed that Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet are phylogenetically closer to each other than to Z. officinale. The AFLP fingerprints of the Zingiber species could be used to authenticate Zingiber sp-derived drugs and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs.

  15. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Species-specific calls evoke asymmetric activity in the monkey's temporal poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, Amy; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2004-01-29

    It has often been proposed that the vocal calls of monkeys are precursors of human speech, in part because they provide critical information to other members of the species who rely on them for survival and social interactions. Both behavioural and lesion studies suggest that monkeys, like humans, use the auditory system of the left hemisphere preferentially to process vocalizations. To investigate the pattern of neural activity that might underlie this particular form of functional asymmetry in monkeys, we measured local cerebral metabolic activity while the animals listened passively to species-specific calls compared with a variety of other classes of sound. Within the superior temporal gyrus, significantly greater metabolic activity occurred on the left side than on the right, only in the region of the temporal pole and only in response to monkey calls. This functional asymmetry was absent when these regions were separated by forebrain commissurotomy, suggesting that the perception of vocalizations elicits concurrent interhemispheric interactions that focus the auditory processing within a specialized area of one hemisphere.

  17. Compendium of Immune Signatures Identifies Conserved and Species-Specific Biology in Response to Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Jernej; Tan, Yan; Liberzon, Arthur; Tamayo, Pablo; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Butte, Atul J; Mesirov, Jill P; Haining, W Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    Gene-expression profiling has become a mainstay in immunology, but subtle changes in gene networks related to biological processes are hard to discern when comparing various datasets. For instance, conservation of the transcriptional response to sepsis in mouse models and human disease remains controversial. To improve transcriptional analysis in immunology, we created ImmuneSigDB: a manually annotated compendium of ∼5,000 gene-sets from diverse cell states, experimental manipulations, and genetic perturbations in immunology. Analysis using ImmuneSigDB identified signatures induced in activated myeloid cells and differentiating lymphocytes that were highly conserved between humans and mice. Sepsis triggered conserved patterns of gene expression in humans and mouse models. However, we also identified species-specific biological processes in the sepsis transcriptional response: although both species upregulated phagocytosis-related genes, a mitosis signature was specific to humans. ImmuneSigDB enables granular analysis of transcriptomic data to improve biological understanding of immune processes of the human and mouse immune systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pazuki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten

  19. Collective Behavior of Animals: Swarming and Complex Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañizo, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short note we review some of the individual based models of the collective motion of agents, called swarming. These models based on ODEs (ordinary differential equations exhibit a complex rich asymptotic behavior in terms of patterns, that we show numerically. Moreover, we comment on how these particle models are connected to partial differential equations to describe the evolution of densities of individuals in a continuum manner. The mathematical questions behind the stability issues of these PDE (partial differential equations models are questions of actual interest in mathematical biology research.

    En esta nota repasamos algunos modelos basados en individuos para describir el movimiento colectivo de agentes, a lo que nos referimos usando la voz inglesa swarming. Estos modelos se basan en EDOs (ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias y muestran un comportamiento asintótico complejo y rico en patrones, que mostramos numéricamente. Además, comentamos cómo se conectan estos modelos de partículas con las ecuaciones en derivadas parciales para describir la evolución de densidades de individuos de forma continua. Las cuestiones matemáticas relacionadas con la estabilidad de de estos modelos de EDP's (ecuaciones en derivadas parciales despiertan gran interés en la investigación en biología matemática.

  20. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the

  1. INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR MOVEMENT PATTERN ANALYSIS (MPA: MEASURING PATTERNING OF BEHAVIORS VERSUS DISCRETE BEHAVIOR COUNTS AS INDICATORS OF DECISION-MAKING STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Connors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA, an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective, inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = .89. Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring discrete behavioral counts versus patterning of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns.

  2. Exploring Long-Term Behavior Patterns in a Book Recommendation System for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the behavior of students who used a book recommendation system, specifically the My-Bookstore system, over a five semester period. This study addressed two main research questions, the first being related to "the most frequent behaviors and behavioral patterns." The results showed that "visiting" behavior…

  3. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  4. Patterns of poverty exposure and children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinette Comeau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor – stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty – changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their adverse effects. Finally, we compare the magnitude of effects associated with the patterns of poverty exposure, as well as their interactions with low maternal education and single parenthood, on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors to determine if they are significantly different. Results reveal that initial levels and rates of change in children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors are similar across the three changing patterns of poverty exposure, leading us to combine them into a single group representing intermittent poverty. Initial disparities between children who are never poor and their counterparts who are always or intermittently poor are constant over time for internalizing behaviors and grow in magnitude for externalizing behaviors. The cumulative negative effect of poverty exposure over time is stronger for externalizing vs. internalizing behaviors. Low maternal education compounds the adverse effects of persistent poverty, an effect that is similar for externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Keywords: United States, Poverty, Child mental health disparities, Externalizing behaviors, Internalizing behaviors, Multiple risk exposure

  5. Cell behaviors on micro-patterned porous thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phong, Ho Quoc; Wang Shuling; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2010-01-01

    Thin polymer films with patterned surfaces have drawn tremendous attention in manufacturing advanced electronic, mechanical devices and in biomaterials due to the advantageous properties such as mechanical strength, chemical resistance and optic transparency. The applications can be extended to the fields such as catalysts, antireflection coatings, template for inorganic growth masks, and substrates for cell culturing providing the patterned surface containing micron-sized features. Various methods have been used to fabricate polymers with micro-patterned surfaces such as photolithographic, ink-jet printing, nonsolvent, spin coating in a dry environment, self-organization, and the condensation of monodisperse water droplet on the polymer solution. The physiological functions of mature cells depend on the microenvironment/niche surrounding which can provide proper factors to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. While designing appropriate scaffolds for tissue engineering, the microstructure is one of the most important factors to be considered. In this work, a facile single-step phase separation method was used to create micro-patterned polymer thin films with concaves or convexes with sizes ranged from 7 to 70 μm. The effects of water content, casting volume and the addition of surfactant on the distribution of pores and substrate morphology were examined. Moreover, detailed observations of fibroblast cells on the micro-patterned thin films were presented to compare and elucidate the roles of surface micro-features and chemical functionalities.

  6. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Christopher Horn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, t-pattern (temporal pattern analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research to induce acute (< 24 h and delayed (> 24 h emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating and drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and

  7. Move Over! Studying Flatfish Travel Patterns to Profile Fish Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla

    2012-01-01

    The way an animal moves from place to place can inform us about its life and environment. In this lesson, students examine the travel patterns of juvenile flatfishes in an estuary. The process of sampling bottom-dwelling fishes is explained, and data from a university-based marine science laboratory are evaluated. Students compare the distance…

  8. Patterns of Service Use in Two Types of Managed Behavioral Health Care Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M.; Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Ritter, Grant; Zolotusky, Galina; McGuire, Thomas G.; Reif, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe service use patterns by level of care in two managed care products: employee assistance program (EAP) combined with behavioral health benefits, and standard behavioral health benefits. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of administrative data for 2004 from a national managed behavioral health care organization (MBHO). Utilization of 11 specific service categories was compared across products. The weighted sample reflected exact matching on sociodemographics (N= 710,014 unweighted; 286,750 weighted). Results In the EAP/behavioral health product,, the proportion of enrollees with outpatient mental health and substance abuse office visits (including EAP) was higher (pEAP/behavioral health and standard behavioral health care products had distinct utilization patterns in this large MBHO. In particular, greater use of certain outpatient services was observed within the EAP/behavioral health product. PMID:20044425

  9. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-01-01

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous

  10. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.

    2012-01-01

    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  11. E-herding : patterns of online mass-behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because

  12. Statistical Analysis of Friendship Patterns and Bullying Behaviors among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…

  13. Nonstructural Protein L* Species Specificity Supports a Mouse Origin for Vilyuisk Human Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drappier, Melissa; Opperdoes, Fred R; Michiels, Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV) is a picornavirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). VHEV was isolated from human material passaged in mice. Whether this VHEV is of human or mouse origin is therefore unclear. We took advantage of the species-specific activity of the nonstructural L* protein of theiloviruses to track the origin of TMEV isolates. TMEV L* inhibits RNase L, the effector enzyme of the interferon pathway. By using coimmunoprecipitation and functional RNase L assays, the species specificity of RNase L antagonism was tested for L* from mouse (DA) and rat (RTV-1) TMEV strains as well as for VHEV. Coimmunoprecipitation and functional assay data confirmed the species specificity of L* activity and showed that L* from rat strain RTV-1 inhibited rat but not mouse or human RNase L. Next, we showed that the VHEV L* protein was phylogenetically related to L* of mouse viruses and that it failed to inhibit human RNase L but readily antagonized mouse RNase L, unambiguously showing the mouse origin of VHEV. IMPORTANCE Defining the natural host of a virus can be a thorny issue, especially when the virus was isolated only once or when the isolation story is complex. The species Theilovirus includes Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), infecting mice and rats, and Saffold virus (SAFV), infecting humans. One TMEV strain, Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV), however, was isolated from mice that were inoculated with cerebrospinal fluid of a patient presenting with chronic encephalitis. It is therefore unclear whether VHEV was derived from the human sample or from the inoculated mouse. The L* protein encoded by TMEV inhibits RNase L, a cellular enzyme involved in innate immunity, in a species-specific manner. Using binding and functional assays, we show that this species specificity even allows discrimination between TMEV strains of mouse and of rat origins. The VHEV L* protein clearly inhibited mouse but not human RNase L

  14. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  15. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pegorini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.

  16. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorini, Vinicius; Karam, Leandro Zen; Pitta, Christiano Santos Rocha; Cardoso, Rafael; da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardozo; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Ribeiro, Richardson; Bertotti, Fábio Luiz; Assmann, Tangriani Simioni

    2015-11-11

    Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.

  17. Patterns of poverty exposure and children's trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Jinette; Boyle, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor - stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty - changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their adverse effects. Finally, we compare the magnitude of effects associated with the patterns of poverty exposure, as well as their interactions with low maternal education and single parenthood, on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors to determine if they are significantly different. Results reveal that initial levels and rates of change in children's trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors are similar across the three changing patterns of poverty exposure, leading us to combine them into a single group representing intermittent poverty. Initial disparities between children who are never poor and their counterparts who are always or intermittently poor are constant over time for internalizing behaviors and grow in magnitude for externalizing behaviors. The cumulative negative effect of poverty exposure over time is stronger for externalizing vs. internalizing behaviors. Low maternal education compounds the adverse effects of persistent poverty, an effect that is similar for externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

  18. Prospective study of sunburn and sun behavior patterns during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, Stephen W; Halpern, Allan C; Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Berwick, Marianne; Geller, Alan C

    2012-02-01

    Early childhood UV light radiation (UVR) exposures have been shown to be associated with melanoma development later in life. The objective of this study was to assess sunburn and changes in sunburn and sun behaviors during periadolescence. A prospective, population-based study was conducted in fifth-grade children (∼10 years of age) from Framingham, Massachusetts. Surveys were administered at baseline (September-October 2004) and again 3 years later (September-October 2007). Surveys were analyzed to assess prevalence of reported sunburn and sun behaviors and to examine changes in response over the follow-up period. Data were analyzed from 360 participants who had complete information regarding sunburn at both time points. In 2004, ∼53% of the students reported having at least 1 sunburn during the previous summer, and this proportion did not significantly change by 2007 (55%, P = .79), whereas liking a tan and spending time outside to get a tan significantly increased (P sunburns before age 11 and again 3 years later, targeting children in pediatric offices and community settings regarding unprotected UV exposure may be a practical approach. Because periadolescence is a time of volatility with regard to sun behaviors, learning more about children who receive sunburns versus those who avoid them is a critical research task.

  19. Identifying the Behavior Patterns That Influence on Students' Achievement in Psychological Foundations of Learning and Development: A Case of Mekelle University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, J. Master Arul; Eyasu, Mengesha

    2018-01-01

    Generally, the behavior patterns concerns a social significance of values. This paper highlights the various behavior patterns like planner behavior, solution oriented behavior, and prescriptive behavior patterns. The main objective of the present study is to identify the behavior patterns that influence on students' achievement in psychological…

  20. Patterns of poverty exposure and children’s trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Comeau, Jinette; Boyle, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor – stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty – changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their...

  1. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-04-02

    Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  3. Leveraging Client-Side DNS Failure Patterns to Identify Malicious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    malicious behavior found in our dataset and (ii) to create ground truth to evaluate the system proposed in Section V. We begin by removing those cases that...2011. [10] S. Hao, N. Feamster, and R. Pandrangi, “Monitoring the Initial DNS Behavior of Malicious Domains,” in ACM IMC , 2011. [11] R. Perdisci et...distribution is unlimited. Leveraging Client-Side DNS Failure Patterns to Identify Malicious Behaviors The views, opinions and/or findings contained in

  4. Behavioral pattern separation and its link to the neural mechanisms of fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Iris; Goossens, Liesbet; Michielse, Stijn; Bakker, Jindra; Lissek, Shmuel; Papalini, Silvia; Verhagen, Simone; Leibold, Nicole; Marcelis, Machteld; Wichers, Marieke; Lieverse, Ritsaert; van Os, Jim; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Schruers, Koen

    2017-11-01

    Fear generalization is a prominent feature of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is defined as enhanced fear responding to a stimulus that bears similarities, but is not identical to a threatening stimulus. Pattern separation, a hippocampal-dependent process, is critical for stimulus discrimination; it transforms similar experiences or events into non-overlapping representations. This study is the first in humans to investigate the extent to which fear generalization relies on behavioral pattern separation abilities. Participants (N = 46) completed a behavioral task taxing pattern separation, and a neuroimaging fear conditioning and generalization paradigm. Results show an association between lower behavioral pattern separation performance and increased generalization in shock expectancy scores, but not in fear ratings. Furthermore, lower behavioral pattern separation was associated with diminished recruitment of the subcallosal cortex during presentation of generalization stimuli. This region showed functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Together, the data provide novel experimental evidence that pattern separation is related to generalization of threat expectancies, and reduced fear inhibition processes in frontal regions. Deficient pattern separation may be critical in overgeneralization and therefore may contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and PTSD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Radiation effects on the species-specific cell sorting-out of the cellular slime molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of gamma-rays irradiation on the development and the species-specific cell sorting-out of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, were investigated. The interphase amoebae of the organism showed extremely resistant to 60 Co gamma-rays. The percentage of non-stained cells estimated by dye staining method was more than 90% at the dose of 270 kR. The amoebae irradiated at 270 kR performed the development similar in the most respects to that of the un-irradiated amoebae except that a little portion of the fruiting bodies were abnormal and that the appearance of aggregates and slugs delayed 3 hrs. The ability of the species-specific cell sorting-out was not affected by gamma-rays irradiation at 270 kR. (auth.)

  6. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    was applied to detect people. To assess the quality of the trajectories generated by the CV software, a sample of Ground Truth (GT) trajectories were digitized manually for all individuals simultaneously present in the scene in parts of the video recorded. The manual digitization was done in the T......-Analyst software developed at Lund University. Tracks of people walking alone or in social groups of different sizes were recorded, as well as people waiting, people having a conversation, and people dragging their bikes or pushing prams or wheelchairs. The tracks of ‘facers’ working for a charity organization...... will be to develop advanced methods in GIS to enable extraction of behavioral parameters for different classes of tracks that can be used to calibrate models of pedestrian movement. Our approach to tracking urban public life should be seen as a supplement to the traditional qualitative and intuitive manual...

  7. A systematic identification of species-specific protein succinylation sites using joint element features information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan MM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Md Mehedi Hasan,1 Mst Shamima Khatun,2 Md Nurul Haque Mollah,2 Cao Yong,3 Dianjing Guo1 1School of Life Sciences and the State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lysine succinylation, an important type of protein posttranslational modification, plays significant roles in many cellular processes. Accurate identification of succinylation sites can facilitate our understanding about the molecular mechanism and potential roles of lysine succinylation. However, even in well-studied systems, a majority of the succinylation sites remain undetected because the traditional experimental approaches to succinylation site identification are often costly, time-consuming, and laborious. In silico approach, on the other hand, is potentially an alternative strategy to predict succinylation substrates. In this paper, a novel computational predictor SuccinSite2.0 was developed for predicting generic and species-specific protein succinylation sites. This predictor takes the composition of profile-based amino acid and orthogonal binary features, which were used to train a random forest classifier. We demonstrated that the proposed SuccinSite2.0 predictor outperformed other currently existing implementations on a complementarily independent dataset. Furthermore, the important features that make visible contributions to species-specific and cross-species-specific prediction of protein succinylation site were analyzed. The proposed predictor is anticipated to be a useful computational resource for lysine succinylation site prediction. The integrated species-specific online tool of SuccinSite2.0 is publicly

  8. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    distribution of 9 dominating benthic invertebrate species from two study areas, the estuaries Odense Fjord and Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. The slope (b) obtained fromthe power relationship of sample variance (s2) versusmean (μ) appears to be species-specific and independent of location and time. It ranges from...... factors such as behavior and intraspecific interactions. Thus, at the examined spatial scale, the more intense intraspecific interactions (e.g. territoriality) cause less aggregated distribution patterns among large- than small-bodied invertebrates. The species-specific interactions seem sufficiently...

  9. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system.

  10. Genus and species-specific IgG and IgM antibodies pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Abbassi, S.A.; Ahmad, R.N.; Mahmood, A.; Karamat, K.A; Malik, H.S.; Anwar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three different enzyme immunoassays for serological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and to compare their diagnostic accuracy in different combinations. Subjects and Methods: Sera from patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis (n=94) with sputum positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and sera from control group of healthy individuals (n=90) with sputum negative for AFB were tested by Pathozyme-Myco G EIA, Pathozyme-TB Complex Plus EIA and Pathozyme Myco M EIA kits for the genus-specific IgG and IgM, and the species-specific IgG antibodies against antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: The detection of IgG against genus-specific antigens by Pathozyme-Myco G had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 93%, of IgG against species-specific antigens by Pathozyme- TB Complex Plus had a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 97% and of IgM against genus-specific antigens by Pathozyme Myco M had a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 98%. When the results of these immunoassays were evaluated in combination, their sensitivity improved. Combination of genus-specific IgM and species-specific IgG yielded best results with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculosis is low, but it can be increased by utilizing a combination of several antigens. (author)

  11. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis.

  12. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, David; Veiga, Oscar L; Zapatera, Belén; Cabanas-Sánchez, Verónica; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Martinez-Hernández, David; Marcos, Ascensión

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total proportion of adolescents watching TV, using computer and console games, and surfing the internet for more than two hours daily was 24%, 9%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, on weekdays, and 50%, 22%, 16%, and 35%, respectively, on weekends. Over 63% of the adolescents from the study did not meet the recommendation for sedentary behavior (health, public health interventions in Spain that take these factors into consideration are needed.

  13. Behavioral pattern of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the travel behavior of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents using the questionnaire. A total of 84 samples were used as representative population, while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significant. The results that were obtained indicated that a positive correlation exists between frequency of   travel and commuters income in Lagos Metropolis and also that a positive correlation exists between frequency of travel and distance covered by commuters in Lagos Metropolis. Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were also adopted to present the socio-economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that about 57% of sampled population are male, 62 % are civil servants, 48% of respondents travel for business purposes. Also, that majority of the respondents (50% said that the commercial public transport is highly prone to accident, while about 64% of the respondents commute on daily basis. It was established that lack of transport infrastructure coupled with poor road maintenance were seen as the leading causes of inaccessibility of the area.

  14. Hidden Markov model analysis of maternal behavior patterns in inbred and reciprocal hybrid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Carola

    Full Text Available Individual variation in maternal care in mammals shows a significant heritable component, with the maternal behavior of daughters resembling that of their mothers. In laboratory mice, genetically distinct inbred strains show stable differences in maternal care during the first postnatal week. Moreover, cross fostering and reciprocal breeding studies demonstrate that differences in maternal care between inbred strains persist in the absence of genetic differences, demonstrating a non-genetic or epigenetic contribution to maternal behavior. In this study we applied a mathematical tool, called hidden Markov model (HMM, to analyze the behavior of female mice in the presence of their young. The frequency of several maternal behaviors in mice has been previously described, including nursing/grooming pups and tending to the nest. However, the ordering, clustering, and transitions between these behaviors have not been systematically described and thus a global description of maternal behavior is lacking. Here we used HMM to describe maternal behavior patterns in two genetically distinct mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, and their genetically identical reciprocal hybrid female offspring. HMM analysis is a powerful tool to identify patterns of events that cluster in time and to determine transitions between these clusters, or hidden states. For the HMM analysis we defined seven states: arched-backed nursing, blanket nursing, licking/grooming pups, grooming, activity, eating, and sleeping. By quantifying the frequency, duration, composition, and transition probabilities of these states we were able to describe the pattern of maternal behavior in mouse and identify aspects of these patterns that are under genetic and nongenetic inheritance. Differences in these patterns observed in the experimental groups (inbred and hybrid females were detected only after the application of HMM analysis whereas classical statistical methods and analyses were not able to

  15. Neuro-behavioral pattern of sleep bruxism in wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marila Rezende Azevedo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Sleep Bruxism (SB is a non-functional rhythmic movement of the mandible with multifactorial aetiology and complex diagnose. It has been the subject of various studies over the past decades and it is considered a result of actions of the Central Nervous System modulated by Autonomous Nervous System. In this work, we test the hypothesis that SB subjects present a typical and defined neurobehavioral pattern that can be distinct from that of non-bruxers subjects and can be measured during wakefulness. Methods Fifteen sleep bruxers (experimental-group EG and fifteen non-bruxers (control-group CG took part in the experiments. To verify the presence and severity of SB, clinical examinations, anamneses and questionnaires, including Visual Analogic Scale - faces (VAS-f and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were applied. To legitimate the diagnoses of SB, a disposable instrument (Bitestrip® to assess the masseter activity during sleep was employed. All subjects were submitted to a set of experiments for measuring various visual evoked responses during the presentation of visual stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral images. Events in Visual Evoked Potential (VEP were used to compare the neural responses of both CG and EG. Results VAS-f showed EG with higher perception of stress than CG (trait: p=0.05, and lower quality of life for (state: p=0.007. STAI I and II showed significant differences of anxiety between CG and EG (p=0.013 and p=0.004, respectively, being EG the highest. The EG Bitestrip scores confirmed that 100% of subjects were sleep bruxers. Significant differences were found between EG and CG for events associated with emotional (pleasant and unpleasant images in the first 250 ms after stimulation. In general, EG subjects showed higher amplitude and shorter latency of VEP events. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish between SB and non-bruxers subjects during wakefulness, based on differences in amplitude and

  16. Sexual Behavior Pattern and Related Factors in Women with Breast Cancer in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient’s life, attention to sexual issues don’t be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. Methods: This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to Sayed-Al-Shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (pSexual behavior than of were working and retired (psexual behavior (psexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended. PMID:26925917

  17. Internet Connection Control based on Idle Time Using User Behavior Pattern Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fahrul Hardiansyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of smartphone ability is rapidly increasing the power consumption. Many methods have been proposed to reduce smartphone power consumption. Most of these methods use the internet connection control based on the availability of the battery power level regardless of when and where a waste of energy occurs. This paper proposes a new approach to control the internet connection based on idle time using user behavior pattern analysis. User behavior patterns are used to predict idle time duration. Internet connection control performed during idle time. During idle time internet connection periodically switched on and off by a certain time interval. This method effectively reduces a waste of energy. Control of the internet connection does not interfere the user because it is implemented on idle time. Keywords: Smartphone, User Behavior, Pattern Recognition, Idle Time, Internet Connection Control

  18. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  19. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed.

  20. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da, E-mail: chen@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hale, Robert C. [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Watts, Bryan D. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mojica, Elizabeth K. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SIGMAPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  1. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Hale, Robert C.; Watts, Bryan D.; La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen; Mojica, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for ΣPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  2. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pegorini, Vinicius; Karam, Leandro Zen; Pitta, Christiano Santos Rocha; Cardoso, Rafael; da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardozo; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jos?; Ribeiro, Richardson; Bertotti, F?bio Luiz; Assmann, Tangriani Simioni

    2015-01-01

    Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for th...

  3. Species-specific isotopic fractionation of mercury during methylation by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, P.; Epov, V.N.; Bridou, R.; Tessier, E.; Monperrus, M.; Guyoneaud, R.; Amouroux, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The environmental reactivity of Hg is extremely dependent on its chemical form. In fact, Hg bioaccumulation is due to the greater trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury which is formed as a result of biotic or abiotic transformations caused by specific redox gradients and bacterial activity. The study of stable isotope biogeochemistry of Hg may provide a powerful tool to track and understand its cycle and pathways in the environment. This work presents the measurement of species-specific Hg isotopic composition by GC-MCICPMS during Hg methylation experiments using cultures of pure bacterial strains incubated with Hg (II) standard NIST 3133. (author)

  4. Work-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs compared to teachers and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Kieschke, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the status of health-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs in comparison with teachers and physicians to identify specific health risks and resources. Entrepreneurs (n = 632), teachers (n = 5,196), and physicians (n = 549) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used for all professions and, in addition, two scales (health prevention and self-confidence) from the Checklist for Entrepreneurs in the sample of entrepreneurs. The largest proportion of the entrepreneurs (45%) presented with a healthy pattern (compared with 18.4% teachers and 18.3% physicians). Thirty-eight percent of entrepreneurs showed a risk pattern of overexertion and stress, followed by teachers (28.9%) and physicians (20.6%). Unambitious or burnout patterns were seen in only 9.3/8.2% of entrepreneurs, respectively, and 25.3/27.3% of teachers, and 39.6/21.5% of physicians. While the distribution of patterns in teachers and physicians differed significantly between genders, a gender difference was not found among entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs with the risk pattern of overexertion scored significantly (P successful enterprise depends, in part, on the health of the entrepreneur. The large proportion of entrepreneurs with the healthy pattern irrespective of gender may support the notion that self-selection effects of healthy individuals in this special career might be important. At the same time, a large proportion was at risk for overexertion and might benefit from measures to cope with professional demands and stress and promote a healthy behavior pattern.

  5. Behavioral and Single-Neuron Sensitivity to Millisecond Variations in Temporally Patterned Communication Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christa A; Ma, Lisa; Casareale, Chelsea R; Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-08-24

    In many sensory pathways, central neurons serve as temporal filters for timing patterns in communication signals. However, how a population of neurons with diverse temporal filtering properties codes for natural variation in communication signals is unknown. Here we addressed this question in the weakly electric fish Brienomyrus brachyistius, which varies the time intervals between successive electric organ discharges to communicate. These fish produce an individually stereotyped signal called a scallop, which consists of a distinctive temporal pattern of ∼8-12 electric pulses. We manipulated the temporal structure of natural scallops during behavioral playback and in vivo electrophysiology experiments to probe the temporal sensitivity of scallop encoding and recognition. We found that presenting time-reversed, randomized, or jittered scallops increased behavioral response thresholds, demonstrating that fish's electric signaling behavior was sensitive to the precise temporal structure of scallops. Next, using in vivo intracellular recordings and discriminant function analysis, we found that the responses of interval-selective midbrain neurons were also sensitive to the precise temporal structure of scallops. Subthreshold changes in membrane potential recorded from single neurons discriminated natural scallops from time-reversed, randomized, and jittered sequences. Pooling the responses of multiple neurons improved the discriminability of natural sequences from temporally manipulated sequences. Finally, we found that single-neuron responses were sensitive to interindividual variation in scallop sequences, raising the question of whether fish may analyze scallop structure to gain information about the sender. Collectively, these results demonstrate that a population of interval-selective neurons can encode behaviorally relevant temporal patterns with millisecond precision. The timing patterns of action potentials, or spikes, play important roles in representing

  6. Patterns in clinical students' self-regulated learning behavior: a Q-methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joris J; Teunissen, Pim W; Helmich, Esther; van Exel, Job; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C

    2017-03-01

    Students feel insufficiently supported in clinical environments to engage in active learning and achieve a high level of self-regulation. As a result clinical learning is highly demanding for students. Because of large differences between students, supervisors may not know how to support them in their learning process. We explored patterns in undergraduate students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, to improve tailored supervision, using Q-methodology. Q-methodology uses features of both qualitative and quantitative methods for the systematic investigation of subjective issues by having participants sort statements along a continuum to represent their opinion. We enrolled 74 students between December 2014 and April 2015 and had them characterize their learning behavior by sorting 52 statements about self-regulated learning behavior and explaining their response. The statements used for the sorting were extracted from a previous study. The data was analyzed using by-person factor analysis to identify clusters of individuals with similar sorts of the statements. The resulting factors and qualitative data were used to interpret and describe the patterns that emerged. Five resulting patterns were identified in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, which we labelled: Engaged, Critically opportunistic, Uncertain, Restrained and Effortful. The five patterns varied mostly regarding goals, metacognition, communication, effort, and dependence on external regulation for learning. These discrete patterns in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment are part of a complex interaction between student and learning context. The results suggest that developing self-regulated learning behavior might best be supported regarding individual students' needs.

  7. Endogenous retroviruses function as species-specific enhancer elements in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Edward B; Rumi, M A Karim; Soares, Michael J; Baker, Julie C

    2013-03-01

    The mammalian placenta is remarkably distinct between species, suggesting a history of rapid evolutionary diversification. To gain insight into the molecular drivers of placental evolution, we compared biochemically predicted enhancers in mouse and rat trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and found that species-specific enhancers are highly enriched for endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on a genome-wide level. One of these ERV families, RLTR13D5, contributes hundreds of mouse-specific histone H3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1)- and histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac)-defined enhancers that functionally bind Cdx2, Eomes and Elf5-core factors that define the TSC regulatory network. Furthermore, we show that RLTR13D5 is capable of driving gene expression in rat placental cells. Analysis in other tissues shows that species-specific ERV enhancer activity is generally restricted to hypomethylated tissues, suggesting that tissues permissive for ERV activity gain access to an otherwise silenced source of regulatory variation. Overall, our results implicate ERV enhancer co-option as a mechanism underlying the extensive evolutionary diversification of placental development.

  8. Identification of hare meat by a species-specific marker of mitochondrial origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cristina G; Melo, Vitor S; Amaral, Joana S; Estevinho, Letícia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    Meat species identification in food has gained increasing interest in recent years due to public health, economic and legal concerns. Following the consumer trend towards high quality products, game meat has earned much attention. The aim of the present work was to develop a DNA-based technique able to identify hare meat. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to design species-specific primers for hare detection. The new primers proved to be highly specific to Lepus species, allowing the detection of 0.01% of hare meat in pork meat by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A real-time PCR assay with the new intercalating EvaGreen dye was further proposed as a specific and fast tool for hare identification with increased sensitivity (1pg) compared to end-point PCR (10pg). It can be concluded that the proposed new primers can be used by both species-specific end-point PCR or real-time PCR to accurately authenticate hare meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fine-scale genetic analysis of species-specific female preference in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, M; Moehring, A J

    2012-09-01

    Behavioural differences are thought to be the first components to contribute to species isolation, yet the precise genetic basis of behavioural isolation remains poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of behaviour assays and genetic mapping to provide the first refined map locating candidate genes for interspecific female preference isolating Drosophila simulans from D. melanogaster. First, we tested whether two genes identified as affecting D. melanogaster female intraspecific mate choice also affect interspecific mate choice; neither of these genes was found to contribute to species-specific female preference. Next, we used deficiency mapping to locate genes on the right arm of the third chromosome for species-specific female preference and identified five small significant regions that contain candidate genes contributing to behavioural isolation. All five regions were located in areas that would have low interspecific recombination, which mirrors the results of other behavioural isolation studies that used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, but without the potential concern of bias towards regions of low recombination that QTL mapping may have. As this model system may be refined to the individual gene level using the same methodology, this initial map we provide may potentially serve as a ready template for the identification and characterization of the first behavioural isolation genes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Investigating Relationship between Discourse Behavioral Patterns and Academic Achievements of Students in SPOC Discussion Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenjing; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Sun, Jianwen; Liu, Sannyuya

    2018-01-01

    As an overt expression of internal mental processes, discourses have become one main data source for the research of interactive learning. To deeply explore behavioral regularities among interactions, this article firstly adopts the content analysis method to summarize students' engagement patterns within a course forum in a small private online…

  11. Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S.…

  12. Nurses' Behaviors and Visual Scanning Patterns May Reduce Patient Identification Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.; He, Ze; Jo, Junghee; Fisher, Donald L.; Henneman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Patient identification (ID) errors occurring during the medication administration process can be fatal. The aim of this study is to determine whether differences in nurses' behaviors and visual scanning patterns during the medication administration process influence their capacities to identify patient ID errors. Nurse participants (n = 20)…

  13. Event-based Modularization: How Emergent Behavioral Patterns Must Be Modularized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh; Aksit, Mehmet

    Nowadays, detecting emergent behavioral patterns in the environment, representing and manipulating them become the main focus of many software systems such as traffic monitoring systems, runtime verification techniques and self-adaptive systems. In this paper, we discuss the need for dedicated

  14. Behavioral and Physiological Neural Network Analyses: A Common Pathway toward Pattern Recognition and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Lauter, Judy L.; Coffee, Michael; Clary, Logan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Rumph, Marilyn; Rumph, Robin; Kyle, Betty; Ninness, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study…

  15. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  16. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  17. Elevated dopamine alters consummatory pattern generation and increases behavioral variability during learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Rossi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of dopamine in controlling behavior remains poorly understood. In this study we examined licking behavior in an established hyperdopaminergic mouse model—dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO mice. DAT KO mice showed higher rates of licking, which is due to increased perseveration of licking in a bout. By contrast, they showed increased individual lick durations, and reduced inter-lick-intervals. During extinction, both KO and control mice transiently increased variability in lick pattern generation while reducing licking rate, yet they showed very different behavioral patterns. Control mice gradually increased lick duration as well as variability. By contrast, DAT KO mice exhibited more immediate (within 10 licks adjustments—an immediate increase in lick duration variability, as well as more rapid extinction. These results suggest that the level of dopamine can modulate the persistence and pattern generation of a highly stereotyped consummatory behavior like licking, as well as new learning in response to changes in environmental feedback. Increased dopamine in DAT KO mice not only increased perseveration of bouts and individual lick duration, but also increased the behavioral variability in response to the extinction contingency and the rate of extinction.

  18. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  19. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  20. Patterns of service use in two types of managed behavioral health care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Ritter, Grant; Zolotusky, Galima; McGuire, Thomas G; Reif, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The study examined service use patterns by level of care in two managed care plans offered by a national managed behavioral health care organization (MBHO): an employee assistance program (EAP) combined with a standard behavioral health plan (integrated plan) and a standard behavioral health plan. The cross-sectional analysis used 2004 administrative data from the MBHO. Utilization of 11 specific service categories was compared. The weighted sample reflected exact matching on sociodemographic characteristics (unweighted N=710,014; weighted N=286,750). A larger proportion of enrollees in the integrated plan than in the standard plan used outpatient mental health and substance abuse office visits (including EAP visits) (p<.01) and substance abuse intensive outpatient or day treatment (p<.05), and the proportion using residential substance abuse rehabilitation was lower (p<.05). The integrated and standard products had distinct utilization patterns in this large MBHO. In particular, greater use of certain outpatient services was observed in the integrated plan.

  1. HIV-1 Vif's Capacity To Manipulate the Cell Cycle Is Species Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Edward L; Becker, Jordan T; Fricke, Stephanie L; Patel, Kishan; Sherer, Nathan M

    2018-04-01

    Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 virion production, reflecting species-specific incompatibilities between viral Tat and Rev proteins and essential host factors cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and exportin-1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), respectively. To determine if mouse cell blocks other than CCNT1 and XPO1 affect HIV's postintegration stages, we studied HIV-1 NL4-3 gene expression in mouse NIH 3T3 cells modified to constitutively express HIV-1-compatible versions of CCNT1 and XPO1 (3T3.CX cells). 3T3.CX cells supported both Rev-independent and Rev-dependent viral gene expression and produced relatively robust levels of virus particles, confirming that CCNT1 and XPO1 represent the predominant blocks to these stages. Unexpectedly, however, 3T3.CX cells were remarkably resistant to virus-induced cytopathic effects observed in human cell lines, which we mapped to the viral protein Vif and its apparent species-specific capacity to induce G 2 /M cell cycle arrest. Vif was able to mediate rapid degradation of human APOBEC3G and the PPP2R5D regulatory B56 subunit of the PP2A phosphatase holoenzyme in mouse cells, thus demonstrating that Vif NL4-3 's modulation of the cell cycle can be functionally uncoupled from some of its other defined roles in CUL5-dependent protein degradation. Vif was also unable to induce G 2 /M cell cycle arrest in other nonhuman cell types, including cells derived from nonhuman primates, leading us to propose that one or more human-specific cofactors underpin Vif's ability to modulate the cell cycle. IMPORTANCE Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 replication, thus hindering the development of a low-cost small-animal model for studying HIV/AIDS. Here, we engineered otherwise-nonpermissive mouse cells to express HIV-1-compatible versions of two species-specific host dependency factors, cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and exportin-1 (XPO1) (3T3.CX cells). We show that 3T3.CX cells rescue HIV-1

  2. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group. They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior.

  3. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Francisco J. P.; Herrera, Ana del Refugio C.; Rubalcava, San J. A.; Martínez, Kalina I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group). They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior. PMID:28626430

  4. Species-specific differences in adaptive phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant trophic trait: hypertrophic lips in Midas cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    The spectacular species richness of cichlids and their diversity in morphology, coloration, and behavior have made them an ideal model for the study of speciation and adaptive evolution. Hypertrophic lips evolved repeatedly and independently in African and Neotropical cichlid radiations. Cichlids with hypertrophic lips forage predominantly in rocky crevices and it has been hypothesized that mechanical stress caused by friction could result in larger lips through phenotypic plasticity. To test the influence of the environment on the size and development of lips, we conducted a series of breeding and feeding experiments on Midas cichlids. Full-sibs of Amphilophus labiatus (thick-lipped) and Amphilophus citrinellus (thin-lipped) each were split into a control group which was fed food from the water column and a treatment group whose food was fixed to substrates. We found strong evidence for phenotypic plasticity on lip area in the thick-lipped species, but not in the thin-lipped species. Intermediate phenotypic values were observed in hybrids from thick- and thin-lipped species reared under "control" conditions. Thus, both a genetic, but also a phenotypic plastic component is involved in the development of hypertrophic lips in Neotropical cichlids. Moreover, species-specific adaptive phenotypic plasticity was found, suggesting that plasticity is selected for in recent thick-lipped species. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Species-specific associations between soil-transmitted helminths and micronutrients in Vietnamese schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-01-01

    6-9 years were recruited from two primary schools. STH infections were determined in stool samples. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol, and zinc were measured in blood samples, as well as C-reactive protein to control for inflammation. Iodine excretion was measured in urine. Associations of single...... and multiple infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm with micronutrient status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, and urinary iodine) were estimated by multiple regression analysis. Ascaris infections showed a specific and intensity-dependent negative association...... with vitamin A. Trichuris and hookworm infections were associated with lower hemoglobin concentration, but not with plasma ferritin. Trichuris-infected children had zinc deficiency less often than uninfected children. In conclusion, our study shows species-specific associations between STH infections...

  6. LC-MS/MS Identification of Species-Specific Muscle Peptides in Processed Animal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Daniela; Altomare, Alessandra; Gili, Marilena; Ostorero, Federica; Khadjavi, Amina; Corona, Cristiano; Ru, Giuseppe; Cappelletti, Benedetta; Gianelli, Silvia; Amadeo, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Casalone, Cristina

    2017-12-06

    An innovative analytical strategy has been applied to identify signature peptides able to distinguish among processed animal proteins (PAPs) derived from bovine, pig, fish, and milk products. Proteomics was first used to elucidate the proteome of each source. Starting from the identified proteins and using a funnel based approach, a set of abundant and well characterized peptides with suitable physical-chemical properties (signature peptides) and specific for each source was selected. An on-target LC-ESI-MS/MS method (MRM mode) was set up using standard peptides and was then applied to selectively identify the PAP source and also to distinguish proteins from bovine carcass and milk proteins. We believe that the method described meets the request of the European Commission which has developed a strategy for gradually lifting the "total ban" toward "species to species ban", therefore requiring official methods for species-specific discrimination in feed.

  7. Use of Brucella abortus species specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisi, Songelwayo L; Schmidt, Tracy; Akol, George W; Van Heerden, Henriette

    2017-09-27

    Serology is primarily used in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Bacterial culture and isolation is the gold standard in diagnosing brucellosis but, like serology, it does not offer complete (100%) diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been suggested to offer better specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Brucella abortus species specific (BaSS) PCR directly from different samples in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture. The BaSS PCR had a low diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of 70%, but was able to identify vaccine strains using abomasal fluid from aborted foetuses and detect Brucella DNA from decomposing samples. The best sample for the BaSS PCR was abomasal fluid.

  8. Development of an improved species specific PCR test for detection of Haemophilus parasuis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Oliveira, Simone; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , the present PCR test was found to be 100% species specific for H. parasuis, in contrast to the PCR test of Oliveira et al., which also tested positive for strains belonging to A. indolicus, A. porcinus, and A. minor, species commonly occurring in the upper respiratory tract. However, when the PCR test...... with representatives of H. parasuis. The test was further evaluated on 55 clinical samples from 16 Danish pigs suspected for being infected with H. parasuis, showing polyserositis or septicemia at autopsy as well as on 492 nasal swabs. The test was compared with the performance of a PCR test earlier published...... by Oliveira et al. [Oliveira, S., Galina, L., Pijoan, C., 2001. Development of a PCR test to diagnose Haemophilus parasuis infections. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 13, 495-501]. The sensitivity of the present PCR test was found to be slightly lower when applied on clinical samples from diseased pigs and 10-fold...

  9. In vivo synthesized 34S enriched amino acid standards for species specific isotope dilution of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gerrit; Moller, Laura Hyrup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2016-01-01

    (ICP-MS) combined to anion exchange showed that very high concentrated spike material could be produced with [small mu ]mol amounts of proteinogenic sulfur containing amino acids per g cell dry weight. An enrichment of 34S to 96.3 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) and 98.5 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) for cysteic acid...... with the concept of species specific isotope dilution analysis (IDA). The method relies on the determination of the two sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine by sulfur speciation analysis and is hence applicable to any protein containing sulfur. In vivo synthesis using 34S as sulfur source...... and methionine sulfone, respectively, was assessed. The established IDA method was validated for the absolute quantification of commercially available lysozyme and ceruloplasmin standards including the calculation of a total combined uncertainty budget....

  10. Temporal Lobe Lesions and Perception of Species-Specific Vocalizations by Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Henry E.; Heffner, Rickye S.

    1984-10-01

    Japanese macaques were trained to discriminate two forms of their coo vocalization before and after unilateral and bilateral ablation of the temporal cortex. Unilateral ablation of the left superior temporal gyrus, including auditory cortex, resulted in an initial impairment in the discrimination, but similar unilateral ablation of the right superior temporal gyrus had no effect. Bilateral temporal lesions including auditory cortex completely abolished the ability of the animals to discriminate their coos. Neither unilateral nor bilateral ablation of cortex dorsal to and sparing the auditory cortex had any effect on the discrimination. The perception of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques seems to be mediated by the temporal cortex, with the left hemisphere playing a predominant role.

  11. Identification of campylobacteria isolated from Danish broilers by phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    campylobacterial cultures, 108 Campylobacter jejuni cultures and 351 campylobacterial cultures other than Camp. jejuni were subjected to various species-specific PCR assays. On the basis of the genotypic tests, it was demonstrated that Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli constituted approx. 99% of all cultures, while...... other species identified were Helicobacter pullorum, Camp. lari and Camp. upsaliensis. However, 29% of the 309 Camp. coli cultures identified by phenotypic tests were hippurate-variable or negative Camp. jejuni cultures, whereas some Camp. lari cultures and unspeciated campylobacter cultures belonged...... and Impact of the Study: Future phenotypic test schemes should be designed to allow a more accurate differentiation of Campylobacter and related species. Preferably, the phenotypic tests should be supplemented with a genotypic strategy to disclose the true campylobacterial species diversity in broilers....

  12. Conjugated action of two species-specific invasion proteins for fetoplacental listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disson, Olivier; Grayo, Solène; Huillet, Eugénie; Nikitas, Georgios; Langa-Vives, Francina; Dussurget, Olivier; Ragon, Marie; Le Monnier, Alban; Babinet, Charles; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc

    2008-10-23

    The ability to cross host barriers is an essential virulence determinant of invasive microbial pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes is a model microorganism that crosses human intestinal and placental barriers, and causes severe maternofetal infections by an unknown mechanism. Several studies have helped to characterize the bacterial invasion proteins InlA and InlB. However, their respective species specificity has complicated investigations on their in vivo role. Here we describe two novel and complementary animal models for human listeriosis: the gerbil, a natural host for L. monocytogenes, and a knock-in mouse line ubiquitously expressing humanized E-cadherin. Using these two models, we uncover the essential and interdependent roles of InlA and InlB in fetoplacental listeriosis, and thereby decipher the molecular mechanism underlying the ability of a microbe to target and cross the placental barrier.

  13. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  14. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  15. Species-specific variation in the phosphorus nutritional sources by microphytoplankton in a Mediterranean estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLY CAROLINA MARTINEZ SOTO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the species-specific phosphorus (P nutrition sources in the microphytoplankton community in the Mahon estuary (Minorca, Western Mediterranean in 2011, under two contrasting hydrographic scenarios. Estuarine flow, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton community composition and enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF were measured in June and October, corresponding to the beginning and the end of summer. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and inorganic phosphate (Pi exhibited enhanced concentrations in the inner estuary where N:P molar ratios suggested P-limitation in both surveys. Pi was low and variable (0.09±0.02 μmol•l-1 in June and 0.06±0.02 μmol•l-1 in October, whereas organic phosphorus remained a more reliable P source. Even though ambient Pi concentrations were slightly higher on June, when the microphytoplankton assemblage was dominated by dinoflagellates, the percentage of cells expressing ELF labeling was notably higher (65% of total cells than in October (12%, when the presence of diatoms characterized the microphytoplankton community. ELF was mainly expressed by dinoflagellate taxa, whereas diatoms only expressed significant AP in the inner estuary during the June survey. A P-addition bioassay in which response of AP to Pi enrichment was evaluated showed remarkable reduction in AP with increasing Pi. However, some dinoflagellate species maintained AP even when Pi was supplied in excess. We suggest that in the case of some dinoflagellate species AP is not as tightly controlled by ambient Pi as previously believed. AP activity in these species could indicate selective use of organic phosphorus, or slow metabolic response to changes in P forms, rather than physiological stress to low Pi availability. We emphasize the importance of identifying the links between the different P sources and the species-specific requirements, in order to understand the ecological response to anthropogenic biogeochemical perturbations.

  16. Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfano, Alessandra S; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Duarte, Ana P M; Villegas, Luis M; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Pinto, Luciana C; Campos, Keillen M M; Pinilla, Yudi T; Chaves, Bárbara; Barbosa Guerra, Maria G V; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Smith, Ryan C; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Secundino, Nágila F C; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-08-02

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected mosquito delivers Plasmodium sporozoites into a vertebrate host. There are many species of Plasmodium and, in general, the infection is host-specific. For example, Plasmodium gallinaceum is an avian parasite, while Plasmodium berghei infects mice. These two parasites have been extensively used as experimental models of malaria transmission. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most important agents of human malaria, a life-threatening disease of global importance. To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must traverse the mosquito midgut and form an oocyst that will divide continuously. Mature oocysts release thousands of sporozoites into the mosquito haemolymph that must reach the salivary gland to infect a new vertebrate host. The current understanding of the biology of oocyst formation and sporozoite release is mostly based on experimental infections with P. berghei, and the conclusions are generalized to other Plasmodium species that infect humans without further morphological analyses. Here, it is described the microanatomy of sporozoite escape from oocysts of four Plasmodium species: the two laboratory models, P. gallinaceum and P. berghei, and the two main species that cause malaria in humans, P. vivax and P. falciparum. It was found that sporozoites have species-specific mechanisms of escape from the oocyst. The two model species of Plasmodium had a common mechanism, in which the oocyst wall breaks down before sporozoites emerge. In contrast, P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites show a dynamic escape mechanism from the oocyst via polarized propulsion. This study demonstrated that Plasmodium species do not share a common mechanism of sporozoite escape, as previously thought, but show complex and species-specific mechanisms. In addition, the knowledge of this phenomenon in human Plasmodium can facilitate transmission-blocking studies and not those ones only based on the murine and avian models.

  17. Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltomaa, Riikka; Vaghini, Silvia; Patiño, Belén; Benito-Peña, Elena; Moreno-Bondi, María C.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. - Highlights: • Optical genosensors detect fumonisin producing Fusarium species in maize samples. • Oligonucleotide probes designed on the intergenic spacer region of rDNA can distinguish between closely related species. • Sandwich hybridization assay with magnetic microbeads allows species-specific detection of Fusarium spp. directly from PCR.

  18. Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltomaa, Riikka; Vaghini, Silvia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Patiño, Belén [Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Benito-Peña, Elena, E-mail: elenabp@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, María C., E-mail: mcmbondi@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-09-07

    Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. - Highlights: • Optical genosensors detect fumonisin producing Fusarium species in maize samples. • Oligonucleotide probes designed on the intergenic spacer region of rDNA can distinguish between closely related species. • Sandwich hybridization assay with magnetic microbeads allows species-specific detection of Fusarium spp. directly from PCR.

  19. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  20. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonality patterns of mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Falguni; Postolache, Nadine; Mohyuddin, Hira; Vaswani, Dipika; Balis, Theodora; Raheja, Uttam K; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-12-01

    Although humans have become partially isolated from physical seasonal environmental changes through artificial lighting and temperature control, seasonal changes in mood and behavior have been described across hemispheres, continents, ethnicities and occupations. The Old Order Amish are more exposed than the general population to environmental seasonal changes both occupationally as well as through their limited use of electric light in the winter and air conditioning in the summer; yet, their seasonal changes in mood and behavior have not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to analyze seasonal patterns in mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, who returned completed Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires (SPAQ). Monthly seasonal patterns were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVAs, followed by a post hoc t-test if significant. The χ 2 was used for presence or absence of seasonal patterns for each item. More than 75% of the participants reported at least one seasonal change. More than 75 % endorsed seasonality in "feeling best" but only populations.

  2. Catalog Learning: Carabid Beetles Learn to Manipulate with Innate Coherent Behavioral Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Reznikova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fascinating problems in comparative psychology is how learning contributes to solving specific functional problems in animal life, and which forms of learning our species shares with non-human animals. Simulating a natural situation of territorial conflicts between predatory carabids and red wood ants in field and laboratory experiments, we have revealed a relatively simple and quite natural form of learning that has been overlooked. We call it catalog learning, the name we give to the ability of animals to establish associations between stimuli and coherent behavioral patterns (patterns consist of elementary motor acts that have a fixed order. Instead of budgeting their motor acts gradually, from chaotic to rational sequences in order to learn something new, which is characteristic for a conditioning response, animals seem to be “cataloguing” their repertoire of innate coherent behavioral patterns in order to optimize their response to a certain repetitive event. This form of learning can be described as “stimulus-pattern” learning. In our experiments four “wild” carabid species, whose cognitive abilities have never been studied before, modified their behavior in a rather natural manner in order to avoid damage from aggressive ants. Beetles learned to select the relevant coherent behavioral patterns from the set of seven patterns, which are common to all four species and apparently innate. We suggest that this form of learning differs from the known forms of associative learning, and speculate that it is quite universal and can be present in a wide variety of species, both invertebrate and vertebrate. This study suggests a new link between the concepts of cognition and innateness.

  3. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  4. Sympatry Predicts Spot Pigmentation Patterns and Female Association Behavior in the Livebearing Fish Poeciliopsis baenschi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Monzón, Andrea J.; Scott, Laura E.; Camargo, Ashley A.; Clark, Eliza I.; Schott, Eric E.; Johnson, Jerald B.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility that differences in pigmentation patterns among populations of the fish Poeciliopsis baenschi were associated with the presence or absence of the closely related species P. turneri. If reproductive character displacement is responsible, spotting patterns in these two species should diverge in sympatry, but not allopatry. We predicted that female P. baenschi from sympatric sites should show a preference for associating with conspecifics vs. heterospecific males, but females from allopatric sites should show no such preferences. To evaluate these predictions, we compared spotting patterns and female association behaviors in populations of P. baenschi from Central Mexico. We found that both of our predictions were supported. Poeciliopsis baenschi that co-occured with P. turneri had spotting patterns significantly different than their counterparts from allopatric sites. Using a simultaneous choice test of video presentations of males, we also found that female P. baenschi from populations that co-occured with P. turneri spent significantly more time with males of their own species than with P. turneri males. In contrast, females from allopatric populations of P. baenschi showed no differences in the amount of time they spent with either conspecific or heterospecific males. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that reproductive character displacement may be responsible for behavioral and spotting pattern differences in these populations of P. baenschi. PMID:28107407

  5. Exploring the Behavioral Patterns of Learners in an Educational Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular among students. Educational MMORPGs, however, are very rare, as are studies on gamers' behavioral patterns during such games. The current study is an empirical observation and analysis of the behavioral patterns of 100 gamers participating in an educational MMORPG called…

  6. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  8. Nonmonotonic Behavior of Supermultiplet Pattern Formation in a Noisy Lotka-Volterra System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiasconaro, A.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.

    2004-01-01

    The noise-induced pattern formation in a population dynamical model of three interacting species in the coexistence regime is investigated. A coupled map lattice of Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of multiplicative noise is used to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution. The spatial correlation of the species concentration as a function of time and of the noise intensity is investigated. A nonmonotonic behavior of the area of the patterns as a function of both noise intensity and evolution time is found. (author)

  9. Temporal-pattern recognition by single neurons in a sensory pathway devoted to social communication behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2009-07-29

    Sensory systems often encode stimulus information into the temporal pattern of action potential activity. However, little is known about how the information contained within these patterns is extracted by postsynaptic neurons. Similar to temporal coding by sensory neurons, social information in mormyrid fish is encoded into the temporal patterning of an electric organ discharge. In the current study, sensitivity to temporal patterns of electrosensory stimuli was found to arise within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp). Whole-cell patch recordings from ELp neurons in vivo revealed three patterns of interpulse interval (IPI) tuning: low-pass neurons tuned to long intervals, high-pass neurons tuned to short intervals, and bandpass neurons tuned to intermediate intervals. Many neurons within each class also responded preferentially to either increasing or decreasing IPIs. Playback of electric signaling patterns recorded from freely behaving fish revealed that the IPI and direction tuning of ELp neurons resulted in selective responses to particular social communication displays characterized by distinct IPI patterns. The postsynaptic potential responses of many neurons indicated a combination of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input, and the IPI tuning of ELp neurons was directly related to rate-dependent changes in the direction and amplitude of postsynaptic potentials. These results suggest that differences in the dynamics of short-term synaptic plasticity in excitatory and inhibitory pathways may tune central sensory neurons to particular temporal patterns of presynaptic activity. This may represent a general mechanism for the processing of behaviorally relevant stimulus information encoded into temporal patterns of activity by sensory neurons.

  10. Patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet in U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Wang, Jing

    2013-08-01

    To identify patterns in adolescents' obesogenic behaviors and their relations to physical and psychological health. A nationally representative sample of 9,174 U.S. adolescents ages 11 to 16 years was surveyed on physical activity (PA), screen-based sedentary behavior (SB), frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy food items, weight status, weight control behavior, depression, physical symptoms, body dissatisfaction, overall health, and life satisfaction. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of PA, SB, and diet. A model with three latent classes best fit the data: Class 1 with high PA and high fruit and vegetable intake and low SB and intake of sweets, soft drinks, chips, and fries; Class 2 with high SB and high intake of sweets, soft drinks, chips, and fries; and Class 3 with low PA, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low intake of sweets, chips, and fries. Membership in the three classes was related to age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. In addition, members of Class 1 (26.5%) were more likely to be of normal weight status and to fare well on most of the other health indices; of Class 2 (26.4%) were less likely to be trying to lose weight but scored poorly on the mental health indices; and of Class 3 (47.2%) were less likely to be underweight and reported greater body dissatisfaction. Three prevalent patterns of adolescent obesogenic behaviors were identified and these patterns related to weight status, depression, and other indicators of physical and psychological health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  12. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still

  13. Link-N: The missing link towards intervertebral disc repair is species-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C Bach

    Full Text Available Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD is a frequent cause for back pain in humans and dogs. Link-N stabilizes proteoglycan aggregates in cartilaginous tissues and exerts growth factor-like effects. The human variant of Link-N facilitates IVD regeneration in several species in vitro by inducing Smad1 signaling, but it is not clear whether this is species specific. Dogs with IVD disease could possibly benefit from Link-N treatment, but Link-N has not been tested on canine IVD cells. If Link-N appears to be effective in canines, this would facilitate translation of Link-N into the clinic using the dog as an in vivo large animal model for human IVD degeneration.This study's objective was to determine the effect of the human and canine variant of Link-N and short (s Link-N on canine chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs and compare this to those on already studied species, i.e. human and bovine CLCs. Extracellular matrix (ECM production was determined by measuring glycosaminoglycan (GAG content and histological evaluation. Additionally, the micro-aggregates' DNA content was measured. Phosphorylated (p Smad1 and -2 levels were determined using ELISA.Human (sLink-N induced GAG deposition in human and bovine CLCs, as expected. In contrast, canine (sLink-N did not affect ECM production in human CLCs, while it mainly induced collagen type I and II deposition in bovine CLCs. In canine CLCs, both canine and human (sLink-N induced negligible GAG deposition. Surprisingly, human and canine (sLink-N did not induce Smad signaling in human and bovine CLCs. Human and canine (sLink-N only mildly increased pSmad1 and Smad2 levels in canine CLCs.Human and canine (sLink-N exerted species-specific effects on CLCs from early degenerated IVDs. Both variants, however, lacked the potency as canine IVD regeneration agent. While these studies demonstrate the challenges of translational studies in large animal models, (sLink-N still holds a regenerative potential for humans.

  14. Adolescent Maltreatment in the Child Welfare System and Developmental Patterns of Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John

    2018-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M=15.5, SD=1.49) at baseline (n=714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare–involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system. PMID:25155702

  15. Tritium behavior pattern in some soil-plant systems in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the distribution pattern of tritium in the soil/plant environment gives valuable ecological information on the natural water balance. The results of such a study for the conditions obtaining in India are given in this paper. Field studies are carried out by injection of tritium into some soil/plant systems and following the transfer pathways. The method of extraction for tissue-free-water-tritium (TFWT) is based on the vacuum freeze-drying technique while the tissue-bound-tritium (TBT) is estimated by a modified version of the Shoniger method. The determination of residence time of tritium in aqueous and organic phase in a number of tropical trees has been carried out both for stem-injection as well as intake from the soil. From the results of this study the tree biomass and transpiration rates have been determined. The tritium profile over time, for an acute exposure in certain trees such as Morinda Tinetoria, Achras Sapota etc. shows significantly different patterns compared to the normal pattern shown by Mangifera Indica, Terminalia Catappa, Ficus Glomerata etc. The period of investigation in each case varied from 400 to 1000 h. In most of the cases, the TBT fractions were very low compared to TFWT fractions in the initial stages. The tritium behavior in the tree reflects significant characteristics of the tritium behavior in the soil system. The authors have found that the leaf sampling can be used as an indicator of total environmental tritium behavior. (author)

  16. Effects of behavioral patterns and network topology structures on Parrondo’s paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Cheong, Kang Hao; Cen, Yu-Wan; Xie, Neng-Gang

    2016-11-01

    A multi-agent Parrondo’s model based on complex networks is used in the current study. For Parrondo’s game A, the individual interaction can be categorized into five types of behavioral patterns: the Matthew effect, harmony, cooperation, poor-competition-rich-cooperation and a random mode. The parameter space of Parrondo’s paradox pertaining to each behavioral pattern, and the gradual change of the parameter space from a two-dimensional lattice to a random network and from a random network to a scale-free network was analyzed. The simulation results suggest that the size of the region of the parameter space that elicits Parrondo’s paradox is positively correlated with the heterogeneity of the degree distribution of the network. For two distinct sets of probability parameters, the microcosmic reasons underlying the occurrence of the paradox under the scale-free network are elaborated. Common interaction mechanisms of the asymmetric structure of game B, behavioral patterns and network topology are also revealed.

  17. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  18. Study of type a and b behavior patterns in patients with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: People with type A behavior pattern are reported to have more stress, nervousness, and anxiety. In this study, MS patients had more characteristics of type A than type B behavior. This behavior was increased in individuals with EDSS score >4.5.

  19. [Drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population aged 18-59 years old in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Yong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Zeng, Xinying; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To understand the drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population in China. Floating population were selected through multistage clustering sampling method, stratified by 6 major industries in 170 counties and districts from 31 provinces/autonomous regions, and Xinjiang Construction Corps, in mainland China. Design-based methods were adopted to analyze the drinking behavior in subpopulations. A total of 48 697 floating population aged 18-59 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence rate of drinking was 51.7% with 71.9% in men and 24.7% in women, in the last 12 months. Among those who ever drank, the weekly drinking prevalence and daily alcohol intake were 53.9% and 18.7 g in males while 16.7% and 4.1 g in females, respectively, among those floating population. Weekly drinking prevalence rates, for both genders, increased along with the increase of age (P population from the construction industry had the highest prevalence rates on items as weekly drinking, daily alcohol intake and prevalence of unhealthy drinking behaviors, except for hazardous drinking behaviors. Drinking behavior was prevalent among floating population in China. Significant difference was seen between genders. Unhealthy drinking behaviors varied greatly among male drinkers at different age groups or education levels as well as among those working in the different industries.

  20. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Momentary Patterns of Covariation between Specific Affects and Interpersonal Behavior: Linking Relationship Science and Personality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M.; Girard, Jeffrey M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Scott, Lori N.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory’s principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the two systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. PMID:27148786

  2. Employment Patterns of Less-Skilled Workers: Links to Children’s Behavior and Academic Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from five waves of the Women’s Employment Survey (WES; 1997–2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers’ employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers’ employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches—including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education. PMID:22246798

  3. An assessment of schoolyard features and behavior patterns in children's utilization and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Brink, Lois; Kingston, Beverly; Kutchman, Eve; Lampe, Sarah; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Careful research that elucidates how behavior relates to design in the context of elementary school grounds can serve to guide cost-efficient design with the goal of encouraging physical activity (PA). This work explores patterns in children's PA behavior within playground spaces with the specific goal of guiding healthy playground design. Data on children's utilization and PA behavior in 6 playgrounds divided into 106 observation zones were collected in 2005 and 2006 at Denver elementary school playgrounds using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. Analyses of variance and t tests determined whether there were differences in utilization and behavior patterns across observations zones and between genders. This study provides evidence that children prefer to use certain types of playground zones and that they are more likely to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in some zones. The authors observed statistically significant differences between genders. Boys were more likely to engage in MVPA in zones without equipment, girls were more likely to use zones with equipment. This work suggests that the inclusion or omission of specific playground features may have an impact on the way that children use the spaces.

  4. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

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    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  5. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  6. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  7. Plants of the fynbos biome harbour host species-specific bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyambo, Tsakani; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Cowan, Don A; Valverde, Angel

    2016-08-01

    The fynbos biome in South Africa is globally recognised as a plant biodiversity hotspot. However, very little is known about the bacterial communities associated with fynbos plants, despite interactions between primary producers and bacteria having an impact on the physiology of both partners and shaping ecosystem diversity. This study reports on the structure, phylogenetic composition and potential roles of the endophytic bacterial communities located in the stems of three fynbos plants (Erepsia anceps, Phaenocoma prolifera and Leucadendron laureolum). Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing we found that different subpopulations of Deinococcus-Thermus, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the endophytic bacterial communities. Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent in P. prolifera, whereas Deinococcus-Thermus dominated in L. laureolum, revealing species-specific host-bacteria associations. Although a high degree of variability in the endophytic bacterial communities within hosts was observed, we also detected a core microbiome across the stems of the three plant species, which accounted for 72% of the sequences. Altogether, it seems that both deterministic and stochastic processes shaped microbial communities. Endophytic bacterial communities harboured putative plant growth-promoting bacteria, thus having the potential to influence host health and growth. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Species-specific effects of soil fauna on fungal foraging and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Boddy, Lynne; Jones, T Hefin

    2011-10-01

    Decomposer fungi are primary decomposing agents in terrestrial soils. Their mycelial networks play an important role in nutrient mineralisation and distribution, but are also nutritious resources for various soil invertebrates. Global climate change is predicted to alter the diversity and community composition of these soil fauna. To understand whether changes in invertebrate species diversity are likely to affect fungal-mediated decomposition, this study compared the grazing potentials of different invertebrate taxa and functional groups. Specifically, the grazing impacts of seven invertebrate taxa on the growth and spatial distribution of six basidiomycete fungi growing from beech wood blocks in soil microcosms were explored. Wood decay rates by fungi were also compared. The consequences of grazing were both taxon- and species-specific. Generally, macro-invertebrates caused the greatest damage, while meso- and micro-invertebrates often stimulated mycelial growth. Invertebrate size, preferences and population dynamics are likely to influence grazing potentials. Effects of grazing varied between fungi, with mycelial morphology and biochemistry possibly influencing susceptibility. Heavy grazing indirectly increased fungal-mediated wood decomposition. Changes in invertebrate community composition are predicted to have consequences for fungal growth, activity and community structure in woodland soils. Abiotic climate change factors including CO(2) and temperature affect mycelial productivity directly, but the indirect effects, mediated through changes in the soil invertebrate community, may be equally important in controlling ecosystem functioning.

  9. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Its Common Adulterates Using Species-Specific Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-yue; Gao, Zi-tong; Han, Jian-ping; Xiang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies (stromata) that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. sinensis based on a segment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was developed. The segments is 146-bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O. sinensis and potential adulterants as well as sequences date from 41 Ophiocordyceps species and 26 Cordyceps species available in GenBank. Tests with primer pair, DCF4/DCR4, demonstrated generation of an amplicon from DNA extracted from O. sinensis stromata, but not from extracts derived from adulterants. Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O. sinensis and for the detection of fungi used as adulterants in these preparations. PMID:28680424

  10. Species-Specific Mechanisms of Neuron Subtype Specification Reveal Evolutionary Plasticity of Amniote Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nomura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Highly ordered brain architectures in vertebrates consist of multiple neuron subtypes with specific neuronal connections. However, the origin of and evolutionary changes in neuron specification mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that regulatory mechanisms of neuron subtype specification are divergent in developing amniote brains. In the mammalian neocortex, the transcription factors (TFs Ctip2 and Satb2 are differentially expressed in layer-specific neurons. In contrast, these TFs are co-localized in reptilian and avian dorsal pallial neurons. Multi-potential progenitors that produce distinct neuronal subtypes commonly exist in the reptilian and avian dorsal pallium, whereas a cis-regulatory element of avian Ctip2 exhibits attenuated transcription suppressive activity. Furthermore, the neuronal subtypes distinguished by these TFs are not tightly associated with conserved neuronal connections among amniotes. Our findings reveal the evolutionary plasticity of regulatory gene functions that contribute to species differences in neuronal heterogeneity and connectivity in developing amniote brains. : Neuronal heterogeneity is essential for assembling intricate neuronal circuits. Nomura et al. find that species-specific transcriptional mechanisms underlie diversities of excitatory neuron subtypes in mammalian and non-mammalian brains. Species differences in neuronal subtypes and connections suggest functional plasticity of regulatory genes for neuronal specification during amniote brain evolution. Keywords: Ctip2, Satb2, multi-potential progenitors, transcriptional regulation, neuronal connectivity

  11. Species-specific deletion of the viral attachment glycoprotein of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Foster, Linda K; Foster, Douglas N

    2008-03-01

    The avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) genome encodes the fusion (F), small hydrophobic (SH), and attachment glycoprotein (G) as envelope glycoproteins. The F and G proteins mainly function to allow viral entry into host cells during the early steps of the virus life cycle. The highly variable AMPV G protein is a major determinant for distinguishing virus subtypes. Sequence analysis was used to determine if any differences between avian or mammalian cell propagated subtype C AMPV could be detected for the 1.8kb G gene. As a result, the complete 1.8kb G gene was found to be present when AMPV was propagated in our immortal turkey turbinate (TT-1) cell line regardless of passage number. Surprisingly, AMPV propagated for 15 or more passages in mammalian Vero cells revealed an essentially deleted G gene in the viral genome, resulting in no G gene mRNA expression. Although the Vero cell propagated AMPV genome contained a small 122 nucleotide fragment of the G gene, no other mRNA variants were detected from either mammalian or avian propagated AMPV. The G gene truncation might be caused by cellular molecular mechanisms that are species-specific. The lack of viral gene deletions suggests that avian cell propagated AMPV will provide a better alternative host for live recombinant vaccine development based on a reverse genetics system.

  12. Can Link Analysis Be Applied to Identify Behavioral Patterns in Train Recorder Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathie, Ailsa; Walker, Guy H

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept analysis was conducted to establish whether link analysis could be applied to data from on-train recorders to detect patterns of behavior that could act as leading indicators of potential safety issues. On-train data recorders capture data about driving behavior on thousands of routine journeys every day and offer a source of untapped data that could be used to offer insights into human behavior. Data from 17 journeys undertaken by six drivers on the same route over a 16-hr period were analyzed using link analysis, and four key metrics were examined: number of links, network density, diameter, and sociometric status. The results established that link analysis can be usefully applied to data captured from on-vehicle recorders. The four metrics revealed key differences in normal driver behavior. These differences have promising construct validity as leading indicators. Link analysis is one method that could be usefully applied to exploit data routinely gathered by on-vehicle data recorders. It facilitates a proactive approach to safety based on leading indicators, offers a clearer understanding of what constitutes normal driving behavior, and identifies trends at the interface of people and systems, which is currently a key area of strategic risk. These research findings have direct applications in the field of transport data monitoring. They offer a means of automatically detecting patterns in driver behavior that could act as leading indicators of problems during operation and that could be used in the proactive monitoring of driver competence, risk management, and even infrastructure design. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Species-specific patterns of swimming escape performance and cholinesterase activity in a guild of aquatic insects exposed to endosulfan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trekels, Hendrik; Van de Meutter, Frank; Stoks, Robby

    2012-01-01

    Next to imposing direct lethal effects, pollutants may also indirectly impose mortality by making prey organisms more vulnerable to predation. We report that four water boatmen species differed strongly in direct endosulfan-imposed mortality, and only the species that suffered highest mortality, Sigara iactans, also showed a reduction in escape swimming speed. While head AChE activity was inhibited in all four species, body ChE was only inhibited in S. iactans where it covaried with escape swimming speed, indicating a mechanistic link between body ChE and swimming speed. Our study underscores the need for risk assessment to consider sublethal pollutant effects, which may considerably affect survival rates under natural conditions, also when testing concentrations of a pesticide that cause direct mortality. Such sublethal effects may generate discrepancies between laboratory and field studies and should be considered when designing safety factors for toxicants where the risk assessment is solely based on LC50 values. - Highlights: ► Endosulfan, even at lethal levels, did not affect swimming propensity when attacked. ► Endosulfan reduced escape swimming in one out of four tested corixid species. ► Lower body ChE levels were associated with a slower escape speed in one species. ► Head AChE activity was more sensitive to endosulfan than body ChE. ► Endosulfan had strongly different effects on the closely related species. - Endosulfan only detectably reduced escape swimming speed in one of the four studied water boatmen species and this was associated with an inhibition of body ChE.

  14. Sorted gene genealogies and species-specific nonsynonymous substitutions point to putative postmating prezygotic isolation genes in Allonemobius crickets

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    Suegene Noh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Allonemobius socius complex of crickets, reproductive isolation is primarily accomplished via postmating prezygotic barriers. We tested seven protein-coding genes expressed in the male ejaculate for patterns of evolution consistent with a putative role as postmating prezygotic isolation genes. Our recently diverged species generally lacked sequence variation. As a result, ω-based tests were only mildly successful. Some of our genes showed evidence of elevated ω values on the internal branches of gene trees. In a couple of genes, these internal branches coincided with both species branching events of the species tree, between A. fasciatus and the other two species, and between A. socius and A. sp. nov. Tex. In comparison, more successful approaches were those that took advantage of the varying degrees of lineage sorting and allele sharing among our young species. These approaches were particularly powerful within the contact zone. Among the genes we tested we found genes with genealogies that indicated relatively advanced degrees of lineage sorting across both allopatric and contact zone alleles. Within a contact zone between two members of the species complex, only a subset of genes maintained allelic segregation despite evidence of ongoing gene flow in other genes. The overlap in these analyses was arginine kinase (AK and apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein (APBP. These genes represent two of the first examples of sperm maturation, capacitation, and motility proteins with fixed non-synonymous substitutions between species-specific alleles that may lead to postmating prezygotic isolation. Both genes express ejaculate proteins transferred to females during copulation and were previously identified through comparative proteomics. We discuss the potential function of these genes in the context of the specific postmating prezygotic isolation phenotype among our species, namely conspecific sperm precedence and the superior ability of

  15. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species before parturition: Distribution and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections and are also abundantly present in extramammary habitats such as teat apices. Teat apex colonization (TAC) with CNS has already been explored in lactating dairy cows at the species level, whereas this is not true for dry cows and end-term heifers. Therefore, the aim of this observational study was to describe CNS TAC in nonlactating dairy cows and end-term heifers in Flemish dairy herds and to identify associated risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level using transfer RNA intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, allowing for species-specific statistical analyses using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression. Staphylococcus devriesei, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus equorum were the most frequently isolated species. Staphylococcus chromogenes was the sole species colonizing teat apices of cows and heifers in all herds, whereas large between-herd differences were observed for the other species. Teat apices of red and white Holstein Friesians, of quarters dried off without an internal teat sealer, and swabbed in months with lower precipitation and higher ambient temperature were significantly more likely to be colonized by S. devriesei. Slightly dirty teat apices and teat apices swabbed in months with lower precipitation had higher odds of being colonized by S. chromogenes, whereas teat apices sampled in months with lower precipitation and higher ambient temperature were more likely to be colonized by S. haemolyticus. Dirty teat apices and teat apices swabbed in months with lower ambient temperature in combination with low precipitation had higher odds of being colonized by S. equorum. Diverse factors explaining CNS TAC, yet mostly related to humidity, ambient temperature, and hygiene, substantiate differences in epidemiological

  16. Temporal and environmental patterns of sedentary and active behaviors during adolescents' leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Marshall, Simon J; Gorely, Trish; Cameron, Noel

    2009-01-01

    There is great interest in young people's overweight and obesity. Few data, however, describe when sedentary and physically active behaviors are likely to occur during the day or how these behaviors are related to location. The purpose of this study was to describe sedentary and active leisure-time behaviors of adolescents across the day and setting. Adolescents (male n = 579, female n = 967; aged 13-16 years) completed time-use diaries for three weekdays and one weekend day. At 15 min intervals, participants recorded what they were doing and where they were. TV viewing and sports/exercise peaked at different times in the day, although TV viewing was two to three times more likely to occur than sports/exercise. TV viewing was most likely to occur during the middle to late evening. The playing of computer games was low, particularly for girls. Weekend data showed TV viewing was the most reported activity throughout the day. For boys, "being in the garden" was highly predictive of engaging in sports/exercise, but this declined rapidly with age. Motorized travel to school was reported twice as often as active travel. Momentary assessments of behavior, in conjunction with contemporaneous reports of environmental factors, describe important patterns of leisure-time active and sedentary behaviors in youth.

  17. The effects of regional angling effort, angler behavior, and harvesting efficiency on landscape patterns of overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Len M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Lester, Nigel; Kushneriuk, Rob

    2011-10-01

    We used a coupled social-ecological model to study the landscape-scale patterns emerging from a mobile population of anglers exploiting a spatially structured walleye (Sander vitreus) fishery. We systematically examined how variations in angler behaviors (i.e., relative importance of walleye catch rate in guiding fishing site choices), harvesting efficiency (as implied by varying degrees of inverse density-dependent catchability of walleye), and angler population size affected the depletion of walleye stocks across 157 lakes located near Thunder Bay (Ontario, Canada). Walleye production biology was calibrated using lake-specific morphometric and edaphic features, and angler fishing site choices were modeled using an empirically grounded multi-attribute utility function. We found support for the hypothesis of sequential collapses of walleye stocks across the landscape in inverse proportionality of travel cost from the urban residence of anglers. This pattern was less pronounced when the regional angler population was low, density-dependent catchability was absent or low, and angler choices of lakes in the landscape were strongly determined by catch rather than non-catch-related attributes. Thus, our study revealed a systematic pattern of high catch importance reducing overfishing potential at low and aggravating overfishing potential at high angler population sizes. The analyses also suggested that density-dependent catchability might have more serious consequences for regional overfishing states than variations in angler behavior. We found little support for the hypotheses of systematic overexploitation of the most productive walleye stocks and homogenized catch-related qualities among lakes sharing similar access costs to anglers. Therefore, one should not expect anglers to systematically exploit the most productive fisheries or to equalize catch rates among lakes through their mobility and other behaviors. This study underscores that understanding landscape

  18. Mercury speciation analysis in seafood by species-specific isotope dilution: method validation and occurrence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Stephanie; Guerin, Thierry [Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de l' Alimentation, Laboratoire de Securite des Aliments de Maisons-Alfort, Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort (France); Monperrus, Mathilde; Donard, Olivier F.X.; Amouroux, David [IPREM UMR 5254 CNRS - Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-chimie pour l' Environnement et les Materiaux, Pau Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) in seafood were determined using species-specific isotope dilution analysis and gas chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sample preparation methods (extraction and derivation step) were evaluated on certified reference materials using isotopically enriched Hg species. Solid-liquid extraction, derivation by propylation and automated agitation gave excellent accuracy and precision results. Satisfactory figures of merit for the selected method were obtained in terms of limit of quantification (1.2 {mu}g Hg kg{sup -1} for MeHg and 1.4 {mu}g Hg kg{sup -1} for THg), repeatability (1.3-1.7%), intermediate precision reproducibility (1.5% for MeHg and 2.2% for THg) and trueness (bias error less than 7%). By means of a recent strategy based on accuracy profiles ({beta}-expectation tolerance intervals), the selected method was successfully validated in the range of approximately 0.15-5.1 mg kg{sup -1} for MeHg and 0.27-5.2 mg kg{sup -1} for THg. Probability {beta} was set to 95% and the acceptability limits to {+-}15%. The method was then applied to 62 seafood samples representative of consumption in the French population. The MeHg concentrations were generally low (1.9-588 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and the percentage of MeHg varied from 28% to 98% in shellfish and from 84% to 97% in fish. For all real samples tested, methylation and demethylation reactions were not significant, except in one oyster sample. The method presented here could be used for monitoring food contamination by MeHg and inorganic Hg in the future to more accurately assess human exposure. (orig.)

  19. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  20. Species-Specific Effects on Ecosystem Functioning Can Be Altered by Interspecific Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, David S; Spencer, Matthew; Robinson, Leonie A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2016-01-01

    Biological assemblages are constantly undergoing change, with species being introduced, extirpated and experiencing shifts in their densities. Theory and experimentation suggest that the impacts of such change on ecosystem functioning should be predictable based on the biological traits of the species involved. However, interspecific interactions could alter how species affect functioning, with the strength and sign of interactions potentially depending on environmental context (e.g. homogenous vs. heterogeneous conditions) and the function considered. Here, we assessed how concurrent changes to the densities of two common marine benthic invertebrates, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor, affected the ecological functions of organic matter consumption and benthic-pelagic nutrient flux. Complementary experiments were conducted within homogenous laboratory microcosms and naturally heterogeneous field plots. When the densities of the species were increased within microcosms, interspecific interactions enhanced effects on organic matter consumption and reduced effects on nutrient flux. Trait-based predictions of how each species would affect functioning were only consistently supported when the density of the other species was low. In field plots, increasing the density of either species had a positive effect on organic matter consumption (with no significant interspecific interactions) but no effect on nutrient flux. Our results indicate that species-specific effects on ecosystem functioning can be altered by interspecific interactions, which can be either facilitative (positive) or antagonistic (negative) depending on the function considered. The impacts of biodiversity change may therefore not be predictable based solely on the biological traits of the species involved. Possible explanations for why interactions were detected in microcosms but not in the field are discussed.

  1. Species-Specific Effects on Ecosystem Functioning Can Be Altered by Interspecific Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Clare

    Full Text Available Biological assemblages are constantly undergoing change, with species being introduced, extirpated and experiencing shifts in their densities. Theory and experimentation suggest that the impacts of such change on ecosystem functioning should be predictable based on the biological traits of the species involved. However, interspecific interactions could alter how species affect functioning, with the strength and sign of interactions potentially depending on environmental context (e.g. homogenous vs. heterogeneous conditions and the function considered. Here, we assessed how concurrent changes to the densities of two common marine benthic invertebrates, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor, affected the ecological functions of organic matter consumption and benthic-pelagic nutrient flux. Complementary experiments were conducted within homogenous laboratory microcosms and naturally heterogeneous field plots. When the densities of the species were increased within microcosms, interspecific interactions enhanced effects on organic matter consumption and reduced effects on nutrient flux. Trait-based predictions of how each species would affect functioning were only consistently supported when the density of the other species was low. In field plots, increasing the density of either species had a positive effect on organic matter consumption (with no significant interspecific interactions but no effect on nutrient flux. Our results indicate that species-specific effects on ecosystem functioning can be altered by interspecific interactions, which can be either facilitative (positive or antagonistic (negative depending on the function considered. The impacts of biodiversity change may therefore not be predictable based solely on the biological traits of the species involved. Possible explanations for why interactions were detected in microcosms but not in the field are discussed.

  2. QTL for the species-specific male and female genital morphologies in Ohomopterus ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Masataka; Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2010-12-01

    Animals with internal fertilization often exhibit marked diversification in genital morphology among closely related species. However, our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying genital evolution is still limited. We constructed genetic linkage maps and analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for F(2) hybrids of two closely related species of the carabid beetles Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) maiyasanus, which show matching male and female genital shapes within species, but marked differences in genital morphologies between species. The linkage maps comprised both amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Composite interval mapping to detect QTL for three traits of male copulatory piece (length, width, weight) and two traits for female vaginal appendix (length, width) resulted in the detection of one to five significant QTL for each trait. The QTL explained large proportions of phenotypic variance. Thus, the interspecific difference in the genital morphologies appeared to be determined by relatively small numbers of genes with large genetic effects. QTL of different traits for the same or different sexes co-occurred on five of eight linkage groups with significant QTL; in particular, three QTL for different male and female genital traits occurred almost at the same position. Each of the male genital traits showed uniform signs of additive genetic effects, suggesting that directional selection has led to species-specific morphologies. However, the signs of additive genetic effects in each female genital trait were not uniform, suggesting that coevolution between sexes is not necessarily concerted. This result requires further assessment because the sample size of F(2) females was small. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial patterns of persistent neural activity vary with the behavioral context of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie, Kayvon; Goldman, Mark S; Aksay, Emre R F

    2015-02-18

    A short-term memory can be evoked by different inputs and control separate targets in different behavioral contexts. To address the circuit mechanisms underlying context-dependent memory function, we determined through optical imaging how memory is encoded at the whole-network level in two behavioral settings. Persistent neural activity maintaining a memory of desired eye position was imaged throughout the oculomotor integrator after saccadic or optokinetic stimulation. While eye position was encoded by the amplitude of network activity, the spatial patterns of firing were context dependent: cells located caudally generally were most persistent following saccadic input, whereas cells located rostrally were most persistent following optokinetic input. To explain these data, we computationally identified four independent modes of network activity and found these were differentially accessed by saccadic and optokinetic inputs. These results show how a circuit can simultaneously encode memory value and behavioral context, respectively, in its amplitude and spatial pattern of persistent firing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Buffer Model Account of Behavioral and ERP Patterns in the Von Restorff Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri-Maria Kamp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined a mechanistic model of episodic encoding with theories on the functional significance of two event-related potential (ERP components to develop an integrated account for the Von Restorff effect, which refers to the enhanced recall probability for an item that deviates in some feature from other items in its study list. The buffer model of Lehman and Malmberg (2009, 2013 can account for this effect such that items encountered during encoding enter an episodic buffer where they are actively rehearsed. When a deviant item is encountered, in order to re-allocate encoding resources towards this item the buffer is emptied from its prior content, a process labeled “compartmentalization”. Based on theories on their functional significance, the P300 component of the ERP may co-occur with this hypothesized compartmentalization process, while the frontal slow wave may index rehearsal. We derived predictions from this integrated model for output patterns in free recall, systematic variance in ERP components, as well as associations between the two types of measures in a dataset of 45 participants who studied and freely recalled lists of the Von Restorff type. Our major predictions were confirmed and the behavioral and physiological results were consistent with the predictions derived from the model. These findings demonstrate that constraining mechanistic models of episodic memory with brain activity patterns and generating predictions for relationships between brain activity and behavior can lead to novel insights into the relationship between the brain, the mind, and behavior.

  6. Design of Driving Behavior Pattern Measurements Using Smartphone Global Positioning System Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new technologies such as GPS, cellphone, Bluetooth device, etc. offers opportunities for collecting high-fidelity temporal-spatial travel data in a cost-effective manner. With the vehicle trajectory data achieved from a smartphone app Metropia, this study targets on exploring the trajectory data and designing the measurements of the driving pattern. Metropia is a recently available mobile traffic app that uses prediction and coordinating technology combined with user rewards to incentivize drivers to cooperate, balance traffic load on the network, and reduce traffic congestion. Speed and celeration (acceleration and deceleration are obtained from the Metropia platform directly and parameterized as individual and system measurements related to traffic, spatial and temporal conditions. A case study is provided in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach utilizing the trajectory data from the actual app usage. The driving behaviors at both individual and system levels are quantified from the microscopic speed and celeration records. The results from this study reveal distinct driving behavior pattern and shed lights for further opportunities to identify behavior characteristics beyond safety and environmental considerations.

  7. Species-specific detection and quantification of common barnacle larvae from the Japanese coast using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Noriyuki; Sato, Kana; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Yoshimura, Erina; Odaka, Yukiko; Nogata, Yasuyuki

    2010-11-01

    Species-specific detection and quantification methods for barnacle larvae using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were developed. Species-specific primers for qPCR were designed for 13 barnacle species in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene region. Primer specificity was examined by PCR using template DNA extracted from each of the 13 barnacle species, other unidentified barnacle species, and field collected zooplankton samples. The resulting PCR products comprised single bands following agarose gel electrophoresis when the templates corresponded to primers. The amplifications were highly species-specific even for the field plankton samples. The field plankton samples were subjected to qPCR assay. The calculated DNA contents for each barnacle species were closely correlated with the number of larvae measured by microscopic examination. The method could be applied to quantify barnacle larvae in natural plankton samples.

  8. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning and expression of a zebrafish SCN1B ortholog and identification of a species-specific splice variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slat Emily A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated Na+ channel β1 (Scn1b subunits are multi-functional proteins that play roles in current modulation, channel cell surface expression, cell adhesion, cell migration, and neurite outgrowth. We have shown previously that β1 modulates electrical excitability in vivo using a mouse model. Scn1b null mice exhibit spontaneous seizures and ataxia, slowed action potential conduction, decreased numbers of nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons, alterations in nodal architecture, and differences in Na+ channel α subunit localization. The early death of these mice at postnatal day 19, however, make them a challenging model system to study. As a first step toward development of an alternative model to investigate the physiological roles of β1 subunits in vivo we cloned two β1-like subunit cDNAs from D. rerio. Results Two β1-like subunit mRNAs from zebrafish, scn1ba_tv1 and scn1ba_tv2, arise from alternative splicing of scn1ba. The deduced amino acid sequences of Scn1ba_tv1 and Scn1ba_tv2 are identical except for their C-terminal domains. The C-terminus of Scn1ba_tv1 contains a tyrosine residue similar to that found to be critical for ankyrin association and Na+ channel modulation in mammalian β1. In contrast, Scn1ba_tv2 contains a unique, species-specific C-terminal domain that does not contain a tyrosine. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that, while the expression patterns of Scn1ba_tv1 and Scn1ba_tv2 overlap in some areas of the brain, retina, spinal cord, and skeletal muscle, only Scn1ba_tv1 is expressed in optic nerve where its staining pattern suggests nodal expression. Both scn1ba splice forms modulate Na+ currents expressed by zebrafish scn8aa, resulting in shifts in channel gating mode, increased current amplitude, negative shifts in the voltage dependence of current activation and inactivation, and increases in the rate of recovery from inactivation, similar to the function of mammalian β1 subunits. In

  10. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H

    2016-05-03

    Applying latent class analysis (LCA) to accelerometry can help elucidated underlying patterns. This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity among youth by applying LCA to a nationally representative United States (US) sample. Using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 3998 youths 6-17 years wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for one week, providing > =3 days of wear for > =8 h/day from 6:00 am-midnight. Cutpoints defined sedentary behavior ( = 2296 counts/minute), and vigorous activity (> = 4012 counts/minute). To account for wear time differences, outcomes were expressed as percent of day in a given intensity. LCA was used to classify daily (Monday through Sunday) patterns of average counts/minute, sedentary behavior, light activity, MVPA, and vigorous activity separately. The latent classes were explored overall and by age (6-11, 12-14, 15-17 years), gender, and whether or not youth attended school during measurement. Estimates were weighted to account for the sampling frame. For average counts/minute/day, four classes emerged from least to most active: 40.9% of population (mean 323.5 counts/minute/day), 40.3% (559.6 counts/minute/day), 16.5% (810.0 counts/minute/day), and 2.3% (1132.9 counts/minute/day). For percent of sedentary behavior, four classes emerged: 13.5% of population (mean 544.6 min/day), 30.1% (455.1 min/day), 38.5% (357.7 min/day), and 18.0% (259.2 min/day). For percent of light activity, four classes emerged: 12.3% of population (mean 222.6 min/day), 29.3% (301.7 min/day), 41.8% (384.0 min/day), and 16.6% (455.5 min/day). For percent of MVPA, four classes emerged: 59.9% of population (mean 25.0 min/day), 33.3% (60.9 min/day), 3.1% (89.0 min/day), and 3.6% (109.3 min/day). For percent of vigorous activity, three classes emerged: 76.8% of population (mean 7.1 min/day), 18.5% (23.9 min/day), and 4.7% (47.4 min/day). Classes were developed by age

  11. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.L.; Hontela, A.

    2011-01-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na 2 SO 3 ) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC 50 > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC 50 = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC 50 = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: → We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. → Selenite, not Se-Met, disrupts

  12. Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Levis, Demian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the Vicsek model to describe the collective behavior of polar circle swimmers with local alignment interactions. While the phase transition leading to collective motion in 2D (flocking) occurs at the same interaction to noise ratio as for linear swimmers, as we show, circular motion enhances the polarization in the ordered phase (enhanced flocking) and induces secondary instabilities leading to structure formation. Slow rotations promote macroscopic droplets with late time sizes proportional to the system size (indicating phase separation) whereas fast rotations generate patterns consisting of phase synchronized microflocks with a controllable characteristic size proportional to the average single-particle swimming radius. Our results defy the viewpoint that monofrequent rotations form a vapid extension of the Vicsek model and establish a generic route to pattern formation in chiral active matter with possible applications for understanding and designing rotating microflocks.

  13. Probing neural cell behaviors through micro-/nano-patterned chitosan substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chun-Yen; Yang, Chung-Yao; Yeh, J Andrew; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Yang-Kao; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development of surface-modified chitosan substrates to examine topographically related Neuro-2a cell behaviors. Different functional groups can be modified on chitosan surfaces to probe Neuro-2a cell morphology. To prepare chitosan substrates with micro/nano-scaled features, we demonstrated an easy-to-handle method that combined photolithography, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, Ag nanoparticle-assisted etching, and solution casting. The results show that Neuro-2a cells preferred to adhere to a flat chitosan surface rather than a nanotextured chitosan surface as evidenced by greater immobilization and differentiation, suggesting that surface topography is crucial for neural patterning. In addition, we developed chitosan substrates with different geometric patterns and flat region depth; this allowed us to re-arrange or re-pattern Neuro-2a cell colonies at desired locations. We found that a polarity-induced micropattern provided the most suitable surface pattern for promoting neural network formation on a chitosan substrate. The cellular polarity of single Neuro-2a cell spreading correlated to a diamond-like geometry and neurite outgrowth was induced from the corners toward the grooves of the structures. This study provide greater insight into neurobiology, including neurotransmitter screening, electrophysiological stimulation platforms, and biomedical engineering. (paper)

  14. Photoadaptations of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism by phytoplankton from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. I. Species-specific and community responses to reduced irradiances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, R.B.; Voytek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiance-dependent rates of photosynthesis and photosynthate labeling patterns were measured for phytoplankton in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Species-specific and traditional whole-water techniques were used to compare the physiological responses of algae collected in a high light environment at the ice edge and from a low light environment under the annual sea ice. There were differences among species within the same sample, for the same species isolated from high and low light environments, and when species-specific responses were compared with that of the natural assemblage. For algae collected beneath the sea ice, photosynthesis generally saturated at a lower irradiance, and the light-limited region of the P vs. I relationship had a steeper slope than for the same species collected at the ice edge. Low-light-adapted algae incorporated significantly less 14 C into proteins and more into low molecular weight compounds and lipids than the same species isolated from a high light environment. Under conditions where reduced rates of protein synthesis were coupled with high rates of carbon uptake, the measurement of photosynthesis may not accurately reflect the physiological condition of the phytoplankton

  15. Observation of Communication by Physical Education Teachers: Detecting Patterns in Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fariña, Abraham; Jiménez-Jiménez, F; Anguera, M Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the verbal behavior of primary school physical education teachers in a natural classroom setting in order to investigate patterns in social constructivist communication strategies before and after participation in a training program designed to familiarize teachers with these strategies. The participants were three experienced physical education teachers interacting separately with 65 students over a series of classes. Written informed consent was obtained from all the students' parents or legal guardians. An indirect observation tool (ADDEF) was designed specifically for the study within the theoretical framework, and consisted of a combined field format, with three dimensions, and category systems. Each dimension formed the basis for building a subsequent system of exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories. Twenty-nine sessions, grouped into two separate modules, were coded using the Atlas.ti 7 program, and a total of 1991 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) were recorded. Analysis of intraobserver reliability showed almost perfect agreement. Lag sequential analysis, which is a powerful statistical technique based on the calculation of conditional and unconditional probabilities in prospective and retrospective lags, was performed in GSEQ5 software to search for verbal behavior patterns before and after the training program. At both time points, we detected a pattern formed by requests for information combined with the incorporation of students' contributions into the teachers' discourse and re-elaborations of answers. In the post-training phase, we detected new and stronger patterns in certain sessions, indicating that programs combining theoretical and practical knowledge can effectively increase teachers' repertoire of discursive strategies and ultimately promote active engagement in learning. This has important implications for the evaluation and development of teacher effectiveness in

  16. Behavioral responses of three lemur species to different food enrichment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Morgan E; Shapiro, Hannah G; Ehmke, Erin E

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior. We recorded lemur behavior using the continuous sampling method to obtain behavior duration and analyzed our results using ANOVA Repeated Measures. Results showed enrichment effectiveness differed for each species and that different enrichment devices had varying impacts on lemur behavior across all species. We attributed the differences in species-specific responses to the unique locomotor patterns and methods of diet acquisition of each species, and the variances in behavioral responses across all species to the characteristics of each device. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific enrichment and encourages further research in this field in order to maximize the positive effects of enrichment, which in turn has the potential to affect the overall well-being of captive populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Patterns of movement behaviors and their association with overweight and obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Faulkner, Guy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-07-01

    To identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, and sleep in a large sample of Canadian youth and to examine the associations between the identified subgroups and overweight and obesity. The study is based on 19,831 youth aged 13-18 years from across Ontario, Canada in the COMPASS study. Participants self-reported their movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep), height and weight, and demographics. Latent class analysis and logistic regression models were conducted. Three underlying subgroups were identified in the total sample and male and female subsamples (i.e., unhealthiest movers, active screenies, healthiest movers). In the total sample, the active screenies subgroup was 1.19 (95 % CI 1.09-1.29) times and the unhealthiest movers subgroup was 1.24 (1.14-1.36) times more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared to the healthiest movers subgroup. Similar associations were observed in the female subsample but not in the male subsample. Public health interventions targeting youth subgroups at increased risk of overweight and obesity through integrated approaches accounting for multiple movement behaviors should be considered, especially for females.

  18. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2016-11-27

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat’ swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼ 65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾ 0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼ 50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 hour prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼ 20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a “rise and sink” pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 hour before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and

  19. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    transport of samples from endemic to non-endemic countries without the requirement of a complete cold chain. The commercially-available ELISA displayed poorer sensitivity, even after adjustment of the positive threshold (65–88%), compared to the sensitivity (91–100%) of the new molecular diagnostic workflow. Conclusions/Significance Species-specific assays for sensitive detection of Fasciola spp. enable ante-mortem diagnosis in both human and animal settings. This includes Southeast Asia where there are potentially many undocumented human cases and where post-mortem examination of production animals can be difficult. The new molecular workflow provides a sensitive and quantitative diagnostic approach for the rapid testing of medium to large sample sizes, potentially superseding the traditional sedimentation and FEC technique and enabling surveillance programs in locations where animal and human health funding is limited. PMID:28915255

  20. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    to non-endemic countries without the requirement of a complete cold chain. The commercially-available ELISA displayed poorer sensitivity, even after adjustment of the positive threshold (65-88%, compared to the sensitivity (91-100% of the new molecular diagnostic workflow.Species-specific assays for sensitive detection of Fasciola spp. enable ante-mortem diagnosis in both human and animal settings. This includes Southeast Asia where there are potentially many undocumented human cases and where post-mortem examination of production animals can be difficult. The new molecular workflow provides a sensitive and quantitative diagnostic approach for the rapid testing of medium to large sample sizes, potentially superseding the traditional sedimentation and FEC technique and enabling surveillance programs in locations where animal and human health funding is limited.

  1. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    -endemic countries without the requirement of a complete cold chain. The commercially-available ELISA displayed poorer sensitivity, even after adjustment of the positive threshold (65-88%), compared to the sensitivity (91-100%) of the new molecular diagnostic workflow. Species-specific assays for sensitive detection of Fasciola spp. enable ante-mortem diagnosis in both human and animal settings. This includes Southeast Asia where there are potentially many undocumented human cases and where post-mortem examination of production animals can be difficult. The new molecular workflow provides a sensitive and quantitative diagnostic approach for the rapid testing of medium to large sample sizes, potentially superseding the traditional sedimentation and FEC technique and enabling surveillance programs in locations where animal and human health funding is limited.

  2. Elucidating Microbial Species-Specific Effects on Organic Matter Transformation in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, N.; Enke, T. N.; Beaupre, S. R.; Teske, A.; Cordero, O. X.; Pearson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial transformation and decomposition of organic matter in sediments constitutes one of the largest fluxes of carbon in marine environments. Mineralization of sedimentary organic matter by microorganisms results in selective degradation such that bioavailable or accessible compounds are rapidly metabolized while more recalcitrant, complex compounds are preserved and buried in sediment. Recent studies have found that the ability to use different carbon sources appears to vary among microorganisms, suggesting that the availability of certain pools of carbon can be specific to the taxa that utilize the pool. This implies that organic matter mineralization in marine environments may depend on the metabolic potential of the microbial populations that are present and active. The goal of our study was to investigate the extent to which organic matter availability and transformation may be species-specific using sediment from Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California). We carried out time-series incubations using bacterial isolates and sterilized sediment in the IsoCaRB system which allowed us to measure the production rates and natural isotopic signatures (δ13C and Δ14C) of microbially-respired CO2. Separate incubations using two different marine bacterial isolates (Vibrio sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.) and sterilized Guaymas Basin sediment under oxic conditions showed that the rate and total quantity of organic matter metabolized by these two species differs. Approximately twice as much CO2 was collected during the Vibrio sp. incubation compared to the Pseudoalteromonas sp. incubation. Moreover, the rate at which organic matter was metabolized by the Vibrio sp. was much higher than the Pseudoalteromonas sp. indicating the intrinsic availability of organic matter in sediments may depend on the species that is present and active. Isotopic analyses of microbially respired CO2 will be used to constrain the type and age of organic matter that is accessible to each species

  3. The CRISPR Spacer Space Is Dominated by Sequences from Species-Specific Mobilomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakov, Sergey A; Sitnik, Vassilii; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Severinov, Konstantin V; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-09-19

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) systems store the memory of past encounters with foreign DNA in unique spacers that are inserted between direct repeats in CRISPR arrays. For only a small fraction of the spacers, homologous sequences, called protospacers, are detectable in viral, plasmid, and microbial genomes. The rest of the spacers remain the CRISPR "dark matter." We performed a comprehensive analysis of the spacers from all CRISPR- cas loci identified in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and we found that, depending on the CRISPR-Cas subtype and the prokaryotic phylum, protospacers were detectable for 1% to about 19% of the spacers (~7% global average). Among the detected protospacers, the majority, typically 80 to 90%, originated from viral genomes, including proviruses, and among the rest, the most common source was genes that are integrated into microbial chromosomes but are involved in plasmid conjugation or replication. Thus, almost all spacers with identifiable protospacers target mobile genetic elements (MGE). The GC content, as well as dinucleotide and tetranucleotide compositions, of microbial genomes, their spacer complements, and the cognate viral genomes showed a nearly perfect correlation and were almost identical. Given the near absence of self-targeting spacers, these findings are most compatible with the possibility that the spacers, including the dark matter, are derived almost completely from the species-specific microbial mobilomes. IMPORTANCE The principal function of CRISPR-Cas systems is thought to be protection of bacteria and archaea against viruses and other parasitic genetic elements. The CRISPR defense function is mediated by sequences from parasitic elements, known as spacers, that are inserted into CRISPR arrays and then transcribed and employed as guides to identify and inactivate the cognate parasitic genomes. However, only a small fraction of the CRISPR spacers

  4. Systematic development of Phytophthora species-specific mitochondrial diagnostic markers for economically important members of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Phytophthora contains many invasive species to the USA that have the potential to cause significant damage to agriculture and native ecosystems. A genus and species-specific diagnostic assay was previously reported based on mitochondrial gene order differences that allowed for the systemat...

  5. Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

  6. Overlapping and permeability: Research on the pattern hierarchy of communication space and design strategy based on environmental behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi

    2017-11-01

    This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.

  7. Possible effects of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Aichi, M.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the influence of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones, laboratory experiments were conducted. In the experiment, air was injected from the bottom of the water-saturated Quaternary Umegase mudstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were monitored during the experiment. Numerical simulation of the experiment was tried by using a simulator which can solve coupled two-phase flow and poroelastic deformation assuming the extended-Darcian flow with relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of the wetting-phase fluid saturation. In the numerical simulation, the volumetric discharge of water was reproduced well while both strains were not. Three dimensionless numbers, i.e., the viscosity ratio, the Capillary number, and the Bond number, which characterize the two-phase flow pattern (Lenormand et al., 1988; Ewing and Berkowitz, 1998) were calculated to be 2×10-2, 2×10-11, and 7×10-11, respectively, in the experiment. Because the Bond number was quite small, it was possible to apply Lenormand et al. (1988)'s diagram to evaluate the flow regime, and the flow regime was considered to be capillary fingering. While, in the numerical simulation, air moved uniformly upward with quite low non-wetting phase saturation conditions because the fluid flow obeyed the two-phase Darcy's law. These different displacement patterns developed in the experiment and assumed in the numerical simulation were considered to be the reason why the deformation behavior observed in the experiment could not be reproduced by numerical simulation, suggesting that the two-phase flow pattern could affect the changes of internal fluid pressure patterns during displacement processes. For further studies, quantitative analysis of the experimental results by using a numerical simulator which can solve the coupled

  8. Do Specific Transitional Patterns of Antisocial Behavior during Adolescence Increase Risk for Problems in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Connell, Arin M.; Connell, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to identify patterns and trajectories of antisocial behavior (ASB) and their association with young adult outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 5,422; 53.9% female). Participants were on average 13.96 years of age (SD= 1.06) at wave 1 of the study. Latent class analysis identified four classes of ASB including a non-ASB class, an aggressive class, a petty theft class, and a serious ASB class. In general, youth who were classified as serious stable ASB were the most at risk for problematic functioning in young adulthood. Youth who escalated to more serious patterns of ASB or reduced involvement also were at greater risk of negative outcomes in young adulthood compared to stable non-ASB youth, although they generally fared better than youth involved in stable patterns of more serious ASB. Gender differences indicated that involvement in ASB was a greater risk factor for alcohol use among boys and a greater risk factor for depression among girls in young adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of the predictive validity of classes of ASB to functioning in young adulthood and the implications of this research for prevention efforts. PMID:24893667

  9. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested.

  10. Exploring asymmetric behavior pattern from Indian oil products prices using NARDL and GHSOM approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Kumar Mitra, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    The present work endeavors to explore the potential asymmetries in the pricing of oil products in India where prices are not only affected by the crude oil price changes in the international markets but are also subject to government interventions. In order to protect domestic consumers from this volatility, historically the government of India tried to control the domestic price of petroleum products by cross subsidization and giving subsidies. In this paper, we analyze the impact of crude oil price on domestic oil prices by applying nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) and Growing Hierarchical Self-Organizing Map (GHSOM) approaches for the period of April, 2005–July, 2014. The GHSOM has been explored through pattern analysis on the asymmetric behavior using similarity measures. From the study it can be interpreted that the prices of products left to be determined by the market exhibit a strong asymmetry. However, pricing of the products that are monitored and controlled by the government do not exhibit any such asymmetry. Hence, the question still remains – should the government intervene in pricing petroleum products when monopolistic attitudes of large oil companies are detrimental to the interest of retail consumers? - Highlights: • We explored the potential asymmetries in the pricing of oil products in India. • Analyze cointegration and asymmetric behavior of oil products by NARDL approach. • GHSOM method has been explored for pattern analysis on the asymmetric behavior. • The analysis reveals that the market determined prices exhibits a strong asymmetry. • Oil product pricing controlled by the government do not exhibit such asymmetry.

  11. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  12. Ajoene restored behavioral patterns and liver glutathione level in morphine treated C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Oliynyk, Sergiy; Lee, Yeonju; Kim, Jieun; Yun, Kyunghwa; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Oh, Seikwan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress exacerbates drug dependence induced by administration of opiate analgesics such as morphine-induced tolerance and physical dependence associated with the reduction in hepatic glutathione (GSH) level. Ajoene obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been reported for anti-tumorigenic, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective properties, however, little is known about its effect on morphine-induced dependence. Therefore, this study aimed at the effect of ajoene on physical and/or psychological dependence and liver GSH content in morphine-treated mice. Conditioned place preference (CPP) test and measurement of morphine withdrawal syndrome were performed in C57BL6 mice for behavioral experiments. Thereafter, mice were sacrificed for measurement of serum and liver GSH levels. Ajoene restored CPP and naloxone-precipitated jumping behavior in mice exposed to morphine. Moreover, the reduced level of liver GSH content in morphine treated mice was back to normal after ajoene administration. Taken together, ajoene improved behavioral patterns in mice exposed to morphine suggesting its potential therapeutic benefit against morphine-induced dependence.

  13. Non-Negative Tensor Factorization for Human Behavioral Pattern Mining in Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sapienza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online battle arena is a genre of online games that has become extremely popular. Due to their success, these games also drew the attention of our research community, because they provide a wealth of information about human online interactions and behaviors. A crucial problem is the extraction of activity patterns that characterize this type of data, in an interpretable way. Here, we leverage the Non-negative Tensor Factorization to detect hidden correlated behaviors of playing in a well-known game: League of Legends. To this aim, we collect the entire gaming history of a group of about 1000 players, which accounts for roughly 100K matches. By applying our framework we are able to separate players into different groups. We show that each group exhibits similar features and playing strategies, as well as similar temporal trajectories, i.e., behavioral progressions over the course of their gaming history. We surprisingly discover that playing strategies are stable over time and we provide an explanation for this observation.

  14. THE PATTERN OF THE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE LABORATORY MOUSE (MUS MUSCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BUNEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature has found solutions for decreasing the aggressive impulse, using various inhibitory mechanisms as means of balancing the forces between two fighting individuals, thus avoiding it to lead to the destruction of their own species. These nature's “ pacifyng” solutions are mostly found in animals which are armed with various potentially lethal “weapons”, while in species that live on large territoires and thus have the possibility to avoid conflict, these mechanisms are poorly developed. The purpose of this research is to study the extent of the inhibitory mechanisms against aggression in the laboratory mouse, species in which these mechanisms of diminishing aggression and of avoiding conflicts don't work the same in artificial conditions, where individuals are forced to live in small areas, and to identify the behavioral chains that form the innate manifestations of the aggressive behavior in Mus musculus sp. The results of this study show that in the circumstance of caged individuals, which are crowded so closely together, the intensity of aggression is increasing. The dominance hierarchy is well established after their first fight, but due to the spatial constraint and the fact that there is no place where to flee, the submissive individual oftenly fights back. In every single interraction the aggressive behavior follows a fixed action pattern.

  15. Diel Behavioral Activity Patterns in Adult Solitarious Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Ould Ely

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The responses of adult solitarious desert locust to odors from a host plant were evaluated in a two-choice wind tunnel. Solitarious desert locusts collected from the field (Red Sea Coast were more attracted to volatiles from potted Heliotropium ovalifolium in scotophase than in photophase. The attraction towards the host plant odors rather than to clean air, in both photophase and scotophase, concurs with previous observations on oviposition preferences near these plants. Diel behavioral activity patterns of adult solitarious desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål that were collected from the field in Port Sudan were investigated by monitoring, scanning, resting, taking off, and walking/running in a wind tunnel. Solitarious locusts that had been propagated in the laboratory for 20 generations were also observed for comparison. In both groups of locusts, insects were significantly more active after sunset and this activity attained peak level at 1-2 hours after dusk. Of the two groups, solitarious locusts collected from the field were significantly more active. In the scotophase, the former traversed distances that were about seven times those covered by laboratory-reared locusts. Overall, the results show that the repertoire of behavioral activities of solitarious locusts is maintained in laboratory-reared insects, albeit at a lower level. The implications of these observations in the behavioral ecology of the desert locust are discussed.

  16. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  17. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  18. Abolition of lemniscal barrellette patterning in Prrxl1 knockout mice: Effects upon ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Dana; Tamaiev, Jonathan; Zeigler, H Philip; Feinstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ingestive behaviors in mice are dependent on orosensory cues transmitted via the trigeminal nerve, as confirmed by transection studies. However, these studies cannot differentiate between deficits caused by the loss of the lemniscal pathway vs. the parallel paralemniscal pathway. The paired-like homeodomain protein Prrxl1 is expressed widely in the brain and spinal cord, including the trigeminal system. A knockout of Prrxl1 abolishes somatotopic barrellette patterning in the lemniscal brainstem nucleus, but not in the parallel paralemniscal nucleus. Null animals are significantly smaller than littermates by postnatal day 5, but reach developmental landmarks at appropriate times, and survive to adulthood on liquid diet. A careful analysis of infant and adult ingestive behavior reveals subtle impairments in suckling, increases in time spent feeding and the duration of feeding bouts, feeding during inappropriate times of the day, and difficulties in the mechanics of feeding. During liquid diet feeding, null mice display abnormal behaviors including extensive use of the paws to move food into the mouth, submerging the snout in the diet, changes in licking, and also have difficulty consuming solid chow pellets. We suggest that our Prrxl1(-/-) animal is a valuable model system for examining the genetic assembly and functional role of trigeminal lemniscal circuits in the normal control of eating in mammals and for understanding feeding abnormalities in humans resulting from the abnormal development of these circuits.

  19. Schema benefit vs. proactive interference: Contradicting behavioral outcomes and coexisting neural patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Noga; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Lerner, Yulia; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Ash, Elissa L

    2017-09-01

    Prior knowledge can either assist or hinder the ability to learn new information. These contradicting behavioral outcomes, referred to as schema benefit and proactive interference respectively, have been studied separately. Here we examined whether the known neural correlates of each process coexist, and how they are influenced by attentional loading and aging. To this end we used an fMRI task that affected both processes simultaneously by presenting pairs of related short movies in succession. The first movie of each pair provided context for the second movie, which could evoke schema benefit and/or proactive interference. Inclusion of an easy or hard secondary task performed during encoding of the movies, as well as testing both younger (22-35y) and older (65-79y) adults, allowed examining the effect of attentional load and older age on the neural patterns associated with context. Analyses focused on three predefined regions and examined how their inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) and functional connectivity (FC) with the hippocampi changed between the first and second movie. The results in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) matched and expanded previous findings: higher inter-SC and lower FC were observed during the second compared to the first movie; yet the differentiation between the first and second movies in these regions was attenuated under high attentional load, pointing to dependency on attentional resources. Instead, at high load there was a significant context effect in the FC of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and greater FC in the second movie was related to greater proactive interference. Further, older adults showed context effect in the PCC and vlPFC. Intriguingly, older adults with inter-SC mPFC patterns similar to younger adults exhibited schema benefit in our task, while those with inter-SC PCC patterns similar to younger adults showed proactive interference in an independent task. The

  20. Self-regulation as a predictor of patterns of change in externalizing behaviors from infancy to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Dollar, Jessica M; Keane, Susan P; Shanahan, Lilly

    2018-05-01

    We examined associations between specific self-regulatory mechanisms and externalizing behavior patterns from ages 2 to 15 (N = 443). The relation between multiple self-regulatory indicators across multiple domains (i.e., physiological, attentional, emotional, and behavioral) at age 2 and at age 5 and group membership in four distinct externalizing trajectories was examined. By examining each of these self-regulatory processes in combination with one another, and therefore accounting for their shared variance, we aimed to better understand which specific self-regulatory skills were associated most strongly with externalizing behavioral patterns. Findings suggest that behavioral inhibitory control and emotion regulation are particularly important in distinguishing between children who show normative declines in externalizing behaviors across early childhood and those who demonstrate high levels through adolescence.

  1. A pilot study of physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Emma; Mundell, Benjamin; Amin, Shreyasee; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were to investigate free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in a group of older women, and assess the cross-sectional associations with body mass index (BMI). Eleven older women (mean (SD) age: 77 (9) yrs) wore custom-built activity monitors, each containing a tri-axial accelerometer (±16g, 100Hz), on the waist and ankle for lab-based walking trials and 4 days in free-living. Daily active time, step counts, cadence, and sedentary break number were estimated from acceleration data. The sedentary bout length distribution and sedentary time accumulation pattern, using the Gini index, were investigated. Associations of the parameters' total daily values and coefficients of variation (CVs) of their hourly values with BMI were assessed using linear regression. The algorithm demonstrated median sensitivity, positive predictive value, and agreement values >98% and <1% mean error in cadence calculations with video identification during lab trials. Participants' sedentary bouts were found to be power law distributed with 56% of their sedentary time occurring in 20min bouts or longer. Meaningful associations were detectable in the relationships of total active time, step count, sedentary break number and their CVs with BMI. Active time and step counts had moderate negative associations with BMI while sedentary break number had a strong negative association. Active time, step count and sedentary break number CVs also had strong positive associations with BMI. The results highlight the importance of measuring sedentary behavior and suggest a more even distribution of physical activity throughout the day is associated with lower BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Narratives of Self-Neglect: Patterns of Traumatic Personal Experiences and Maladaptive Behaviors in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Cynthia; Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Abrams, Robert C; Pavlou, Maria; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69). Interviews included a comprehensive psychiatric assessment using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis-I and II Disorders and an unstructured interview that allowed subjects to describe important elements of their life stories. Content analysis was used to identify personal experiences and behavior patterns in each subject's narrative. Four types of traumatic personal experiences (psychologically traumatic loss, separation or abandonment (29%); violent victimization, physical trauma, or sexual abuse (19%); exposure to war or political violence (9%); prolonged mourning (7%)) and five behavior patterns (significant financial instability (23%), severe lifelong mental illness (16%), mistrust of people or paranoia (13%), distrust and avoidance of the medical establishment (13%), substance abuse or dependence (13%)) were identified in the life stories. Patterns of traumatic personal experiences and maladaptive behaviors that self-neglecters frequently report were identified. Experiences, perceptions, and behaviors developed over a lifetime may contribute to elder self-neglect. Further exploration and better understanding of these patterns may identify potential risk factors and areas for future targeted screening, intervention, and prevention. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Total and species-specific quantitative analyses of trace elements in sediment by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is one of the reliable methods for total and species-specific quantitative analysis of trace elements. However, several technical problems (e.g. spectral interference caused from sample constituents) should be overcome to obtain reliable analytical results when environmental samples are analyzed by ID-ICP-MS. In our laboratory, various methods based on ID-ICP-MS have been investigated for reliable quantitative analyses of trace elements in environmental samples. In this paper, coprecipitate separation/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of trace elements in sediment, cation exchange disk filtration/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of selenium in sediment, species-specific ID-ICP-MS using 118 Sn/labeled organotin compounds for the determination of butyltins and phenyltins, and the application of the ID-ICP-MS methods to the certification of sediment reference materials are described. (author)

  4. Regulation of cell behavior and tissue patterning by bioelectrical signals: challenges and opportunities for biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael; Stevenson, Claire G

    2012-01-01

    Achieving control over cell behavior and pattern formation requires molecular-level understanding of regulatory mechanisms. Alongside transcriptional networks and biochemical gradients, there functions an important system of cellular communication and control: transmembrane voltage gradients (V(mem)). Bioelectrical signals encoded in spatiotemporal changes of V(mem) control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Moreover, endogenous bioelectrical gradients serve as instructive cues mediating anatomical polarity and other organ-level aspects of morphogenesis. In the past decade, significant advances in molecular physiology have enabled the development of new genetic and biophysical tools for the investigation and functional manipulation of bioelectric cues. Recent data implicate V(mem) as a crucial epigenetic regulator of patterning events in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer. We review new conceptual and methodological developments in this fascinating field. Bioelectricity offers a novel way of quantitatively understanding regulation of growth and form in vivo, and it reveals tractable, powerful control points that will enable truly transformative applications in bioengineering, regenerative medicine, and synthetic biology.

  5. The measurement of sedentary patterns and behaviors using the activPAL™ Professional physical activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Kieran P; Bourke, Alan K; Nelson, John; Donnelly, Alan E; Harrington, Deirdre M

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the negative effects of sedentary time and sedentary patterns on health indices. However, these studies have used methodologies that do not directly measure the sedentary state. Recent technological developments in the area of motion sensors have incorporated inclinometers, which can measure the inclination of the body directly, without relying on self-report or count thresholds. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of methodologies used to examine a range of relevant variables, including sedentary levels and patterns from an inclinometer-based motion sensor. The activPAL Professional physical activity logger provides an output which can be interpreted and used without the need for further processing and additional variables were derived using a custom designed MATLAB® computer program. The methodologies described have been implemented on a sample of 44 adolescent females, and the results of a range of daily physical activity and sedentary variables are described and presented. The results provide a range of objectively measured and objectively processed variables, including total time spent sitting/lying, standing and stepping, number and duration of daily sedentary bouts and both bed hours and non-bed hours, which may be of interest when making association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors and health indices. (paper)

  6. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  7. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-12-23

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as "increased", "stable", or "decreased". The dietary patterns, termed "healthy intake", "animal food intake", and "snack intake", were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the "stable" group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern.

  8. Can species-specific prey responses to chemical cues explain prey susceptibility to predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Čech, Martin; Vejřík, Lukáš; Blabolil, Petr; Vejříková, Ivana; Prchalová, Marie; Vašek, Mojmír; Souza, Allan T; Brönmark, Christer; Peterka, Jiří

    2018-05-01

    The perception of danger represents an essential ability of prey for gaining an informational advantage over their natural enemies. Especially in complex environments or at night, animals strongly rely on chemoreception to avoid predators. The ability to recognize danger by chemical cues and subsequent adaptive responses to predation threats should generally increase prey survival. Recent findings suggest that European catfish ( Silurus glanis ) introduction induce changes in fish community and we tested whether the direction of change can be attributed to differences in chemical cue perception. We tested behavioral response to chemical cues using three species of freshwater fish common in European water: rudd ( Scardinius erythrophthalmus ), roach ( Rutilus rutilus ), and perch ( Perca fluviatilis ). Further, we conducted a prey selectivity experiment to evaluate the prey preferences of the European catfish. Roach exhibited the strongest reaction to chemical cues, rudd decreased use of refuge and perch did not alter any behavior in the experiment. These findings suggest that chemical cue perception might be behind community data change and we encourage collecting more community data of tested prey species before and after European catfish introduction to test the hypothesis. We conclude that used prey species can be used as a model species to verify whether chemical cue perception enhances prey survival.

  9. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  10. Immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by a species-specific panel of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovska, Ana; Grolli, Stefano; Borghetti, Paolo; Ravanetti, Francesca; Conti, Virna; De Angelis, Elena; Macchi, Francesca; Ramoni, Roberto; Martelli, Paolo; Gazza, Ferdinando; Cacchioli, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Immunophenotypical characterization of mesenchymal stem cells is fundamental for the design and execution of sound experimental and clinical studies. The scarce availability of species-specific antibodies for canine antigens has hampered the immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this study was to select a panel of species-specific direct antibodies readily useful for canine mesenchymal stem cells characterization. They were isolated from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples collected during regular surgeries from 8 dogs. Single color flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (P3) deriving from subcutaneous and perivisceral adipose tissue with a panel of 7 direct anti-canine antibodies revealed two largely homogenous cell populations with a similar pattern: CD29 + , CD44 + , CD73 + , CD90 + , CD34 - , CD45 - and MHC-II - with no statistically significant differences among them. Antibody reactivity was demonstrated on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The similarities are reinforced by their in vitro cell morphology, trilineage differentiation ability and RT-PCR analysis (CD90 + , CD73 + , CD105 + , CD44 + , CD13 + , CD29 + , Oct-4 + gene and CD31 - and CD45 - expression). Our results report for the first time a comparison between the immunophenotypic profile of canine MSC deriving from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The substantial equivalence between the two populations has practical implication on clinical applications, giving the opportunity to choose the source depending on the patient needs. The results contribute to routine characterization of MSC populations grown in vitro, a mandatory process for the definition of solid and reproducible laboratory and therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Species-specific accumulation of dioxin related compounds in cetaceans collected from Japanese coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime Univ. (Japan); Amano, M. [Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Iwate (Japan); Yamada, T. [National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are extremely hazardous and persistent chemicals identified as contaminants in chlorophenols, herbicides, fly ash and other incineration products. Dioxin-like PCBs including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs are referred to as dioxin related compounds and are evaluated on par with PCDD/Fs in environmental risks since they have a high toxicity, similar to that of PCDD/Fs. These congeners have a range of physicochemical characteristics, which profoundly affect their persistence, environmental distribution, and bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Fish-eating wildlife such as marine mammals are particularly vulnerable to such contamination given their long lives, high trophic level, relative inability to metabolize many persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the biomagnification of these contaminants in aquatic food chains. However, most studies dealing with PCDDs and PCDFs in marine mammals have been carried out on pinnipeds, and data on PCDD/Fs levels in cetaceans are scarce. The present study is aimed at understanding the recent pattern of contamination by dioxin related compounds including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in three cetacean species collected from Japanese coastal waters during 1998-2001, and also to discuss the factors determining the accumulation.

  12. Comparative analyses identified species-specific functional roles in oral microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsute; Gajare, Prasad; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The advent of next generation sequencing is producing more genomic sequences for various strains of many human oral microbial species and allows for insightful functional comparisons at both intra- and inter-species levels. This study performed in-silico functional comparisons for currently available genomic sequences of major species associated with periodontitis including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Treponema denticola (TD), and Tannerella forsythia (TF), as well as several cariogenic and commensal streptococcal species. Complete or draft sequences were annotated with the RAST to infer structured functional subsystems for each genome. The subsystems profiles were clustered to groups of functions with similar patterns. Functional enrichment and depletion were evaluated based on hypergeometric distribution to identify subsystems that are unique or missing between two groups of genomes. Unique or missing metabolic pathways and biological functions were identified in different species. For example, components involved in flagellar motility were found only in the motile species TD, as expected, with few exceptions scattered in several streptococcal species, likely associated with chemotaxis. Transposable elements were only found in the two Bacteroidales species PG and TF, and half of the AA genomes. Genes involved in CRISPR were prevalent in most oral species. Furthermore, prophage related subsystems were also commonly found in most species except for PG and Streptococcus mutans, in which very few genomes contain prophage components. Comparisons between pathogenic (P) and nonpathogenic (NP) genomes also identified genes potentially important for virulence. Two such comparisons were performed between AA (P) and several A. aphrophilus (NP) strains, and between S. mutans + S. sobrinus (P) and other oral streptococcal species (NP). This comparative genomics approach can be readily used to identify functions unique to

  13. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  15. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  16. Patterns of adolescent bullying behaviors: physical, verbal, exclusion, rumor, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W

    2012-08-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types Bullies (10.5% for boys and 4.0% for girls), Verbal/Social Bullies (29.3% for boys and 29.4% for girls), and a Non-Involved class (60.2% for boys and 66.6% for girls). Boys were more likely to be All-Types Bullies than girls. The prevalence rates of All-Types and Verbal/Social Bullies peaked during grades 6 to 8 and grades 7 and 8, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across the three latent classes on externalizing problems were conducted. Overall, the All-Types Bullies were at highest risk of using substances and carrying weapons, the Non-Involved were at lowest risk, and the Verbal/Social Bullies were in the middle. Results also suggest that most cyber bullies belong to a group of highly aggressive adolescents who conduct all types of bullying. This finding does not only improve our understanding of the relation between cyber bullying and traditional bullying, but it also suggests that prevention and intervention efforts could target cyber bullies as a high-risk group for elevated externalizing problems. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behavior in Dealing with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo

    2016-01-01

    Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory.

  18. Time course and pattern of compensatory ingestive behavioral adjustments to lysine deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markison, S; Thompson, B L; Smith, J C; Spector, A C

    2000-05-01

    We and others have demonstrated that rats deficient in an essential amino acid (EAA) will consume sufficient quantities of the lacking nutrient to produce repletion when it is made available in solution. In the current series of experiments, we made rats deficient in lysine (LYS) by limiting the level of this EAA in the diet. We then examined licking behavior during approximately 23-h two-bottle intake tests over 4 consecutive days. In three separate experiments, rats were presented with the following: 1) 0.1 mol/L LYS and water, 2) 0.2 mol/L threonine (THR) and water and 3) 0.1 mol/L LYS and 0.2 mol/L THR. Lysine-deficient (LYS-DEF) rats drink significantly more LYS than did nondepleted controls (CON) when this amino acid was available. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the enhanced intake of LYS occurred as a function of a greater number of ingestive bouts, not changes in bout size. A cumulative analysis of LYS intake between CON and LYS-DEF rats revealed that a potentiation of intake developed within 30 min of sampling the solution when LYS and water were available and within 90 min when LYS and THR were the contrasting choices. In conclusion, increased LYS intake in the deficient rats occurs relatively rapidly and appears to be at least somewhat specific. Moreover, LYS deficiency does not seem to enhance the palatability of the limiting amino acid as judged by behaviors such as lick rate and bout size. Instead, LYS-DEF rats relieve the deficiency by increasing the number of drinking episodes initiated.

  19. Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005–2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types Bullies (10.5% for boys and 4.0% for girls), Verbal/Social Bullies (29.3% for boys and 29.4% for girls), and a Non-Involved class (60.2% for boys and 66.6% for girls). Boys were more likely to be All-Types Bullies than girls. The prevalence rates of All-Types and Verbal/Social Bullies peaked during grades 6 to 8 and grades 7 & 8, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across the three latent classes on externalizing problems were conducted. Overall, the All-Types Bullies were at highest risk of using substances and carrying weapons, the Non-Involved were at lowest risk, and the Verbal/Social Bullies were in the middle. Results also suggest that most cyber bullies belong to a group of highly aggressive adolescents who conduct all types of bullying. This finding does not only improve our understanding of the relation between cyber bullying and traditional bullying, but it also suggests that prevention and intervention efforts could target cyber bullies as a high-risk group for elevated externalizing problems. PMID:22710019

  20. Local behavioral rules sustain the cell allocation pattern in the combs of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montovan, Kathryn J; Karst, Nathaniel; Jones, Laura E; Seeley, Thomas D

    2013-11-07

    In the beeswax combs of honey bees, the cells of brood, pollen, and honey have a consistent spatial pattern that is sustained throughout the life of a colony. This spatial pattern is believed to emerge from simple behavioral rules that specify how the queen moves, where foragers deposit honey/pollen and how honey/pollen is consumed from cells. Prior work has shown that a set of such rules can explain the formation of the allocation pattern starting from an empty comb. We show that these rules cannot maintain the pattern once the brood start to vacate their cells, and we propose new, biologically realistic rules that better sustain the observed allocation pattern. We analyze the three resulting models by performing hundreds of simulation runs over many gestational periods and a wide range of parameter values. We develop new metrics for pattern assessment and employ them in analyzing pattern retention over each simulation run. Applied to our simulation results, these metrics show alteration of an accepted model for honey/pollen consumption based on local information can stabilize the cell allocation pattern over time. We also show that adding global information, by biasing the queen's movements towards the center of the comb, expands the parameter regime over which pattern retention occurs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) applied to the study of mechanical behavior of human jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan F.; Moreno de las Cuevas, Vincente; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Suarez, David; Fernandez, Paula; Gallas, Mercedes; Blanchard, Alain

    1996-01-01

    The study of the mechanical behavior of the human jaw during chewing is helpful in several specific medical fields that cover the maxillo-facial area. In this work, electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been applied to study dead jaw bones under external stress which simulates the deformations induced during chewing. Fringes obtained after subtraction of two images of the jaw, the image of the relaxed jaw and that of the jaw under stress, give us information about the most stressed zones. The interferometric analysis proposed here is attractive as it can be done in real time with the jaw under progressive stress. Image processing can be applied for improving the quality of fringes. This research can be of help in orthognathic surgery, for example in diagnosis and treatment of fractured jaws, in oral surgery, and in orthodontics because it would help us to know the stress dispersion when we insert an osseointegrated implant or place an orthodontic appliance, respectively. Studying fragments of human jaw some results about its elasticity and flexibility were obtained.

  2. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  3. Applying Learning Analytics to Explore the Effects of Motivation on Online Students' Reading Behavioral Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Lin, Che-Tsun; Chou, Chien

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to apply a sequential analysis to explore the effect of learning motivation on online reading behavioral patterns. The study's participants consisted of 160 graduate students who were classified into three group types: low reading duration with low motivation, low reading duration with high motivation, and high reading duration…

  4. The Parents' Parenting Patterns, Education, Jobs, and Assistance to Their Children in Watching Television, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…

  5. The induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts. (author)

  6. Can the identity of a behavior setting be perceived through patterns of joint action? An investigation of place perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heft, Harry; Hoch, Justine; Edmunds, Trent; Weeks, Jillian

    2014-10-13

    "Behavior settings" are generated by joint actions of individuals in conjunction with the milieu features (or affordances) that are available. The reported research explores the hypothesis that the identity or meaning of a behavior setting can be perceived by means of the patterns of action collectively generated by the setting's participants. A set of computer animations was created based on detailed observation of activities in everyday settings. Three experiments were conducted to assess whether perceivers could extract "structure from motion" (in this case, collective actions) that was specific to the particular behavior setting displayed by way of the animations. Two experiments assessed whether individuals could accurately perceive the identity of the behavior settings with such displays, and a third experiment indirectly examined this possibility by evaluating whether setting possibilities and constraints were recognized. The results offered some support for the hypothesis, and suggested several refinements in how to conceptualize a typology of behavior settings. An ecological approach to place perception is also discussed.

  7. Study of Sylvilagus rabbit TRIM5α species-specific domain: how ancient endoviruses could have shaped the antiviral repertoire in Lagomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areal Helena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first report of the antiretroviral restriction factor TRIM5α in primates, several orthologs in other mammals have been described. Recent studies suggest that leporid retroviruses like RELIK, the first reported endogenous lentivirus ever, may have imposed positive selection in TRIM5α orthologs of the European rabbit and European brown hare. Considering that RELIK must already have been present in a common ancestor of the leporid genera Lepus, Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus, we extended the study of evolutionary patterns of TRIM5α to other members of the Leporidae family, particularly to the genus Sylvilagus. Therefore, we obtained the TRIM5α nucleotide sequences of additional subspecies and species of the three leporid genera. We also compared lagomorph TRIM5α deduced protein sequences and established TRIM5α gene and TRIM5α protein phylogenies. Results The deduced protein sequence of Iberian hare TRIM5α was 89% identical to European rabbit TRIM5α, although high divergence was observed at the PRYSPRY v1 region between rabbit and the identified alleles from this hare species (allele 1: 50% divergence; allele 2: 53% divergence. A high identity was expected between the Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus TRIM5α proteins and, in fact, the Sylvilagus TRIM5α was 91% identical to the Oryctolagus protein. Nevertheless, the PRYSPRY v1 region was only 50% similar between these genera. Selection analysis of Lagomorpha TRIM5α proteins identified 25 positively-selected codons, 11 of which are located in the PRYSPRY v1 region, responsible for species specific differences in viral capsid recognition. Conclusions By extending Lagomorpha TRIM5α studies to an additional genus known to bear RELIK, we verified that the divergent species-specific pattern observed between the Oryctolagus and Lepus PRYSPRY-domains is also present in Sylvilagus TRIM5α. This work is one of the first known studies that compare the evolution of the

  8. Effects of hemisphere speech dominance and seizure focus on patterns of behavioral response errors for three types of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R; MacDonald, K

    1997-03-01

    We used a protocol consisting of a continuous presentation of stimuli with associated response requests during an intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) to study the effects of hemisphere injected (speech dominant vs. nondominant) and seizure focus (left temporal lobe vs. right temporal lobe) on the pattern of behavioral response errors for three types of visual stimuli (pictures of common objects, words, and abstract forms). Injection of the left speech dominant hemisphere compared to the right nondominant hemisphere increased overall errors and affected the pattern of behavioral errors. The presence of a seizure focus in the contralateral hemisphere increased overall errors, particularly for the right temporal lobe seizure patients, but did not affect the pattern of behavioral errors. Left hemisphere injections disrupted both naming and reading responses at a rate similar to that of matching-to-sample performance. Also, a short-term memory deficit was observed with all three stimuli. Long-term memory testing following the left hemisphere injection indicated that only for pictures of common objects were there fewer errors during the early postinjection period than for the later long-term memory testing. Therefore, despite the inability to respond to picture stimuli, picture items, but not words or forms, could be sufficiently encoded for later recall. In contrast, right hemisphere injections resulted in few errors, with a pattern suggesting a mild general cognitive decrease. A selective weakness in learning unfamiliar forms was found. Our findings indicate that different patterns of behavioral deficits occur following the left vs. right hemisphere injections, with selective patterns specific to stimulus type.

  9. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, implies the importance of the female and male behavior pattern in understanding demographic structures, processes and phenomena. The theoretical foundation was found in the anthropological character of contemporary demography which focuses on the individual’s behavior in the context of interactive relations with the concrete environment. In the context of a complex deterministic basis and interactive connection of various factors, gender roles and gender relations represent a relative segment of social dimension of various demographic issues. Feminization of the middle-aged and older population emphasizes the importance of female perspective, taking into consideration space diversity. Feminization is most intensive in Belgrade. Among the middle-aged women there is a higher proportion of tertiary educated and divorced, and less share of the economically independent, in relation to the remaining region of Central Serbia. As regards older women, irrespective of spatial distribution, widowhood, unfavorable education characteristics, lower economic activity and greater economic dependency are important matters. The issue of retirement has specific importance, and should be solved in the context of educated and socio-professional characteristics of women, in order to promote their social position and gender equality. A shorter life span of the male population requires recognizing specific mortality factors of the middle-aged and older males, in order to eliminate the

  10. Species-specific control of external superoxide levels by the coral holobiont during a natural bleaching event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Julia M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Apprill, Amy; Brighi, Caterina; Zhang, Tong; Weber, Laura; McNally, Sean; Xun, Liping

    2016-12-01

    The reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2.-) is both beneficial and detrimental to life. Within corals, superoxide may contribute to pathogen resistance but also bleaching, the loss of essential algal symbionts. Yet, the role of superoxide in coral health and physiology is not completely understood owing to a lack of direct in situ observations. By conducting field measurements of superoxide produced by corals during a bleaching event, we show substantial species-specific variation in external superoxide levels, which reflect the balance of production and degradation processes. Extracellular superoxide concentrations are independent of light, algal symbiont abundance and bleaching status, but depend on coral species and bacterial community composition. Furthermore, coral-derived superoxide concentrations ranged from levels below bulk seawater up to ~120 nM, some of the highest superoxide concentrations observed in marine systems. Overall, these results unveil the ability of corals and/or their microbiomes to regulate superoxide in their immediate surroundings, which suggests species-specific roles of superoxide in coral health and physiology.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkway, Christopher P; Pocock, Rebecca L; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P

    2015-02-20

    Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm's anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable.

  12. Species-specific markers for the differential diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli and polymorphisms detection in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Keila Adriana Magalhães; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Baptista, Rodrigo P; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo; Pedrosa, André Luiz

    2014-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are kinetoplastid parasites which are able to infect humans in Central and South America. Misdiagnosis between these trypanosomes can be avoided by targeting barcoding sequences or genes of each organism. This work aims to analyze the feasibility of using species-specific markers for identification of intraspecific polymorphisms and as target for diagnostic methods by PCR. Accordingly, primers which are able to specifically detect T. cruzi or T. rangeli genomic DNA were characterized. The use of intergenic regions, generally divergent in the trypanosomatids, and the serine carboxypeptidase gene were successful. Using T. rangeli genomic sequences for the identification of group-specific polymorphisms and a polymorphic AT(n) dinucleotide repeat permitted the classification of the strains into two groups, which are entirely coincident with T. rangeli main lineages, KP1 (+) and KP1 (-), previously determined by kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) characterization. The sequences analyzed totalize 622 bp (382 bp represent a hypothetical protein sequence, and 240 bp represent an anonymous sequence), and of these, 581 (93.3%) are conserved sites and 41 bp (6.7%) are polymorphic, with 9 transitions (21.9%), 2 transversions (4.9%), and 30 (73.2%) insertion/deletion events. Taken together, the species-specific markers analyzed may be useful for the development of new strategies for the accurate diagnosis of infections. Furthermore, the identification of T. rangeli polymorphisms has a direct impact in the understanding of the population structure of this parasite.

  13. Species-Specific Variations in the Nutritional Quality of Southern Ocean Phytoplankton in Response to Elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Wynn-Edwards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased seawater pCO2 has the potential to alter phytoplankton biochemistry, which in turn may negatively affect the nutritional quality of phytoplankton as food for grazers. Our aim was to identify how Antarctic phytoplankton, Pyramimonas gelidicola, Phaeocystis antarctica, and Gymnodinium sp., respond to increased pCO2. Cultures were maintained in a continuous culture setup to ensure stable CO2 concentrations. Cells were subjected to a range of pCO2 from ambient to 993 µatm. We measured phytoplankton response in terms of cell size, cellular carbohydrate content, and elemental, pigment and fatty acid composition and content. We observed few changes in phytoplankton biochemistry with increasing CO2 concentration which were species-specific and predominantly included differences in the fatty acid composition. The C:N ratio was unaffected by CO2 concentration in the three species, while carbohydrate content decreased in Pyramimonas gelidicola, but increased in Phaeocystis antarctica. We found a significant reduction in the content of nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in Pyramimonas gelidicola cultures under high CO2 treatment, while cellular levels of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20:5ω3, EPA, in Gymnodinium sp. increased. These changes in fatty acid profile could affect the nutritional quality of phytoplankton as food for grazers, however, further research is needed to identify the mechanisms for the observed species-specific changes and to improve our ability to extrapolate laboratory-based experiments on individual species to natural communities.

  14. Impact of pediatric epilepsy on sleep patterns and behaviors in children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Anna M; Ryther, Robin C C; Jennesson, Melanie; Geffrey, Alexandra L; Bruno, Patricia L; Anagnos, Christina J; Shoeb, Ali H; Thibert, Ronald L; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted sleep patterns in children with epilepsy and their parents are commonly described clinically. A number of studies have shown increased frequency of sleep disorders among pediatric epilepsy patients; however, few have characterized the association between epilepsy and parental sleep quality and household sleeping arrangements. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of pediatric epilepsy on child sleep, parental sleep and fatigue, and parent-child sleeping arrangements, including room sharing and cosleeping. Parents of children 2 to 10 years of age with and without epilepsy completed written questionnaires assessing seizure history, child and parent sleep, and household sleeping arrangements. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) scores were used to evaluate sleep disturbances for the child. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Iowa Fatigue Scale (IFS) were used to evaluate parental sleep and fatigue, respectively. The Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess) was used to assess epilepsy severity. One hundred five households with a child with epilepsy and 79 controls participated in this study. Households with a child with epilepsy reported increased rates of both parent-child room sharing (p Children with epilepsy were found to have greater sleep disturbance by total CSHQ score (p Parents of children with epilepsy had increased sleep dysfunction (p = 0.005) and were more fatigued (p parental sleep dysfunction (0.273, p = 0.005), and parental fatigue (0.324, p = 0.001). Antiepileptic drug polytherapy was predictive of greater childhood sleep disturbances. Nocturnal seizures were associated with parental sleep problems, whereas room sharing and cosleeping behavior were associated with child sleep problems. Within the epilepsy cohort, 69% of parents felt concerned about night seizures and 44% reported feeling rested rarely or never. Finally, 62% of parents described decreased sleep quality and/or quantity with

  15. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Markos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%, schizophrenia 55 (14.3% and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2% were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8% and other patients 75 (19.5%. Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%, came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2% or an herbalist 77 (20.1% before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6% and evil eye 61 (15.9%, whereas 73 (19.0% of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7% believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers

  16. Exploiting Sequential Patterns Found in Users' Solutions and Virtual Tutor Behavior to Improve Assistance in ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Faghihi, Usef; Nkambou, Roger; Nguifo, Engelbert Mephu

    2010-01-01

    We propose to mine temporal patterns in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) to uncover useful knowledge that can enhance their ability to provide assistance. To discover patterns, we suggest using a custom, sequential pattern-mining algorithm. Two ways of applying the algorithm to enhance an ITS's capabilities are addressed. The first is to…

  17. Morbidity pattern and health seeking behavior in elderly population of Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Alam Naushad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological transition across globe is considered as the net result of the demographic transition. The shape of the population pyramid is gradually changing from a wide-based and narrow topped form to a barrel-shaped form in recent future (1. Aims & Objectives: 1. To determine morbidity pattern in elderly population, 2. To assess their health care seeking behavior. Material & Methods: Study design- A Community based cross sectional observational study. Study setting - Pt J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Study Duration: July 2013 to June 2014. Sampling method: - Multi stage simple random sampling. Sample size: 640. Sample Size were calculated by using statistical formula, n= Z21-α/2 P(1-P/d. Study tool: Pre-designed, Pre-tested Performa. Ethical consideration-Written document from institutional ethical Committee and Informed Consent from subject. Inclusion criteria: 1. All elderly persons in the age group of 60 years and above who were residing in the study area for at least one year, and willing to Participate in study without compulsion. Exclusion Criteria: 1. Those who were not willing to participate in study. Results & Conclusions: Prevalence of morbidity was 95.31%. Morbidity was positively associated with advancement of age and predominant in females (98.92% and those belong to slum (98.43% and lower (98.14% socio-economic status while inversely associated with Physical activity. Out of total morbid population 70.49% had chronic illness. Most common system involvement was Gastro intestinal system (82.62%. Perception about illness was increased with advancement of age. Majority were seeking therapy from private registered practitioner (35.52%.

  18. Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Khairul

    2013-12-15

    An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

  19. Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Resembles Patterns of Pathology Progression in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD

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    Jan Kassubek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recently, the characteristic longitudinal distribution pattern of the underlying phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43 pathology in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD excluding Pick's disease (PiD across specific brain regions was described. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo investigations of bvFTD patients by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were consistent with these proposed patterns of progression.Methods: Sixty-two bvFTD patients and 47 controls underwent DTI in a multicenter study design. Of these, 49 bvFTD patients and 34 controls had a follow-up scan after ~12 months. Cross-sectional and longitudinal alterations were assessed by a two-fold analysis, i.e., voxelwise comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA maps and a tract of interest-based (TOI approach, which identifies tract structures that could be assigned to brain regions associated with disease progression.Results: Whole brain-based spatial statistics showed white matter alterations predominantly in the frontal lobes cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The TOIs of bvFTD neuroimaging stages 1 and 2 (uncinate fascicle—bvFTD pattern I; corticostriatal pathway—bvFTD pattern II showed highly significant differences between bvFTD patients and controls. The corticospinal tract-associated TOI (bvFTD pattern III did not differ between groups, whereas the differences in the optic radiation (bvFTD pattern IV reached significance. The findings in the corticospinal tract were due to a “dichotomous” behavior of FA changes there.Conclusion: Longitudinal TOI analysis demonstrated a pattern of white matter pathways alterations consistent with patterns of pTDP-43 pathology.

  20. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  1. Regime Behavior in Paleo-Reconstructed Streamflow: Attributions to Atmospheric Dynamics, Synoptic Circulation and Large-Scale Climate Teleconnection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, A.; Devineni, N.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown that streamflow behavior and dynamics have a significant link with climate and climate variability. Patterns of persistent regime behavior from extended streamflow records in many watersheds justify investigating large-scale climate mechanisms as potential drivers of hydrologic regime behavior and streamflow variability. Understanding such streamflow-climate relationships is crucial to forecasting/simulation systems and the planning and management of water resources. In this study, hidden Markov models are used with reconstructed streamflow to detect regime-like behaviors - the hidden states - and state transition phenomena. Individual extreme events and their spatial variability across the basin are then verified with the identified states. Wavelet analysis is performed to examine the signals over time in the streamflow records. Joint analyses of the climatic data in the 20th century and the identified states are undertaken to better understand the hydroclimatic connections within the basin as well as important teleconnections that influence water supply. Compositing techniques are used to identify atmospheric circulation patterns associated with identified states of streamflow. The grouping of such synoptic patterns and their frequency are then examined. Sliding time-window correlation analysis and cross-wavelet spectral analysis are performed to establish the synchronicity of basin flows to the identified synoptic and teleconnection patterns. The Missouri River Basin (MRB) is examined in this study, both as a means of better understanding the synoptic climate controls in this important watershed and as a case study for the techniques developed here. Initial wavelet analyses of reconstructed streamflow at major gauges in the MRB show multidecadal cycles in regime behavior.

  2. Forecasting behavior in smart homes based on sleep and wake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A; Cook, Diane J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to use smart home technology to assist people who are recovering from injuries or coping with disabilities to live independently. We introduce an algorithm to model and forecast wake and sleep behaviors that are exhibited by the participant. Furthermore, we propose that sleep behavior is impacted by and can be modeled from wake behavior, and vice versa. This paper describes the Behavior Forecasting (BF) algorithm. BF consists of 1) defining numeric values that reflect sleep and wake behavior, 2) forecasting wake and sleep values from past behavior, 3) analyzing the effect of wake behavior on sleep and vice versa, and 4) improving prediction performance by using both wake and sleep scores. The BF method was evaluated with data collected from 20 smart homes. We found that regardless of the forecasting method utilized, wake behavior and sleep behavior can be modeled with a minimum accuracy of 84%. Additionally, normalizing the wake and sleep scores drastically improves the accuracy to 99%. The results show that we can effectively model wake and sleep behaviors in a smart environment. Furthermore, wake behaviors can be predicted from sleep behaviors and vice versa.

  3. Forecasting Behavior in Smart Homes Based on Sleep and Wake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Cook, Diane J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of this research is to use smart home technology to assist people who are recovering from injuries or coping with disabilities to live independently. Objective We introduce an algorithm to model and forecast wake and sleep behaviors that are exhibited by the participant. Furthermore, we propose that sleep behavior is impacted by and can be modeled from wake behavior, and vice versa. Methods This paper describes the Behavior Forecasting (BF) algorithm. BF consists of 1) defining numeric values that reflect sleep and wake behavior, 2) forecasting wake and sleep values from past behavior, 3) analyzing the effect of wake behavior on sleep and vice versa, and 4) improving prediction performance by using both wake and sleep scores. Results The BF method was evaluated with data collected from 20 smart homes. We found that regardless of the forecasting method utilized, wake behavior and sleep behavior can be modeled with a minimum accuracy of 84%. Additionally, normalizing the wake and sleep scores drastically improves the accuracy to 99%. Conclusions The results show that we can effectively model wake and sleep behaviors in a smart environment. Furthermore, wake behaviors can be predicted from sleep behaviors and vice versa. PMID:27689555

  4. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  5. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jamali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the

  6. The relationship between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    1. We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. 2. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. 3. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux, however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. 4. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for CH4 and 3-fold for CO2. 5. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a~mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but these relationships vary greatly among termite species. Consequently, there is no generic relationship that will allow for the prediction of CH4 fluxes from termite mounds of all species.

  7. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but

  8. Is the C-terminal insertional signal in Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins species-specific or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Nagarajan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane is composed of an asymmetric lipid bilayer of phopspholipids and lipopolysaccharides, and the transmembrane proteins that reside in this membrane are almost exclusively β-barrel proteins. These proteins are inserted into the membrane by a highly conserved and essential machinery, the BAM complex. It recognizes its substrates, unfolded outer membrane proteins (OMPs, through a C-terminal motif that has been speculated to be species-specific, based on theoretical and experimental results from only two species, Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, where it was shown on the basis of individual sequences and motifs that OMPs from the one cannot easily be over expressed in the other, unless the C-terminal motif was adapted. In order to determine whether this species specificity is a general phenomenon, we undertook a large-scale bioinformatics study on all predicted OMPs from 437 fully sequenced proteobacterial strains. Results We were able to verify the incompatibility reported between Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, using clustering techniques based on the pairwise Hellinger distance between sequence spaces for the C-terminal motifs of individual organisms. We noticed that the amino acid position reported to be responsible for this incompatibility between Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis does not play a major role for determining species specificity of OMP recognition by the BAM complex. Instead, we found that the signal is more diffuse, and that for most organism pairs, the difference between the signals is hard to detect. Notable exceptions are the Neisseriales, and Helicobacter spp. For both of these organism groups, we describe the specific sequence requirements that are at the basis of the observed difference. Conclusions Based on the finding that the differences between the recognition motifs of almost all organisms are small, we assume that

  9. Species-specific guidelines for choosing forest regeneration material for northern Sweden; Beslutsunderlag foer val av skogsodlingsmaterial i norra Sverige med traedslagsvisa guider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosvall, O.; Andersson, Bengt; Ericsson, Tore

    1998-05-01

    To facilitate the selection of suitable seed-orchard and natural-stand regeneration material for sites in northern Sweden, a conceptual model was developed which includes a specification of the sites and genetic material, seed source transfer effects on various tree characters, and delineation of suitable utilization-areas for specific regeneration materials and management objectives. The most important site characteristics are photoperiod, temperature sum and local-climate pattern, specified by latitude, elevation and topography. The regeneration material is characterised by its specific properties, such as breeding value, and potential reaction to changes in the photoperiod (standardised latitudinal origin). A specification of transfer effects was made by the changes in the characteristics of a population when moved along photoperiod (latitudinal) or temperature (elevation) gradients. Optimum latitudinal seed-source transfer distances can be calculated for each temperature climate and management objective based on the economic value of the population characteristics and the species-specific transfer effects. On the basis of what were assessed to be common requirements, we drew up a baseline option whereby suitable utilization areas for seed-orchard and natural-stand progenies were delineated. An analysis was made of the consequences of the baseline option and the background information was reviewed and summarised for Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta, Picea abies and Betula pendula 95 refs, 24 figs, 16 tabs

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) from China and Malaysia based on species-specific simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L X; Xiao, Y; Xia, W; Yang, Y D

    2015-12-08

    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species.

  11. The nuclear higher-order structure defined by the set of topological relationships between DNA and the nuclear matrix is species-specific in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santiago, Evangelina; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2017-01-15

    During the interphase the nuclear DNA of metazoan cells is organized in supercoiled loops anchored to constituents of a nuclear substructure or compartment known as the nuclear matrix. The stable interactions between DNA and the nuclear matrix (NM) correspond to a set of topological relationships that define a nuclear higher-order structure (NHOS). Current evidence suggests that the NHOS is cell-type-specific. Biophysical evidence and theoretical models suggest that thermodynamic and structural constraints drive the actualization of DNA-NM interactions. However, if the topological relationships between DNA and the NM were the subject of any biological constraint with functional significance then they must be adaptive and thus be positively selected by natural selection and they should be reasonably conserved, at least within closely related species. We carried out a coarse-grained, comparative evaluation of the DNA-NM topological relationships in primary hepatocytes from two closely related mammals: rat and mouse, by determining the relative position to the NM of a limited set of target sequences corresponding to highly-conserved genomic regions that also represent a sample of distinct chromosome territories within the interphase nucleus. Our results indicate that the pattern of topological relationships between DNA and the NM is not conserved between the hepatocytes of the two closely related species, suggesting that the NHOS, like the karyotype, is species-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Turing patterns and long-time behavior in a three-species food-chain model

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana D.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a spatially explicit three-species food chain model, describing generalist top predator-specialist middle predator-prey dynamics. We investigate the long-time dynamics of the model and show the existence of a finite dimensional global attractor in the product space, L2(Ω). We perform linear stability analysis and show that the model exhibits the phenomenon of Turing instability, as well as diffusion induced chaos. Various Turing patterns such as stripe patterns, mesh patterns, spot patterns, labyrinth patterns and weaving patterns are obtained, via numerical simulations in 1d as well as in 2d. The Turing and non-Turing space, in terms of model parameters, is also explored. Finally, we use methods from nonlinear time series analysis to reconstruct a low dimensional chaotic attractor of the model, and estimate its fractal dimension. This provides a lower bound, for the fractal dimension of the attractor, of the spatially explicit model. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Two New Software Behavioral Design Patterns: Obligation Link and History Reminder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Finding proper design patterns has always been an important research topic in the software engineering community. One of the main responsibilities of the software developers is to determine which design pattern fits best to solve a particular problem. Design patterns support the effort of exploring the use of artificial intelligence in better management of software development and maintenance process by providing faster, less costly, smarter and on-time decisions (Pena-Mora & Vadhavkar, 1996. There has been a permanent interest in finding new design patterns, especially in the last two decades. Many new design patterns apply in various areas of computer science, such as software security, software parallelism, large-scale software evolving, artificial intelligence, and more. To the best of our knowledge, the “Obligation Link” and “History Reminder” design patterns are new and can be applied in software development in many areas of computer science including artificial intelligence.

  14. Species-Specific Thiol-Disulfide Equilibrium Constant: A Tool To Characterize Redox Transitions of Biological Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-08-13

    Microscopic redox equilibrium constants, a new species-specific type of physicochemical parameters, were introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The thiol-disulfide redox equilibria of glutathione with cysteamine, cysteine, and homocysteine were approached from both sides, and the equilibrium mixtures were analyzed by quantitative NMR methods to characterize the highly composite, co-dependent acid-base and redox equilibria. The directly obtained, pH-dependent, conditional constants were then decomposed by a new evaluation method, resulting in pH-independent, microscopic redox equilibrium constants for the first time. The 80 different, microscopic redox equilibrium constant values show close correlation with the respective thiolate basicities and provide sound means for the development of potent agents against oxidative stress.

  15. Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin, also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24, was recently identified as an interferon-inducible host-cell factor that interferes with the detachment of virus particles from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin. Since lentiviruses of the SIV(smm/mac/HIV-2 lineage do not have a vpu gene, this activity has likely been assumed by other viral gene products. We found that deletion of the SIV(mac239 nef gene significantly impaired virus release in cells expressing rhesus macaque tetherin. Virus release could be restored by expressing Nef in trans. However, Nef was unable to facilitate virus release in the presence of human tetherin. Conversely, Vpu enhanced virus release in the presence of human tetherin, but not in the presence of rhesus tetherin. In accordance with the species-specificity of Nef in mediating virus release, SIV Nef downregulated cell-surface expression of rhesus tetherin, but did not downregulate human tetherin. The specificity of SIV Nef for rhesus tetherin mapped to four amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule that are missing from human tetherin, whereas the specificity of Vpu for human tetherin mapped to amino acid differences in the transmembrane domain. Nef alleles of SIV(smm, HIV-2 and HIV-1 were also able to rescue virus release in the presence of both rhesus macaque and sooty mangabey tetherin, but were generally ineffective against human tetherin. Thus, the ability of Nef to antagonize tetherin from these Old World primates appears to be conserved among the primate lentiviruses. These results identify Nef as the viral gene product of SIV that opposes restriction by tetherin in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, and reveal species-specificity in the activities of both Nef and Vpu in overcoming tetherin in their respective hosts.

  16. Is Drosophila-microbe association species-specific or region specific? A study undertaken involving six Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Kopal; Khanna, Radhika; Mohanty, Sujata

    2017-06-01

    The present work aims to identify the microbial diversity associated with six Indian Drosophila species using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and to discover the nature of their distribution across species and eco-geographic regions. Whole fly gDNA of six Drosophila species were used to generate sequences in an Illumina platform using NGS technology. De novo based assembled raw reads were blasted against the NR database of NCBI using BLASTn for identification of their bacterial loads. We have tried to include Drosophila species from different taxonomical groups and subgroups and from three different eco-climatic regions India; four species belong to Central India, while the rest two, D. melanogaster and D. ananassae, belong to West and South India to determine both their species-wise and region-wide distribution. We detected the presence of 33 bacterial genera across all six study species, predominated by the class Proteobacteria. Amongst all, D. melanogaster was found to be the most diverse by carrying around 85% of the bacterial diversity. Our findings infer both species-specific and environment-specific nature of the bacterial species inhabiting the Drosophila host. Though the present results are consistent with most of the earlier studies, they also remain incoherent with some. The present study outcome on the host-bacteria association and their species specific adaptation may provide some insight to understand the host-microbial interactions and the phenotypic implications of microbes on the host physiology. The knowledge gained may be importantly applied into the recent insect and pest population control strategy going to implement through gut microflora in India and abroad.

  17. Characterization of Foodborne Strains of Staphylococcus aureus by Shotgun Proteomics: Functional Networks, Virulence Factors and Species-Specific Peptide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Böhme, Karola; Gallardo, José M.; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Cañas, Benito; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we applied a shotgun proteomics approach for the fast and easy characterization of 20 different foodborne strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most recognized foodborne pathogenic bacteria. A total of 644 non-redundant proteins were identified and analyzed via an easy and rapid protein sample preparation procedure. The results allowed the differentiation of several proteome datasets from the different strains (common, accessory, and unique datasets), which were used to determine relevant functional pathways and differentiate the strains into different Euclidean hierarchical clusters. Moreover, a predicted protein-protein interaction network of the foodborne S. aureus strains was created. The whole confidence network contains 77 nodes and 769 interactions. Most of the identified proteins were surface-associated proteins that were related to pathways and networks of energy, lipid metabolism and virulence. Twenty-seven virulence factors were identified, and most of them corresponded to autolysins, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, phenol-soluble modulins, extracellular fibrinogen-binding proteins and virulence factor EsxA. Potential species-specific peptide biomarkers were screened. Twenty-one species-specific peptide biomarkers, belonging to eight different proteins (nickel-ABC transporter, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, autolysin, clumping factor A, gram-positive signal peptide YSIRK, cysteine protease/staphopain, transcriptional regulator MarR, and transcriptional regulator Sar-A), were proposed to identify S. aureus. These results constitute the first major dataset of peptides and proteins of foodborne S. aureus strains. This repository may be useful for further studies, for the development of new therapeutic treatments for S. aureus food intoxications and for microbial source-tracking in foodstuffs. PMID:29312172

  18. Species specific and environment induced variation of δ13C and δ15N in alpine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eYang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in plant tissues integrate plant-environment interactions over long periods. In this study, we hypothesized that humid alpine life conditions are narrowing the scope for significant deviations from common carbon, water and nitrogen relations as captured by stable isotope signals. We explored the variation in δ13C and δ15N in 32 plant species from tissue type to ecosystem scale across a suite of locations at c. 2500 m elevation in the Swiss Alps. Foliar δ13C and δ15N varied among species by about 3-4 ‰ and 7-8 ‰ respectively. However, there was no overall difference in means of δ13C and δ15N for species sampled in different plant communities or when bulk plant dry matter harvests of different plant communities were compared. δ13C was found to be highly species specific, so that the ranking among species was mostly maintained across 11 habitats. However, δ15N varied significantly from place to place in all species (a range of 2.7 ‰ except in Fabaceae (Trifolium alpinum and Juncaceae (Luzula lutea. There was also a substantial variation among individuals of the same species collected next to each other. No difference was found in foliar δ15N of non-legumes, which were either collected next to or away from the most common legume, T. alpinum. δ15N data place Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, just like Fabaceae, in a low discrimination category, well separated from other families. Soil δ15N was higher than in plants and increased with soil depth. The results indicate a high functional diversity in alpine plants that is similar to that reported for low elevation plants. We conclude that the surprisingly high variation in δ13C and δ15N signals in the studied high elevation plants is largely species specific (genetic and insensitive to obvious environmental cues.

  19. Detection and Characterization of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Biological Systems by Monitoring Species-Specific Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Micael; Zielonka, Jacek; Karoui, Hakim; Sikora, Adam; Michalski, Radosław; Podsiadły, Radosław; Lopez, Marcos; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ouari, Olivier

    2018-05-20

    Since the discovery of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, the generation and fate of short-lived oxidizing, nitrosating, nitrating, and halogenating species in biological systems has been of great interest. Despite the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in numerous diseases and intracellular signaling, the rigorous detection of ROS and RNS has remained a challenge. Recent Advances: Chemical characterization of the reactions of selected ROS and RNS with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin traps and fluorescent probes led to the establishment of species-specific products, which can be used for specific detection of several forms of ROS and RNS in cell-free systems and in cultured cells in vitro and in animals in vivo. Profiling oxidation products from the ROS and RNS probes provides a rigorous method for detection of those species in biological systems. Formation and detection of species-specific products from the probes enables accurate characterization of the oxidative environment in cells. Measurement of the total signal (fluorescence, chemiluminescence, etc.) intensity does not allow for identification of the ROS/RNS formed. It is critical to identify the products formed by using chromatographic or other rigorous techniques. Product analyses should be accompanied by monitoring of the intracellular probe level, another factor controlling the yield of the product(s) formed. More work is required to characterize the chemical reactivity of the ROS/RNS probes, and to develop new probes/detection approaches enabling real-time, selective monitoring of the specific products formed from the probes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1416-1432.

  20. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  1. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Macinko, James; Mullachery, Pricila; Silver, Diana; Jimenez, Geronimo; Libanio Morais Neto, Otaliba

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Macinko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and...

  2. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    OpenAIRE

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...

  3. Tribological behavior of micro/nano-patterned surfaces in contact with AFM colloidal probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Wang Xiu; Kong Wen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yi Gewen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Junhong, E-mail: jhjia@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-15

    In effort to investigate the influence of the micro/nano-patterning or surface texturing on the nanotribological properties of patterned surfaces, the patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars were fabricated by replica molding technique. The surface morphologies of patterned PDMS surfaces with varying pillar sizes and spacing between pillars were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AFM/FFM was used to acquire the friction force images of micro/nano-patterned surfaces using a colloidal probe. A difference in friction force produced a contrast on the friction force images when the colloidal probe slid over different regions of the patterned polymer surfaces. The average friction force of patterned surface was related to the spacing between the pillars and their size. It decreased with the decreasing of spacing between the pillars and the increasing of pillar size. A reduction in friction force was attributed to the reduced area of contact between patterned surface and colloidal probe. Additionally, the average friction force increased with increasing applied load and sliding velocity.

  4. Tribological behavior of micro/nano-patterned surfaces in contact with AFM colloidal probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Wang Xiu; Kong Wen; Yi Gewen; Jia Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In effort to investigate the influence of the micro/nano-patterning or surface texturing on the nanotribological properties of patterned surfaces, the patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars were fabricated by replica molding technique. The surface morphologies of patterned PDMS surfaces with varying pillar sizes and spacing between pillars were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AFM/FFM was used to acquire the friction force images of micro/nano-patterned surfaces using a colloidal probe. A difference in friction force produced a contrast on the friction force images when the colloidal probe slid over different regions of the patterned polymer surfaces. The average friction force of patterned surface was related to the spacing between the pillars and their size. It decreased with the decreasing of spacing between the pillars and the increasing of pillar size. A reduction in friction force was attributed to the reduced area of contact between patterned surface and colloidal probe. Additionally, the average friction force increased with increasing applied load and sliding velocity.

  5. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Wu, Si; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2017-09-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and custom bioinformatic analyses to compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that although the fungi produce a similar suite of extracellular enzymes, they exhibit striking differences in the regulation of these enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a and Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. This work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes and enhances our understanding of their role in C turnover in the environment.

  6. Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Throop, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis increases the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negatively affects women's reproductive health. To investigate host-vaginal microbiota interactions and the impact on immune barrier function, we colonized 3-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cells with 2 predominant species of vaginal microbiota (Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus crispatus) or 2 prevalent bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia). Colonization of 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates with vaginal microbiota was observed with direct attachment to host cell surface with no cytotoxicity. A. vaginae infection yielded increased expression membrane-associated mucins and evoked a robust proinflammatory, immune response in 3-D vaginal epithelial cells (ie, expression of CCL20, hBD-2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α) that can negatively affect barrier function. However, P. bivia and L. crispatus did not significantly upregulate pattern-recognition receptor-signaling, mucin expression, antimicrobial peptides/defensins, or proinflammatory cytokines in 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates. Notably, L. iners induced pattern-recognition receptor-signaling activity, but no change was observed in mucin expression or secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. We identified unique species-specific immune signatures from vaginal epithelial cells elicited by colonization with commensal and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. A. vaginae elicited a signature that is consistent with significant disruption of immune barrier properties, potentially resulting in enhanced susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections during bacterial vaginosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The relationship between a low grain intake dietary pattern and impulsive behaviors in middle-aged Japanese people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhito Toyomaki

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that dietary habits are associated with mental health. We are interested in identifying not a specific single nutrient/food group but the population preferring specific food combinations that can be related to mental health. Very few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and multifaceted mental states using cluster analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate population-level dietary patterns associated with mental state using cluster analysis. We focused on depressive state, sleep quality, subjective well-being, and impulsive behaviors using rating scales. Two hundred and seventy-nine Japanese middle-aged people participated in the present study. Dietary pattern was estimated using a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (the BDHQ. We conducted K-means cluster analysis using thirteen BDHQ food groups: milk, meat, fish, egg, pulses, potatoes, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, sweets, fruits, and grain. We identified three clusters characterized as "vegetable and fruit dominant," "grain dominant," and "low grain tendency" subgroups. The vegetable and fruit dominant group showed increases in several aspects of subjective well-being demonstrated by the SF-8. Differences in mean subject characteristics across clusters were tested using ANOVA. The low frequency intake of grain group showed higher impulsive behavior, demonstrated by BIS-11 deliberation and sum scores. The present study demonstrated that traditional Japanese dietary patterns, such as eating rice, can help with beneficial changes in mental health.

  8. Towards high-throughput phenotyping of complex patterned behaviors in rodents: focus on mouse self-grooming and its sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Roth, Andrew; Green, Jeremy; Pham, Mimi; Stewart, Adam; Liang, Yiqing; Kobla, Vikrant; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly recognized in biological psychiatry, rodent self-grooming is a complex patterned behavior with evolutionarily conserved cephalo-caudal progression. While grooming is traditionally assessed by the latency, frequency and duration, its sequencing represents another important domain sensitive to various experimental manipulations. Such behavioral complexity requires novel objective approaches to quantify rodent grooming, in addition to time-consuming and highly variable manual observation. The present study combined modern behavior-recognition video-tracking technologies (CleverSys, Inc.) with manual observation to characterize in-depth spontaneous (novelty-induced) and artificial (water-induced) self-grooming in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We specifically focused on individual episodes of grooming (paw licking, head washing, body/leg washing, and tail/genital grooming), their duration and transitions between episodes. Overall, the frequency, duration and transitions detected using the automated approach significantly correlated with manual observations (R=0.51-0.7, pgrooming, also indicating that behavior-recognition tools can be applied to characterize both the amount and sequential organization (patterning) of rodent grooming. Together with further refinement and methodological advancement, this approach will foster high-throughput neurophenotyping of grooming, with multiple applications in drug screening and testing of genetically modified animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  10. Effect of silver nanoparticles on Mediterranean sea urchin embryonal development is species specific and depends on moment of first exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burić, Petra; Jakšić, Željko; Štajner, Lara; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Jurašin, Darija; Cascio, Claudia; Calzolai, Luigi; Lyons, Daniel Mark

    2015-10-01

    With the ever growing use of nanoparticles in a broad range of industrial and consumer applications there is increasing likelihood that such nanoparticles will enter the aquatic environment and be transported through freshwater systems, eventually reaching estuarine or marine waters. Due to silver's known antimicrobial properties and widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP), their environmental fate and impact is therefore of particular concern. In this context we have investigated the species-specific effects of low concentrations of 60 nm AgNP on embryonal development in Mediterranean sea urchins Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of urchin embryos was tested by exposing embryos to nanoparticle concentrations in the 1-100 μg L(-1) range, with times of exposure varying from 30 min to 24 h (1 h-48 h for S. granularis) post-fertilisation which corresponded with fertilized egg, 4 cell, blastula and gastrula development phases. The most sensitive species to AgNP was A. lixula with significant modulation of embryonal development at the lowest AgNP concentrations of 1-10 μg L(-1) with high numbers of malformed embryos or arrested development. The greatest impact on development was noted for those embryos first exposed to nanoparticles at 6 and 24 h post fertilisation. For P. lividus, similar effects were noted at higher concentrations of 50 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1) for all times of first exposure. The S. granularis embryos indicated a moderate AgNP impact, and significant developmental abnormalities were recorded in the concentration range of 10-50 μg L(-1). As later post-fertilisation exposure times to AgNP caused greater developmental changes in spite of a shorter total exposure time led us to postulate on additional mechanisms of AgNP toxicity. The results herein indicate that toxic effects of AgNP are species-specific. The moment at which embryos first encounter AgNP is also shown to be

  11. Does education confer a culture of healthy behavior? Smoking and drinking patterns in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    and environmental sources of health-related behaviors. This study explored these influences. In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21,522 members of the Danish Twin Registry, born during 1931-1982, reported smoking and drinking habits. The authors used quantitative genetic models to examine how these behaviors' genetic......More education is associated with healthier smoking and drinking behaviors. Most analyses of effects of education focus on mean levels. Few studies have compared variance in health-related behaviors at different levels of education or analyzed how education impacts underlying genetic...... and environmental variances differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. As expected, more education was associated with less smoking, and average drinking levels were highest among the most educated. At 2 standard deviations above the mean educational level, variance in smoking and drinking...

  12. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Rodent Social Behavior: The Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jaewon

    2017-01-01

    Social behavior encompasses a number of distinctive and complex constructs that form the core elements of human imitative culture, mainly represented as either affiliative or antagonistic interactions with conspecifics. Traditionally considered in the realm of psychology, social behavior research has benefited from recent advancements in neuroscience that have accelerated identification of the neural systems, circuits, causative genes and molecular mechanisms that underlie distinct social cognitive traits. In this review article, I summarize recent findings regarding the neuroanatomical substrates of key social behaviors, focusing on results from experiments conducted in rodent models. In particular, I will review the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and downstream subcortical structures in controlling social behavior, and discuss pertinent future research perspectives. PMID:28659766

  13. Patterns of Sensitivity to Parenting and Peer Environments: Early Temperament and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-03-14

    Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Drinking Games: Simulating Alcoholic Behavior Patterns in the ”Pubcrawler” Video Game

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, J.; Tolentino, C.

    2017-01-01

    Pubcrawler is an interactive video game that presents con-cepts of alcoholic behavior within actionable gameplay. By implementing simulations of impairment in gameplay controls and player tasks based on denial, rationalization and concealments behaviors, this game is intended to use traditional gameplay elements to immerse the non-alcoholic user in the alcoholic’s experience and promote understanding and empathy, and also elicit reflection in the alcoholic user to aid therapy.

  15. Behavioral Pattern of Endemic Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis) within the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Wijerathne, Iresha; Wickramasinghe, Sriyani

    2018-01-01

    The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from 2013 to 2015. Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill (SLGh). The study recorded 35 behavioral events i...

  16. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...

  17. Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Slone, Daniel H.; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid

    2015-01-01

    Diving or respiratory behavior in aquatic mammals can be used as an indicator of physiological activity and consequently, to infer behavioral patterns. Five Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, were captured in Chetumal Bay and tagged with GPS tracking devices. The radios were equipped with a micropower saltwater sensor (SWS), which records the times when the tag assembly was submerged. The information was analyzed to establish individual fine-scale behaviors. For each fix, we established the following variables: distance (D), sampling interval (T), movement rate (D/T), number of dives (N), and total diving duration (TDD). We used logic criteria and simple scatterplots to distinguish between behavioral categories: ‘Travelling’ (D/T ≥ 3 km/h), ‘Surface’ (↓TDD, ↓N), ‘Bottom feeding’ (↑TDD, ↑N) and ‘Bottom resting’ (↑TDD, ↓N). Habitat categories were qualitatively assigned: Lagoon, Channels, Caye shore, City shore, Channel edge, and Open areas. The instrumented individuals displayed a daily rhythm of bottom activities, with surfacing activities more frequent during the night and early in the morning. More investigation into those cycles and other individual fine-scale behaviors related to their proximity to concentrations of human activity would be informative

  18. [Occurrence and behavioral patterns of the spotted coastal dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: delphinidae) in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Ramírez, Alvaro Morales

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins are characterized by a significant behavioral versatility, which allows them to respond to environmental seasonality. Seasonal variation in dolphin behavior in tropical waters is not well known. Stenella attenuata graffmani is a resident dolphin in the clearly defined seasonal Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, and we studied if dolphin group size, occurrence and behavioral patterns were associated with season and time of day in the gulf. Using strip transects we surveyed two locations for three consecutive years. School size ranged from 1 to 50 individuals, mean group size was 10.16 (SD = 9.61) individuals. Overall, foraging activities were the most frequent, followed by social interactions and travel. From 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM we mostly observed social interactions, followed by feeding-socializing (9:00 AM-12:00 PM) and feeding exclusively (12:00 PM-3:00 PM). Social activities intensified afterwards (3:00 PM-6:00 PM). Behavior and gulf seasonality were associated (chi2 = 90.52, gl = 6, psocializing was more frequent in the early rainy season (May-July). Larger groups (mean 12 dolphins) forage actively; smaller groups (mean 6 dolphins 6.51 +/- 5.12) foraged more passively. Seasonal variation in dolphin activities are likely to be associated with food availability, as observed in the high number of groups involved in foraging behaviors, and a high investment in foraging activities during the dry season.

  19. The development of patterns of stable, transient, and school-age onset aggressive behavior in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; Prior, M

    1995-03-01

    To examine the development of patterns of aggressive behavior in children from the age of 2 to 8 years. Children with early histories of aggressive behavior were selected from a community sample of 2,400 infants participating in a longitudinal study. The sample was divided into four groups: children with stable aggressive behavior, those with transient aggression, those with aggression only after age 5 years (late onset), and a comparison group of nonaggressive children. Children with stable aggressive behavior were characterized by a difficult temperament, hostile sibling interactions, maternal perception of the child as difficult, and harsher child-rearing practices. Children whose early aggression decreased over time and those who became aggressive only after entering school could not be reliably classified with the selected family variables. Teacher ratings of temperament factors of task orientation and reactivity and ability ratings correctly classified 74% of children whose aggression began at school-age. Children with persistent aggressive behavior differed from those who improved, predominantly in terms of symptom severity. Problems with aggression can be identified early in development, and a significant proportion of aggressive children are at risk for continuing social and scholastic difficulties. Knowledge of associated factors may play an important role in prevention.

  20. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over 32 test days. These animals were previously assessed in pairs (Emery et al., 2001), and were, therefore, familiar with each other at the beginning of this study. Across the two contexts, amygdala lesions produced a highly consistent pattern of social behavior. Operated animals engaged in more affiliative social interactions with control group partners than did control animals. In the course of their interactions, amygdala-lesioned animals also displayed an earlier decrease in nervous and fearful personality qualities than controls. The increased exploration and sexual behavior recorded for amygdala-lesioned animals in pairs was not found in the four-member groups. We conclude that the amygdala contributes to social inhibition and this function transcends various social contexts. PMID:18410164

  1. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarato, Anthony, E-mail: acammara@burnham.org [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Craig, Roger [Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Lehman, William [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are {approx}20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  2. The tree-species-specific effect of forest bathing on perceived anxiety alleviation of young-adults in urban forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Guan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest bathing, i.e. spending time in a forest to walk, view and breathe in a forest, can alleviate the mental depression of visitors, but the tree-species-specific effect of this function by the urban forest is unknown. In this study, sixty-nine university students (aged 19-22, male ratio: 38% were recruited as participants to visit urban forests dominated by birch (Betula platyphylla Suk., maple (Acer triflorum Komarov and oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb trees in a park at the center of Changchun City, Northeast China. In the maple forest only the anxiety from study interest was decreased, while the anxiety from employment pressure was alleviated to the most extent in the birch forest. Participants perceived more anxiety from lesson declined in the oak forest than in the birch forest. Body parameters of weight and age were correlated with the anti-anxiety scores. In the oak forest, female participants can perceive more anxiety alleviation than male participants. For university students, forest bathing in our study can promote their study interest. Forest bathing can be more effective to alleviate the anxiety of young adults with greater weight. The birch forest was recommended to be visited by students to alleviate the pressure of employment worry, and the oak forest was recommended to be visited by girls.

  3. New Method for Simultaneous Species-Specific Identification of Equine Strongyles (Nematoda, Strongylida) by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Iorio, Raffaella; Klei, Thomas R.; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A.; Gawor, Jakub; Otranto, Domenico; Sparagano, Olivier A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a reverse line blot (RLB) assay to identify 13 common species of equine small strongyles (cyathostomins) and to discriminate them from three Strongylus spp. (large strongyles) was demonstrated. The assay relied on the specific hybridization of PCR-amplified intergenic spacer DNA fragments of the nuclear ribosomal DNA to membrane-bound species-specific probes. All cyathostomins examined were unequivocally identified and simultaneously discriminated from each other and from three large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus vulgaris). This assay will enable the accurate and rapid identification of equine cyathostomins irrespective of their life cycle stage, opening important avenues for a better understanding of their biology and epidemiology and of the pathogenesis of cyathostomin-associated disease. In particular, this RLB method promises to be a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the roles of individual species in the pathogenesis of mixed infections and to elucidate some aspects of cyathostominosis. Also, it could represent a basic step toward the development of a rapid and simple molecular test for the early detection of drug-resistant genotypes of horse strongyle species. PMID:17626168

  4. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  5. Immunoreactivity between venoms and commercial antiserums in four Chinese snakes and venom identification by species-specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fang; Wang, Jin; Qu, Yan-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2013-01-31

    We studied the immunoreactivity between venoms and commercial antiserums in four Chinese venomous snakes, Bungarus multicinctus, Naja atra, Deinagkistrodon acutus and Gloydius brevicaudus. Venoms from the four snakes shared common antigenic components, and most venom components expressed antigenicity in the immunological reaction between venoms and antiserums. Antiserums cross-reacted with heterologous venoms. Homologous venom and antiserum expressed the highest reaction activity in all cross-reactions. Species-specific antibodies (SSAbs) were obtained from four antiserums by immunoaffinity chromatography: the whole antiserum against each species was gradually passed through a medium system coated with heterologous venoms, and the cross-reacting components in antiserum were immunoabsorbed by the common antigens in heterologous venoms; the unbound components (i.e., SSAbs) were collected, and passed through Hitrap G protein column and concentrated. The SSAbs were found to have high specificity by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A 6-well ELISA strip coated with SSAbs was used to assign a venom sample and blood and urine samples from the envenomed rats to a given snake species. Our detections could differentiate positive and negative samples, and identify venoms of a snake species in about 35 min. The ELISA strips developed in this study are clinically useful in rapid and reliable identification of venoms from the above four snake species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Diverse Sets of Conserved, Nonconserved, and Species-Specific miRNAs in Jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tariqul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating a broad range of biological processes, acting by cleaving mRNAs or by translational repression. A group of plant microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved; however, others are expressed in a species-specific manner. Jute is an agroeconomically important fibre crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available for microRNAs in jute to date. In this study, Illumina sequencing revealed a total of 227 known microRNAs and 17 potential novel microRNA candidates in jute, of which 164 belong to 23 conserved families and the remaining 63 belong to 58 nonconserved families. Among a total of 81 identified microRNA families, 116 potential target genes were predicted for 39 families and 11 targets were predicted for 4 among the 17 identified novel microRNAs. For understanding better the functions of microRNAs, target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology and their pathways illustrated by KEGG pathway analyses. The presence of microRNAs identified in jute was validated by stem-loop RT-PCR followed by end point PCR and qPCR for randomly selected 20 known and novel microRNAs. This study exhaustively identifies microRNAs and their target genes in jute which will ultimately pave the way for understanding their role in this crop and other crops.

  7. Structural and functional conservation of CLEC-2 with the species-specific regulation of transcript expression in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Ren, Shifang; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Dongmei; Hao, Yuqing; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Lee, Chiayu; Qiu, Lin; Yun, Xiaojing; Xie, Jianhui

    2012-08-01

    CLEC-2 was first identified by sequence similarity to C-type lectin-like molecules with immune functions and has been reported as a receptor for the platelet-aggregating snake venom toxin rhodocytin and the endogenous sialoglycoprotein podoplanin. Recent researches indicate that CLEC-2-deficient mice were lethal at the embryonic stage associated with disorganized and blood-filled lymphatic vessels and severe edema. In view of a necessary role of CLEC-2 in the individual development, it is of interest to investigate its phylogenetic homology and highly conserved functional regions. In this work, we reported that CLEC-2 from different species holds with an extraordinary conservation by sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis. The functional structures including N-linked oligosaccharide sites and ligand-binding domain implement a structural and functional conservation in a variety of species. The glycosylation sites (N120 and N134) are necessary for the surface expression CLEC-2. CLEC-2 from different species possesses the binding activity of mouse podoplanin. Nevertheless, the expression of CLEC-2 is regulated with a species-specific manner. The alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, a regulatory mechanism of gene expression, and the binding sites on promoter for several key transcription factors vary between different species. Therefore, CLEC-2 shares high sequence homology and functional identity. However the transcript expression might be tightly regulated by different mechanisms in evolution.

  8. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  9. Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Alexandra; Sting, Reinhard; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Tyczka, Judith; Sachse, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarato, Anthony; Craig, Roger; Lehman, William

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are ∼20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  12. IMPACT OF ALL-UNION AND SIBERIAN PRESS OF 1920S ON FORMATION OF SIBERIAN WOMEN'S NEW BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Владимировна Васеха

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with specialized women's media and their role in the formation of new behavioral patterns of peasant women in the first decade of the Soviet period. The author analyzes the main behavior models, life strategies proposed for the “new” “liberated” Soviet women in media. In addition to the well-known all-Union magazines “The Communist woman” and "The Peasant Woman" in this article there were used Siberian media - the magazines “The Red Siberian Woman” and “The Siberian village”. The regional press, not so official, adapted to local realities, gives the researcher valuable representation of the Soviet propaganda influence in Siberian backwoods. The press modeled more “effective” life scenarios; women were encouraged to take up activity-position to take unconventional solutions to change theirs “hard fate”, “women's destiny”. It is important to note that the proposed patterns of behavior are not very diverse campaigning rid of “oppressive fathers, brothers and husbands”. All the scenarios again boiled down to the idea of service, but this time to the public interest. Thus, the policy of "emancipation of women" for the most part was reduced to the integration of women in the public space, without trying to understand their true needs, to take into account their aspirations and, ultimately, to protect their best interests.

  13. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  14. Behavioral and neural concordance in parent-child dyadic sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-08-01

    Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents' sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents' sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents' sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent M age =42.8years; adolescent M age =14.9years; 14.3% father; 46.4% female adolescent) as they each underwent a resting-state scan. Using daily diaries, we also assessed dyadic concordance in sleep duration across two weeks. Our results show that greater daily concordance in sleep behavior is associated with greater neural concordance in default-mode network connectivity between parents and children. Moreover, greater neural and behavioral concordances in sleep is associated with more optimal sleep quality in adolescents. The current findings expand our understanding of dyadic concordance by providing a neurobiological mechanism by which parents and children share daily sleep behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristic regional cerebral blood flow patterns in anorexia nervosa patients with binge/purge behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruo, T; Nakabeppu, Y; Sagiyama, K; Munemoto, T; Homan, N; Deguchi, D; Nakajo, M; Nozoe, S

    2000-09-01

    The authors' goal was to investigate the effect of imagining food on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of anorexia nervosa patients with and without habitual binge/purge behavior. The subjects included seven female patients with purely restrictive anorexia, seven female patients with anorexia and habitual binge/purge behavior, and seven healthy women. Single photon emission computed tomography examination was performed before and after the subjects were asked to imagine food. Changes in rCBF count ratios (percent change) were then calculated and compared. The subjects were also asked to assess their degree of fear regarding their control of food intake. The anorexia nervosa patients with habitual binge/purge behavior had a significantly higher percent change in the inferior, superior, prefrontal, and parietal regions of the right brain than the patients with purely restrictive anorexia and the healthy volunteers. The patients with habitual binge/purge behavior also had the highest level of apprehension in regard to food intake. Specific activation in cortical regions suggests an association between habitual binge/purge behavior and the food recognition process linked to anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  16. Does education confer a culture of healthy behavior? Smoking and drinking patterns in Danish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, Erik L; Skytthe, Axel; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    More education is associated with healthier smoking and drinking behaviors. Most analyses of effects of education focus on mean levels. Few studies have compared variance in health-related behaviors at different levels of education or analyzed how education impacts underlying genetic and environmental sources of health-related behaviors. This study explored these influences. In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21,522 members of the Danish Twin Registry, born during 1931-1982, reported smoking and drinking habits. The authors used quantitative genetic models to examine how these behaviors' genetic and environmental variances differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. As expected, more education was associated with less smoking, and average drinking levels were highest among the most educated. At 2 standard deviations above the mean educational level, variance in smoking and drinking was about one-third that among those at 2 standard deviations below, because fewer highly educated people reported high levels of smoking or drinking. Because shared environmental variance was particularly restricted, one explanation is that education created a culture that discouraged smoking and heavy drinking. Correlations between shared environmental influences on education and the health behaviors were substantial among the well-educated for smoking in both sexes and drinking in males, reinforcing this notion.

  17. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  18. Embodied mind knowledge in leadership practice: creating space in patterned thoughts and behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssiens, Astra Elise Amaranta; van der Linden, Claartje; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede

    2013-01-01

    This article invites leaders and managers who are successful in their work, but feel unfulfilled and stressed, to create space in their fixed patterns of thinking and acting. Creating such space generates the possibility of experiencing meaningfulness and satisfaction at work and producing

  19. A Contextualized, Differential Sequence Mining Method to Derive Students' Learning Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnebrew, John S.; Loretz, Kirk M.; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based learning environments can produce a wealth of data on student learning interactions. This paper presents an exploratory data mining methodology for assessing and comparing students' learning behaviors from these interaction traces. The core algorithm employs a novel combination of sequence mining techniques to identify deferentially…

  20. A Behavioral Model of Conumption Patterns : The Effects of Cognitive Dissonance and Conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nir, A.

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive dissonance causes people to rationalize actions that differ from their own preferences.Conformity, on the other hand, causes people to change their behavior as a result of pressure from others.This paper investigates the consequences of preference dynamic that occur when individuals

  1. Alcohol Use, Eating Patterns, and Weight Behaviors in a University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…

  2. Patterns of client behavior with their most recent male escort: an application of latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Starks, Tyrel J; Wolff, Margaret; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-05-01

    Research examining interactions between male escorts and clients has relied heavily on data from escorts, men working on the street, and behavioral data aggregated over time. In the current study, 495 clients of male escorts answered questions about sexual behavior with their last hire. Latent class analysis identified four client sets based on these variables. The largest (n = 200, 40.4 %, labeled Typical Escort Encounter) included men endorsing behavior prior research found typical of paid encounters (e.g., oral sex and kissing). The second largest class (n = 157, 31.7 %, Typical Escort Encounter + Erotic Touching) included men reporting similar behaviors, but with greater variety along a spectrum of touching (e.g., mutual masturbation and body worship). Those classed BD/SM and Kink (n = 76, 15.4 %) reported activity along the kink spectrum (BD/SM and role play). Finally, men classed Erotic Massage Encounters (n = 58, 11.7 %) primarily engaged in erotic touch. Clients reporting condomless anal sex were in the minority (12.2 % overall). Escorts who engage in anal sex with clients might be appropriate to train in HIV prevention and other harm reduction practices-adopting the perspective of "sex workers as sex educators."

  3. Changing Patterns in Consumer Behavior Engendered by the Changing Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda G.

    A review of research suggests that female participation in the work force in the United States creates change in the socioeconomic status of women and thus in their consumer behavior. In 1950, 25 percent of married women were in the labor force; in 1975, 44 percent worked outside the home. The increasing number of married working women has led to…

  4. Patterns in response to chronic terrorism threats: A construct of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses among Israeli citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2017-10-01

    Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men). Qualitative analysis revealed three patterns of responses to ongoing terrorism: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Emotional responses include fear, worry, sense of empathy, and detachment. Cognitive responses include situational assessment and pursuit of solutions, the use of traumatic imagining, beliefs in fate and luck, and optimism. Behavioral responses include looking for information, alertness, and habituation. The findings also revealed another response, which combines cognitive and behavioral responses. Some of the responses are innovative and unique to the threat of terrorism. Mapping the responses revealed mental health risk factors, as well as protective factors that can help structure personal and national resilience. These findings have implications on the treatment and prevention of personal and social pathologies, and how to effectively cope with terrorism threats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of Captive Environment on Plasma Cortisol Level and Behavioral Pattern of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajjad, U. Farooq1*, M. Anwar, A. Khurshid2 and S.A. Bukhari1

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive environment in zoological parks often do not provide optimum conditions for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. These factors elicit stereotypic behavior in tigers such as pacing, head bobbing and aimless repetition of some movements, and are considered to be an indication of stress. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of captivity on the plasma cortisol level and behavioral pattern in Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris. Tigers kept in captivity at the Lahore zoo (n=4 and in semi natural environment at the Lahore Wildlife Park (n=6 were used for this study, and standard protocols of housing and sampling were observed. The mean plasma cortisol values for the captive animals and those kept in a semi natural environment were 34.48±1.33 and 39.22±3.16µg/dl, respectively; and were statistically non significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the plasma cortisol levels was observed among the individuals within each form of captivity. From the behavioral survey it was observed that the time spent in pacing and resting was much longer for captive animals than animals confined to the semi natural environment. Thus, Technically monitored “Environmental Enrichment’ plans need to be devised which are as close as possible to the natural environment of the captive animals in order to achieve their utmost performance.

  6. Household factors, family behavior patterns, and adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines among children at risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Crain, A Lauren; Jaka, Meghan M; Langer, Shelby L; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the proportion of children adhering to recommended physical activity and dietary guidelines, and examine demographic and household correlates of guideline adherence. Cross-sectional (pre-randomization) data from a behavioral intervention trial designed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children. A total of 421 children (aged 5-10 years) at risk for obesity (body mass index percentile, 70-95). Physical activity (accelerometry), screen time (parent survey), and fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (24-hour dietary recall). Proportions meeting guidelines were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between demographic and household factors and whether children met recommended guidelines for (1) physical activity (≥ 60 min/d), (2) screen time (≤ 2 h/d), (3) fruit and vegetable intake (≥ 5 servings/d), and (4) sugar-sweetened beverage avoidance. Few children met more than 1 guideline. Only 2% met all 4 recommended guidelines and 19% met none. Each guideline had unique sociodemographic and domain-specific household predictors (ie, availability of certain foods and beverages, media, and active play and exercise equipment). Families equipped to promote healthy child behavior patterns in 1 activity or dietary domain may not be in others. Results have implications for the development of interventions to affect children's weight-related behaviors and growth trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifestyle behavior pattern is associated with different levels of risk for incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the Cache County study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Maria C; Dew, Jeffrey; Smith, Heeyoung; Fauth, Elizabeth; Piercy, Kathleen W; Breitner, John C S; Tschanz, JoAnn; Wengreen, Heidi; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    To identify distinct behavioral patterns of diet, exercise, social interaction, church attendance, alcohol consumption, and smoking and to examine their association with subsequent dementia risk. Longitudinal, population-based dementia study. Rural county in northern Utah, at-home evaluations. Two thousand four hundred ninety-one participants without dementia (51% male, average age 73.0 ± 5,7; average education 13.7 ± 4.1 years) initially reported no problems in activities of daily living and no stroke or head injury within the past 5 years. Six dichotomized lifestyle behaviors were examined (diet: high ≥ median on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scale; exercise: ≥5 h/wk of light activity and at least occasional moderate to vigorous activity; church attendance: attending church services at least weekly; social Interaction: spending time with family and friends at least twice weekly; alcohol: currently drinking alcoholic beverages ≥ 2 times/wk; nonsmoker: no current use or fewer than 100 cigarettes ever). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns among these behaviors. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to dementia onset as a function of behavioral class, age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E status. Follow-up averaged 6.3 ± 5.3 years, during which 278 cases of incident dementia (200 Alzheimer's disease (AD)) were diagnosed. LCA identified four distinct lifestyle classes. Unhealthy-religious (UH-R; 11.5%), unhealthy-nonreligious (UH-NR; 10.5%), healthy-moderately religious (H-MR; 38.5%), and healthy-very religious (H-VR; 39.5%). UH-NR (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54, P = .028), H-MR (HR = 0.56, P = .003), and H-VR (HR = 0.58, P = .005) had significantly lower dementia risk than UH-R. Results were comparable for AD, except that UH-NR was less definitive. Functionally independent older adults appear to cluster into subpopulations with distinct patterns of lifestyle behaviors with different levels of risk for subsequent

  8. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  9. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: Lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubbels Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA and sedentary screen-based behavior in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight development up to age 8. Methods Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Results Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a ‘Television–Snacking’ pattern, a ‘Sports–Computer’ pattern, a ‘Traditional Family’ pattern, and a “Fast’ Food’ pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television–Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p p = 0.06. In addition, the Sports–Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p  Conclusions The current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking.

  10. Intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci at parturition: Species-specific prevalence, risk factors, and effect on udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2016-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in many countries. Despite a high prevalence of CNS IMI at parturition, species-specific risk factor studies, relying on accurate identification methods, are lacking. Therefore, this observational study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of different CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in Flemish dairy herds and identifying associated species- and subgroup-specific risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. The effect on udder health was investigated as well. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. sciuri, and S. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species. The only CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes, whereas large between-herd differences in distribution were observed for the other species. Quarters from heifers and quarters with an inverted teat end had higher odds of being infected with S. chromogenes, S. simulans, or S. xylosus as well as with S. chromogenes solely. Prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes increased the likelihood of S. chromogenes IMI in the corresponding quarters at parturition. Quarters with dirty teat apices before calving were more likely to be infected with S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, or S. sciuri, supporting the environmental nature of these CNS species. Three species (S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus) were associated with a higher quarter somatic cell count at parturition as compared with uninfected quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Certification of methylmercury in cod fish tissue certified reference material by species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Yarita, Takashi; Takatsu, Akiko; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Environmental Standard Section, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    A new cod fish tissue certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7402-a, for methylmercury analysis was certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Cod fish was collected from the sea close to Japan. The cod muscle was powdered by freeze-pulverization and was placed into 600 glass bottles (10 g each), which were sterilized with {gamma}-ray irradiation. The certification was carried out using species-specific isotope dilution gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SSID-GC-ICPMS), where {sup 202}Hg-enriched methylmercury (MeHg) was used as the spike compound. In order to avoid any possible analytical biases caused by nonquantitative extraction, degradation and/or formation of MeHg in sample preparations, two different extraction methods (KOH/methanol and HCl/methanol extractions) were performed, and one of these extraction methods utilized two different derivatization methods (ethylation and phenylation). A double ID method was adopted to minimize the uncertainty arising from the analyses. In order to ensure not only the reliability of the analytical results but also traceability to SI units, the standard solution of MeHg used for the reverse-ID was prepared from high-purity MeHg chloride and was carefully assayed as follows: the total mercury was determined by ID-ICPMS following aqua regia digestion, and the ratio of Hg as MeHg to the total Hg content was estimated by GC-ICPMS. The certified value given for MeHg is 0.58 {+-} 0.02 mg kg{sup -1} as Hg. (orig.)

  12. 2013 Early Career Achievement Award--Proteomics of muscle- and species-specificity in meat color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, S P; Rentfrow, G; Nair, M N; Joseph, P

    2014-03-01

    Meat color is the most important quality trait influencing consumer purchase decisions. The interinfluential interactions between myoglobin and biomolecules govern color stability in meat. The advances in proteomics, such as high throughput analytical tools in mass spectrometry, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and bioinformatics, offer themselves as robust techniques to characterize the proteome basis of muscle- and species-specific meat color phenomena. Differential abundance of chaperones and antioxidant proteins contributes to muscle-specific color stability in beef; the greater abundance of chaperones and antioxidant proteins in color-stable Longissimus lumborum than in color-labile Psoas major protects myoglobin and contributes to superior color stability of beef Longissimus steaks. Lipid oxidation-induced myoglobin oxidation is more critical to beef color than pork color due to the inherent differences in myoglobin chemistry; the number of nucleophilic histidine residues adducted by reactive aldehydes is greater in beef myoglobin than in pork myoglobin. Preferential adduction of secondary products of lipid oxidation to beef myoglobin accelerates metmyoglobin formation at a greater degree than in its pork counterpart. Mass spectrometric investigations revealed that although cherry-red carboxymyoglobin is more stable than oxymyoglobin, both redox forms undergo lipid oxidation-induced oxidation in model systems. The accuracy of mass spectrometry to detect the molecular mass of proteins has been applied to differentiate myoglobins from closely related meat animals, such as goats and sheep or emu and ostrich. In addition, this approach indicated that turkey myoglobin is 350 Da greater in molecular mass than beef myoglobin, and the unique biochemistry of turkey myoglobin could be responsible for its greater thermostability in model systems as well as the pink color defect observed in fully cooked uncured turkey products.

  13. Organotin persistence in contaminated marine sediments and porewaters: In situ degradation study using species-specific stable isotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furdek, Martina; Mikac, Nevenka [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Bueno, Maite; Tessier, Emmanuel; Cavalheiro, Joana [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2, Av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Monperrus, Mathilde, E-mail: mathilde.monperrus@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2, Av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Limiting step in OTC degradation in sediments is their desorption into porewater. • TBT persistence in contaminated sediments increases in sediments rich in organic matter. • DBT does not accumulate in sediments as degradation product of TBT. • TBT and DBT degradation in porewaters occurs with half-lives from 2.9 to 9.2 days. • PhTs degradation is slower than BuTs degradation in oxic porewaters. - Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive study of the persistence of butyltins and phenyltins in contaminated marine sediments and presents the first data on their degradation potentials in porewaters. The study’s aim was to explain the different degradation efficiencies of organotin compounds (OTC) in contaminated sediments. The transformation processes of OTC in sediments and porewaters were investigated in a field experiment using species-specific, isotopically enriched organotin tracers. Sediment characteristics (organic carbon content and grain size) were determined to elucidate their influence on the degradation processes. The results of this study strongly suggest that a limiting step in OTC degradation in marine sediments is their desorption into porewaters because their degradation in porewaters occurs notably fast with half-lives of 9.2 days for tributyltin (TBT) in oxic porewaters and 2.9 ± 0.1 and 9.1 ± 0.9 days for dibutyltin (DBT) in oxic and anoxic porewaters, respectively. By controlling the desorption process, organic matter influences the TBT degradation efficiency and consequently defines its persistence in contaminated sediments, which thus increases in sediments rich in organic matter.

  14. Organotin persistence in contaminated marine sediments and porewaters: In situ degradation study using species-specific stable isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furdek, Martina; Mikac, Nevenka; Bueno, Maite; Tessier, Emmanuel; Cavalheiro, Joana; Monperrus, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Limiting step in OTC degradation in sediments is their desorption into porewater. • TBT persistence in contaminated sediments increases in sediments rich in organic matter. • DBT does not accumulate in sediments as degradation product of TBT. • TBT and DBT degradation in porewaters occurs with half-lives from 2.9 to 9.2 days. • PhTs degradation is slower than BuTs degradation in oxic porewaters. - Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive study of the persistence of butyltins and phenyltins in contaminated marine sediments and presents the first data on their degradation potentials in porewaters. The study’s aim was to explain the different degradation efficiencies of organotin compounds (OTC) in contaminated sediments. The transformation processes of OTC in sediments and porewaters were investigated in a field experiment using species-specific, isotopically enriched organotin tracers. Sediment characteristics (organic carbon content and grain size) were determined to elucidate their influence on the degradation processes. The results of this study strongly suggest that a limiting step in OTC degradation in marine sediments is their desorption into porewaters because their degradation in porewaters occurs notably fast with half-lives of 9.2 days for tributyltin (TBT) in oxic porewaters and 2.9 ± 0.1 and 9.1 ± 0.9 days for dibutyltin (DBT) in oxic and anoxic porewaters, respectively. By controlling the desorption process, organic matter influences the TBT degradation efficiency and consequently defines its persistence in contaminated sediments, which thus increases in sediments rich in organic matter.

  15. Seedling transplants reveal species-specific responses of high-elevation tropical treeline trees to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2016-08-01

    The elevations at which tropical treelines occur are believed to represent the point where low mean temperatures limit the growth of upright woody trees. Consequently, tropical treelines are predicted to shift to higher elevations with global warming. However, treelines throughout the tropics have remained stationary despite increasing global mean temperatures. The goal of the study reported here was to build a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of mean temperature, low-temperature extremes, shading, and their interactions on seedling survival at tropical treelines. We conducted a seedling transplant study using three dominant canopy-forming treeline species in the southern tropical Andes. We found species-specific differences and contrasting responses in seedling survival to changes in mean temperature. The most abundant naturally occurring species at the seedling stage outside the treeline, Weinmannia fagaroides, showed a negative relationship between the survival of transplanted seedlings and mean temperature, the opposite of a priori expectations. Conversely, Clethra cuneata showed increased survival at higher mean temperatures, but survival also increased with higher absolute low temperatures and the presence of shade. Finally, the survival of Gynoxys nitida seedlings was insensitive to temperature but increased under shade. These findings show that multiple factors can determine the upper distributional limit of species forming the current tropical treeline. As such, predictions of future local and regional tropical treeline shifts may need to consider several factors beyond changes in mean temperature. If the treeline remains stationary and cloud forests are unable to expand into higher elevations, there may be severe species loss in this biodiversity hotspot.

  16. Species-specific activation of Cu/Zn SOD by its CCS copper chaperone in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Julie E; Li, Cissy X; Odeh, Hana M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2014-06-01

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast of important public health relevance. Virulence of C. albicans requires a copper and zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the biology of C. albicans SOD1 is poorly understood. To this end, C. albicans SOD1 activation was examined in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a eukaryotic expression system that has proven fruitful for the study of SOD1 enzymes from invertebrates, plants, and mammals. In spite of the 80% similarity between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans SOD1 molecules, C. albicans SOD1 is not active in S. cerevisiae. The SOD1 appears incapable of productive interactions with the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS1) of S. cerevisiae. C. albicans SOD1 contains a proline at position 144 predicted to dictate dependence on CCS1. By mutation of this proline, C. albicans SOD1 gained activity in S. cerevisiae, and this activity was independent of CCS1. We identified a putative CCS1 gene in C. albicans and created heterozygous and homozygous gene deletions at this locus. Loss of CCS1 resulted in loss of SOD1 activity, consistent with its role as a copper chaperone. C. albicans CCS1 also restored activity to C. albicans SOD1 expressed in S. cerevisiae. C. albicans CCS1 is well adapted for activating its partner SOD1 from C. albicans, but not SOD1 from S. cerevisiae. In spite of the high degree of homology between the SOD1 and CCS1 molecules in these two fungal species, there exists a species-specific barrier in CCS-SOD interactions which may reflect the vastly different lifestyles of the pathogenic versus the noninfectious yeast.

  17. Projections of climate-driven changes in tuna vertical habitat based on species-specific differences in blood oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislan, K A S; Deutsch, Curtis A; Brill, Richard W; Dunne, John P; Sarmiento, Jorge L

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen concentrations are hypothesized to decrease in many areas of the ocean as a result of anthropogenically driven climate change, resulting in habitat compression for pelagic animals. The oxygen partial pressure, pO 2 , at which blood is 50% saturated (P 50 ) is a measure of blood oxygen affinity and a gauge of the tolerance of animals for low ambient oxygen. Tuna species display a wide range of blood oxygen affinities (i.e., P 50 values) and therefore may be differentially impacted by habitat compression as they make extensive vertical movements to forage on subdaily time scales. To project the effects of end-of-the-century climate change on tuna habitat, we calculate tuna P 50 depths (i.e., the vertical position in the water column at which ambient pO 2 is equal to species-specific blood P 50 values) from 21st century Earth System Model (ESM) projections included in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Overall, we project P 50 depths to shoal, indicating likely habitat compression for tuna species due to climate change. Tunas that will be most impacted by shoaling are Pacific and southern bluefin tunas-habitat compression is projected for the entire geographic range of Pacific bluefin tuna and for the spawning region of southern bluefin tuna. Vertical shifts in P 50 depths will potentially influence resource partitioning among Pacific bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin, and skipjack tunas in the northern subtropical and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal. By establishing linkages between tuna physiology and environmental conditions, we provide a mechanistic basis to project the effects of anthropogenic climate change on tuna habitats. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. SPECIES-SPECIFIC FOREST VARIABLE ESTIMATION USING NON-PARAMETRIC MODELING OF MULTI-SPECTRAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohlin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent development in software for automatic photogrammetric processing of multispectral aerial imagery, and the growing nation-wide availability of Digital Elevation Model (DEM data, are about to revolutionize data capture for forest management planning in Scandinavia. Using only already available aerial imagery and ALS-assessed DEM data, raster estimates of the forest variables mean tree height, basal area, total stem volume, and species-specific stem volumes were produced and evaluated. The study was conducted at a coniferous hemi-boreal test site in southern Sweden (lat. 58° N, long. 13° E. Digital aerial images from the Zeiss/Intergraph Digital Mapping Camera system were used to produce 3D point-cloud data with spectral information. Metrics were calculated for 696 field plots (10 m radius from point-cloud data and used in k-MSN to estimate forest variables. For these stands, the tree height ranged from 1.4 to 33.0 m (18.1 m mean, stem volume from 0 to 829 m3 ha-1 (249 m3 ha-1 mean and basal area from 0 to 62.2 m2 ha-1 (26.1 m2 ha-1 mean, with mean stand size of 2.8 ha. Estimates made using digital aerial images corresponding to the standard acquisition of the Swedish National Land Survey (Lantmäteriet showed RMSEs (in percent of the surveyed stand mean of 7.5% for tree height, 11.4% for basal area, 13.2% for total stem volume, 90.6% for pine stem volume, 26.4 for spruce stem volume, and 72.6% for deciduous stem volume. The results imply that photogrammetric matching of digital aerial images has significant potential for operational use in forestry.

  19. Potential effects of sea-level rise on plant productivity: Species-specific responses in northeast Pacific tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Thorne, Karen M.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Dugger, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal wetland plants are adapted to varying degrees of inundation. However, functional relationships between inundation and productivity are poorly characterized for most species. Determining species-specific tolerances to inundation is necessary to evaluate sea-level rise (SLR) effects on future marsh plant community composition, quantify organic matter inputs to marsh accretion, and inform predictive modeling of tidal wetland persistence. In 2 macrotidal estuaries in the northeast Pacific we grew 5 common species in experimental mesocosms across a gradient of tidal elevations to assess effects on growth. We also tested whether species abundance distributions along elevation gradients in adjacent marshes matched productivity profiles in the mesocosms. We found parabolic relationships between inundation and total plant biomass and shoot counts in Spartina foliosa and Bolboschoenus maritimus in California, USA, and in Carex lyngbyei in Oregon, USA, with maximum total plant biomass occurring at 38, 28, and 15% time submerged, respectively. However, biomass of Salicornia pacifica and Juncus balticus declined monotonically with increasing inundation. Inundation effects on the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass varied inconsistently among species. In comparisons of field distributions with mesocosm results, B. maritimus, C. lyngbyei and J. balticus were abundant in marshes at or above elevations corresponding with their maximum productivity; however, S. foliosa and S. pacifica were frequently abundant at lower elevations corresponding with sub-optimal productivity. Our findings show species-level differences in how marsh plant growth may respond to future SLR and highlight the sensitivity of high marsh species such as S. pacifica and J. balticus to increases in flooding.

  20. The menstrual cycle and sexual behavior: relationship to eating, exercise, sleep, and health patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan G; Morrison, Lynn A; Calibuso, Marites J; Christiansen, Tess M

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of eating, exercise, sleep, and health were investigated across 180 menstrual cycles of 89 women who engaged in sex with a male (n = 45; cycles = 85), a female (n = 21; cycles = 37), or abstained from sex (n = 33; cycles = 58) from January 2005 to December 2007 (10 contributed to 2 groups). Cycles were divided into 5 phases based on their luteinizing hormone surges. Daily questionnaires and saliva for IgA and cortisol analyses were obtained. Women indicated that they ate more (p Sexually active women had lower cortisol and IgA levels than abstinent women (p = .02). Our study discovered, and confirmed, systematic differences in eating, sleeping, and health patterns across women's menstrual cycles.

  1. Behavioral and brain pattern differences between acting and observing in an auditory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventouras Errikos M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that errors seem to influence the patterns of brain activity. Additionally current notions support the idea that similar brain mechanisms are activated during acting and observing. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of brain activity of actors and observers elicited upon receiving feedback information of the actor's response. Methods The task used in the present research was an auditory identification task that included both acting and observing settings, ensuring concurrent ERP measurements of both participants. The performance of the participants was investigated in conditions of varying complexity. ERP data were analyzed with regards to the conditions of acting and observing in conjunction to correct and erroneous responses. Results The obtained results showed that the complexity induced by cue dissimilarity between trials was a demodulating factor leading to poorer performance. The electrophysiological results suggest that feedback information results in different intensities of the ERP patterns of observers and actors depending on whether the actor had made an error or not. The LORETA source localization method yielded significantly larger electrical activity in the supplementary motor area (Brodmann area 6, the posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 31/23 and the parietal lobe (Precuneus/Brodmann area 7/5. Conclusion These findings suggest that feedback information has a different effect on the intensities of the ERP patterns of actors and observers depending on whether the actor committed an error. Certain neural systems, including medial frontal area, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus may mediate these modulating effects. Further research is needed to elucidate in more detail the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological substrates of these systems.

  2. Pore shape of honeycomb-patterned films: modulation and interfacial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ling-Shu; Ke, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2012-01-12

    The control of the pore size of honeycomb-patterned films has been more or less involved in most work on the topic of breath figures. Modulation of the pore shape was largely ignored, although it is important to applications in replica molding, filtration, particle assembly, and cell culture. This article reports a tunable pore shape for patterned films prepared from commercially available polystyrene (PS). We investigated the effects of solvents including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform (CF) and hydrophilic additives including poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Water droplets on/in the polymer solutions were observed and analyzed for simulating the formation and stabilization of breath figures. Interfacial tensions of the studied systems were measured and considered as a main factor to modulate the pore shape. Results indicate that the pores gradually change from near-spherical to ellipsoidal with the increase of additive content when using CF as the solvent; however, only ellipsoidal pores are formed from the THF solution. It is demonstrated that the aggregation of the additives at the water/polymer solution interface is more efficient in the THF solution than that in the CF solution. This aggregation decreases the interfacial tension, stabilizes the condensed water droplets, and shapes the pores of the films. The results may facilitate our understanding of the dynamic breath figure process and provide a new pathway to prepare patterned films with different pore structures.

  3. Smoking behavior of Mexicans: patterns by birth-cohort, gender, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Lillard, Dean R; Balmori de la Miyar, Josè R

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about historical smoking patterns in Mexico. Policy makers must rely on imprecise predictions of human or fiscal burdens from smoking-related diseases. In this paper we document intergenerational patterns of smoking, project them for future cohorts, and discuss those patterns in the context of Mexico's impressive economic growth. We use retrospectively collected information to generate life-course smoking prevalence rates of five birth-cohorts, by gender and education. With dynamic panel data methods, we regress smoking rates on indicators of economic development. Smoking is most prevalent among men and the highly educated. Smoking rates peaked in the 1980s and have since decreased, slowly on average, and fastest among the highly educated. Development significantly contributed to this decline; a 1 % increase in development is associated with an average decline in smoking prevalence of 0.02 and 0.07 percentage points for women and men, respectively. Mexico's development may have triggered forces that decrease smoking, such as the spread of health information. Although smoking rates are falling, projections suggest that they will be persistently high for several future generations.

  4. Simultaneous discrimination of species and strains in Lactobacillus rhamnosus using species-specific PCR combined with multiplex mini-sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina; Chu, Wen-Shen

    2015-12-01

    This study described the use of species-specific PCR in combination with SNaPshot mini-sequencing to achieve species identification and strain differentiation in Lactobacillus rhamnosus. To develop species-specific PCR and strain subtyping primers, the dnaJ gene was used as a target, and its corresponding sequences were analyzed both in Lb. rhamnosus and in a subset of its phylogenetically closest species. The results indicated that the species-specific primer pair was indeed specific for Lb. rhamnosus, and the mini-sequencing assay was able to unambiguously distinguish Lb. rhamnosus strains into different haplotypes. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a rapid, accurate and cost-effective assay for inter- and intraspecies discrimination of Lb. rhamnosus, which can be applied to achieve efficient quality control of probiotic products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

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    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  6. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  7. Analyzing the Social Knowledge Construction Behavioral Patterns of an Online Synchronous Collaborative Discussion Instructional Activity Using an Instant Messaging Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Online discussions have been widely utilized as an educational activity, and much research has been conducted on the process and behaviors involved in asynchronous discussions. However, research on behavioral patterns in learners' synchronous discussions, including the process of social knowledge construction and project coordination is limited.…

  8. Using the eServices platform for detecting behavior patterns deviation in the elderly assisted living: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Isabel; Lopes, David; Reis, Michael; Silva, Fernando; Laza, Rosalía; Pereira, António

    2015-01-01

    World's aging population is rising and the elderly are increasingly isolated socially and geographically. As a consequence, in many situations, they need assistance that is not granted in time. In this paper, we present a solution that follows the CRISP-DM methodology to detect the elderly's behavior pattern deviations that may indicate possible risk situations. To obtain these patterns, many variables are aggregated to ensure the alert system reliability and minimize eventual false positive alert situations. These variables comprehend information provided by body area network (BAN), by environment sensors, and also by the elderly's interaction in a service provider platform, called eServices--Elderly Support Service Platform. eServices is a scalable platform aggregating a service ecosystem developed specially for elderly people. This pattern recognition will further activate the adequate response. With the system evolution, it will learn to predict potential danger situations for a specified user, acting preventively and ensuring the elderly's safety and well-being. As the eServices platform is still in development, synthetic data, based on real data sample and empiric knowledge, is being used to populate the initial dataset. The presented work is a proof of concept of knowledge extraction using the eServices platform information. Regardless of not using real data, this work proves to be an asset, achieving a good performance in preventing alert situations.

  9. Using the eServices Platform for Detecting Behavior Patterns Deviation in the Elderly Assisted Living: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s aging population is rising and the elderly are increasingly isolated socially and geographically. As a consequence, in many situations, they need assistance that is not granted in time. In this paper, we present a solution that follows the CRISP-DM methodology to detect the elderly’s behavior pattern deviations that may indicate possible risk situations. To obtain these patterns, many variables are aggregated to ensure the alert system reliability and minimize eventual false positive alert situations. These variables comprehend information provided by body area network (BAN, by environment sensors, and also by the elderly’s interaction in a service provider platform, called eServices—Elderly Support Service Platform. eServices is a scalable platform aggregating a service ecosystem developed specially for elderly people. This pattern recognition will further activate the adequate response. With the system evolution, it will learn to predict potential danger situations for a specified user, acting preventively and ensuring the elderly’s safety and well-being. As the eServices platform is still in development, synthetic data, based on real data sample and empiric knowledge, is being used to populate the initial dataset. The presented work is a proof of concept of knowledge extraction using the eServices platform information. Regardless of not using real data, this work proves to be an asset, achieving a good performance in preventing alert situations.

  10. Discharge characteristics and hydrodynamics behaviors of atmospheric plasma jets produced in various gas flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric nonequilibrium plasma jets have been widely employed in biomedical applications. For biomedical applications, it is an important issue to understand the complicated mechanism of interaction of the plasma jet with liquid. In this study, we present analysis of the discharge characteristics of a plasma jet impinging onto the liquid surface under various gas flow patterns such as laminar and turbulence flows. For this purpose, we analyzed gas flow patters by using a Schlieren gas-flow imaging system in detail The plasma jet impinging into the liquid surface expands along the liquid surface. The diameter of the expanded plasma increases with gas flow rate, which is well explained by an increase in the diameter of the laminar gas-flow channel. When the gas flow rate is further increased, the gas flow mode transits from laminar to turbulence in the gas flow channel, which leads to the shortening of the plasm-jet length. Our experiment demonstrated that the gas flow patterns strongly affect the discharge characteristics in the plasma-jet system. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  11. Association of Socio-demographic Characteristics with Pattern of Health Seeking Behavior among Hepatitis C Patients in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirani, S.; Ali, T.S.; Allana, S.; Ismail, F.W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To identify association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of health seeking behavior among hepatitis C patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A descriptive, cross-sectional study done at Aga Khan University Hospital and the Civil Hospital Karachi between March and May 2013. Patients and Methods: Hepatitis C patients who were coming for treatment at the above 2 sites underwent a filling of questionnaire by the researcher. The questionnaire collected basic demographic information and their health seeking behavior i.e. visit to traditional healer or spiritual healer or medical doctor. Sample size of 250 patients was calculated. Analysis was done by using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test. p-value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 250 hepatitis patients were interviewed. The study showed that patient's occupation and educational level had significant association with their first visit either to a spiritual healer or traditional healer. More educated group consulted the medical doctor while those with none or low education initially went to see spiritual healers (p < 0.008) and second visit was made to traditional healers (p < 0.002). Patients with larger number of children went less often to visit a medical doctor on their second visit (p = 0.007), and family members belonging to the medical field were more likely to make their first visit to doctors (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Socio-demographic characteristics greatly influence the pattern of health seeking behavior among hepatitis C patients. (author)

  12. Nutritional Behaviors Pattern of High School Girls in North of Tehran

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    Shahnam Arshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Healthy eating in adolescent girls has a crucial role in normal growth and reducing the incidence of chronic disease related to nutrition in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine high school girl's eating behaviors in north of Tehran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 722 female students who were selected randomly from public high schools in four districts of Tehran participated. Demographic variables and nutritional status were evaluated using systematic interviews with them by health professionals. Anthropometric parameters were also assessed.Results: Most girls (42.4% had a normal BMI. The mean (SD of daily consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products were 2 (1.1, 1.8 (1, 1.9 (1.07 servings, respectively. The mean (SD of weekly intake of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and beans were 3.08 (2, 3.15 (2.9, 0.95 (0.9, 2.6 (2.9 and 2.2 (1.2 times, respectively. The mean (SD frequency of eating breakfast was 4.9 (2.6 times per week. 16.9% of girls never consumed fast foods. Girls who do not consume salty snacks and fast foods per week, had significantly normal BMI (p<0.05. Low-fat milk consumption, daily consumption breakfast and non consumption of fruits were significantly associated with social status (p<0.05. Do not eating breakfast had significant association with BMI (p<0.05.Conclusion: The consumption of major food groups in this study was lower than the recommended amounts. Further research is needed to determine enabling and reinforcing factors to healthy eating behaviors. Also, improvement attitudes and empowerment of adolescent girls to adopt healthy eating behaviors can be effective

  13. Aberration of mitosis by hexavalent chromium in some Fabaceae members is mediated by species-specific microtubule disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Michalopoulou, Vasiliki A; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S

    2015-05-01

    Because the detrimental effects of chromium (Cr) to higher plants have been poorly investigated, the present study was undertaken to verify the toxic attributes of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to plant mitotic microtubules (MTs), to determine any differential disruption of MTs during mitosis of taxonomically related species and to clarify the relationship between the visualized chromosomal aberrations and the Cr(VI)-induced MT disturbance. For this purpose, 5-day-old uniform seedlings of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis and Vigna angularis, all belonging to the Fabaceae family, were exposed to 250 μM Cr(VI) supplied as potassium dichromate (K₂Cr₂O₇) for 24, 72 and 120 h and others in distilled water serving as controls. Root tip samples were processed for tubulin immunolabelling (for MT visualization) and DNA fluorescent staining (for chromosomal visualization). Microscopic preparations of cell squashes were then examined and photographed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cr(VI) halted seedling growth turning roots brown and necrotic. Severe chromosomal abnormalities and differential disturbance of the corresponding MT arrays were found in all mitotic phases. In particular, in V. faba MTs were primarily depolymerized and replaced by atypical tubulin conformations, whereas in P. sativum, V. sinensis and V. angularis they became bundled in a time-dependent manner. In P. sativum, the effects were milder compared to those of the other species, but in all cases MT disturbance adversely affected the proper aggregation of chromosomes on the metaphase plate, their segregation at anaphase and organization of the new nuclei at telophase. Cr(VI) is very toxic to seedling growth. The particular effect depends on the exact stage the cell is found at the time of Cr(VI) entrance and is species-specific. Mitotic MT arrays are differentially deranged by Cr(VI) in the different species examined, even if they are taxonomically related, while their

  14. Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, R; Dadhwal, V; Tejaswi, S; Datta, K; Paul, A; Haricharan, R N; Banerjee, U; Kochupillai, N P

    2000-09-01

    Non- C. albicans Candida species are increasingly being recognized as the cause of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. These species are often less susceptible to antifungal agents. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk for vulvo-vaginal candidasis. We assessed the species-specific prevalence rate and risk of candidiasis in patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy controls. Genital tract examination, direct microscopy and fungal cultures of discharge collected by high vaginal swab were undertaken among 78 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (mean (+/-sd) age 32+/-12 years and body mass index (BMI) 22.3+/-5.5kg/m(2)) and 88 age- and BMI-matched healthy females. Glycaemic control in the diabetic cohort was assessed by measuring total glycosylated haemoglobin. Candida species were isolated in 36 of 78 (46%) subjects with diabetes mellitus and in 21 of 88 (23%) healthy subjects (Chi-squared 9.11, P=0.0025). The predominant Candida species isolated in diabetics with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis were Candida glabrata (39%), C. albicans (26%) and C. tropicalis (17%). In contrast, in the control group, C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. hemulonii comprised 30% each, with none having C. tropicalis infection (for C. tropicalis: diabetic vs. control; 17% vs. nil, P=0. 05). Among the diabetic group, subjects with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis had significantly higher mean HbA1 when compared to those who had no such infection (12.8+/-2.6% vs. 9.7+/-1.7% respectively, P=0.001). The overall accuracy of direct microscopy and clinical examination for predicting vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was only 77% and 51%, respectively, in the diabetic group, and 83% and 65% in the control group. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a high prevalence rate (46%) of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis with relative risk of 2.45. The non- C. albicans species such as C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were the predominant species isolated among them. There seems to be a significant link between hyperglycaemia and

  15. Species-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed p36 Cytosolic Protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, J.; Sawyer, N.; Moumen, B. Ben Abdel; Bouh, K. Cheikh Saad; Dea, S.

    2000-01-01

    The p36 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a cytosolic protein carrying species-specific antigenic determinants. Based on the genomic sequence of the reference strain ATCC 25934, primers were designed for PCR amplification of the p36-encoding gene (948 bp). These primers were shown to be specific to M. hyopneumoniae since no DNA amplicons could be obtained with other mycoplasma species and pathogenic bacteria that commonly colonize the porcine respiratory tract. The amplified p36 gene was subcloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector to be expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The GST-p36 recombinant fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and cut by thrombin, and the enriched p36 protein was used to immunize female BALB/c mice for the production of anti-p36 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The polypeptide specificity of the nine MAbs obtained was confirmed by Western immunoblotting with cell lysates prepared from the homologous strain. Cross-reactivity studies of the anti-p36 MAbs towards two other M. hyopneumoniae reference strains (ATCC 25095 and J strains) and Quebec field strains that had been isolated in culture suggested that these anti-p36 MAbs were directed against a highly conserved epitope, or closely located epitopes, of the p36 protein. No reactivity was demonstrated against other mycoplasma species tested. Clinical signs and lesions suggestive of enzootic pneumonia were reproduced in specific-pathogen-free pigs infected experimentally with a virulent Quebec field strain (IAF-DM9827) of M. hyopneumoniae. The bacteria could be recovered from lung homogenates of pigs that were killed after the 3-week observation period by both PCR and cultivation procedures. Furthermore, the anti-p36 MAbs permitted effective detection by indirect immunofluorescence of M. hyopneumoniae in frozen lung sections from experimentally infected pigs. However, attempts to use the recombinant p36 protein as an antigen in an

  16. Rapid diagnostic tests as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR

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    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR. Methods First, the best method to recover DNA from RDTs was investigated and then the applicability of this DNA extraction method was assessed on 12 different RDT brands. Finally, two RDT brands (OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test and SDFK60 malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum/Pan test were comprehensively evaluated on a panel of clinical samples submitted for routine malaria diagnosis at ITM. DNA amplification was done with the 18S rRNA real-time PCR targeting the four Plasmodium species. Results of PCR on RDT were compared to those obtained by PCR on whole blood samples. Results Best results were obtained by isolating DNA from the proximal part of the nitrocellulose component of the RDT strip with a simple DNA elution method. The PCR on RDT showed a detection limit of 0.02 asexual parasites/μl, which was identical to the same PCR on whole blood. For all 12 RDT brands tested, DNA was detected except for one brand when a low parasite density sample was applied. In RDTs with a plastic seal covering the nitrocellulose strip, DNA extraction was hampered. PCR analysis on clinical RDT samples demonstrated correct identification for single species infections for all RDT samples with asexual parasites of P. falciparum (n = 60, Plasmodium vivax (n = 10, Plasmodium ovale (n = 10 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 10. Samples with only gametocytes were detected in all OptiMAL and in 10 of the 11 SDFK60 tests. None of the negative samples (n = 20 gave a signal by PCR on RDT. With PCR on RDT, higher Ct-values were observed than with PCR on whole blood, with a mean difference of 2.68 for OptiMAL and 3.53 for SDFK60. Mixed infections were correctly identified with PCR on RDT in 4/5 OptiMAL tests and 2/5 SDFK60 tests. Conclusions RDTs are a reliable source of DNA for Plasmodium real-time PCR. This study demonstrates the

  17. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013.

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    James Macinko

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986 to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD; as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society.

  18. Patterns of Stochastic Behavior in Dynamically Unstable High-Dimensional Biochemical Networks

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    Simon Rosenfeld

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of dynamical stability and stochastic behavior of large biochemical networks is discussed. It is argued that stringent conditions of asymptotic stability have very little chance to materialize in a multidimensional system described by the differential equations of chemical kinetics. The reason is that the criteria of asymptotic stability (Routh- Hurwitz, Lyapunov criteria, Feinberg’s Deficiency Zero theorem would impose the limitations of very high algebraic order on the kinetic rates and stoichiometric coefficients, and there are no natural laws that would guarantee their unconditional validity. Highly nonlinear, dynamically unstable systems, however, are not necessarily doomed to collapse, as a simple Jacobian analysis would suggest. It is possible that their dynamics may assume the form of pseudo-random fluctuations quite similar to a shot noise, and, therefore, their behavior may be described in terms of Langevin and Fokker-Plank equations. We have shown by simulation that the resulting pseudo-stochastic processes obey the heavy-tailed Generalized Pareto Distribution with temporal sequence of pulses forming the set of constituent-specific Poisson processes. Being applied to intracellular dynamics, these properties are naturally associated with burstiness, a well documented phenomenon in the biology of gene expression.

  19. Behavioral Pattern of Endemic Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis within the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons

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    Iresha Wijerathne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from 2013 to 2015. Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill (SLGh. The study recorded 35 behavioral events in 11 acts under 4 types of their activities. Courtship and mating activities were recorded within the study period. Food items were changed throughout the parental care period. Within this period chicks were offered sufficient food comprised of fruits and flesh. These revealed that the nesting of the SLGh in suburb areas is not good sign since it potentially indicates the loss of adequate breeding conditions in the forest. Conservation of SLGh depends on protection of trees and tree cavities as an important ecological niche.

  20. Behavioral Pattern in the United States in the Face of Upheavals of Arab Countries

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    Seyed Moayed Sabeti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditions and upheavals, by their characteristics, including people opposition with governments and alteration in regional order, have challenged the US strategic interests in the Middle East region and forced the authorities of Washington to manage and strategize upheavals. The type of US encounter with the trend of upheavals, approach of the ruling regime, the future of people movement and available alternative, interests, and security of Israel and contradiction between strategic interests and democratic principles were amongst the most important issues facing the United States. The present article is seeking to find the answer to this question that what sort of relationship does exist between United States policies in the Middle East from one hand and recent upheavals in Arab countries on the other hand? The assumption of the article is that in the past two decades the one sided role of the US in forming the upheavals of Middle East has changed into a bilateral relationship and the behavior of this country in the process of recent upheavals, affected by the presence of the people of Arab countries in internal politics of their own country in numerous cases has changed into a reaction behavior. Finally, it should be said that contrasts between society and government in Arabic Middle East, is considered as one of the prominent challenges of the US in decision-making process and management of region unrests. On the other hand, the lack of a specified instruction and strategy by Americans is another problem of the US in this region.

  1. Microgeographical patterns of schistosomiasis and water contact behavior; examples from Africa and Brazil

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    Helmut Kloos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of spatial (microgeographical water contact/schistosomiasis studies in two African (Egyptian and Kenyan and one Brazilian communities. All three studies used traditional cartographic and statistical methods but one of them emploeyd also GIS (geographical information systems tools. The advantage of GIS and their potential role in schistosomiasis control are briefly described. The three cases revealed considerable variation in the spatial distribution of water contact, transmission parameters and infection levels at the household and individual levels. All studies showed considerable variation in the prevalence and intensity of infection between households. They also show a variable influence of distance on water contact behavior associated with type of activity, age, sex, socioeconomic level, perception of water quality, season and availability of water in the home. Water contact behavior and schistosomiasis were evaluated in the Brazilian village of Nova União within the context of water sharing between household and age/sex groups. Recommendations are made for further spatial studies on the transmission and control of schistosomiasis.

  2. The phenomenon of "picky eater": a behavioral marker in eating patterns of toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, B R; Skinner, J; Houck, K; Moran, J; Coletta, F; Ott, D

    1998-04-01

    To determine if toddlers who were considered "picky eaters" had lower dietary scores than non-picky eaters, and if family environment and socioeconomic status were significantly related to picky eater status and dietary scores. An incomplete block design provided two interviews at randomly assigned times (24, 28, 32, or 36 months) of Caucasian mothers from upper socioeconomic (n=74) and lower socioeconomic status (n=44). Using trained interviewers, 6 days of food intake, two administrations of a questionnaire about toddler's eating behavior, and one administration of the Family Environment Scales were collected in the home. MANOVA, discriminant function analysis, and logistic regression procedures were used to determine significant differences between picky and non-picky eater groups. Picky eaters had lower dietary variety (p=.03) and diversity scores (p=.009) than non-picky eaters. Mothers of picky eaters compared to those of non-picky eaters used persuasion (p=.0001) and ranked their child's eating behaviors as more problematic (p=.0001). Toddlers perceived by their mothers as picky eaters had significantly lower dietary variety and diversity scores. Parents need information and strategies to increase the number of foods acceptable to their toddlers and to develop a sound feeding plan.

  3. A facile approach for screening isolated nanomagnetic behavior for bit-patterned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Ng, Vivian; Asbahi, Mohamed; Yakovlev, Nikolai L; Yang, Joel K W; Wong, Rick T J; Low, Kendrick W M

    2014-01-01

    Bit-patterned media (BPM) fabricated by the direct deposition of magnetic material onto prepatterned arrays of nanopillars is a promising approach for increasing magnetic recording of areal density. One of the key challenges of this approach is to identify and control the magnetic interaction between the bits (on top of the nanopillars) and the trench material between the pillars. Using independent techniques, including magnetic force microscopy, the variable-angle magneto-optic Kerr effect, and remanence curves, we were able to determine the presence and relative intensities of exchange and dipolar interactions in Co-Pd multilayer-based BPM fabricated by direct deposition. We found that for pitches of 30 nm or less, there were negligible exchange interactions, and the bits were found to be magnetically isolated. As we move to higher densities, the absence of exchange interactions indicates that direct deposition is a promising approach to BPM fabrication. (papers)

  4. Emergence of Distinct Spatial Patterns in Cellular Automata with Inertia: A Phase Transition-Like Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kramer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Cellular Automata (CA model in which three ubiquitous and relevant processes in nature are present, namely, spatial competition, distinction between dynamically stronger and weaker agents and the existence of an inner resistance to changes in the actual state S n (=−1,0,+1 of each CA lattice cell n (which we call inertia. Considering ensembles of initial lattices, we study the average properties of the CA final stationary configuration structures resulting from the system time evolution. Assuming the inertia a (proper control parameter, we identify qualitative changes in the CA spatial patterns resembling usual phase transitions. Interestingly, some of the observed features may be associated with continuous transitions (critical phenomena. However, certain quantities seem to present jumps, typical of discontinuous transitions. We argue that these apparent contradictory findings can be attributed to the inertia parameter’s discrete character. Along the work, we also briefly discuss a few potential applications for the present CA formulation.

  5. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  6. Human V4 Activity Patterns Predict Behavioral Performance in Imagery of Object Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Michael M; Bartels, Andreas

    2018-04-11

    Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs. In the other half we asked them to produce mental images of colored, meaningful objects (such as tomato, grapes, banana) corresponding to the same three color categories. Although physically presented color could be decoded from all retinotopically mapped visual areas, only hV4 allowed predicting colors of imagined objects when classifiers were trained on responses to physical colors. Importantly, only neural signal in hV4 was predictive of behavioral performance in the color judgment task on a trial-by-trial basis. The commonality between neural representations of sensory-driven and imagined object color and the behavioral link to neural representations in hV4 identifies area hV4 as a perceptual hub linking externally triggered color vision with color in self-generated object imagery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans experience color not only when visually exploring the outside world, but also in the absence of visual input, for example when remembering, dreaming, and during imagery. It is not known where neural codes for sensory-driven and internally generated hue converge. In the current study we evoked matching subjective color percepts, one driven by physically presented color stimuli, the other by internally generated color imagery. This allowed us to identify area hV4 as the only site where neural codes of corresponding subjective color perception converged regardless of its origin. Color codes in hV4 also predicted behavioral performance in an

  7. Development of a multiplex assay for genus- and species-specific detection of Phytophthora based on differences in mitochondrial gene order

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. J. Bilodeau; F. N. Martin; M. D. Coffey; C. L. Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    A molecular diagnostic assay for Phytophthora spp. that is specific, sensitive, has both genus- and species-specific detection capabilities multiplexed, and can be used to systematically develop markers for detection of a wide range of species would facilitate research and regulatory efforts. To address this need, a marker system was developed...

  8. Development of SCAR markers and PCR assays for single or simultaneous species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides in ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonsi, Monday O; Ling, Yin; Kageyama, Koji

    2010-11-01

    Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides are important water-borne oomycete pathogens of irrigated ornamentals particularly ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe in Japan. We developed novel PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region markers and assays for rapid identification and species-specific detection of both pathogens in separate PCR reactions or simultaneously in a duplex PCR.

  9. Covering Ground: Movement Patterns and Random Walk Behavior in Aquilonastra anomala Sea Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Amanda C; Evangelista, Dennis; Waldrop, Lindsay D; Mah, Christopher L; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-10-01

    The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food. We then compared the paths of the sea stars to three common models of animal movement: Brownian motion, Lévy walks, and correlated random walks; we found that the sea stars' movements most closely resembled a correlated random walk. Additionally, we compared the search performance of models of Brownian motion, a Lévy walk, and a correlated random walk to that of a model based on the sea stars' movements. We found that the behavior of the modeled sea star walk was similar to that of the modeled correlated random walk and the Brownian motion model, but that the sea star walk was slightly more likely than the other walks to find targets at intermediate distances. While organisms are unlikely to follow an idealized random walk in all details, our data suggest that comparing the effectiveness of an organism's paths to those from theory can give insight into the organism's actual movement strategy. Finally, automated optical tracking of invertebrates proved feasible, and A. anomala was revealed to be a tractable, 2D-movement study system.

  10. Patterns of Twitter Behavior Among Networks of Cannabis Dispensaries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Robert F; Hsieh, Yuli P; Bieler, Gayle S; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Siege, Christopher; Zarkin, Gary A

    2017-01-01

    Background Twitter represents a social media platform through which medical cannabis dispensaries can rapidly promote and advertise a multitude of retail products. Yet, to date, no studies have systematically evaluated Twitter behavior among dispensaries and how these behaviors influence the formation of social networks. Objectives This study sought to characterize common cyberbehaviors and shared follower networks among dispensaries operating in two large cannabis markets in California. Methods From a targeted sample of 119 dispensaries in the San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles, we collected metadata from the dispensary accounts using the Twitter API. For each city, we characterized the network structure of dispensaries based upon shared followers, then empirically derived communities with the Louvain modularity algorithm. Principal components factor analysis was employed to reduce 12 Twitter measures into a more parsimonious set of cyberbehavioral dimensions. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis was implemented to verify the ability of the extracted dimensions to classify dispensaries into their derived communities. Results The modularity algorithm yielded three communities in each city with distinct network structures. The principal components factor analysis reduced the 12 cyberbehaviors into five dimensions that encompassed account age, posting frequency, referencing, hyperlinks, and user engagement among the dispensary accounts. In the quadratic discriminant analysis, the dimensions correctly classified 75% (46/61) of the communities in the San Francisco Bay Area and 71% (41/58) in Greater Los Angeles. Conclusions The most centralized and strongly connected dispensaries in both cities had newer accounts, higher daily activity, more frequent user engagement, and increased usage of embedded media, keywords, and hyperlinks. Measures derived from both network structure and cyberbehavioral dimensions can serve as key contextual indicators for the

  11. Patterns of Twitter Behavior Among Networks of Cannabis Dispensaries in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, Nicholas C; Baumgartner, Peter M; Chew, Robert F; Hsieh, Yuli P; Bieler, Gayle S; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Siege, Christopher; Zarkin, Gary A

    2017-07-04

    Twitter represents a social media platform through which medical cannabis dispensaries can rapidly promote and advertise a multitude of retail products. Yet, to date, no studies have systematically evaluated Twitter behavior among dispensaries and how these behaviors influence the formation of social networks. This study sought to characterize common cyberbehaviors and shared follower networks among dispensaries operating in two large cannabis markets in California. From a targeted sample of 119 dispensaries in the San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles, we collected metadata from the dispensary accounts using the Twitter API. For each city, we characterized the network structure of dispensaries based upon shared followers, then empirically derived communities with the Louvain modularity algorithm. Principal components factor analysis was employed to reduce 12 Twitter measures into a more parsimonious set of cyberbehavioral dimensions. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis was implemented to verify the ability of the extracted dimensions to classify dispensaries into their derived communities. The modularity algorithm yielded three communities in each city with distinct network structures. The principal components factor analysis reduced the 12 cyberbehaviors into five dimensions that encompassed account age, posting frequency, referencing, hyperlinks, and user engagement among the dispensary accounts. In the quadratic discriminant analysis, the dimensions correctly classified 75% (46/61) of the communities in the San Francisco Bay Area and 71% (41/58) in Greater Los Angeles. The most centralized and strongly connected dispensaries in both cities had newer accounts, higher daily activity, more frequent user engagement, and increased usage of embedded media, keywords, and hyperlinks. Measures derived from both network structure and cyberbehavioral dimensions can serve as key contextual indicators for the online surveillance of cannabis dispensaries and

  12. Anhedonic behavior in cryptochrome 2-deficient mice is paralleled by altered diurnal patterns of amygdala gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Diao, Weifei; Berger, Stefanie; Ronovsky, Marianne; Partonen, Timo; Pollak, Daniela D

    2015-07-01

    Mood disorders are frequently paralleled by disturbances in circadian rhythm-related physiological and behavioral states and genetic variants of clock genes have been associated with depression. Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) is one of the core components of the molecular circadian machinery which has been linked to depression, both, in patients suffering from the disease and animal models of the disorder. Despite this circumstantial evidence, a direct causal relationship between Cry2 expression and depression has not been established. Here, a genetic mouse model of Cry2 deficiency (Cry2 (-/-) mice) was employed to test the direct relevance of Cry2 for depression-like behavior. Augmented anhedonic behavior in the sucrose preference test, without alterations in behavioral despair, was observed in Cry2 (-/-) mice. The novelty suppressed feeding paradigm revealed reduced hyponeophagia in Cry2 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type littermates. Given the importance of the amygdala in the regulation of emotion and their relevance for the pathophysiology of depression, potential alterations in diurnal patterns of basolateral amygdala gene expression in Cry2 (-/-) mice were investigated focusing on core clock genes and neurotrophic factor systems implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Differential expression of the clock gene Bhlhe40 and the neurotrophic factor Vegfb were found in the beginning of the active (dark) phase in Cry2 (-/-) compared to wild-type animals. Furthermore, amygdala tissue of Cry2 (-/-) mice contained lower levels of Bdnf-III. Collectively, these results indicate that Cry2 exerts a critical role in the control of depression-related emotional states and modulates the chronobiological gene expression profile in the mouse amygdala.

  13. Changes of marital behavior and family patterns in post-socialist countries: Delayed, incomplete or specific second demographic transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by questioning the theory of second demographic transition (SDT and its universal relevance in the field of marriage behavior and family organization in low fertility context, arguing for more differentiated approaches. With an aim to illustrate the contextual specifics of post-socialist countries in general and of Serbia in particular, the author claims that analyzed changes have not just been delayed or incomplete in comparison to more developed European countries, but shaped by specific modernization processes, which led to rationally developed strategies in overcoming structural risks, although, without ideational changes typical to the theory of SDT. Slow changes in marital behavior and family organization in Serbia are illustrated in recent sociological (empirical research findings. The perceived changes are linked to specific structural risks (war, slow transformation and enduring economic hardships, weak state and low trust in institutions, etc and value characteristics (persistence of materialism and traditionalism, but with increasing ambivalence. The connection between structural and ideational changes is considered through social stratification variable by relying on Coale's model on necessary preconditions for behavioral changes as well as on social deprivation concept. Having in mind upper social strata (more educated and better off, the value changes precede the behavioral that are adapted to economic uncertainty, which still force more traditional marital and family patterns. Therefore, there is a rank of different options, from extended family (for a short period at the beginning of marriage or after divorce to separated leaving (of married partners in parental households (due to refusing the extended family option thus creating quite specific "living apart together" form, combined with dominant strategy of prolonging the marriage. Hence, for upper social strata, marriage is still a universal but negotiable

  14. Molecular detection and species-specific identification of medically important Aspergillus species by real-time PCR in experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas J; Wissel, Mark C; Grantham, Kevin J; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Kasai, Miki; Francesconi, Andrea; Cotton, Margaret P; Hughes, Johanna E; Greene, Lora; Bacher, John D; Manna, Pradip; Salomoni, Martin; Kleiboeker, Steven B; Reddy, Sushruth K

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains a major challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories. We developed rapid and sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genus- and species-specific identification of Aspergillus infections by use of TaqMan technology. In order to validate these assays and understand their potential diagnostic utility, we then performed a blinded study of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from well-characterized models of IPA with the four medically important species. A set of real-time qPCR primers and probes was developed by utilizing unique ITS1 regions for genus- and species-specific detection of the four most common medically important Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus). Pan-Aspergillus and species-specific qPCRs with BAL fluid were more sensitive than culture for detection of IPA caused by A. fumigatus in untreated (P < 0.0007) and treated (P ≤ 0.008) animals, respectively. For infections caused by A. terreus and A. niger, culture and PCR amplification from BAL fluid yielded similar sensitivities for untreated and treated animals. Pan-Aspergillus PCR was more sensitive than culture for detection of A. flavus in treated animals (P = 0.002). BAL fluid pan-Aspergillus and species-specific PCRs were comparable in sensitivity to BAL fluid galactomannan (GM) assay. The copy numbers from the qPCR assays correlated with quantitative cultures to determine the pulmonary residual fungal burdens in lung tissue. Pan-Aspergillus and species-specific qPCR assays may improve the rapid and accurate identification of IPA in immunocompromised patients.

  15. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  16. Autonomous change of behavior for environmental context: An intermittent search model with misunderstanding search pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2017-07-01

    Although foraging patterns have long been predicted to optimally adapt to environmental conditions, empirical evidence has been found in recent years. This evidence suggests that the search strategy of animals is open to change so that animals can flexibly respond to their environment. In this study, we began with a simple computational model that possesses the principal features of an intermittent strategy, i.e., careful local searches separated by longer steps, as a mechanism for relocation, where an agent in the model follows a rule to switch between two phases, but it could misunderstand this rule, i.e., the agent follows an ambiguous switching rule. Thanks to this ambiguity, the agent's foraging strategy can continuously change. First, we demonstrate that our model can exhibit an optimal change of strategy from Brownian-type to Lévy-type depending on the prey density, and we investigate the distribution of time intervals for switching between the phases. Moreover, we show that the model can display higher search efficiency than a correlated random walk.

  17. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.; Hoch, M.; Pagano, P.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Biagi, S.; Buzulutskov, A.; Gruwe, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Moermann, D.; Sharma, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strips, micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur a trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8 . In multiple structures, where the gain is shared between two devices in cascade, the maximum overall gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our conclusion is that only multiple devices can guarantee a sufficient margin of reliability for operation in harsh LHC running conditions

  18. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumkrong, Paramee [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Thiensong, Benjaporn [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Deawtong, Suladda [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Yang, Lu, E-mail: Lu.yang@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Mester, Zoltán [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-11-02

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a {sup 13}C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me{sup 198}Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative {sup 1}H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg{sup −1} for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg{sup −1} as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg{sup −1}. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in

  19. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumkrong, Paramee; Thiensong, Benjaporn; Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony; Deawtong, Suladda; Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette; Yang, Lu; Mester, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a "1"3C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me"1"9"8Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative "1H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg"−"1 for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg"−"1 as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg"−"1. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in cuttlefish. - Highlights:

  20. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoo-Singh, Paramjeet Kaur; Keng, Fiona S-L; Phang, Siew-Moi; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C; Sturges, William T; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibro-momethane (CH 2 Br 2 ), iodomethane (CH 3 I), diiodomethane (CH 2 I 2 ), bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI), bromochlorometh-ane (CH 2 BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ), and dibro-mochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH 2 I 2 and CH 3 I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis . The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ( F v ∕ F m ) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum

  1. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  2. Neuroinflammation, myelin and behavior: Temporal patterns following mild traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufik Taib

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI results in white matter injury (WMI that is associated with neurological deficits. Neuroinflammation originating from microglial activation may participate in WMI and associated disorders. To date, there is little information on the time courses of these events after mild TBI. Therefore we investigated (i neuroinflammation, (ii WMI and (iii behavioral disorders between 6 hours and 3 months after mild TBI. For that purpose, we used experimental mild TBI in mice induced by a controlled cortical impact. (i For neuroinflammation, IL-1b protein as well as microglial phenotypes, by gene expression for 12 microglial activation markers on isolated CD11b+ cells from brains, were studied after TBI. IL-1b protein was increased at 6 hours and 1 day. TBI induced a mixed population of microglial phenotypes with both pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory markers from 6 hours to 3 days post-injury. At 7 days, microglial activation was completely resolved. (ii Three myelin proteins were assessed after TBI on ipsi- and contralateral corpus callosum, as this structure is enriched in white matter. TBI led to an increase in 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a marker of immature and mature oligodendrocyte, at 2 days post-injury; a bilateral demyelination, evaluated by myelin basic protein, from 7 days to 3 months post-injury; and an increase in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein at 6 hours and 3 days post-injury. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed various myelin sheath abnormalities within the corpus callosum at 3 months post-TBI. (iii TBI led to sensorimotor deficits at 3 days post-TBI, and late cognitive flexibility disorder evidenced by the reversal learning task of the Barnes maze 3 months after injury. These data give an overall invaluable overview of time course of neuroinflammation that could be involved in demyelination and late cognitive disorder over a time-scale of 3 months in a model

  3. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J

    2014-06-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior.

  4. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  5. Controlled Substance Prescribing Patterns--Prescription Behavior Surveillance System, Eight States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Strickler, Gail K; Kreiner, Peter W; Koris, Caitlin M

    2015-10-16

    Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in the United States. The death rate from drug overdose in the United States more than doubled during 1999-2013, from 6.0 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 13.8 in 2013. The increase in drug overdoses is attributable primarily to the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs, especially opioid analgesics, sedatives/tranquilizers, and stimulants. Such drugs are prescribed widely in the United States, with substantial variation by state. Certain patients obtain drugs for nonmedical use or resale by obtaining overlapping prescriptions from multiple prescribers. The risk for overdose is directly associated with the use of multiple prescribers and daily dosages of >100 morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) per day. 2013. The Prescription Behavior Surveillance System (PBSS) is a public health surveillance system that allows public health authorities to characterize and quantify the use and misuse of prescribed controlled substances. PBSS began collecting data in 2012 and is funded by CDC and the Food and Drug Administration. PBSS uses standard metrics to measure prescribing rates per 1,000 state residents by demographic variables, drug type, daily dose, and source of payment. Data from the system can be used to calculate rates of misuse by certain behavioral measures such as use of multiple prescribers and pharmacies within specified time periods. This report is based on 2013 de-identified data (most recent available) that represent approximately one fourth of the U.S. Data were submitted quarterly by prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) in eight states (California, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Ohio, and West Virginia) that routinely collect data on every prescription for a controlled substance to help law enforcement and health care providers identify misuse or abuse of such drugs. In all eight states, opioid analgesics were prescribed approximately twice as often as stimulants or benzodiazepines

  6. Directing the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes using chiral patterned peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacalin, Naomi M.; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) have a broad range of promising applications as soft materials due to their self-assembly and diversity of structure and chemical composition. Peptide polymer PECs are highly biocompatible and biodegradable, making them particularly useful for encapsulation of food additives and flavors, micellar drug delivery, medical and underwater adhesives, fetal membrane patches, and scaffolds for cell growth in tissue engineering. While parameters affecting PEC formation and stability in regards to charge effects are well researched, little is known about the effects of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, and secondary structure in these materials. Peptide chirality provides a unique opportunity to manipulate PEC phase to modulate the amount of solid-like (precipitate) or liquid-like (coacervate) character by influencing hydrogen bonding interactions among peptide chains. In previous work, we showed that chiral peptides form solid complexes, while complexes with even one racemic peptide were fluid. This raised the interesting question of how long a homochiral sequence must be to result in solid phase formation. In this work, we designed chiral patterned peptides of polyglutamic acid and polylysine ranging from 50 to 90% L-chiral residues with increasing numbers of sequential L-chiral residues before a chirality change. These polymers were mixed together to form PECs. We observed that 8 or more sequential L-chiral residues are necessary to achieve both the appearance of a precipitate phase and sustained beta-sheets in the complex, as determined by optical imaging and FTIR Spectroscopy. Less homochiral content results in formation of a coacervate phase. Thus, we show that chiral sequence can be used to control the phase transition of PECs. Understanding how to manipulate PEC phase using chiral sequence as presented here may enable tuning of the material properties to achieve the desired mechanical strength for coatings and polymer

  7. Directing the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes using chiral patterned peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacalin, Naomi M.; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) have a broad range of promising applications as soft materials due to their self-assembly and diversity of structure and chemical composition. Peptide polymer PECs are highly biocompatible and biodegradable, making them particularly useful for encapsulation of food additives and flavors, micellar drug delivery, medical and underwater adhesives, fetal membrane patches, and scaffolds for cell growth in tissue engineering. While parameters affecting PEC formation and stability in regards to charge effects are well researched, little is known about the effects of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, and secondary structure in these materials. Peptide chirality provides a unique opportunity to manipulate PEC phase to modulate the amount of solid-like (precipitate) or liquid-like (coacervate) character by influencing hydrogen bonding interactions among peptide chains. In previous work, we showed that chiral peptides form solid complexes, while complexes with even one racemic peptide were fluid. This raised the interesting question of how long a homochiral sequence must be to result in solid phase formation. In this work, we designed chiral patterned peptides of polyglutamic acid and polylysine ranging from 50 to 90% L-chiral residues with increasing numbers of sequential L-chiral residues before a chirality change. These polymers were mixed together to form PECs. We observed that 8 or more sequential L-chiral residues are necessary to achieve both the appearance of a precipitate phase and sustained β-sheets in the complex, as determined by optical imaging and FTIR Spectroscopy. Less homochiral content results in formation of a coacervate phase. Thus, we show that chiral sequence can be used to control the phase transition of PECs. Understanding how to manipulate PEC phase using chiral sequence as presented here may enable tuning of the material properties to achieve the desired mechanical strength for coatings and polymer

  8. Accelerated variant of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: clinical behavior and gene expression pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Selman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea or cough. However, a subset of patients has a short duration of symptoms with rapid progression to end-stage disease. In this study, we evaluated clinical and molecular features of "rapid" and "slow" progressors with IPF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 26 patients with 24 months of symptoms [slow progressors] were studied. Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meyer method and proportional hazard's model. Lung microarrays and tissue proteins were measured in a subset of patients. No differences were found in age, physiologic impairment and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cellular profile. There were more males (OR = 6.5; CI:1.4-29.5; p = 0.006 and smokers (OR = 3.04; CI:1.1-8.3; p = 0.04 in the rapid progressors group. Survival from the beginning of symptoms was significantly reduced in rapid progressors (HR = 9.0; CI:4.48-18.3; p2-fold increase of active matrix metalloproteinase-9, and induced a higher fibroblast migration compared with slow progressors and controls [238+/-98% versus 123+/-29% (p<0.05 and 30+/-17% (p<0.01]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A subgroup of IPF patients, predominantly smoking males, display an accelerated clinical course and have a gene expression pattern that is different from those with slower progression and longer survival. These findings highlight the variability in the progression of IPF, and may explain, in part, the difficulty in obtaining significant and reproducible results in studies of therapeutic interventions in patients with IPF.

  9. Binge-pattern cocaine administration causes long-lasting behavioral hyperarousal but does not enhance vulnerability to single prolonged stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J; Perrine, Shane A

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart). Seven days after the last injection animals were exposed to traumatic stress or a control procedure. Seven days after stress, activity and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. Binge-pattern cocaine increased locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze, and both cocaine and SPS exposure increased the rapidity with which rats moved through grooming sequences. Neither binge-pattern cocaine nor SPS increased anxiety-like behaviors, and no interactions were found between binge-pattern cocaine exposure and SPS exposure. A behavioral phenotype categorization approach demonstrated that cocaine-exposed groups expressed a high incidence of hyperactivity-like symptoms. These results suggest that binge-pattern cocaine exposure causes a long-lasting hyper-exploratory phenotype but does not make individuals more vulnerable to a later traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  11. Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O'Neill

    Full Text Available In this study, data from the World Mental Health Survey's Northern Ireland (NI Study of Health and Stress (NISHS was used to assess the associations between conflict- and non-conflict-related traumatic events and suicidal behaviour, controlling for age and gender and the effects of mental disorders in NI. DSM mental disorders and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in a multi-stage, clustered area probability household sample (N = 4,340, response rate 68.4%. The traumatic event categories were based on event types listed in the PTSD section of the CIDI. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common in women than men, however, rates of suicide plans were similar for both genders. People with mood, anxiety and substance disorders were significantly more likely than those without to endorse suicidal ideation, plan or attempt. The highest odds ratios for all suicidal behaviors were for people with any mental disorder. However, the odds of seriously considering suicide were significantly higher for people with conflict and non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with people who had not experienced a traumatic event. The odds of having a suicide plan remain significantly higher for people with conflict-related traumatic events compared to those with only non-conflict-related events and no traumatic events. Finally, the odds of suicide attempt were significantly higher for people who have only non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with the other two categories. The results suggest that traumatic events associated with the NI conflict may be associated with suicidal ideation and plans, and this effect appears to be in addition to that explained by the presence of mental disorders. The reduced rates of suicide attempts among people who have had a conflict-related traumatic event may reflect a higher rate of single, fatal suicide attempts in this population.

  12. Seasonal patterns in the nocturnal distributionand behavior of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri at high latitudes

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2015-02-17

    Acoustic scattering layers (SL) ascribed to pearlside Maurolicus muelleri were studied in Masfjorden, Norway, using upward-looking echo sounders cabled to shore for continuous long-term measurements. The acoustic studies were accompanied by continuous measurements of surface light and supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. From autumn to spring, young M. muelleri formed an SL in the upper ∼75 to 150 m in the daytime, characterized by migration to near-surface water near dusk, subsequent \\'midnight sinking\\', followed by a dawn ascent before a return to the daytime habitat. Light levels were ∼1 order of magnitude lower during the dawn ascent than for ascent in the afternoon, with the latter terminating before fish reached upper layers on ∼1/3 of the nights from late November to mid-April. Adults showed less tendency of migration during autumn and winter, until the SLs of young and adults merged in late spring, and thereafter displayed coherent migration behavior. The midnight sinking became progressively deeper from autumn to winter but was strongly reduced from mid-May when the darkest nocturnal light intensity (PAR) at the surface was above 10-3 μmol m-2 s-1. The pearlside took on schooling in upper waters during the even lighter nights in early June, with minimum light of ∼5 × 10-3 to 10-1 μmol m-2 s-1 at the surface. Nocturnal schooling ceased in early July, and midnight sinking reappeared in mid-August. We suggest that the strong variation in nocturnal light intensity at high latitudes provides changing trade-offs between visual foraging and avoiding predators and hence varying time budgets for feeding in the upper, productive layers.

  13. Complex small pelagic fish population patterns arising from individual behavioral responses to their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, Timothée; Auger, Pierre-Amaël; Pecquerie, Laure; Machu, Eric; Capet, Xavier; Thiaw, Modou; Mbaye, Baye Cheikh; Braham, Cheikh-Baye; Ettahiri, Omar; Charouki, Najib; Sène, Ousseynou Ndaw; Werner, Francisco; Brehmer, Patrice

    2018-05-01

    Small pelagic fish (SPF) species are heavily exploited in eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) as their transformation products are increasingly used in the world's food chain. Management relies on regular monitoring, but there is a lack of robust theories for the emergence of the populations' traits and their evolution in highly variable environments. This work aims to address existing knowledge gaps by combining physical and biogeochemical modelling with an individual life-cycle based model applied to round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) off northwest Africa, a key species for regional food security. Our approach focused on the processes responsible for seasonal migrations, spatio-temporal size-structure, and interannual biomass fluctuations. Emergence of preferred habitat resulted from interactions between natal homing behavior and environmental variability that impacts early life stages. Exploration of the environment by the fishes was determined by swimming capabilities, mesoscale to regional habitat structure, and horizontal currents. Fish spatio-temporal abundance variability emerged from a complex combination of distinct life-history traits. An alongshore gradient in fish size distributions is reported and validated by in situ measurements. New insights into population structure are provided, within an area where the species is abundant year-round (Mauritania) and with latitudinal migrations of variable (300-1200 km) amplitude. Interannual biomass fluctuations were linked to modulations of fish recruitment over the Sahara Bank driven by variability in alongshore current intensity. The identified processes constitute an analytical framework that can be implemented in other EBUS and used to explore impacts of regional climate change on SPF.

  14. Temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior in 10-14 year-old children on weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baere, Stijn; Lefevre, Johan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Philippaerts, Renaat; Seghers, Jan

    2015-08-19

    An important but often ignored aspect of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) is the chronological succession of activities, or temporal pattern. The main purposes of this study were (1) to investigate when certain types of PA and SB compete against each other during the course of the day and (2) compare intensity- and domain-specific activity levels during different day-segments. The study sample consists of 211 children aged 10-14, recruited from 15 primary and 15 secondary schools. PA was assessed combining the SenseWear Mini Armband (SWM) with an electronic activity diary. The intensity- and domain-specific temporal patterns were plotted and PA differences between different day-segments (i.e., morning, school, early evening and late evening) were examined using repeated-measures ANCOVA models. Physical activity level (PAL) was highest during the early evening (2.51 METSWM) and school hours (2.49 METSWM); the late evening segment was significantly less active (2.21 METSWM) and showed the highest proportion of sedentary time (54 % of total time-use). Throughout the different day-segments, several domains of PA and SB competed with each other. During the critical early-evening segment, screentime (12 % of time-use) and homework (10 %) were dominant compared to activity domains of sports (4 %) and active leisure (3 %). The domain of active travel competed directly with motor travel during the morning (5 % and 6 % respectively) and early-evening segment (both 8 %). Throughout the day, different aspects of PA and SB go in competition with each other, especially during the time period immediately after school. Detailed information on the temporal patterns of PA and SB of children could help health professionals to develop more effective PA interventions and promotion strategies. By making adaptations to the typical day schedule of children (e.g., through the introduction of extra-curricular PA after school hours), their daily activity levels might

  15. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practices and AIDS risk knowledge. Men in high AIDS-prevalence areas were found to have had a greater number of sexual partners, were more knowledgeable about AIDS, were much more likely to engage in low-risk practices (such as mutual masturbation or body rubbing), and had unprotected anal intercourse less frequently than gay men in smaller cities. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the larger city was mutual masturbation, a low-risk practice. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the smaller cities was unprotected anal intercourse. Increased efforts are needed to educate gay men and to promote risk behavior changes among those living in smaller cities and in communities outside the prominent AIDS epicenters.

  16. Early socialization of prosocial behavior: Patterns in parents’ encouragement of toddlers’ helping in an everyday household task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Whitney; Brownell, Celia; Pollock, Brianna

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in parents’ socialization of prosocial behavior in 18- and 24-month-olds (n=46) were investigated during an everyday household chore that parents were asked to complete with their toddlers. Two socialization approaches were distinguished, one focused on specific requests for concrete actions needed to complete an immediate, concrete goal (“action-oriented”), and a second focused on the more abstract needs and emotions of the parent and the child's role as a helper (“need-oriented’). Parents were equally active at both ages in trying to elicit children's help but used different strategies with younger and older toddlers. With 18-month-olds they used more action-oriented approaches, whereas with 24-month-olds they increased their use of needoriented approaches. They also regulated the attention of younger toddlers more, and more often socially approved older toddlers’ helping. Thus, how parents prompt, support, and encourage prosocial behavior changes over the second year from utilizing primarily concrete, goal-directed requests in the service of the immediate task, to increasingly emphasizing more abstract needs and emotions of the recipient and the child's role as a helper. PMID:25682218

  17. Trends in contraceptive patterns and behaviors during a period of fertility transition in China: 1988-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoying; Tan, Lingfang; Ren, Qiang; Cui, Zhijun; Wu, Junqing; Lin, Ting; He, Jie; Chen, Hua

    2012-09-01

    This paper explores how contraceptive patterns and behaviors changed during the course of China's population transition and a period of low fertility from 1988 to 2006. Based on data from Chinese nationwide surveys of family planning and reproductive health undertaken in 1988, 1997, 2001 and 2006, this study uses a multinomial logit model to analyze changes in, regional differences in and determinants of contraceptive behaviors during this period. The overall prevalence of contraceptive use among married women aged 15-49 years changed little during these 20 years, holding steady at about 90%. However, there were notable changes in the method mix: the predominant methods used were the long-term methods of the intrauterine device (IUD) and female sterilization, and contraceptive use gradually shifted from sterilization to IUDs and condoms. There existed a close relationship between contraceptive methods used and sociodemographic characteristics. Hans, rural, old and less educated women are more likely to use sterilization, while minorities, urban, young and educated women are more likely to use IUDs. There are marked changes in the method mix among different demographic groups during the course of China's population transition and a period of low fertility. The findings indicate that future works aimed at promoting reproductive health should be diverse among different populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patterns, Perception and Behavior of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Use and Multiple Product Use Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; Bowersock, Amy; Wheldon, Christopher W

    2018-03-27

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are battery-operated devices used to inhale vaporized or aerosolized nicotine. There is increasing research uncovering negative health effects of these devices. Less is known about the social and behavioral aspects among college students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a mid-sized private university in Florida. The survey was sent via e-mail to the student body of undergraduates. A final sample size of 989 students was analyzed to understand demographic differences between users and nonusers, initiation factors, and influencers, as well as multiple product behaviors. Approximately 51.4% ( n = 508) of participants reported ever using an ENDS and other tobacco consumption. Males were significantly more likely to be users of ENDS. Polytobacco use, or the use of multiple tobacco products, was also more common among participants who have tried ENDS ( P influencer for initial use. A 4-class latent variable model differentiated between usage patterns characterized as abstainers (70%), hookah users only (14%), ENDS only (11%), and polytobacco users (4%). ENDS are not commonly used as a quit tool among college students, but rather as a secondary source of nicotine, most commonly in current smokers. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Sexual behavioral pattern, consequences and adopted solutions among senior secondary schools students in a military barracks in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimah, Uzoh C; Nnebue, Chinomnso C; Ilika, Amobi L; Lawoyin, Taiwo O

    2016-05-01

    To determine the sexual behavioral pattern, consequences, and adopted solutions among senior secondary schools students in Ojo military barracks, Lagos. This was a cross-sectional study of 400 senior secondary schools students in Ojo military barracks, Lagos, selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using pre-tested, self-administered semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences version 17. Tests of statistical significance were carried out using χ2-test, and a p-value of sexual intercourse and were influenced mainly by peer pressure (p=0.0000). Their age at first sexual intercourse ranged between 10-19 years. Ten (6.5%) of the respondents (all males) had their sexual debut with a commercial sex worker. More girls 41 (56.2%) than boys 12 (14.8%), were forced into sexual intercourse (p=0.0000). Over half of the sexually active respondents had at least two sexual partners for either sex. Findings from this study have shown that young people living in the barracks indulged in sexual activity at very early ages and engaged in risky sexual behavior. We therefore recommend an improved multi-sectoral approach in reproductive health and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS education.

  20. Effects of daily management changes on behavioral patterns of a solitary female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in a zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Nao; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Eguchi, Yusuke; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of changes in daily management on behavior of a solitary female elephant in a zoo. The activity budget and space utilization of the subject and the management changes were recorded for 1 year after the conspecific male died. The observation days could be categorized into five clusters (C1-C5) by the characteristic behavioral pattern of each day. C1 had the highest percentage of resting of all clusters, and was observed after the loss of the conspecific and the beginning of use of the indoor exhibition room at night. C2, which had the highest percentage of stereotypy of any cluster, was observed after the beginning of habituation to the indoor exhibition room. Also, when the time schedule of management was changed irregularly, the subject frequently exhibited stereotypic pacing (C2, C4). The subject tended to rest when exhibiting lameness in the left hind limb (C3). In C5, activity reached a high level when she could utilize a familiar place under a stable management schedule. These results indicate that management changes affected the mental stability of an elephant in the early stage of social isolation. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Does the addiction in online pornography affect the behavioral pattern of undergrad private university students in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md. Razwan Hasan Khan; Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Kabir, Russell; Perera, Nirmala K P; Kader, Manzur

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Anecdotal reports from Bangladesh indicated that some young adults were becoming addicted to online pornography similar to how others become addicted to gambling, drugs, and alcohol. Such behaviors can have social, academic, and behavioral implications in this population. This study investigated the association between consumption of online pornography and sociobehavioral patterns among students from a private university in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 299 undergraduate students (70.6% male) at the First Capital University of Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questions included sociodemographic characteristics, online-based pornography consumption habits and sociobehavioral characteristics. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to examine correlations between online pornography addiction and sociobehavioral factors such as socializing habits, nature of interactions, university attendance and study focus, sleeping habits, and consumption of main meals. Results: The use of pornography was significantly higher among students who gathered late nights with their friends (58.4%, P pornography. Students who fooled around with their friends and those did not go to bed on time were more than twice as likely to watch pornography than students who did not fool around, and those went to bed on time. Conclusion: The study provides the first overview of online pornography consumption. A significant proportion of male students consumed erotic materials online than females. Students who did not go to bed emerged to consume online pornography. Such behaviors can have negative impacts on studies education outcomes as well as wider social and moral impacts for students and the society as a whole. In this digital era, technology has invaded every aspect of our lives, with increasing access to the internet. Therefore, it is imperative to provide specifically designed pornography addiction education programs

  2. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...

  3. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social...... and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species......-specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all...

  4. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  5. Discrimination of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using sequencing, species-specific PCR and SNaPshot mini-sequencing technology based on the recA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Mu-Chiou; Wang, Li-Tin; Huang, Lina; Lee, Fwu-Ling

    2012-10-01

    To clearly identify specific species and subspecies of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) techniques alone is difficult. The aim of this study was to use the recA gene for species discrimination in the L. acidophilus group, as well as to develop a species-specific primer and single nucleotide polymorphism primer based on the recA gene sequence for species and subspecies identification. The average sequence similarity for the recA gene among type strains was 80.0%, and most members of the L. acidophilus group could be clearly distinguished. The species-specific primer was designed according to the recA gene sequencing, which was employed for polymerase chain reaction with the template DNA of Lactobacillus strains. A single 231-bp species-specific band was found only in L. delbrueckii. A SNaPshot mini-sequencing assay using recA as a target gene was also developed. The specificity of the mini-sequencing assay was evaluated using 31 strains of L. delbrueckii species and was able to unambiguously discriminate strains belonging to the subspecies L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The phylogenetic relationships of most strains in the L. acidophilus group can be resolved using recA gene sequencing, and a novel method to identify the species and subspecies of the L. delbrueckii and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was developed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction combined with SNaPshot mini-sequencing. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. New view on the age-specificity of pig Cryptosporidium by species-specific primers for distinguishing Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeníková, M.; Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, 2/3 (2011), 120-125 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Mixed infection * Age-specificity * Species-specific primers Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  7. Quantification of Different Eubacterium spp. in Human Fecal Samples with Species-Specific 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Blaut, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labeled oligonucleotide probes were designed and validated to quantify different Eubacterium species in human fecal samples. Probes were directed at Eubacterium barkeri, E. biforme, E. contortum, E. cylindroides (two probes), E. dolichum, E. hadrum, E. lentum, E. limosum, E. moniliforme, and E. ventriosum. The specificity of the probes was tested with the type strains and a range of common intestinal bacteria. With one exception, none...

  8. Development of a Species-specific PCR Assay for Three Xanthomonas Species, Causing Bulb and Flower Diseases, Based on Their Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Back

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a species-specific PCR assay for rapid and accurate detection of three Xanthomonas species, X. axonopodis pv. poinsettiicola (XAP, X. hyacinthi (XH and X. campestris pv. zantedeschiae (XCZ, based on their draft genome sequences. XAP, XH and XCZ genomes consist of single chromosomes that contain 5,221, 4,395 and 7,986 protein coding genes, respectively. Species-specific primers were designed from variable regions of the draft genome sequence data and assessed by a PCR-based detection method. These primers were also tested for specificity against 17 allied Xanthomonas species as well as against the host DNA and the microbial community of the host surface. Three primer sets were found to be very specific and no amplification product was obtained with the host DNA and the microbial community of the host surface. In addition, a detection limit of 1 pg/μl per PCR reaction was detected when these primer sets were used to amplify corresponding bacterial DNAs. Therefore, these primer sets and the developed species-specific PCR assay represent a valuable, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic tool that can be used to detect three specific pathogens at early stages of infection and may help control diseases.

  9. Quantification of different Eubacterium spp. in human fecal samples with species-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, A; Le Blay, G; Blaut, M

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labeled oligonucleotide probes were designed and validated to quantify different Eubacterium species in human fecal samples. Probes were directed at Eubacterium barkeri, E. biforme, E. contortum, E. cylindroides (two probes), E. dolichum, E. hadrum, E. lentum, E. limosum, E. moniliforme, and E. ventriosum. The specificity of the probes was tested with the type strains and a range of common intestinal bacteria. With one exception, none of the probes showed cross-hybridization under stringent conditions. The species-specific probes were applied to fecal samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers. E. biforme, E. cylindroides, E. hadrum, E. lentum, and E. ventriosum could be determined. All other Eubacterium species for which probes had been designed were under the detection limit of 10(7) cells g (dry weight) of feces(-1). The cell counts obtained are essentially in accordance with the literature data, which are based on colony counts. This shows that whole-cell in situ hybridization with species-specific probes is a valuable tool for the enumeration of Eubacterium species in feces.

  10. Educational differences in postmenopausal breast cancer--quantifying indirect effects through health behaviors, body mass index and reproductive patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt

    Full Text Available Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth, body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use. The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125 extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69% could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%, parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%, and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%. Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level.

  11. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer – Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Diderichsen, Finn; Keiding, Niels; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50–70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22–125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%–69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%–257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%–45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%–18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level. PMID:24205296

  12. Pain-related insomnia versus primary insomnia: a comparison study of sleep pattern, psychological characteristics, and cognitive-behavioral processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y; Goodchild, Claire E; Hester, Joan; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Recent applications of cognitive-behavior therapy for primary insomnia in the management of pain-related insomnia are based on the implicit assumption that the 2 types of insomnia share the same presentation and maintaining mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients who have pain-related insomnia with those reporting primary insomnia and to identify psychological factors that predict pain-related insomnia. Chronic pain patients with concomitant insomnia (n=137; Pain-related Insomnia Group) completed a selection of questionnaires that measure sleep patterns, psychological attributes, and cognitive-behavioral processes associated with the persistence of insomnia. Their responses were compared with those of primary insomnia patients (n=33; Primary Insomnia Group), using 3 sets of multivariate analyses of covariance that took account of demographic differences. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of insomnia severity among the chronic pain patients. The Pain-related Insomnia Group did not differ from the Primary Insomnia Group in their pattern and severity of sleep disturbance. The 2 groups were largely comparable in terms of their psychological characteristics, except that the Primary Insomnia Group was distinguishable from the Pain-related Insomnia Group by their greater tendency to worry. Patients in the Pain-related Insomnia Group reported levels of sleep-related anxiety and presleep somatic arousal that matched with those reported by patients in the Primary Insomnia Group. However, relative to patients in the Pain-related Insomnia Group, those in the Primary Insomnia Group reported more dysfunctional sleep beliefs and presleep cognitive arousal. In addition to pain intensity, depression, and presleep cognitive arousal were significant predictors of insomnia severity within the Pain-related Insomnia Group. There are more similarities than differences between the 2 types of insomnia

  13. Tonic noradrenergic activity modulates explorative behavior and attentional set shifting: Evidence from pupillometry and gaze pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajkossy, Péter; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Demeter, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-12-01

    A constant task for every living organism is to decide whether to exploit rewards associated with current behavior or to explore the environment for more rewarding options. Current empirical evidence indicates that exploitation is related to phasic whereas exploration is related to tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. In humans, this exploration-exploitation trade-off is subserved by the ability to flexibly switch attention between task-related and task-irrelevant information. Here, we investigated whether this function, called attentional set shifting, is related to exploration and tonic noradrenergic discharge. We measured pretrial baseline pupil dilation, proved to be strongly correlated with the activity of the locus coeruleus, while human participants took part in well-known tasks of attentional set shifting. Study 1 used the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, whereas in Study 2, the Intra/Extradimensional Set Shifting Task was used. Both tasks require participants to choose between different compound stimuli based on feedback provided for their previous decisions. During the task, stimulus-reward contingencies change periodically, thus participants are repeatedly required to reassess which stimulus features are relevant (i.e., they shift their attentional set). Our results showed that baseline pupil diameter steadily decreased when the stimulus-reward contingencies were stable, whereas they suddenly increased when these contingencies changed. Analysis of looking patterns also confirmed the presence of exploratory behavior during attentional set shifting. Thus, our results suggest that tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus is implicated in attentional set shifting, as it regulates the amount of exploration. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Patterns of screen-based sedentary behavior and physical activity and associations with overweight among Norwegian adolescents: a latent profile approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Melkevik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity and screen based sedentary behaviors are both related to energy balance and to risk for becoming overweight. The aim of this study is to find out if these behaviors cluster together in order to find out whether groups of adolescents have particularly unfortunate levels of both physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors. Methods: Data are from the Norwegian 2005/2006 sample of the international "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 13-, 15- and 16-year-olds. The final sample included 4848 adolescents. Gender-stratified latent profile analysis was used to identify the different profiles. Results: Six profiles were identified for both boys and girls. Less than 30% of adolescents were found to have behavioral patterns which were associated with higher risk for overweight relative to the most healthy behavioral profile. Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors cluster together in different ways suggesting independence between the behaviors. Low levels of physical activity was the most important predictor for overweight among boys. Screen-based sedentary behaviors were more important predictors of overweight among girls. Conclusions: Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors are independent behaviors and may cluster together in manners which lead to low energy expenditure and subsequent increased risk for overweight among adolescents.

  15. Development of a multiplex assay for genus- and species-specific detection of Phytophthora based on differences in mitochondrial gene order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D; Blomquist, Cheryl L

    2014-07-01

    A molecular diagnostic assay for Phytophthora spp. that is specific, sensitive, has both genus- and species-specific detection capabilities multiplexed, and can be used to systematically develop markers for detection of a wide range of species would facilitate research and regulatory efforts. To address this need, a marker system was developed based on the high copy sequences of the mitochondrial DNA utilizing gene orders that were highly conserved in the genus Phytophthora but different in the related genus Pythium and plants to reduce the importance of highly controlled annealing temperatures for specificity. An amplification primer pair designed from conserved regions of the atp9 and nad9 genes produced an amplicon of ≈340 bp specific for the Phytophthora spp. tested. The TaqMan probe for the genus-specific Phytophthora test was designed from a conserved portion of the atp9 gene whereas variable intergenic spacer sequences were used for designing the species-specific TaqMan probes. Specific probes were developed for 13 species and the P. citricola species complex. In silico analysis suggests that species-specific probes could be developed for at least 70 additional described and provisional species; the use of locked nucleic acids in TaqMan probes should expand this list. A second locus spanning three tRNAs (trnM-trnP-trnM) was also evaluated for genus-specific detection capabilities. At 206 bp, it was not as useful for systematic development of a broad range of species-specific probes as the larger 340-bp amplicon. All markers were validated against a test panel that included 87 Phytophthora spp., 14 provisional Phytophthora spp., 29 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and 39 plant species. Species-specific probes were validated further against a range of geographically diverse isolates to ensure uniformity of detection at an intraspecific level, as well as with other species having high levels of sequence similarity to ensure specificity. Both diagnostic

  16. Does the addiction in online pornography affect the behavioral pattern of undergrad private university students in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Razwan Hasan Khan; Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Kabir, Russell; Perera, Nirmala K P; Kader, Manzur

    2018-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from Bangladesh indicated that some young adults were becoming addicted to online pornography similar to how others become addicted to gambling, drugs, and alcohol. Such behaviors can have social, academic, and behavioral implications in this population. This study investigated the association between consumption of online pornography and sociobehavioral patterns among students from a private university in Bangladesh. In total, 299 undergraduate students (70.6% male) at the First Capital University of Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questions included sociodemographic characteristics, online-based pornography consumption habits and sociobehavioral characteristics. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to examine correlations between online pornography addiction and sociobehavioral factors such as socializing habits, nature of interactions, university attendance and study focus, sleeping habits, and consumption of main meals. The use of pornography was significantly higher among students who gathered late nights with their friends (58.4%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, those who frequently argue/fight with their friends (51.0%, P = 0.001) frequently fooled around with their friends (48.4%, P < 0.001) and those who did not go to bed on time (57.7%, P < 0.001) reported greater consumption of pornography. Students who fooled around with their friends and those did not go to bed on time were more than twice as likely to watch pornography than students who did not fool around, and those went to bed on time. The study provides the first overview of online pornography consumption. A significant proportion of male students consumed erotic materials online than females. Students who did not go to bed emerged to consume online pornography. Such behaviors can have negative impacts on studies education outcomes as well as wider social and moral impacts for students and the society as a whole. In this

  17. Can the transformation of instruction process into a virtual place induce a shift in behavioral patterns of teachers and students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljajko Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to reveal possible influence that the participants' age and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT usage in the instruction process can have on behavior that defines whether students and teachers belong to one of the Digital Native/Immigrant or Visitor/Resident groups. We collected data through two surveys that covered a total of 1273 students and 382 teachers from southern regions of Serbia. The surveys consisted of questions about availability of computers and internet, ICT use in the instruction process, and communication habits in the ICT-empowered instruction process. The first survey covered both, students and teachers that were involved in the instruction process mostly deprived of the ICT usage. The second survey covered participants of an instruction process that was successfully improved by an ICT usage. Data analysis shows a shift in communication patterns of teachers and a sharp improvement in computer use for educational purposes for both groups included in the surveys. The change is induced by a proper ICT usage in the instruction process. Conclusions that followed the data analysis lead us to better approaches in organizing ICT usage in the instruction process that enable participants fully employ their resources in order to improve teaching techniques and learning.

  18. A novel synthetic peptide microarray assay detects Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Schnee, Christiane; Müller, Elke; Peisker, Madlen; Schumacher, Thomas; Schubert, Evelyn; Ruettger, Anke; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Ehricht, Ralf

    2018-03-16

    Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined. For instance, the specific humoral response of sheep to treatment with a C. abortus vaccine has been visualized against a background of C. pecorum carriership. In samples from humans, dual infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae could be demonstrated. The experiments revealed that the peptide microarray assay was capable of simultaneously identifying specific antibodies to each Chlamydia spp. The actual assay represents an open platform test that can be complemented through future advances in Chlamydia proteome research. The concept of the highly parallel multi-antigen microarray proven in this study has the potential to enhance our understanding of antibody responses by defining not only a single quantitative response, but also the pattern of this response. The added value of using peptide antigens will consist in unprecedented serodiagnostic specificity.

  19. 2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tomoki; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H; Simons, Benjamin D; Livesey, Frederick J

    2016-04-07

    Variation in cerebral cortex size and complexity is thought to contribute to differences in cognitive ability between humans and other animals. Here we compare cortical progenitor cell output in humans and three nonhuman primates using directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in adherent two-dimensional (2D) and organoid three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. Clonal lineage analysis showed that primate cortical progenitors proliferate for a protracted period of time, during which they generate early-born neurons, in contrast to rodents, where this expansion phase largely ceases before neurogenesis begins. The extent of this additional cortical progenitor expansion differs among primates, leading to differences in the number of neurons generated by each progenitor cell. We found that this mechanism for controlling cortical size is regulated cell autonomously in culture, suggesting that primate cerebral cortex size is regulated at least in part at the level of individual cortical progenitor cell clonal output. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinctive hippocampal and amygdalar cytoarchitectural changes underlie specific patterns of behavioral disruption following stress exposure in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph; Kaplan, Zeev

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in cytoarchitecture and molecular signaling have been observed in adaptive and maladaptive responses to stress and presumably underlie the physiological and behavioral changes observed. The relationship between behavioral responses to stress exposure and changes in cytoarchitecture of subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala was investigated in an animal model of PTSD. Behaviors in elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response tests were assessed in rats 7 days after exposure to predator scent stress. Brains were harvested 24h later. Neurons from CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus subregions and basolateral amygdala were reconstructed and subjected to Sholl analysis and spine density estimation. Glucocorticoid receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phospho-NR1-Ser-889, phospho-GluR1-Ser-845, phospho-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II-Thy-286, post-synaptic density protein 95 and phospho-CREB-Ser-133 were evaluated in the hippocampus. Data were analyzed by retrospective classification of individual rats into three behavioral response groups. The extent and distribution of changes in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdalar dendrites was significantly associated with stress-induced behavioral response classification. Extreme (PTSD-like) behavioral disruption was associated with extensive neuronal retraction in the hippocampus and proliferation in the amygdala. Neither structure displayed such changes in minimal behavioral responders. Partial behavioral response was associated with identical changes in the hippocampus only. Patterns of change in requisite molecular signaling genes and endophenotypic markers corresponded to the structural and behavioral responses. The extent and distribution of changes in the cytoarchitecture of hippocampal and amygdalar subregions is directly related to the pattern of behavioral response of the individual to stress exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  2. Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2014-10-01

    A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative

  3. Effect of training the communication skills with cognitive-behavioral model to drug dependent couples on communication patterns and recurrent relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahbarian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the main challenges in methadone maintenance treatment is relapse and lack of sustainability on treatment. Therefore, considering the effective factors in this regard and reducing it through psychological interventions as an adjunct to medication is necessary. Objective: The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of communication skill training based on cognitive-behavioral model on communication patterns and recurrent relapse in drug dependent couples. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental intervention with pretest-posttest and control group in 2013 which carried on 40 couple referred to public addiction treatment center of Qazvin city. These people had troubled communication patterns and were selected using convenience sampling and were divided into two groups of intervention and control, randomly. Two groups were assessed by relapse prediction scale (RPS and structured clinical interview for DSM (SCID-I for men and communication pattern questionnaire (CPQ for couples in pre and post-test. Intervention group received 9 two hours sessions of communication skill training based on cognitive-behavioral model. Data were analyzed using Levin and Box tests and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Findings: The difference between the intervention and control groups in the constructive communication pattern with 51% (p<0/05, in mutual avoidance pattern with 61% (p<0/0001 and in the demand / withdraw pattern with 45% (p<0/05 was statistically significant. Also, the difference between the two groups in the rate of relapse with 64% (p<0/0001 was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the findings it seems group training of communication skill based on cognitive-behavioral model can improve the communication patterns in drug-dependent couples, as well as prevents relapse in men.

  4. Type A behavior pattern, accident optimism and fatalism: an investigation into non-compliance with safety work behaviors among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Fabian O; Onyishi, Ike E; Ugwu, Chidi; Onyishi, Charity N

    2015-01-01

    Safety work behavior has continued to attract the interest of organizational researchers and practitioners especially in the health sector. The goal of the study was to investigate whether personality type A, accident optimism and fatalism could predict non-compliance with safety work behaviors among hospital nurses. One hundred and fifty-nine nursing staff sampled from three government-owned hospitals in a state in southeast Nigeria, participated in the study. Data were collected through Type A Behavior Scale (TABS), Accident Optimism, Fatalism and Compliance with Safety Behavior (CSB) Scales. Our results showed that personality type A, accident optimism and fatalism were all related to non-compliance with safety work behaviors. Personality type A individuals tend to comply less with safety work behaviors than personality type B individuals. In addition, optimistic and fatalistic views about accidents and existing safety rules also have implications for compliance with safety work behaviors.

  5. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  6. Patterns of sedentary behavior in overweight and moderately obese users of the Catalan primary-health care system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Martínez-Ramos

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting time (ST has negative consequences on health. Changing this behavior is paramount in overweight/obese individuals because they are more sedentary than those with normal weight. The aim of the study was to establish the pattern of sedentary behavior and its relationship to health, socio-demographics, occupation, and education level in Catalan overweight/obese individuals.A descriptive study was performed at 25 healthcare centers in Catalonia (Spain with 464 overweight/moderately obese patients, aged25 to 65 years. Exclusion criteria were chronic diseases which contraindicated physical activity and language barriers. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data on age, gender, educational level, social class, and marital status. Main outcome was 'sitting time' (collected by the Marshall questionnaire; chronic diseases and anthropometric measurements were registered.464 patients, 58.4% women, mean age 51.9 years (SD 10.1, 76.1% married, 60% manual workers, and 48.7% had finished secondary education. Daily sitting time was 6.2 hours on working days (374 minutes/day, SD: 190, and about 6 hours on non-working ones (357 minutes/day, SD: 170. 50% of participants were sedentary ≥6 hours. The most frequent sedentary activities were: working/academic activities around 2 hours (128 minutes, SD: 183, followed by watching television, computer use, and commuting. Men sat longer than women (64 minutes more on working days and 54 minutes on non-working days, and individuals with office jobs (91 minutes,those with higher levels of education (42 minutes, and younger subjects (25 to 35 years spent more time sitting.In our study performed in overweight/moderately obese patients the mean sitting time was around 6 hours which was mainly spent doing work/academic activities and watching television. Men, office workers, individuals with higher education, and younger subjects had longer sitting time. Our results may help design interventions

  7. Standardization of a two-step real-time polymerase chain reaction based method for species-specific detection of medically important Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P; Pandey, P; Harishankar, A; Chandy, M; Bhattacharya, S; Chakrabarti, A

    2017-01-01

    Standardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) poses two technical challenges (a) standardization of DNA extraction, (b) optimization of PCR against various medically important Aspergillus species. Many cases of aspergillosis go undiagnosed because of relative insensitivity of conventional diagnostic methods such as microscopy, culture or antigen detection. The present study is an attempt to standardize real-time PCR assay for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Aspergillus DNA in EDTA whole blood. Three nucleic acid extraction protocols were compared and a two-step real-time PCR assay was developed and validated following the recommendations of the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative in our setup. In the first PCR step (pan-Aspergillus PCR), the target was 28S rDNA gene, whereas in the second step, species specific PCR the targets were beta-tubulin (for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus), gene and calmodulin gene (for Aspergillus niger). Species specific identification of four medically important Aspergillus species, namely, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger and A. terreus were achieved by this PCR. Specificity of the PCR was tested against 34 different DNA source including bacteria, virus, yeast, other Aspergillus sp., other fungal species and for human DNA and had no false-positive reactions. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was found to be 102 CFU/ml. The present protocol of two-step real-time PCR assays for genus- and species-specific identification for commonly isolated species in whole blood for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus infections offers a rapid, sensitive and specific assay option and requires clinical validation at multiple centers.

  8. COMPARISON OF A GENUS-SPECIFIC CONVENTIONAL PCR AND A SPECIES-SPECIFIC NESTED-PCR FOR MALARIA DIAGNOSIS USING FTA COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA.

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    Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2015-12-01

    Molecular tools are increasingly accepted as the most sensitive and reliable techniques for malaria diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. Also, collection of finger prick blood spots onto filter papers is the most simple and affordable method for samples preservation and posterior molecular analysis, especially in rural endemic regions where malaria remains a major health problem. Two malaria molecular diagnostic tests, a Plasmodium genus-specific conventional PCR and a Plasmodium species-specific Nested PCR, were evaluated using DNA templates prepared from Whatman-FTA cards' dry blood spots using both, Methanol-fixation/Heat-extraction and FTA commercial purification kit. A total of 121 blood samples were collected from six Saudi south-western endemic districts both, as thick and thin films for routine microscopic screening and onto FTA cards for molecular studies. Out of the 121 samples, 75 were P. falciparum positive by at least one technique. No other species of Plasmodium were detected. P. falciparum parasites were identified in 69/75 (92%) samples by microscopic screening in health care centers. P. genus-specific PCR was able to amplify P. falciparum DNA in 41/75 (55%) and 59/75 (79%) samples using Methanol-fixation/Heat-extraction and FTA purification kit, respectively. P. species-specific Nested PCR revealed 68/75 (91%) and 75/75 (100%) positive samples using DNA templates were isolated by Methanol-fixation/Heat- extraction and FTA purification methods, respectively. The species-specific Nested PCR applied to Whatman-FTA preserved and processed blood samples represents the best alternative to classical microscopy for malaria diagnosis, particularly in epidemiological screening.

  9. Design of a species-specific PCR method for the detection of the heat-resistant fungi Talaromyces macrosporus and Talaromyces trachyspermus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Nakagawa, H; Sakaguchi, T; Arima, T-H; Kikoku, Y

    2018-01-01

    Heat-resistant fungi occur sporadically and are a continuing problem for the food and beverage industry. The genus Talaromyces, as a typical fungus, is capable of producing the heat-resistant ascospores responsible for the spoilage of processed food products. Isocitrate lyase, a signature enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is required for the metabolism of non-fermentable carbon compounds, like acetate and ethanol. Here, species-specific primer sets for detection and identification of DNA derived from Talaromyces macrosporus and Talaromyces trachyspermus were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of their isocitrate lyase genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a species-specific primer set amplified products specific to T. macrosporus and T. trachyspermus. Other fungal species, such as Byssochlamys fulva and Hamigera striata, which cause food spoilage, were not detected using the Talaromyces-specific primer sets. The detection limit for each species-specific primer set was determined as being 50 pg of template DNA, without using a nested PCR method. The specificity of each species-specific primer set was maintained in the presence of 1,000-fold amounts of genomic DNA from other fungi. The method also detected fungal DNA extracted from blueberry inoculated with T. macrosporus. This PCR method provides a quick, simple, powerful and reliable way to detect T. macrosporus and T. trachyspermus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection is rapid, convenient and sensitive compared with traditional methods of detecting heat-resistant fungi. In this study, a PCR-based method was developed for the detection and identification of amplification products from Talaromyces macrosporus and Talaromyces trachyspermus using primer sets that target the isocitrate lyase gene. This method could be used for the on-site detection of T. macrosporus and T. trachyspermus in the near future, and will be helpful in the safety control of raw materials and in food and beverage

  10. [The comparative assessment of the practical value of the currently employed methods for the recognition and species specificity of the blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezina, N Iu; Suleĭmenova, G M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the HemDirect method on test-plates (Seratec) for detecting human hemoglobin (HHb). These characteristics were compared with those of other widely used methods designed for the detection of blood traces, viz. thin layer chromatography, hemotest, spectrofluorimetry, and identification of blood species specificity (by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in agar and on the acetate-cellulose film). It was shown that the HemDirect test is highly specific and far more sensitive than other techniques used for the same purpose in the practical work. It can be recommended as the method of choice for the detection of blood microtraces.

  11. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

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    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.

  12. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  13. Assessing patterns of spatial behavior in health studies: their socio-demographic determinants and associations with transportation modes (the RECORD Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Kestens, Yan; Thomas, Frédérique; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thierry, Benoit; Chaix, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Prior epidemiological studies have mainly focused on local residential neighborhoods to assess environmental exposures. However, individual spatial behavior may modify residential neighborhood influences, with weaker health effects expected for mobile populations. By examining individual patterns of daily mobility and associated socio-demographic profiles and transportation modes, this article seeks to develop innovative methods to account for daily mobility in health studies. We used data from the RECORD Cohort Study collected in 2011-2012 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A sample of 2062 individuals was investigated. Participants' perceived residential neighborhood boundaries and regular activity locations were geocoded using the VERITAS application. Twenty-four indicators were created to qualify individual space-time patterns, using spatial analysis methods and a geographic information system. Three domains of indicators were considered: lifestyle indicators, indicators related to the geometry of the activity space, and indicators related to the importance of the residential neighborhood in the overall activity space. Principal component analysis was used to identify main dimensions of spatial behavior. Multilevel linear regression was used to determine which individual characteristics were associated with each spatial behavior dimension. The factor analysis generated five dimensions of spatial behavior: importance of the residential neighborhood in the activity space, volume of activities, and size, eccentricity, and specialization of the activity space. Age, socioeconomic status, and location of the household in the region were the main predictors of daily mobility patterns. Activity spaces of small sizes centered on the residential neighborhood and implying a large volume of activities were associated with walking and/or biking as a transportation mode. Examination of patterns of spatial behavior by individual socio-demographic characteristics and in

  14. Species-specific diagnostic assays for Bonamia ostreae and B. exitiosa in European flat oyster Ostrea edulis: conventional, real-time and multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Navas, J Ignacio; Villalba, Antonio; Abollo, Elvira

    2013-05-27

    Bonamia ostreae and B. exitiosa have caused mass mortalities of various oyster species around the world and co-occur in some European areas. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has included infections with both species in the list of notifiable diseases. However, official methods for species-specific diagnosis of either parasite have certain limitations. In this study, new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and real-time PCR techniques were developed to diagnose each parasite species. Moreover, a multiplex PCR method was designed to detect both parasites in a single assay. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of each new method were evaluated. These new procedures were compared with 2 OIE-recommended methods, viz. standard histology and PCR-RFLP. The new procedures showed higher sensitivity than the OIE recommended ones for the diagnosis of both species. The sensitivity of tests with the new primers was higher using oyster gills and gonad tissue, rather than gills alone. The lack of a 'gold standard' prevented accurate estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the new methods. The implementation of statistical tools (maximum likelihood method) for the comparison of the diagnostic tests showed the possibility of false positives with the new procedures, although the absence of a gold standard precluded certainty. Nevertheless, all procedures showed negative results when used for the analysis of oysters from a Bonamia-free area.

  15. Species specificity of social reinstatement in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica genetically selected for high or low levels of social reinstatement behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, A D; Jones, R B; Faure, J M

    1995-05-01

    Divergent lines of Japanese quail Coturnix japonica showing high (HSR) or low (LSR) levels of social reinstatement (SR) behaviour (as measured in a treadmill apparatus) have been developed. However, it was not known if selection had influenced social reinstatement tendencies in a general or a species-specific fashion. Therefore, the present study compared the SR behaviour of quail chicks of the HSR and LSR lines and of a Control line when the goal box of the treadmill was empty or when it contained small, same-species groups of either Japanese quail, domestic fowl or Guinea fowl chicks. The results clearly demonstrated that the SR behaviour of Japanese quail chicks is species-specific and that this specificity has not been influenced during genetic selection, over sixteen generations, of the HSR and LSR lines. The HSR chicks showed more locomotor activity in the treadmill than did those of the other lines regardless of the nature of the goal-box stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of general activity, underlying fearfulness and social motivation.

  16. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Cohen

    Full Text Available Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79 at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males, but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These

  17. Effect of training the communication skills with cognitive-behavioral model to drug dependent couples on communication patterns and recurrent relapse

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rahbarian; R. Hossein zadeh; P. Doosti

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main challenges in methadone maintenance treatment is relapse and lack of sustainability on treatment. Therefore, considering the effective factors in this regard and reducing it through psychological interventions as an adjunct to medication is necessary. Objective: The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of communication skill training based on cognitive-behavioral model on communication patterns and recurrent relapse in drug dependent couples. Me...

  18. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedie