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Sample records for species southeastern peru

  1. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  2. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  3. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  4. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  5. A new species of poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu province, Amazon region of southeastern Peru, with notes on its natural history, bioacoustics, phylogenetics, and recommended conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rojas, Shirley J; Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; May, Rudolf VON; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C

    2017-01-16

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that A. shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most

  6. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

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    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  7. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  8. Effects of historical and modern mining on mercury deposition in southeastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Samuel A; Jackson, Brian P; Kelly, Meredith A; Stroup, Justin S; Landis, Joshua D

    2013-11-19

    Both modern anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg), primarily from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and preindustrial anthropogenic emissions from mining are thought to have a large impact on present-day atmospheric Hg deposition. We study the spatial distribution of Hg and its depositional history over the past ∼400 years in sediment cores from lakes located regionally proximal (∼90-150 km) to the largest ASGM in Peru and distal (>400 km) to major preindustrial mining centers. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediments from fourteen lakes are typical of remote regions (10-115 ng g(-1)). Hg fluxes in cores from four lakes demonstrate preindustrial Hg deposition in southeastern Peru was spatially variable and at least an order of magnitude lower than previously reported fluxes in lakes located closer to mining centers. Average modern (A.D. 2000-2011) Hg fluxes in these cores are 3.4-6.9 μg m(-2) a(-1), compared to average preindustrial (A.D. 1800-1850) fluxes of 0.8-2.5 μg m(-2) a(-1). Modern Hg fluxes determined from the four lakes are on average 3.3 (±1.5) times greater than their preindustrial fluxes, similar to those determined in other remote lakes around the world. This agreement suggests that Hg emissions from ASGM are likely not significantly deposited in nearby down-wind regions.

  9. A new species of Dorstenia (Moraceae from southeastern Brazil

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    Alessandra Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorstenia stellaris is a new species from southeastern Brazil. This species is endemic to the region and differs from the others by its star shaped coenanthium and cordiform leaves. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia stellaris is found in moist and shady places, in small populations within the type locality, thus we recommend its inclusion in the endangered (EN status of conservation.

  10. Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations.

  11. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

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    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  12. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

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    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  13. 75 FR 606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout... Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY...)-- all native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. This...

  14. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

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    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  15. Two new species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus) in Peru and Bolivia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

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    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-01-25

    To date, the subgenus Rhomboconnus Franz of Euconnus Thomson was represented by ten species known to occur in Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. For the first time Rhomboconnus is reported to occur in Peru and Bolivia, and two new species are described: Euconnus wari sp. n. (Peru) and E. inkachakanus sp. n. (Bolivia). The latter species is the largest representative of Rhomboconnus, with body length exceeding 3 mm.

  16. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  17. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  18. Species Profile: Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service. The species inhabits the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and westward through Georgia to extreme southwestern Alabama...

  19. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  20. A new species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae without stridulatory organ, from southern Peru

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    Nelson Ferretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

  1. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tiffany M; Adams, Grant

    2015-10-21

    The South American gymnophthalmid genus Euspondylus is distributed from Venezuela through Peru, with its highest diversity occurring in Peru. Euspondylus paxcorpus sp. nov. is a new species from Junín, Peru possessing prefrontal scales and represented by 60 specimens. The new species differs from all other species by the combination of four supraoculars with supraocular/supraciliary fusion, 5-7 occipitals, a single palpebral scale, five supralabials and infralabials, quadrangular dorsal scales with low keels arranged in transverse series only, 40-45 in a longitudinal count and 22-28 in a transverse count, 12 rows of ventrals in a transverse count and 23-25 in a longitudinal count, and no sexual dimorphism in coloration. The discovery of E. paxcorpus increases the known number of Euspondylus species to 13. Because the coloration patterns of the specimens were greatly different after preservation in alcohol, caution should be used when identifying Euspondylus species from museum specimens.

  2. A New Xeromorphic Species of Clusia em>(Clusiaceae) from Dry Valleys of Northern Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate le...

  3. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  5. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  6. Subdivision of Glacial Deposits in Southeastern Peru Based on Pedogenic Development and Radiometric Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adam Y.; Rodbell, Donald T.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Mark, Bryan G.

    2001-07-01

    The Cordillera Vilcanota and Quelccaya Ice Cap region of southern Peru (13°30‧-14°00‧S; 70°40‧-71°25‧W) contains a detailed record of late Quaternary glaciation in the tropical Andes. Quantification of soil development on 19 moraine crests and radiocarbon ages are used to reconstruct the glacial history. Secondary iron and clay increase linearly in Quelccaya soils and clay accumulates at a linear rate in Vilcanota soils, which may reflect the semicontinuous addition of eolian dust enriched in secondary iron to all soils. In contrast, logarithmic rates of iron buildup in soils in the Cordillera Vilcanota reflect chemical weathering; high concentrations of secondary iron in Vilcanota tills may mask the role of eolian input to these soils. Soil-age estimates from extrapolation of field and laboratory data suggest that the most extensive late Quaternary glaciation occurred >70,000 yr B.P. This provides one of the first semiquantitative age estimates for maximum ice extent in southern Peru and is supported by a minimum-limiting age of ∼41,520 14C yr B.P. A late glacial readvance culminated ∼16,650 cal yr B.P. in the Cordillera Vilcanota. Following rapid deglaciation of unknown extent, an advance of the Quelccaya Ice Cap occurred between ∼13,090 and 12,800 cal yr B.P., which coincides approximately with the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling in the North Atlantic region. Moraines deposited <394 cal yr B.P. in the Cordillera Vilcanota and <300 cal yr B.P. on the west side of the Quelccaya Ice Cap correlate with Little Ice Age moraines of other regions.

  7. A new species of Raputia (Rutaceae) from the Selva Central of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Hilario, Robin; Arteaga, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Raputia codo-pozuzoensis Rob. Fernandez & Arteaga, sp. nov. (Galipeinae, Rutaceae), a new species endemic to the Huanuco region, in the Selva Central of Peru, is described and illustrated here. The new species differs from other species of Raputia by the combination of 5-7-foliolate leaves (a new characteristic for the genus) and longer petioles. A key to the four Peruvian species of Raputia is presented.

  8. A new species of Raputia (Rutaceae from the Selva Central of Peru

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    Robin Fernandez-Hilario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Raputia codo-pozuzoensis Rob. Fernandez & Arteaga, sp. nov. (Galipeinae, Rutaceae, a new species endemic to the Huanuco region, in the Selva Central of Peru, is described and illustrated here. The new species differs from other species of Raputia by the combination of 5–7-foliolate leaves (a new characteristic for the genus and longer petioles. A key to the four Peruvian species of Raputia is presented.

  9. Western Amazonian Ticapimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae): Four New Species from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, with a Key to Species of the Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgard Palacio; Gavin R. Broad; Ilari E. Sääksjärvi; Anu Veijalainen

    2010-01-01

    Ticapimpla is a small genus closely related to the New World genera Acrotaphus and Hymenoepimecis. It has been previously reported from Costa Rica and Brazil. In this paper, we describe four new species: T. amazonica from Ecuador and Peru, T. carinata from Colombia and Peru, T. matamatae from Colombia, and T. soinii from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All have been collected in Western Amazonia, suggesting a South American origin for the genus. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  10. A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae: Amarylloideae: Clinantheae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to C. mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to C. viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from C. mirabilis by its wider leaves, ...

  11. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the

  12. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of mango in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Gálvez, Edgar; Guerrero, Pakita; Barradas, Carla; Crous, Pedro W.; Alves, Artur

    Abstract Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of

  13. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: The three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspiration to evaluate Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia taxa with three pinnate inflorescences for the Peruvian flora. Tillandsia extensa characteristics are clarified, confirming its distribution for northeastern Peru, and recognizing a specimen, previously considered being the second record for this species, as T. platyphylla.

  14. A new species of Telmatobius (Amphibia, Anura, Telmatobiidae from the Pacific slopes of the Andes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout–vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3–55.7 mm, n = 6 in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but T. intermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from T. intermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of T. intermedius, and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in T. intermedius. The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru.

  15. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered... Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. DATES: This rule...

  16. A new species of Geodiscelis Michener & Rozen (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Xeromelissinae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Rafael R

    2015-10-22

    A new species of the bee genus Geodiscelis Michener & Rozen, 1999, G. antiminera sp. nov., is here described and illustrated. This is the sixth species of the genus, and the second recorded from Peru. The combination of malar area ~1.5x longer than wide, wing veins dark-brown, metepisternum nearly glabrous, and medioventral process on gonocoxa conical and well-developed, separates G. antiminera sp. nov. from all other Geodiscelis species. An updated identification key for all known species is provided. Phylogenetic analyses show that G. antiminera sp. nov. belongs to the subgenus Nazcoediscelis Packer & Dumesh, 2014 and is sister to the other three species in the subgenus.

  17. A remarkable new species of winter stonefly (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Zhou; Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2016-09-22

    A new species of the genus Capnia s.l., C. zijinshana Du & Chen, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Jiangsu Province, of southeastern China. The new species is distinguished from other known Chinese capniid species by the unique thoracic sclerites and genitalic characters.

  18. Winklerites serbicus, a new endogean species of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini from southeastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new endogean bembidiine ground beetle species, Winklerites serbicus sp. n., from a cave in the southeastern part of Serbia is both described and diagnosed. Male and female genital structures and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new species is clearly distinct from its closest congeners. Fifteen species of the genus so far known are arranged in six groups. The new species is both endemic and relict, inhabiting southeastern Serbia only. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038 i br. 47007

  19. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae from Ecuador and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1 a basal position of O. taurinus + O. oophagus, (2 a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3 a clade that corresponds to the O. buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, O. buckleyi. Individuals assignable to O. buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to O. verruciger and O. cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is O. buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (O. vilmae sp. n. and O. cannatellai sp. n. and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (O. germani sp. n.. We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them.

  20. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  1. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  2. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Clinantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Segundo; Meerow, Alan W

    2016-01-01

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow, sp. nov. is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to Clinanthus mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to Clinanthus viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from Clinanthus mirabilis by its wider leaves, the much more brightly colored and wide spreading limb, and the much lighter colored perigone tube (yellowish green vs. dark green in Clinanthus mirabilis). A conspicuous bulge just proximal to the midpoint of the tube is a unique character of the new species.

  4. Fossil Cenozoic crassatelline bivalves from Peru: New species and generic insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. DeVries

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries of new fossil Cenozoic crassatellines in Peru provide a new phylogenetic perspective on “large” Neogene genera, in which four lineages are considered to have arisen independently from different Paleogene Crassatella ancestors. Latest Oligocene and early Miocene species of the new genus Tilicrassatella gen. nov.―T. ponderosa, T. torrens sp. nov., and T. sanmartini sp. nov. from the East Pisco Basin―probably evolved from the late Eocene species, Crassatella rafaeli sp. nov., which itself differed in significant respects from slightly older species of the East Pisco Basin, C. neorhynchus and C. pedroi sp. nov. The paciphilic genus, Hybolophus, is raised to full generic status. Added to its ranks are the East Pisco Miocene species H. maleficae sp. nov., H. terrestris sp. nov., and the oldest species of the genus, the late Eocene or Oligocene H. disenum sp. nov. from the Talara Basin of northern Peru. Kalolophus gen. nov., encompassing circum-Caribbean fossil species, the extant species, K. speciosus, and the trans-isthmus species, K. antillarum, appears to have evolved from the early Oligocene Floridian species, Crassatella portelli sp. nov. The genus Marvacrassatella is a western Atlantic Miocene lineage most likely descended from Kalolophus. The genus Eucrassatella is restricted to Australian and New Zealand taxa. The Eocene New Zealand species, Spissatella media, is transferred to Eucrassatella and deemed a candidate for the most recent common ancestor of younger Eucrassatella and all Spissatella species. In the southern Pacific Ocean, the circum-Caribbean region, and tropical western America, crassatelline lineages developed one or more of the following characters: large resilifers, smooth ventral margins, and an extended left anterior cardinal tooth. Some of these late Paleogene convergent character changes might have countered increased shear forces exerted on the crassatelline valves while burrowing into finer-grained and

  5. Two new species of Portanini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Aphrodinae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Márcio; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2016-11-23

    Two new species, Portanus restingalis and Paraportanus marica, are described and illustrated from Restinga de Maricá, a sandy coastal plain in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Comparative notes on the two new species are given. Portanus youngi and Paraportanus eburatus are newly recorded from Brazil and Guyana, respectively. A checklist of all known species of Portanini with their geographic distribution is provided.

  6. Organic storage of CO/sub 2/ on the continental slope off the mid-Atlantic bight, the southeastern Bering Sea, and the Peru coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Gaffney, J.S.; Rowe, G.T.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W.; Balsam, W.L.; Betzer, P.R.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of organic content, sedimentation rates derived from /sup 14/C and /sup 210/Pb analyses, /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N isotope ratios, amorphous silica, particle size, and calcium carbonate within sediments from slopes off the mid-Atlantic bight, the southeastern Bering Sea, and the Peru coast. These sediments are mainly marine, diatom-rich, and about one-third of the organic carbon is recent, reflecting a possible transient of shelf export in response to man's increased activities since the industrial revolution. Using a combination of sedimentation and mixing rates of carbon, the C:N ratio of sediments within the upper 50 cm, and the amount of nitrogen thought to be released from the coastal zone, independent estimates suggest a carbon loading to world slopes of approx. 0.3 to 0.5 x 10/sup 9/ tons C y/sup -1/. The Bering slope exhibits no anthropogenic transients, however, while increased carbon loading may have occurred off Peru in response to overfishing and off the mid-Atlantic bight in response to eutrophication. The generality of their results depends on which of the three systems is most representative of world slopes.

  7. A new species of iguanid lizard, genus Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania), from the Central Andes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Pablo J; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; García-Burneo, Karla; Koch, Claudia

    2016-12-04

    We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.

  8. A NEW SPECIES OF BEAMERANA YOUNG, 1952 (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: TYPHLOCYBINAE FROM SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Neotropical leafhopper genus Beamerana Young, 1952 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae is described and illustrated based on the specimens from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Beamerana boomerang sp. nov. differs from its congeners by the fore wing venation and the male genitalia. A key to the species of Beamerana is provided. The genus is recorded for Brazil for the first time.

  9. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  10. Description of the male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 and a new species of Bistriopelma from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Kaderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 is described and illustrated, the species is rediagnosed and complemented by new biogeographical data. Additionally, a new species of Bistriopelma, B. titicaca sp. nov., from the Puno region in Peru is described, diagnosed and illustrated. An updated general description and distribution map of Bistriopelma are provided.

  11. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communitiesSouth Peru after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Sýkora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, V.; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  12. A new species of the genus Alterosa (Trichoptera: Philopotaminae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abrantes Jardim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philopotamidae is a large caddisfly family with 20 extant genera comprising about 1 000 described species worldwide. Alterosa contains 22 described species distributed in South and Southeastern Brazil. Adults of the genus are very similar in general structure, but are remarkable for their wide variation in male genitalic morphology. The specimens were collected with Pennsylvania light traps and preserved in 80% ethanol. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. is described and figured from male specimens collected in streams of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closely related to A. jordaensis Blahnik 2005, from which it can be distinguished by the presence of two spines on the intermediate appendages and by the shape of tergum X. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 577-580. Epub 2012 June 01.

  13. A new species of Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, 1921 from Peru (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

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    Lars Hendrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agaporomorphus julianeae sp. n. is described from the Biological Field Station Panguana, in Huànuco province of central Peru. The new species belongs to the A. knischi-group sensu Miller 2005. Together with A. knischi Zimmermann, 1921 and A. colberti Miller & Wheeler, 2008 this is the third species of the genus with broadly enlarged male antennomeres. The new species can be separated from A. colberti and A. knischi by the smaller please expanded male antennomere VIII, and the form of the median lobe. Important species characters (median lobe, male antennae, metafemur, colour pattern of the new species and A. knischi are figured, and the habitat, a temporary blackwater forest pond, and its species rich water beetle coenosis are illustrated and described in detail. The Brazilian A. mecolobus Miller, 2001, only known from the type material from Sao Paulo, is here recorded for Minas Gerais. Habitus photos of four additional Agaporomorphus species and Hydrodytes opalinus (Zimmermann, 1921 are provided. Altogether ten species of Agaporomorphus are now known.

  14. Tropical rainforest palm communities in Madre de Dios in Amazonian Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Laumark, Per; Pedersen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    We studied palm communities, in particular species-richness and -abundance, in the tropical rainforests in southeastern Peru in 54 transects (5×500m) covering an area of 13,5 hectares in flood plain, terra firme, terrace and premontane hills. We found 42 palm species in the transects and we found...

  15. First record of the beetle family Throscidae (Insecta: Coleoptera, a new species of Aulonothroscus Horn, and new species records to the fauna of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The beetle family Throscidae is documented from Peru for the first time, based on specimens collected in the regions of Cajamarca, Junín, Loreto and Madre de Dios. Aulonothroscus tambopata new species is described from Madre de Dios. Also, three additional species of Aulonothroscus are reported from Peru for the first time – A. alvarengai Cobos new country record, A. freudi Cobos new country record, and A. oculatissimus Cobos new country record. A key separating these four species is given. This report is part of the “Beetles of Peru” project.

  16. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch species in southeastern Brazil

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    Alessandra F. Viana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The feeding ecology of five elasmobranch species was studied on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The specimens were caught with a trawl or bottom longline between January 2006 and August 2007. The diets of Psammobatis rutrum and Psammobatis extenta appeared to be basically carcino-benthophagous, with a very small niche width. Rioraja agassizii was basically carcino/ichthyo-benthophagous, also with a narrow niche, including teleost fish and shrimp, but in different proportions according to age and sex. Rhizoprionodon lalandii was ichthyophagous, not influenced by age or sex. The analyses of these species and Atlantoraja cyclophora indicated two trophic groups: one composed of the smaller rays, P. extenta and P. rutrum, which basically fed on small crustaceans, polychaetes and nematodes; and the other of R. lalandii and the larger rays R. agassizii and A. cyclophora, which preyed on teleost fish and brachyurans.

  17. 75 FR 18233 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species AGENCY: Fish.... Definitions A. Species includes any species or subspecies of fish, wildlife, or plant, and any distinct... means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range...

  18. Three new species of Pristimantis (Lissamphibia, Anura from montane forests of the Cordillera Yanachaga in Central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe three additional new species of Pristimantis from the Cordillera Yanachaga, a part of the Andes in central Peru. Analyses of DNA sequences of the mitochondrial rRNA genes show that onespecies is a close relative of P. bipunctatus (P. conspicillatus Group, another is a close relative of P. stictogaster (P. peruvianus Group, and the third is related to several species in the P. unistrigatus Group. The first two species are morphologically similar to their closest relatives but occur at lower elevations. Twenty-nine species of Pristimantis and Phrynopus are known from the vicinity of the Cordillera Yanachaga. The number of species, especially of Pristimantis, is high in the humid montane forestin comparison with other sites in humid montane forests in Peru, but the number is lower than on the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador.

  19. [Identification of Leishmania species in patients and phlebotomines in transmission areas in a region of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Ofelia; Vargas, Franklin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo; Gómez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    To identify the species of Leishmania present in the skin lesions of patients and Lutzomyias living in endemic areas of La Libertad, Peru. Molecular methods based on PCR and RFLP were used, which allowed to have efficient data with small amounts of samples (small specimens), due to their high sensitivity and ease of application in the field work. The results of PCR of clinical samples of patients and insect vectors showed the presence of Leishmania (V.) peruviana as a major causative agent of andean leishmaniasis transmitted by Lutzomyia peruensis. The presence of Leishmania (V.) guyanensis in Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, was found as well. The presence of L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) guyanensis in the Andean areas under study was found. These findings remark the need of a wider research about the geographical distribution of L. (V.) guyanensis and clinical features related to the infection in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  20. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided.

  1. A new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek 1909 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil and comments on additional species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras DA Conceição; Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho

    2016-12-14

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil were studied. A new species, Anacroneuria ruschii n. sp. is described. Brief remarks on A. debilis (Pictet) and Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson & Bianchi) are also presented.

  2. Taxonomy and new collections of wild potato species in Central and Southern Peru in 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, A.R.; Spooner, D.M.; Huamán, Z.; Torres Maita, R.V.; Hoekstra, R.; Schüler, K.; Hijmans, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peru contains about half of the described wild potato taxa, and many of these are not yet preserved in genebanks. This paper reports results of the second of a series of five planned collecting expeditions to Peru. Collections were made in the central Peruvian departments of Ancash, Huancavelica, La

  3. A new species of Mesocyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae from Southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo SUÁREZ-MORALES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomical status of several neotropical species of Mesocyclops is still uncertain. Furthermore, several new species with a restricted distributional range have been described recently in this region. From littoral zooplankton samples collected in the lowlands of the State of Tabasco, Southeastern Mexico, male and female specimens of a previously unknown species of Mesocyclops were found. This new species is described herein based on both sexes and following the upgraded standards set for the taxonomic study of this genus, including SEM analysis. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of several characters: the unique shape of the antennular hyaline membrane, the ornamentation of both maxillule and maxilla, the ornamentation of the fourth swimming leg, the shape and structure of the genital receptacle, and the ornamentation of the furcal rami. It is most closely related to other neotropical species such as M. meridianus Kiefer, 1926 and M. pseudomeridianus Defaye & Dussart, 1989. This is the eleventh species of Mesocyclops known from Mexico, and also the third new species described upon Mexican material. Due to the affinity of the Tabasco fauna with the Caribbean and the South American copepod faunas, the new species is expected to have a relatively wide geographical distribution in the neotropical region.

  4. Comparative feeding ecology of four syntopic Hypostomus species in a Brazilian southeastern river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Villares-Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Though their broad distribution in most Brazilian rivers, scarce studies concerning ecological interactions on Hypostomus species are available. This study observes the diet, the trophic interactions and some morphological aspects of four syntopic species of Hypostomus. These fishes were studied at the superior part of the Corumbataí river, at São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Analyses focused feeding patterns, their amplitude and whether there happens some food items overlap among the species. Fish were caught using cast nets at some points of the river. Species were chosen according to their local abundance and, so there were four main species: H. albopunctatus, H. ancistroides, H. regani and H. strigaticeps. Nine food items were found: sediments, fungi, diatoms, green algae, Tecamoeba, vegetal debris and invertebrates. There were not significant differences for the feeding pattern among the four Hypostomus species. The feeding niche amplitude has been larger for H. albopunctatus influenced by a larger amount of vegetal debris and invertebrates. Elevated niche overlap was found to happen among the species and also for their trophic morphology. Results may suggest that there is a similar pattern in food taken between four species of Hypostomus analyzed since all consume similar environmental resources and have similar anatomical features. However, a different intake insect larvae and plant material in H. albopunctatus diet indicate differences in local and how this species may be exploring their food compared to the others.

  5. Otocinclus batmani, a new species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Colombia and Peru

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    Pablo Lehmann A.

    Full Text Available A new species of the hypoptopomatine catfish genus Otocinclus is described from two localities in the upper Río Amazonas basin: a tributary of the Río Puré in Colombia and two tributaries to the Río Amazonas near Iquitos in Peru. The new taxon can be easily distinguished from all congeners, except Otocinclus cocama, by having a single, intensely pigmented, vertical W-shaped caudal fin spot and by having three discrete dark bands on dorsum, between the dorsal-fin base and the caudal fin. Otocinclus batmani differs from O. cocama by the absence of vertically elongated blotches from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by lacking a posterior extension of black pigmentation on the base of two central caudal-fin rays. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is possibly more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. mariae, O. bororo, O. mura, and O. cocama.

  6. Chrysobrycon yoliae, a new species of stevardiin (Characiformes: Characidae from the Ucayali basin, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon yoliae, new species, is described from a drainage flowing into the río Yucamia basin, río Ucayali basin, Peru. Chrysobrycon yoliaeis readily distinguished from its congeners by the anterior tip of pelvic bone situated anterior to the fifth rib (vs. situated posterior to the fifth rib, the presence of 20-26 dentary teeth (vs. 11-19, and the possession of a terminal lateral-line tube between caudal-fin rays 10 and 11 (vs. the absence of this tube, except in C. eliasi. The new species differs from C. eliasiand C. myersiby the presence of teeth on third pharyngobranchial (vs. the absence of teeth on this bone and also differs from C. eliasiby the dorsal-fin origin situated at vertical through anal-fin rays 5 to 7 (vs. located at vertical through anal-fin rays 8 to 10, the posterior extent of the ventral process of quadrate reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic (vs. not reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic, the dorsal-fin to adipose-fin length 26.8-28.8% SL (vs. 23.9-26.8% SL, and the body depth at dorsal-fin origin 34.4-42.2% SL (vs. 24.1-34.5% SL. A key for the identification of Chrysobryconspecies is provided.

  7. A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Moraes, Ricardo; Ferreira, Rodrigo Barbosa; Fouquet, Antoine; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2014-08-04

    The genus Adelophryne is composed of diminutive frogs occurring in northern Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. Herein we describe a new species of Adelophryne found in the leaf litter of primary and secondary forests in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, two phalanges in the finger IV, and a glandular ridge line that runs from the posterior part of eye to the insertion of the forelimb. This species is sensitive to edge effect and conversion of native forest into coffee and Eucalyptus plantations and may be listed as Endangered (EN) under B1ab(iii) criteria of the IUCN Red List.

  8. A new species of Masteria (Araneae: Dipluridae: Masteriinae from southeastern Brazil

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    Denis Rafael Pedroso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995 from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.

  9. Potential effects of arboreal and terrestrial avian dispersers on seed dormancy, seed germination and seedling establishment in Ormosia (Papilionoideae) species in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of arboreal or terrestrial birds at dispersing seeds of Ormosia macrocalyx and O. bopiensis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) were studied in south-eastern Peru. Seeds of both species were either scarified, to represent seed condition after dispersal by terrestrial birds, or left intact, to represent seed condition after dispersal by arboreal birds. Seeds were distributed along forest transects, and germination, seedling development and mortality were monitored to determine the successes of the two groups at producing seedlings. Scarified seeds germinated with the early rains of the dry-to-wet-season transition, when erratic rainfall was interspersed with long dry spells. Intact seeds germinated 30 d later when the rain was more plentiful and regular. Intact seeds of O. macrocalyx gave rise to significantly more seedlings (41.1% vs. 25.5%) than did scarified seeds, in part, because significantly more seedlings from scarified seeds (n = 20) than from intact seeds (n = 3) died from desiccation when their radicles failed to enter the dry ground present during the dry-to-wet-season transition. Also, seedlings from scarified seeds were neither larger nor more robust than those from intact seeds despite their longer growing period. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that dispersal effectiveness of arboreal birds, at least for O. macrocalyx, is greater than that of terrestrial birds. Screen-house experiments in which seedlings developed under different watering regimes supported this result. Numbers of seedlings developing from intact and scarified seeds of O. bopiensis did not differ significantly.

  10. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

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    Eric Tepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  11. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  12. New species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Fábio F; Melo, Bruno F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-02-15

    A new species of Parotocinclus is described from tributaries of rio São João, an Atlantic coastal river of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the possession of a triangular patch of dark pigmentation on the anterior portion of the dorsal-fin base, a fully developed adipose fin, complete exposure of the ventral surface of the pectoral girdle, and a distinctive pigmentation pattern of the caudal fin. The caudal fin has a hyaline background with a large black blotch covering its anterior portion, tapering irregularly through distal portions of the ventral lobe with a hyaline rounded area, and a small patch of dark pigmentation on distal portions of the dorsal lobe.

  13. Bats from Fazenda Intervales, Southeastern Brazil: species account and comparison between different sampling methods

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    Christine V. Portfors

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.

  14. Colletotrichum species associated with jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) anthracnose in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoping; Gao, Hong; Qi, Jianmin; Chen, Miancai; Tao, Aifen; Xu, Jiantang; Dai, Zhigang; Su, Jianguang

    2016-04-28

    Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China. Multi-locus sequence (ACT, TUB2, CAL, GS, GAPDH and ITS) analysis coupled with morphological assessment revealed that C. fructicola, C. siamense and C. corchorum-capsularis sp. nov. were associated with jute anthracnose in southeastern China. C. fructicola and C. siamense were previously not associated with jute anthracnose. C. corchorum-capsularis is a new species formally described here. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that all species can infect jute, causing anthracnose, however the virulence of the 3 species differed. This report is the first associating these three species with jute disease worldwide and is the first description of the pathogens responsible for jute anthracnose in China.

  15. A new species of the genus Alterosa (Trichoptera: Philopotaminae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Gabriela Abrantes Jardim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philopotamidae is a large caddisfly family with 20 extant genera comprising about 1 000 described species worldwide. Alterosa contains 22 described species distributed in South and Southeastern Brazil. Adults of the genus are very similar in general structure, but are remarkable for their wide variation in male genitalic morphology. The specimens were collected with Pennsylvania light traps and preserved in 80% ethanol. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. is described and figured from male specimens collected in streams of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closely related to A. jordaensis Blahnik 2005, from which it can be distinguished by the presence of two spines on the intermediate appendages and by the shape of tergum X. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 577-580. Epub 2012 June 01.Philopotamidae es una familia grande de tricópteros la cual está actualmente compuesta por 20 géneros y cerca de 1 000 especies descritas en todo el mundo. El género Alterosa posee 22 especies descritas y están distribuidas en el sur y sureste de Brasil. Los adultos del género son muy similares en su estructura general, pero se diferencian por su amplia variación presente en la morfología de la genitalia masculina. Los ejemplares fueron recolectados en trampas luminosas Pennsylvania y conservados en etanol al 80%. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. es descrita e ilustrada basada en ejemplares machos recolectados en el estado de Río de Janeiro, sureste de Brasil. La nueva especie es similar a A. jordaensis Blahnik, 2005, pero puede ser diferenciada por la presencia de dos espinas en los apéndices intermediarios y por la forma del tergo X.

  16. Potential effects of forestry operations and associated best management practices on riparian wildlife species in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke M. Warrington; W. Michael Aust; Scott M. Barrett; W. Mark Ford; M. Chad Bolding; Andy Dolloff

    2016-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service is considering the addition of 374 riparian and aquatic species in the southeastern United States to the federal Threated and Endangered Species List. This recommendation is a result of a 2011 petition, which recognized forest operations as having negative effects on 51 percent of the listed species, citing research conducted in the...

  17. Acrolophyses, a new seed bug genus and two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Myodochini) from forest-canopy fogging in Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new myodochine (Rhyparochromidae) genus Acrolophyses is described to accommodate the two new species A. aboricolous from Ecuador and Peru, designated as the type species, and A. hadros from Ecuador. The new species are diagnosed and described, and adult photographs, scanning electron photomicro...

  18. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa J.D. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L. L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  19. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  20. Bat community species richness and composition in a restinga protected area in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, M; Esbérard, C E L; Vieira, T B; Mendes, P; Pimenta, V T; Brito, D; Ditchfield, A D

    2009-11-01

    In Brazil, restingas are under severe human-induced impacts resulting in habitat degradation and loss and remain one of the less frequently studied ecosystems. The main objectives of the present study are to describe the bat community in a restinga in Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Guarapari municipality, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted twice a month from August 2004 to September 2005. A total sampling effort of 40,300 m(2)/h, represents the largest sampling effort for sampling bats in restingas to date. Bats were sampled in five different vegetational types in the area. Captured bats were processed recording information on species, sex, age, forearm length and weight. Shannon Diversity and Jaccard indexes were used to analyse diversity and similarity among habitats in the Park. A total of 554 captures belonging to 14 species and two families were obtained. Noctilio leporinus was recorded through direct observation and an ultra-sound detector also registered the presence of individuals from the family Molossidae, without being possible to distinguish it at specific level. Frugivores were the most representative guild. Richness was higher in Clusia shrubs (11 species) and Caraís lagoon (10 species). Shannon diversity index was estimated at H' = 1.43 for the overall sample, with Caraís lagoon representing the most diverse habitat (H' = 1.60). The greater similarity (J = 0.714) was observed for the two areas under high human influence.

  1. Bat community species richness and composition in a restinga protected area in Southeastern Brazil

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    M. Oprea

    Full Text Available In Brazil, restingas are under severe human-induced impacts resulting in habitat degradation and loss and remain one of the less frequently studied ecosystems. The main objectives of the present study are to describe the bat community in a restinga in Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Guarapari municipality, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted twice a month from August 2004 to September 2005. A total sampling effort of 40,300 m²/h, represents the largest sampling effort for sampling bats in restingas to date. Bats were sampled in five different vegetational types in the area. Captured bats were processed recording information on species, sex, age, forearm length and weight. Shannon Diversity and Jaccard indexes were used to analyse diversity and similarity among habitats in the Park. A total of 554 captures belonging to 14 species and two families were obtained. Noctilio leporinus was recorded through direct observation and an ultra-sound detector also registered the presence of individuals from the family Molossidae, without being possible to distinguish it at specific level. Frugivores were the most representative guild. Richness was higher in Clusia shrubs (11 species and Caraís lagoon (10 species. Shannon diversity index was estimated at H' = 1.43 for the overall sample, with Caraís lagoon representing the most diverse habitat (H' = 1.60. The greater similarity (J = 0.714 was observed for the two areas under high human influence.

  2. Species of Macrostomum (Macrostomorpha: Macrostomidae) from the coastal region of Lima, Peru, with comments on M. rostratum Papi, 1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jhoe; Brusa, Francisco

    2017-12-05

    Species of Macrostomum are present in almost all regions of the world. These flatworms occur in different kinds of environments, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. Although Peru is considered one of the megadiverse countries in South America, little is known about freshwater microturbellarians in this country. Here we report the presence of M. rostratum Papi, 1951 for the first time in Peru, in a coastal brackish water wetland, and that of M. quiritium Beklemischev, 1951 and M. tuba Graff, 1882 in an inland portion of a river near the city of Lima. All the species were studied alive. Comments on the habitat and associated fauna are given. Detailed information on the copulatory system is provided for M. rostratum; the male system has a bilobed seminal vesicle with thick walls and full of spindle-shaped sperm cells, and a stylet in the form of a solid curved inverted cone with a subterminal opening located on the concave side of the stylet. These findings led us to suggest that M. rostratum may exhibit a hypodermic mating syndrome. The three species of Macrostomum reported here are widespread and, although the diagnostic characters of the species are present, some morphological differences in the copulatory stylet suggest they are cryptic species.

  3. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

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    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  4. Monitoring for Phytophthora ramorum and other species of Phytophthora in nurseries and urban areas in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi A. Wamishe; Steven N. Jeffers; Jaesoon Hwang

    2008-01-01

    Nurseries in the southeastern United States that received ornamental plants in 2004 colonized by Phytophthora ramorum and the surrounding urban areas are being monitored to determine if this pathogen has escaped and become established. At the same time, the prevalence and diversity of other species of Phytophthora are being...

  5. Re-characterization of the Red-lip Megalobulimus (Gastropoda: Strophocheilidae from Peru with description of a new species

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    Victor Borda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Megalobulimus K. Miller, 1878 is a genus of land snails that includes the largest living snails in the Neotropics. The main goal of this paper was to review all species of Megalobulimus that have a red lip, and which are distributed in Peru. We carried out a detailed description of their shells and soft parts, and conducted a multivariate analysis on their shells and geographic distribution. There are two species reported from Peru, Megalobulimus capillaceus (Pfeiffer, 1855 and Megalobulimus separabilis (Fulton, 1903. Megalobulimus capillaceus is known to occur in three regions - San Martín, Huánuco and Cusco - but the Cusco population is undoubtedly different from all remaining populations, and is recognized herein as a new species, Megalobulimus florezi sp. nov. This species has a more elongated shell, penis club-shaped, epiphallus longer, and free oviduct longer than M. capillaceus. By contrast, the male genitalia of M. separabilis is filiform and does not present an external diverticulum in the free oviduct.

  6. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; YAN, Fang; LI, Pi-Peng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed. PMID:26828031

  7. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae from Peru, with comments on the osteology of the genus

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    Linda Trueb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, small species of Phrynopus is described from the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental just north of the Río Huallaga in central Peru. The species resembles P. montium, but is distinguished from it and other congeners by its spatulate snout. The anterior end of the maxillary arcade is broadly rounded in dorsal view, and composed of wide premaxillae that bear extraordinarily large alary processes that are deflected posteriorly at an acute angle. The configuration of the premaxillae accounts for the wide, depressed snout in this species, which in other osteological features resembles P. montium. The osteology of Phrynopus montium is described in some detail in comparison to the new species, with theintention of establishing a baseline for future morphological studies and taxonomic descriptions of strabomantine anurans of this and related genera.

  8. A new skipper species for Peru: Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeña, José Alfredo; Huamaní, Erick; Delgado, Rómulo; Lamas, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez para Perú al raro hespérido Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previamente citado de Ecuador y Bolivia. The rare skipper Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previously cited from Ecuador and Bolivia is reported for the first time in Peru.

  9. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communities after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Sykora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, Victor; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  10. Revision of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Upper Madeira Basin of Bolivia and Peru, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jack M; Correa-roldÁn, Vanessa; Ortega, HernÁn; Crampton, William G R; Albert, James S

    2018-04-20

    Banded Knifefishes (Gymnotus, Gymnotidae) comprise the most species-rich genus of Neotropical electric fishes, with 41 species currently described from throughout the humid Neotropics, from Mexico to Argentina. Despite substantial alpha-taxonomic work in recent years, the diversity of Gymnotus in some regions remains poorly understood. Here we describe the Gymnotus fauna of the Upper Madeira basin of Bolivia and Peru from examination of more than 240 adult specimens. Species are delimited and described using body proportions (traditional morphometrics), fin-ray, squamation and laterosensory-pore counts (meristics), quantitative shape differences (geometric morphometrics), osteological traits, and color patterns. Comparisons of standardized linear measures as well as multivariate statistical methods validate the presence in the Upper Madeira basin of three previously described species, two with wide-spread geographic distributions throughout Greater Amazonia (G. carapo and G. coropinae), and one (G. chaviro) endemic to southwestern Amazonia. We also diagnose and describe two new species that are endemic to the Upper Madeira basin: G. eyra n. sp., morphologically most similar to G. mamiraua from lowland Amazonia, and G. riberalta n. sp., morphologically most similar to G. pantanal from the Paraguay-Paraná basin. The five Gymnotus species from the Upper Madeira basin are not monophyletic, each species being more closely related to a different species from another region; i.e. the Gymnotus species from the Upper Madeira represents a polyphyletic assemblage. These descriptions to 43 the number of valid Gymnotus species.

  11. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Steven P.; Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Sylvester, Mitsy D.P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa’s by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected. PMID:27489489

  12. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g"−"1 lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g"−"1 lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  13. A new species of Pacholenus Schoenherr from southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, and new occurrences of species of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Antonio Vanin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pacholenus Schoenherr from southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, and new occurrences of species of the genus. Pacholenus monteiroi sp. nov. (type-locality Brazil, Rio de Janeiro state, Carapebus, Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba is described and illustrated. The weevil develops as a stem gall-former in Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng (Myrtaceae. The new species is easily distinguished from the other five known of the genus by the presence of a prominent supra-ocular ridge. An updated key for identification for all species of Pacholenus is provided. Three species of Pacholenus are presently recorded for the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo; P. pelliceus and P. monteiroi occur in both states, while P. penicillus is only known from Rio de Janeiro; P. hispidus occurs in São Paulo, being the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from Minas Gerais south to Santa Catarina.Nova espécie de Pacholenus Schoenherr do sudeste do Brasil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, e novas ocorrências de espécies do gênero. Pacholenus monteiroi sp. nov. (localidade-tipo Brasil, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Carapebus, Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba é descrita e ilustrada. Esse gorgulho se desenvolve em galhas caulinares de Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng (Myrtaceae. A nova espécie é facilmente distinta das outras cinco conhecidas do gênero devido à presença de uma crista supra-ocular proeminente. Uma chave atualizada para identificação das espécies de Pacholenus é fornecida. Três espécies de Pacholenus ocorrem nos estado do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo; P. pelliceus e P. monteiroi ocorrem em ambos os estados, enquanto que P. penicillus apenas no Rio de Janeiro; P. hispidus ocorre em São Paulo, sendo a espécie do gênero com a distribuição mais ampla, sendo encontrada desde Minas Gerais até Santa Catarina.

  14. Floral visitors and reproductive strategies in five melittophilous species of Bignoniaceae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko A. N. Pinto Yanagizawa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pollination strategies of Bignoniaceae, the floral biology and the floral visitors in five species, three cerrado shrubs (Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC. Bor., Jacaranda decurrens Cham., and Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham., and two lianas from the border of a semideciduous seasonal forest (Arrabidaea samydoides (Cham. Sandw., and Arrabidaea triplinervia H. Baill. were studied in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The flowering periods were partially overlapping, especially between species in the same habitat. All the five species were functionally allogamous, melittophilous, nototribic and mainly pollinated by long tongued large bees. Some medium-sized and small pollen-foraging bees were occasional legitimate visitors, whereas others visitors were robbers/thieves. Each species showed a particular set of pollinators. Only two pollinator species were observed in more than one bignon. There was no partition of pollinators even among the species of bignons blooming at the same time at the same habitat.Com objetivo de avaliar as estratégias de polinização de espécies de Bignoniaceae, foram estudados a biologia floral e os visitantes florais de cinco espécies, três arbustivas do cerrado (Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC. Bor., Jacaranda decurrens Cham. e Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham. e duas lianas da orla da floresta estacional semidecidual (Arrabidaea samydoides (Cham. Sandw. e Arrabidaea triplinervia H. Baill., na região de Botucatu (22º52'20" S e 48(026'37" W, estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os períodos de florescimento, principalmente entre espécies do mesmo habitat, apresentaram sobreposição parcial. Observou-se que as cinco espécies são alogâmicas funcionais, melitófilas, nototríbicas, polinizadas principalmente por abelhas grandes de língua comprida. Algumas abelhas coletoras de pólen de tamanho médio e pequeno atuaram como polinizadoras ocasionais, enquanto outros visitantes foram pilhadores. Cada

  15. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n2p113 This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  16. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ....' Gopher frogs inhabit xeric upland pine communities of the Southeastern Coastal Plain from the southern half of the North Carolina coastal plain to southern Florida and westward to eastern Louisiana...

  17. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  18. Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Chamorro, Marinoli Rivas; Moreira, Natalia Molina; del Rosario Cuadros Negri, María Luisa; Olivera, Jose

    2013-05-30

    Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviaciónin Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in

  19. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of teleost fi shes from the Amazon River in Peru: additional records as an evidence of unexplored species diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2015), s. 149-163 ISSN 0035-418X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Catfish * freshwater fish * Siluriformes * Peru * Pimelodidae * Amazonia * species diversity * faunal survey Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.431, year: 2015

  20. Three new species of Macrelmis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae) from Southeastern Brazil with new definition of species groups to the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos, Maria Inês Silva; De Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-16

    Three new species of Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859 are described and illustrated based on adult males from Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo states (southeastern Brazil). A new species groups definition is proposed for the genus, with a redefinition of the former six (aristeae sp. group, celsa sp. group, isus sp. group, granigera sp. group, milleri sp. group and striata sp. group) and designation of four new groups (alea new sp. group, amazonica new sp. group, grandis new sp. group and jureceki new sp. group). The male genitalia of M. clypeata is illustrated for the first time and distributional maps for all species of the genus are provided.

  1. DNA barcoding discriminates freshwater fishes from southeastern Nigeria and provides river system-level phylogeographic resolution within some species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher D; Becker, Sven; Braid, Heather E; Ude, Emmanuel F; Okogwu, Okechukwu I; Hanner, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Fishes are the main animal protein source for human beings and play a vital role in aquatic ecosystems and food webs. Fish identification can be challenging, especially in the tropics (due to high diversity), and this is particularly true for larval forms or fragmentary remains. DNA barcoding, which uses the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as a target gene, is an efficient method for standardized species-level identification for biodiversity assessment and conservation, pending the establishment of reference sequence libraries. In this study, fishes were collected from three rivers in southeastern Nigeria, identified morphologically, and imaged digitally. DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified, and the standard barcode region was bidirectionally sequenced for 363 individuals belonging to 70 species in 38 genera. All specimen provenance data and associated sequence information were recorded in the barcode of life data systems (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org ). Analytical tools on BOLD were used to assess the performance of barcoding to identify species. Using neighbor-joining distance comparison, the average genetic distance was 60-fold higher between species than within species, as pairwise genetic distance estimates averaged 10.29% among congeners and only 0.17% among conspecifics. Despite low levels of divergence within species, we observed river system-specific haplotype partitioning within eight species (11.4% of all species). Our preliminary results suggest that DNA barcoding is very effective for species identification of Nigerian freshwater fishes.

  2. Novadessus viracocha, a new genus and species of Bidessini Sharp from Peru (Coleoptera, Adephaga, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Novadessus viracocha gen. n. and sp. n. is described from Peru. The genus distinctly is characterized by having the following combination: (1 a transverse occipital line absent on the head; (2 the anterior clypeal margin not modified; (3 a pair of basal pronotal striae present; (4 the basal elytral stria absent; (5 the elytral sutural stria absent; (6 the elytron without longitudinal carinae; (7 the epipleuron without a transverse carina at the humeral angle; (8 the lateral lobes of the male aedeagus two-segmented; (9 the overall habitus elongate and oval, with lateral pronotal and elytral margins discontinuous; (10 without distinct denticles along the posterior margins of the abdominal sternites; (11 the male genitalia (both median lobe and lateral lobes bilaterally symmetrical; and (12 the metatrochanter small relative to the metafemur, approximately 0.6 × the length of the metafemur. The genus is diagnostically similar to Fontidessus Miller and Spangler and Neobidessodes Hendrich and Balke, but is superficially more similar to Liodessus Guignot. The habitus and male genitalia are illustrated, and a distribution map is provided.

  3. Nutrient regeneration by zooplankton during a red tide off Peru, with notes on biomass and species composition of zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    During March and April 1976, a red tide, dominated by the dinoflagallate Gymnodinium splendens Lebour, developed in the vicinity of 15/sup 0/O6'S and 76/sup 0/31'W off Peru. At the height of the bloom, the euphotic zone was 6 m deep and the chlorophyll a at the surface was 48 ..mu..g 1/sup -1/. A daily collection of zooplankton at 09.00 hrs showed large fluctuations of biomass, from 0.2 to 3.84 g dry weight m/sup -2/ in a water column of 120 m. Copepodids and nauplii dominated the collections. During a period of reduced wind, the adult copepods were a mixture of the species characteristic of the coastal upwelling system and the neritic species associated with more northerly, tropical waters. Nitrogen regeneration by the zooplankton varied with the development of the bloom, the type of zooplankton dominating the experiment, and biomass fluctuations, but never accounted for more than 25% of the nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton.

  4. Native Rodent Species Are Unlikely Sources of Infection for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in Madre de Dios, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shender, Lisa A.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-born...

  5. Euglossa williamsi, a new species of orchid bee from the Amazon Basin of Ecuador and Peru, with notes on its taxonomic association and biogeography (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Hinojosa-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Euglossawilliamsi sp. n. is here described from the lowland Amazonianregion in Ecuador and Peru, and as part of a small species assemblage within Euglossa consisting of E. dodsoni Moure and E. obtusa Dressler. An identification key to the males of the group is provided plus detailed figures of the new species and representative illustrations for the others. A brief discussion of the taxonomic and biogeographical implications of the new species is provided. New records in Honduras and Nicaragua are provided for the related E. dodsoni.

  6. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878): distributions and sympatry of four tamarin species in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W.; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367–371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix’s black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells’ black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarin species are of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them. PMID:20878203

  7. Review of the Trifolium amabile Complex in Peru, with the Description of a New Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio Molinari-Novoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe Trifolium absconditum sp. nov., a new species of the T. amabile complex from South America. It differs from other Peruvian Trifolia of the complex by having smaller stipules, leaves, inflorescences, and floral pieces. A key for Peruvian species of the complex is presented, and typifications for them are made when necessary and material is available in Peruvian herbaria. Thus, the number of Peruvian species in the complex is elevated to three: T. amabile, T. absconditum, and a resurrected T. peruvianum. Finally, it is suggested that Chile must be excluded from the distribution of this complex.

  8. Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Mariajosé; Andía, Juan Manuel

    2014-07-02

    Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described and illustrated; Alpaida losamigos n. sp. based on females from Madre de Dios, and Alpaida penca n. sp. based on females and males from Cajamarca.

  9. A new species of Metapelopia Silva, Oliveira & Trivinho-Strixino (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Araujo, Ana A Huamantinco

    2016-07-08

    A new species of the monotypic genus Metapelopia is described and illustrated based on all life stages. Adults of the Metapelopia peruensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from those of M. corbii by the color pattern of the legs and abdomen. Larvae and pupae were collected associated with algae accumulated on rocks.

  10. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  11. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  12. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  13. Lianas, tree ferns and understory species: indicators of conservation status in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest remnants, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, A C D; Coelho, S; Cardoso-Leite, E

    2017-01-01

    Indicators are applied faster and at lower costs than conventional surveys, providing quick and efficient responses that can facilitate protected areas management. Our aim was to select indicators from vegetation to monitor protected areas. For this purpose, we analyzed understory and quantified lianas and tree ferns in protected and non-protected areas, in order to find indicator species. Our study areas are located in Vale do Ribeira, southeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. One of the areas is under two protection categories (IUCN's categories II and V), and the other is a privately owned farm. Lianas with large diameters (> 13 cm) and tree ferns with great heights (> 19 m) were considered indicators of undisturbed areas (protected areas) because their growth is directly related to forest successional stage. Indicator species within the protected area were shade tolerant species, such as Bathysa australis (A.St.-Hil.) K.Schum., whereas outside the protected area were pioneer species, such as Pera glabrata (Schott) Poepp. ex Baill. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness. All of the suggested indicators can be used in management actions, especially in protected areas, to guarantee forest maintenance and ensure fulfillment of the conservation objectives of these areas.

  14. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.

  15. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  16. Lianas, tree ferns and understory species: indicators of conservation status in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest remnants, southeastern Brazil

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    A. C. D. Castello

    Full Text Available Abstract Indicators are applied faster and at lower costs than conventional surveys, providing quick and efficient responses that can facilitate protected areas management. Our aim was to select indicators from vegetation to monitor protected areas. For this purpose, we analyzed understory and quantified lianas and tree ferns in protected and non-protected areas, in order to find indicator species. Our study areas are located in Vale do Ribeira, southeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. One of the areas is under two protection categories (IUCN's categories II and V, and the other is a privately owned farm. Lianas with large diameters (> 13 cm and tree ferns with great heights (> 19 m were considered indicators of undisturbed areas (protected areas because their growth is directly related to forest successional stage. Indicator species within the protected area were shade tolerant species, such as Bathysa australis (A.St.-Hil. K.Schum., whereas outside the protected area were pioneer species, such as Pera glabrata (Schott Poepp. ex Baill. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness. All of the suggested indicators can be used in management actions, especially in protected areas, to guarantee forest maintenance and ensure fulfillment of the conservation objectives of these areas.

  17. Osmia species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae from the southeastern United States with modified facial hairs: taxonomy, host plants, and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rightmyer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe females and males of Osmia (Melanosmia calaminthae sp. n., an apparent floral specialist on Calamintha ashei (Lamiaceae, and provide observations on the behavior of female bees on flowers of this plant. We also provide diagnostic information for Osmia (Diceratosmia conjunctoides Robertson, stat. n., and synonymize O. (Diceratosmia subfasciata miamiensis Mitchell with O. conjunctoides syn. n. Females of both O. calaminthae and O. conjunctoides are unique among North American Osmia forshort, erect, simple facial hairs, which are apparent adaptations for collecting pollen from nototribic flowers. Osmia calaminthae is currently only known from sandy scrub at four nearby sites in the southern Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, USA, while O. conjunctoides is known from limited but widespread sites in the southeastern USA. We discuss the conservation status of both species based on known or speculated floral associates and distributions.

  18. Landscape Metrics to Assess Habitat Suitability for Conversation Bird Species in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dove, Linda

    2001-01-01

    .... The degree to which a given species is affected by habitat fragmentation is dependent on the complex interaction of the habitat requirements of the species and the shape, size, and makeup of the fragmented habitat...

  19. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ...; one is a candidate species for listing as Threatened or Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the other two are former candidates now unofficially considered 'Species of Concern...

  20. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and genotype diversity in select wildlife species from the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Gerhold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects humans and other animals. Previous studies indicate some genotypes of T. gondii are more frequently isolated in wildlife than agricultural animals, suggesting a wild/feral animal diversity model. To determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii in southeastern US wildlife, we collected sera from 471 wild animals, including 453 mammals and 18 birds, between 2011 and 2014. These serum samples were assayed for T. gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Heart or tongue tissues from 66 seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice and 19 isolates were obtained. The isolated parasites were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method employing 10 genetic markers. Results One hundred and ninety-six of 471 samples (41.6% had a titer ≥1:32 and were considered positive for T. gondii infection. Of 453 mammals, 195 (43% were seropositive, whereas only one (5.6% of 18 birds was seropositive. The seroprevalence in mammals was significantly higher than in the birds. Mammalian hosts with adequate samples size (≥ 20 comprised white-tailed deer (n = 241, feral hogs (n = 100, raccoons (n = 34 and coyotes (n = 22, with seroprevalences of 41.0%, 51.0%, 50.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Coyotes had significantly higher seroprevalence than the white-tailed deer. Genotyping revealed five distinct genotypes, including the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #5 (a.k.a type 12 for 15 isolates, genotype #3 (a.k.a. type II for 1 isolate, and genotypes #154, #167 and #216, each for 1 isolate. The results showed moderate to high infection rates of T. gondii in white-tailed deer, feral hogs, raccoons and coyotes. Genotyping results indicated limited genetic diversity and a dominance of genotype #5, which has been reported as a major type in wildlife in North America. Conclusions We conclude that T. gondii

  1. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba of Southeastern Brazil

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    M. Cunha-Barros

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62; 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7; 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12; and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21. Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02. For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  2. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a Restinga habitat (Jurubatiba) of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F

    2003-08-01

    We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  3. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R.; Chaparro, Juan C.; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W.; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  4. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas; Day, Richard H; Doyle, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970-2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Woody Species Diversity in Traditional Agroforestry Practices of Dellomenna District, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implication for Maintaining Native Woody Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiot Molla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major impact of humans on forest ecosystems including loss of forest area, habitat fragmentation, and soil degradation leads to losses of biodiversity. These problems can be addressed by integration of agriculture with forests and maintaining the existing forests. This study was initiated to assess woody species diversity of traditional agroforestry practices. Three study sites (Burkitu, Chire, and Erba were selected based on the presence of agroforestry practice. Forty-eight (48 sample quadrants having an area of 20 m × 20 m, 16 sample quadrants in each study site, were systematically laid using four transect lines at different distance. The diversity of woody species was analyzed by using different diversity indices. A total of 55 woody species belonging to 31 families were identified and documented. There were significantly different (P<0.05 among the study Kebeles (peasant associations. Mangifera indica, Entada abyssinica, and Croton macrostachyus were found to have the highest Important Value Index. The results confirmed that traditional agroforestry plays a major role in the conservation of native woody species. However, threats to woody species were observed. Therefore, there is a need to undertake conservation practices before the loss of species.

  6. Description of two new species of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini from southeastern United States

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    Yves Bousquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Clivina Latreille are described. One, C. choatei Bousquet & Skelley, belongs to the nominotypical subgenus and is known from six specimens collected in northern Florida. The species is structurally similar to C. myops Bousquet, known only from the holotype found in North Carolina, but differs among others by its smaller size and wider elytral striae. The second species, C. alabama Bousquet, belongs to the subgenus Antroforceps Barr and is known from two specimens collected in north-central Alabama. The species is structurally most similar to C. sasajii Ball, known only from Latimer County in Oklahoma, but differs among others in the absence of eyes and inthe pronotum and elytra proportionally wider.

  7. Species Profile: Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    1998-01-01

    .... The species was listed as Federally endangered in 1976 throughout its range by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, primarily due to human disturbance, environ- mental disturbance, and impoundment of waterways...

  8. Copper tolerance of three Crotalaria species from southeastern D.R. Congo at the early development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boisson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Microevolutionary processes in metallophytes established on copper enriched soils can lead to a diversity of plant species showing distinct tolerance capacities among genus. Researches about the relationship between these endangered plants and soil copper concentrations are critical in order to improve ex situ conservation methods in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Katangan Copperbelt. Objectives. The aim of the study was to test the effect of copper on the germination and root elongation of three Crotalaria species naturally occurring along a natural copper gradient. The hypothesis is that copper concentrations have different effects on germination and root elongation according to the species of Crotalaria genus. Method. Three species were selected: Crotalaria cobalticola, Crotalaria peschiana and Crotalaria cornetii, occurring on soils with the highest to the lowest copper concentrations respectively. Germination and root elongation tests were performed in vitro (MS vitamin-enriched medium in six copper mediums ranging from 0 to 125 µM Cu2+. Results. No significant differences in germination percentage were observed according to the copper concentrations. Crotalaria cornetii had the lowest germination percentage. Root elongation of C. peschiana did not differ with copper concentration, but root elongation of C. cobalticola was higher at the greatest copper concentration (125 µM Cu2+. Conclusions. Even if C. cobalticola presented better growth at highest Cu concentrations, it appeared that C. cobalticola and C. peschiana do not require copper for their early stages of development and could thus be conserved in non-contaminated substrate. Crotalaria cornetii seemed to present a physical seed dormancy.

  9. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  10. Revision of the Agrilus adonis species-group (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilini with description of sixteen new species from southeastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Jendek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The newly defined Agrilus adonis species-group comprising thirty taxa from Southeast Asia is revised based on the examination of type specimens. The taxonomic concept and distribution of all known taxa is reexamined for the first time since they were described. The complete commented bibliographic data are given for each name. The key to species is provided and complemented with illustration of habitus and genitalia. Images of all primary types are also included. The distribution of selected species is shown on maps. The following sixteen new species are described: Agrilus acrobeles sp. nov.; A. bunsu sp. nov.; A. cechovskyi sp. nov.; A. curiosus sp. nov.; A. garo sp. nov.; A. iban sp. nov.; A. jakli sp. nov.; A. kuchingi sp. nov.; A. lembik sp. nov.; A. meratus sp. nov.; A. orangulu sp. nov.; A. serratus sp. nov.; A. strbai sp. nov.; A. upsilon sp. nov.; A. vir sp. nov. and A. xiphos sp. nov.. The name emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 is removed from the synonymy of Agrilus perlisensis Fisher 1936 and revalidated as the name for species A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963. Nine new synonyms are proposed: Agrilus adonis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. perlisensis Fisher, 1936 syn. nov. = A. testor Kerremnas, 1900 syn. nov.; A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 (= A. deuvei Baudon, 1965 syn. nov. = A. souvannavongsi Baudon, 1968 syn. nov.; A. famulus Kerremans, 1900 (= A. convergens Fisher, 1930 syn. nov. = A. japanensis Obenberger, 1935 syn. nov.; A. insularis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. nigrocyaneus Deyrolle, 1864 syn. nov. = A. falsulus Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov.; A. malasicus Fisher, 1930 (=A. bettotanus Fisher, 1930 syn. nov.. Some of those names were already treated as invalid ones but in the synonymy of different species. Their taxonomic history is recognizable from commented references cited at each name.

  11. Densities and species composition of the avifauna of the Los Medanos WIPP site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, J.D.; Haydock, J.

    1981-01-01

    Data were gathered in various habitat types to determine annual fluctuations in species diversity and relative abundance, breeding densities, reproductive success of White-necked Ravens and Harris Hawks, fall and spring migrant species and to collect voucher specimens for the site. Four Emlen transects were surveyed in four habitat types during the summer of 1980. These transects were used monthly in May, June and July to determine densities of breeding and non-breeding birds. Active White-necked Raven and Harris Hawk nests were located by checking all conspicuous nests. The nests were checked several times during the nesting stage to determine nest success. During 1980, eleven new species and two new families were added to the list of birds seen on or near the WIPP site. The list now totals 133 species representing 38 families. White-necked Raven nesting success was slightly lower in 1980 than in 1979. Average clutch size in 1980 was 5.5, which is 3.5% less than in 1979 and 19% greater than in 1978. The average number of birds fledged per nest was surprisingly similar over the past three years despite fairly large climatic differences. Success of Harris Hawk nesting was very low in the autumn of 1980 due principally to bad weather. The overall density of breeding birds was lower in 1980 than in 1979 in all habitat types. The overall density was also lower in 1980 than in 1978 in all habitat types except mesquite-grassland. Many species showed larger year-to-year fluctuations in numbers. Mourning Dove density, for example, dropped from 76.9 to 11.2 individuals per square kilometer in the hummock-mesquite habitat. Voucher specimens have been collected for 69 of the 133 species seen on the Los Medanos site

  12. Phylogenetic characterization of two echinoid species of the southeastern Mediterranean, off Egypt

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    Taha Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the phylogenetics of two sea urchin species, Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus from the Mediterranean Sea. Specimens were collected from the east coast of Alexandria City, Egypt. Pigmentation examination showed four sympatric color morphotypes (black, purple, reddish brown, and olive green. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from specimens and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S were sequenced. The results showed that all black specimens constituted the species A. lixula. All other colors belonged to P. lividus, with no apparent differentiation between color morphotypes. Moreover, P. lividus showed high haplotype diversity (COI; H = 0.9500 and 16S; H = 0.8580 and low values of nucleotide diversity (COI; π = 0.0075 and 16S; π = 0.0049, indicating a high degree of polymorphism within this species. This study represents the first attempt at DNA barcoding of echinoid species in the southeast Mediterranean off the Egyptian coast, and will provide a base for future phylogenetic analyses.

  13. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  14. Managed forest landscape structure and avian species richness in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Loehle; T. Bently Wigley; Scott Rutzmoser; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Christopher J. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2005-01-01

    Forest structural features at the stand scale (e.g., snags, stem density, species composition) and habitat attributes at larger spatial scales (e.g., landscape pattern, road density) can influence biological diversity and have been proposed as indicators in sustainable forestry programs. This study investigated relationships between such factors and total richness of...

  15. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus . Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2-35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis . For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum , P. miroslawae , P. tautzorum , and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  16. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lehr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus. Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6, and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum, P. miroslawae, P. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  17. Historical Biogeography of Five Characidium Fish Species: Dispersal from the Amazon Paleobasin to Southeastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Martínez, Daniel; Sosa, Chrystian C; Chacón-Vargas, Katherine; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Characidium is a Neotropical fish genus. Its distribution ranges from eastern Panama to northern Argentina, and it is an important component of the Neotropical ichthyofauna present in the major rivers of South America. We here provide an approximation to the dispersal and historical distributions of Characidium. The biogeographic history of five species of the genus was analyzed through nuclear RAG-2 and mitochondrial 16S genes and a time-calibrated phylogenetic analysis using three outgroup species. A biogeographical reconstruction was performed to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and infer the historical events that impacted the geographic distributions of Characidium species. Our results showed Characidium as a monophyletic group. The molecular clock suggests that the most recent common ancestor of Characidium originated during the Eocene, about 50.2 Mya. In addition, different dispersion and vicariance events could be inferred, which possibly gave rise to the present geographical distribution of the genus. Our results point to the rise of the Andean mountains and sea fluctuations as being important events in the formations and delimitation of different rivers, which influenced the distribution of South American ichthyofauna.

  18. Transfer characteristics of cadmium and lead from soil to the edible parts of six vegetable species in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guo; Su Miaoyu; Chen Yanhui; Lin Fenfang; Luo Dan; Gao Shufang

    2006-01-01

    The transfer characteristics of Cd and Pb from soils to the edible parts of six vegetable species were calculated from plant and corresponding surface soil samples collected from the fields in Fujian Province, southeastern China. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) calculated from both total and DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb in the soils decreased with increasing total or DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb, indicating that the TF values of Cd and Pb depend on the soil metal content. For most plants studied, there was a significant relation between the TF values and the corresponding soil metal concentrations (total or DTPA-extractable) that was best described by an exponential equation (y = ax b ). We recommend that the representative TF value for a given crop-metal system should be estimated from the regression models between the transfer factors and the corresponding soil metal concentrations and at a given soil metal concentration. - Soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cd and Pb decreased with increasing soil contents of Cd and Pb

  19. Sibling vole species (Microtus in the fragmented landscape of south-eastern part of Thrace, Balkan Peninsula: species presence, habitat selection and craniometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI MARKOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sibling vole species (Microtus in the most common forests and open landscapes in south-eastern part of Thrace (Balkan Peninsula of contemporary territories of Bulgaria and Turkey was studied. Only the southern vole (Microtus levis was found in the investigated region. In his northern part, the Southern vole is associated with semi dry, upland habitats such as deserted and overgrown with wild vegetation vines near sparse forests and large agricultural fields under autumn crops with adjacent non-arable lands with shrub vegetation. In the southern part, it is presented in open landscape related to water areas (meadows near rivers and wetlands. On the basis of trapping the Southern vole is a common species in the north part of Strandzha region. The established craniological characteristics of the Southern vole from investigated region, which can be considered as a zoogeographical crossroads, with a late Pleistocene connection between the Balkan Peninsula and the mammalian fauna of Anatolian peninsula, enriched the knowledge about its craniological variation in Europe.

  20. Monitoring of some Wild Plant Species Grown on Natural Radioactive Soils, Wadi EI -Gemal Area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, A.M.A.; Afifi, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Fore long time ago, human kind has relied on natural products of plants as a primary source for medicine. Herbs, flora, molt and even leeches were employed to bring up relief to the sick and infirmly. As a part of ongoing investigations for the effect of natural radionuclide radiations on biochemical constituents of plants, .two native species (Salvadora persica and Balanites aegyptiaca). grown on virgin radionuclide soils along with Wadi EI-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt were collected. This study dealt with amounts of radionuclide taken by plants and their effects on their biochemical constituents, beneficiation uses on remedy of contaminated and even polluted soils and sick treatments as well as exploration of radioactive materials. These plant samples were subjected to certain analysis techniques for the amounts of uranium that were followed by determining carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The results indicated that both plants uptake uranium but with different amounts. Uranium has a passive effect on the total soluble suger (T.S.S.) of Balanties aegyptiaca plant, while no clear trend appears on T.S.S. of Snlvndora persica root samples. No clear trend appeared for effect of uranium on both fatty acids and amino acids of the investigated plants. Meanwhile uranium has a passive effect on saponin in both plant species, alkaloid in S. persica root and flavonoids in B. aegyptiaca fruits, while showed a positive effect on alkaloids in B. aegyptiaca and no clear trend appeared for flavonoids in S. persica. As for diosgenin uranium has passive effect on its amount in B. aegyptiaca

  1. Allelopathic exudates of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica): implications for the performance of native pine savanna plant species in the southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Donald L; Jose, Shibu; Lin, Chung-Ho

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a greenhouse study to assess the effects of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) rhizochemicals on a suite of plants native to southeastern US pine savanna ecosystems. Our results indicated a possible allelopathic effect, although it varied by species. A ruderal grass (Andropogon arctatus) and ericaceous shrub (Lyonia ferruginea) were unaffected by irrigation with cogongrass soil "leachate" (relative to leachate from mixed native species), while a mid-successional grass (Aristida stricta Michx. var. beyrichiana) and tree (Pinus elliottii) were negatively affected. For A. stricta, we observed a 35.7 % reduction in aboveground biomass, a 21.9 % reduction in total root length, a 24.6 % reduction in specific root length and a 23.5 % reduction in total mycorrhizal root length, relative to the native leachate treatment. For P. elliottii, there was a 19.5 % reduction in percent mycorrhizal colonization and a 20.1 % reduction in total mycorrhizal root length. Comparisons with a DI water control in year two support the possibility that the treatment effects were due to the negative effects of cogongrass leachate, rather than a facilitative effect from the mixed natives. Chemical analyses identified 12 putative allelopathic compounds (mostly phenolics) in cogongrass leachate. The concentrations of most compounds were significantly lower, if they were present at all, in the native leachate. One compound was an alkaloid with a speculated structure of hexadecahydro-1-azachrysen-8-yl ester (C23H33NO4). This compound was not found in the native leachate. We hypothesize that the observed treatment effects may be attributable, at least partially, to these qualitative and quantitative differences in leachate chemistry.

  2. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study

  3. Exobasidium maculosum, a new species causing leaf and fruit spots on blueberry in the southeastern USA and its relationship with other Exobasidium spp. parasitic to blueberry and cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Turner, Ashley N; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Richardson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. A new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray of the genus Potamotrygon Garman, 1877 from the Río Madrede Díos, Peru (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae

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    João Paulo C.B. da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Potamotrygon tatianae sp. nov., is described from Río Madre de Díos, Peru, upper Rio Madeira basin. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by a unique combination of characters, including its dorsal color pattern formed by a relatively slender, highly convoluted, beige to dark brown vermicular pattern, a single row of dorsal tail spines, and a relatively longer tail posterior to caudal stings. Potamotrygon tatianae sp. nov., occurs sympatrically with other species of Potamotrygon (P. falkneri, P. orbignyi and P. motoro. From the similar species P. falkneri, P. tatianae sp. nov., is further distinguished by the absence of circular, reniform, and oval spots, by its proportionally much longer tail, by having dorsal tail spines in one irregular row, and by features of the ventral lateral-line canal, dermal denticles and neurocranium. From P. orbignyi, the new species is distinct by lacking a reticulate pattern on dorsal disc and by the presence of two angular cartilages. From P. motoro, P. tatianae sp. nov., is further separated by the lack of ocelli formed by strong black concentric rings, by the more flattened aspect of its head and disc, and by having smaller and more numerous teeth. The discovery of a new species that so closely resembles a congeneric form in color pattern, a feature highly variable within the latter, highlights the importance of examining large series of individuals and of detailed morphological analyses in revealing the potentially highly cryptic nature of the diversity within the family.

  5. Combined Use of Systematic Conservation Planning, Species Distribution Modelling, and Connectivity Analysis Reveals Severe Conservation Gaps in a Megadiverse Country (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Javier; Lessmann, Janeth; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Devenish, Christian; Muñoz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network. PMID:25479411

  6. Four new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs of the genus Phrynopus (Anura: Terrarana: Craugastoridae) from Río Abiseo National Park, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lily O; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-06

    We describe four new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs belonging to the genus Phrynopus from specimens collected on the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental (2800-3850 m) near and within Río Abiseo National Park, Provincia Mariscal Cáceres, Departments of San Martín and La Libertad, northeastern Peru. All four species lack a visible tympanum and inhabit the upper ridges and slopes within or adjacent to the Park. Phrynopus anancites sp. nov. and P. capitalis sp. nov. inhabit the wet montane grasslands on the upper ridges and valleys from 3600 to 3850 m. Phrynopus anancites (SVL = 25.3 mm) has coarsely aerolated skin and olive green coloration and has small vomerine teeth, while P. capitalis (female SVL = 35.6 mm) is characterized by a large head, short limbs, and distinctive dorsal pattern. Phrynopus dumicola sp. nov. (female SVL = 25.3 mm) has a short head and dark colored body with granular skin on the flanks, and is known only from forest patches along the treeline from 3225 to 3550 m, whereas P. personatus sp. nov. (female SVL = 28.2 mm) has a dark facemask and bright yellow groin spots (possibly aposematic), and inhabits a narrow band of continuous tropical montane rain forest from 2890 to 3110 m. We report infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from one specimen of P. dumicola collected in July of 1988. With the addition of these four new species, Phrynopus now includes 32 nominal species.

  7. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  8. The relationships between microbiological attributes and soil and litter quality in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Barros, Nairam F; Moço, Maria Kellen S

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to link soil and litter microbial biomass and activity with soil and litter quality in the surface layer for different pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The purpose of the study was to see how strongly the differences among species and stands affect the microbiological attributes of the soil and to identify how microbial processes can be influenced by soil and litter quality. Soil and litter samples were collected from six pure and mixed stands of six hardwood species (Peltogyne angustifolia, Centrolobium robustum, Arapatiella psilophylla, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, Cordia trichotoma, Macrolobium latifolium) native to the southeastern region of Bahia, Brazil. In plantations of native tree species in humid tropical regions, the immobilization efficiency of C and N by soil microbial biomass was strongly related to the chemical quality of the litter and to the organic matter quality of the soil. According to the variables analyzed, the mixed stand was similar to the natural forest and dissimilar to the pure stands. Litter microbial biomass represented a greater sink of C and N than soil microbial biomass and is an important contributor of resources to tropical soils having low C and N availability.

  9. On the use of 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists for surveying birds in lowland Atlantic Forests in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid and continuous deforestation, recent bird surveys in the Atlantic Forest are following rapid assessment programs to accumulate significant amounts of data during short periods of time. During this study, two surveying methods were used to evaluate which technique rapidly accumulated most species (> 90% of the estimated empirical value at lowland Atlantic Forests in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Birds were counted during the 2008-2010 breeding seasons using 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists. Overall, point counting detected as many species as lists (79 vs. 83, respectively, and 88 points (14.7 h detected 90% of the estimated species richness. Forty-one lists were insufficient to detect 90% of all species. However, lists accumulated species faster in a shorter time period, probably due to the nature of the point count method in which species detected while moving between points are not considered. Rapid assessment programs in these forests will rapidly detect more species using 10-species lists. Both methods shared 63% of all forest species, but this may be due to spatial and temporal mismatch between samplings of each method.

  10. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  11. Spotlight: Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacher, L

    1985-09-01

    This article highlights population statistics from Peru, the 3rd largest country in Latin America. The population in 1985 has been estimated at 19.7 million. In 1982, the birth rate was 35/1000 and the mortality rate was 10/1000. Infant mortality stood at 99/1000 live births and life expectancy at birth was 59 years. 41% of Peru's population is under 15 years of age, and only 4% is 65 years of age or older. The country's total fertility rate is 5.2 births/woman. Only 0.4% of the population is foreign born. Peru is highly urbanized, and 65% of the country's total population growth in 1981 occurred in its cities. 1 in 3 Peruvians resides in the capital city of Lima. The 2 largest racial groups are mestizos and whites (53%) and Indians (46%). 21% of the population is illiterate. 40.7% of the labor force is employed in agriculture; however, only 15% of the national income is derived from agriculture. The GNP per capita was US$1040 in 1983. The country's economy is in serious trouble at present, with an annual inflation rate of 250% and a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion.

  12. The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi and the advertisement calls of three species of Chiasmocleis (Anura, Microhylidae from the Atlantic rainforest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Wogel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi is figured and described for the first time from individuals collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi also are described and compared with the advertisement calls of others Chiasmocleis species restricted to Atlantic Rainforest. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi are similar, consisting of one pulsed note of harmonic structure emitted repetitively. Our study corroborates the monophyly of the genus Chiasmocleis based on similarities in advertisement calls. Calls of syntopic species (C. atlantica with C. carvalhoi and C. capixaba with C. schubarti were less similar than those of closely related allopatric species.

  13. Light microscopic study of four plagiorchiid trematodes infecting marine fish in the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria City, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Maher, Sherein

    2018-05-01

    During the present investigation, a total of 220 fish specimens belonging to three different species, namely, little tunny Euthynnus alletteratus, African snook Lates niloticus, and striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus, were collected from January-November 2016 from the coasts off Abu Qir landing site, Alexandria City, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The collected fish samples were dissected and examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Twenty-three out of 220 (10.45%) fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with four species of trematode parasites belonging to three different families of the order Plagiorchiida. The recovered parasite species were collected and identified by applying light microscopic examinations. The present study recorded two new parasite species, namely, Stephanostomum alletterani sp. nov. and Bathycreadium mulli sp. nov., belonging to the families Acanthocolpidae and Opecoelidae and infecting E. alletteratus and M. surmuletus, respectively and re-descriptions of the two remaining species, namely, Acanthostomum spiniceps and Aponurus mulli of the families Acanthostomatidae and Opecoelidae, respectively, to clarify the measurements of some body parts. Morphological and morphometric characterizations revealed some differences between the present species and other related species detected previously. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these species.

  14. Long-term avifaunal survey in an urban ecosystem from southeastern Brazil, with comments on range extensions, new and disappearing species

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    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban avifaunal surveys in Brazil have been increasing in recent years, despite none of them consisting of long-term studies indicating events of regional colonization and/or missing species. Here, we present an avifaunal survey of an urbanized ecosystem in southeastern Brazil, carried out along 30 years, on the campus of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, municipality of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state. Inside the campus there is a forest reserve adjacent to a small lake. The inventory was mainly based on opportunistic records from the years 1982-2013. We recorded 134 bird species along the past 30 years. However, the present avifauna is composed of 123 species. A total of 97 species was recorded in the reserve, including the forest fragment and the adjacent lake, of which 44 were exclusive to this area. Nevertheless, the majority of the current species found in the study area is forest independent (N = 51 or semi-dependent (N = 46. There is a predominance of insectivorous (N = 43 and omnivorous (N = 29 species. The current avifauna is represented by 15 migratory species, which can be found both in the urbanized area and in the forest remnant. However, the majority of the species (N = 75 is resident in the area, including three invasive species, whereas few others (N = 28 are occasional visitors. The remaining species were probably introduced in the area. There were 11 cases of disappearing species, which include typical forest birds, and also species typical of wetlands and rural environments. We also comment on recent colonization and on the possible effects of isolation on birds. Probably, the majority of forest-dependents are on the brink of extinction in the forest fragment. Thus, the species' list provided here can be useful as a database for monitoring long-term effects of urbanization on this bird community.

  15. Oviposition ecology and species composition of Aedes spp. and Aedes aegypti dynamics in variously urbanized settings in arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Utzinger, Jürg; Adja, Maurice A; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2016-09-29

    Aedes mosquito-transmitted outbreaks of dengue and yellow fever have been reported from rural and urban parts of Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aimed at assessing Aedes spp. oviposition ecology in variously urbanized settings within arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire. Aedes spp. eggs were sampled using a standard ovitrap method from January 2013 to April 2014 in different ecosystems of rural, suburban and urban areas. Emerged larvae were reared until the adult stage for species identification. Aedes spp. oviposition ecology significantly varied from rural-to-urban areas and according to the ecozones and the seasons. Species richness of Aedes spp. gradually decreased from rural (eight species) to suburban (three species) and urban (one species) areas. Conversely, emerged adult Aedes spp. mean numbers were higher in the urban (1.97 Aedes/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.44 Aedes/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.89 Aedes/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes aegypti was the only species in the urban setting (100 %), and was also the predominant species in suburban (85.5 %) and rural (63.3 %) areas. The highest Ae. aegypti mean number was observed in the urban (1.97 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.20 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.57 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes africanus (9.4 %), Ae. dendrophilus (8.0 %), Ae. metallicus (1.3 %) in the rural, and Ae. vittatus (6.5 %) and Ae. metallicus (1.2 %) in the suburban areas each represented more than 1 % of the total Aedes fauna. In all areas, Aedes species richness and abundance were higher in the peridomestic zones and during the rainy season, with stronger variations in species richness in the rural and in abundance in the urban areas. Besides, the highest Culex quinquefasciatus abundance was found in the urban areas, while Eretmapodites chrysogaster was restricted to the rural areas. Urbanization correlates with a substantially higher abundance in Aedes mosquitoes and

  16. Morphometric and molecular analyses of the sand fly species Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) collected from seven different geographical areas in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, David A; Davies, Stephen J; Olsen, Cara; Lawyer, Phillip; Lipnick, Robert; Schultz, George; Rowton, Edgar; Wilkerson, Richard; Keep, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    A morphometric and molecular study of adult male and female Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) collected at seven different locations within the southeastern United States was conducted to assess the degree of divergence between the grouped specimens from each location. The collection locations were as follows: Fort Bragg, NC; Fort Campbell, KY; Fort Rucker, AL; Ossabaw Island, GA; Patuxent National Wildlife Research Refuge, MD; Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge, FL; and Baton Rouge, LA. Forty males and forty females from each location were analyzed morphometrically from 54 and 49 character measurements, respectively. In addition, the molecular markers consisting of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (from 105 sand flies: 15 specimens/collection site) and the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 (from 42 sand flies: six specimens/collection site) were compared. Multivariate analyses indicate that the low degree of variation between the grouped specimens from each collection site prevents the separation of any collection site into an entity that could be interpreted as a distinct population. The molecular analyses were in concordance with the morphometric study as no collection location grouped into a separate population based on the two partial markers. The grouped specimens from each collection site appear to be within the normal variance of the species, indicating a single population in the southeast United States. It is recommended that additional character analyses of L. shannoni based on more molecular markers, behavioral, ecological, and physiological characteristics, be conducted before ruling out the possibility of populations or a cryptic species complex within the southeastern United States.

  17. Native rodent species are unlikely sources of infection for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Shender

    Full Text Available An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V. braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%, Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%, and Proechimys spp. (12%. All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V. braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V. braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region.

  18. Native rodent species are unlikely sources of infection for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shender, Lisa A; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M; Conrad, Patricia A; Ghersi, Bruno M; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V.) braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail) were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%), Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%), and Proechimys spp. (12%). All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V.) braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region.

  19. Morphological and molecular data confirm the transfer of homostylous species in the typically distylous genus Galianthe (Rubiaceae), and the description of the new species Galianthe vasquezii from Peru and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentín, Javier Elias; Cabaña Fader, Andrea Alejandra; Salas, Roberto Manuel; Janssens, Steven; Dessein, Steven; Cabral, Elsa Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Galianthe (Rubiaceae) is a neotropical genus comprising 50 species divided into two subgenera, Galianthe subgen. Galianthe, with 39 species and Galianthe subgen. Ebelia , with 11 species. The diagnostic features of the genus are: usually erect habit with xylopodium, distylous flowers arranged in lax thyrsoid inflorescences, bifid stigmas, 2-carpellate and longitudinally dehiscent fruits, with dehiscent valves or indehiscent mericarps, plump seeds or complanate with a wing-like strophiole, and pollen with double reticulum, rarely with a simple reticulum. This study focused on two species that were originally described under Diodia due to the occurrence of fruits indehiscent mericarps: Diodia palustris and D. spicata . In the present study, classical taxonomy is combined with molecular analyses. As a result, we propose that both Diodia species belong to Galianthe subgen. Ebelia . The molecular position within Galianthe , based on ITS and ETS sequences, has been supported by the following morphological characters: thyrsoid, spiciform or cymoidal inflorescences, bifid stigmas, pollen grains with a double reticulum, and indehiscent mericarps. However, both species, unlike the remainder of the genus Galianthe , have homostylous flowers, so the presence of this type of flower significantly modifies the generic concept. In this framework, a third homostylous species, Galianthe vasquezii , from the Andean region is also described. Until now, this species remained cryptic under specimens of Galianthe palustris It differs however from the latter by having longer calyx lobes, the presence of dispersed trichomes inside the corolla lobes (vs. glabrous), fruits that are acropetally dehiscent (vs. basipetally dehiscent), and its Andean geographical distribution (vs. Paranaense). Additionally, a lectotype has been chosen for Diodia palustris , Borreria pterophora has been placed under synonymy of Galianthe palustris , and Galianthe boliviana is reported for the first time from Peru

  20. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

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    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  1. A new species of Trachytherus (Notoungulata: Mesotheriidae) from the late Oligocene (Deseadan) of Southern Peru and the middle latitude diversification of early diverging mesotheriids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Bruce J; Billet, Guillaume; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo

    2016-05-18

    Herein we describe a new species of early diverging mesotheriid notoungulate from the late Oligocene of Moquegua, Peru. This taxon, Trachytherus ramirezi sp. nov., is distinctive in terms of a few characteristics that appear plesiomorphic as compared to those of other described mesotheriids, even other species referred to Trachytherus. Such plesiomorphic traits include the absence of an upper diastema and a lack of heart-shaped incisive foramina, traits that are generally present in other mesotheriids. Our phylogenetic analysis of described early divergent mesotheriids indicates that T. ramirezi was the earliest to diverge. This analysis also confirms the paraphyletic nature of the "genus" Trachytherus.          Geographically, T. ramirezi clusters among T. alloxus, T. subandinus, and T. spegazzinianus, all of which are known from a discrete region in the middle latitudes of western South America that we refer to as the Bolivian Orocline Region (BOR). Our palaeobiogeographic reconstruction using maximum parsimony identifies the BOR as a possible ancestral area for the Mesotheriidae and as an important region for their diversification. For the more exclusive Mesotheriinae, the BOR was reconstructed as the ancestral area, an area from which some mesotheriines would have later dispersed to southern South America. Uncertainty concerning the ancestral area, for the Mesotheriidae-which could be BOR or southern South America area (or both)-is possibly due to the ignorance of the phylogenetic affinities for the undescribed mesotheriid remains reported from Tinguirirican localities. The present description of T. ramirezi therefore adds to the high taxonomic diversity of early mesotheriid species in the relatively small area of the BOR and emphasizes the likely role played by this topographically dynamic area on mesotheriid evolution during a significant time in the history of the clade.

  2. Chrysobrycon eliasi, new species of stevardiine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon eliasi is described from several drainages of río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, río Madeira basin, Peru. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the maxillary teeth, which are tricuspidate, bicuspidate and conical, and the terminal lateral-line tube developed between caudal-fin rays 10-11. Other characters that help to recognize C. eliasi are the possession of maxilla with 6-15 (usually 11 teeth occupying more than 70% of the length of the maxilla in adults, predorsal scales 18-22, dorsal-fin to hypural complex length 36.32-41.17% of standard length (SL, gill-gland length in males 3.57-5.05% SL, maxillary length 33.76-38.75% of head length, and branched anal-fin rays 24-30. The discovery of C. eliasi allows us to extend the geographic distribution of the genus to the southeast, into the río Madeira basin.

  3. Lophiobrycon weitzmani, a new genus and species of glandulocaudine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Grande drainage, upper rio Paraná system, southeastern Brazil

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    Ricardo M. C. Castro

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of glandulocaudine, Lophiobrycon weitzmani, is described based on specimens collected in headwater tributary streams of the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná system, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The inclusion of the new species in the phylogeny of the subfamily Glandulocaudinae proposed by Weitzman & Menezes (1998, reveals a sister group relationship between the new genus and the monophyletic group composed of Glandulocauda and Mimagoniates that currently form the tribe Glandulocaudini. The new species can be readily distinguished from all other species of the tribe by the autapomorphic presence in adult male individuals (with more than 23.9 mm standard length of an adipose-fin whose base extends for almost the entire distance between the posterior terminus of the base of the dorsal fin and the base of the upper lobe of the caudal fin and averages approximately 25% standard length, along with the presence of globular expansions formed by the lepidotrichia and hypertrophied soft tissue in the middle portions of the first and second pectoral-fin rays. The diagnosis of the tribe Glandulocaudini is modified to accommodate the new genus.

  4. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae, living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil

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    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higer number of prey (but in lower volume when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  5. [Effects of highway on the vegetation species composition along a distance gradient from road edge in southeastern margin of Tengeer Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Li, Xin-Rong; Guo, Qun; Zhang, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Shan

    2011-05-01

    Aimed to examine the effects of highway on the vegetation species composition in arid desert area, forty-eight transects perpendicular to the provincial highway 201 from Shapotou to Jing-tai in the southeastern margin of Tengger Desert were installed, with the vegetation species distribution along a distance gradient from the road edge investigated. The results showed that with increasing distance from the road edge, the species number, coverage, biomass, and alpha-diversity of herbaceous plants declined, but had no significant differences with the control beyond 5 m. Within 0-6 m to the road edge, the herbaceous plant height was greater than that of the control, but their density had less change. Within 0-2 m to the road edge, the species turnover rate of herbaceous plants was lower; at 2-5m, this rate was the highest; while beyond 10 m, the species composition of herbaceous plants was similar to that of the control. The herbaceous plant community at the road edge was dominated by gramineous plants, with the disturbance-tolerant species Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Chloris virgata, and Agropyron cristatum accounting for 68.6% of the total. C. virgata beyond 1 m to the road edge had a rapid decrease in its individual number and presence frequency, P. centrasiaticum and A. cristatum beyond 2 m also showed a similar trend, while the composite plants Artemisia capillaris and A. frigida beyond 2 m from the road edge had a rapid increase in its individual number, accounting for 70% of the herbaceous plants. At the road edge, the coverage and density of shrubs were significantly lower than those of the control, but the species composition had no significant difference.

  6. Three new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2015-06-02

    Three new blind snake species of the genus Epictia are described based on material collected in the Peruvian Regions Amazonas, Cajamarca and La Libertad. All three species are well differentiated from all congeners based on characteristics of their morphology and coloration. They share 10 scale rows around the middle of the tail and possess two supralabials with the anterior one in broad contact with the supraocular. Epictia septemlineata sp. nov. has 16 subcaudal scales, 257 mid-dorsal scale rows, a yellowish-white rostral, and a black terminal spine. Epictia vanwallachi sp. nov. exhibits 16 subcaudals, 188 mid-dorsal scale rows, a grayish-brown rostral, and a yellow terminal spine. Epictia antoniogarciai sp. nov. features 14-18 subcaudals, 195-208 mid-dorsal scale rows, a bright yellow or yellowish-white rostral, and the terminal spine and terminal portion of the tail yellow. All three species were collected in the interandean dry forest valleys of the Marañón River and its tributaries. This region is an area of endemism and warrants further attention from systematic and conservation biologists.

  7. A new species of palaemonid shrimp, Chacella tricornuta spec. nov (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the southeastern Gulf of California, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Chacella Bruce is described from the Gulf of California, Mexico, in the eastern Pacific, and represents the second known species of this genus. The type-species, Chacella kerstitchi (Wicksten, 1983), was described from a single female captured off the

  8. A new species of Trichogenes from the rio Itapemirim drainage, southeastern Brazil, with comments on the monophyly of the genus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

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    Mário C. C. de Pinna

    Full Text Available A new species of the formerly monotypic genus Trichogenes is described from a high-altitude stream of the rio Itapemirim system, an isolated Atlantic drainage in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Trichogenes claviger, new species, differs from all other trichomycterids by the sexually dimorphic posterior process of the opercle, much elongated in males; the terminal mouth; the deeply bifurcated anterior neural spines and the presence of a large anterodorsal claw-like process on the neural arches of the anterior four free vertebrae. The new species also differs from its only congener, T. longipinnis, by a number of additional traits, including the the lack of branched anal-fin rays in specimens of any size; the broader than long posterior nostril; the deeper head (head depth 72.9-86.6% HL; the presence of a fine dark line along the base of the anal fin; the lack of dark spots on cheeks; the shape of the interopercle; the presence of odontodes on a bony expansion on the posterodorsal margin of the interopercle; the fewer vertebrae (35; the absence of an antorbital; and the fewer pleural ribs (eight. Small juveniles of the new species are also strikingly different from those of all other Trichomycteridae, including T. longipinnis, having a very large lateral eye, an upturned mouth, and compressed head. Trichogenes claviger occurs in shaded sectors of a blackwater sluggish stream with sandy substrate and patchy accumulations of vegetable debris, a habitat markedly different from the rocky torrential environment known for T. longipinnis. A comparison of the internal anatomy of the two species provides the basis for a hypothesis of a monophyletic Trichogenes. Data from the new species further support a sister-group relationship between Trichogeninae and Copionodontinae, as well as the position of that clade as sister group to all remaining Trichomycteridae.

  9. Three new species of Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773 from the Southeastern USA, Belize and Panama are described using computer tomography (CT) (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Adrienne; Weigand, Alexander M; Bochud, Estee; Inäbnit, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Favre, Adrien; Martels, Gunhild; Kampschulte, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. , Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names.

  10. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474-475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  11. A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species' Fumonisin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Stephanie L; Brannen, Phillip M; Glenn, Anthony E

    2016-08-31

    Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus) were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates), followed by F. proliferatum (52), F. incarnatum-equiseti (14), F. oxysporum (7), F. concentricum (1), and F. solani (1). In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops.

  12. Three new species of Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773 from the Southeastern USA, Belize and Panama are described using computer tomography (CT (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae

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    Adrienne Jochum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n., Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names.

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships of a new species of trypanosome in Tapirus terrestris (lowland tapir), Trypanosoma terrestris sp. nov., from Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Igor da Cunha Lima; da Costa, Andrea Pereira; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Gondim, Maria Fernanda Naegeli; Gatti, Andressa; Rossi, João Luiz; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2013-12-11

    The Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest Brazilian mammal and despite being distributed in various Brazilian biomes, it is seriously endangered in the Atlantic Rainforest. These hosts were never evaluated for the presence of Trypanosoma parasites. The Lowland tapirs were captured in the Brazilian southeastern Atlantic Rainforest, Espírito Santo state. Trypanosomes were isolated by hemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences and the ultrastructural features seen via light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are described. Phylogenetic trees using combined SSU rDNA and gGAPDH data sets clustered the trypanosomes of Lowland tapirs, which were highly divergent from other trypanosome species. The phylogenetic position and morphological discontinuities, mainly in epimastigote culture forms, made it possible to classify the trypanosomes from Lowland tapirs as a separate species. The isolated trypanosomes from Tapirus terrestris are a new species, Trypanosoma terrestris sp. n., and were positioned in a new Trypanosoma clade, named T. terrestris clade.

  14. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

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    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  15. Ectoparasites as numerical dominant species in parasite community of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L

    2011-08-01

    Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.

  16. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  18. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-10-20

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled. 

  19. The British-Indian species of Viscum revised and compared with those of South-Eastern Asia, Malaysia, and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1941-01-01

    When revising the Visca of the Malay Archipelago and Indo-China, I met with some nomenclatorial difficulties, for which a more thorough study of the British-Indian Visca seemed necessary. The distinction of the species in HOOKER’S Flora soon appeared not to be depended upon. At the time of HOOKER’S

  20. Four new species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Vanessa D; de Azevedo, Rodney K; Luque, José L

    2009-08-01

    Four species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), i.e., L. tainhae n. sp., L. brasiliensis n. sp., L. guanduensis n. sp., and L. lizae n. sp., are described. The specimens were collected from the gills of Mugil liza (Mugilidae) from the Guandu River (22 degrees 48'32"S, 43 degrees 37'35"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2008 and March 2008. The male copulatory organ of L. tainhae n. sp. differs from the all known species of this genus in having the largest accessory piece, the length of accessory piece exceeding the length of the copulatory organ tube, and the distal tip of the lower lobe crossing the upper lobe. Ligophorus brasiliensis n. sp. and L. guanduensis n. sp. have a similar shape of the accessory piece, but in L. guanduensis n. sp. the lower lobe is larger than the upper lobe (as opposed to L. brasiliensis n. sp.), the ratio between length of upper lobe and the length of the proximal part of the accessory piece before the bifurcation is shorter and the distal tip of the lower lobe extends to the level of the upper lobe (in L. brasiliensis n. sp. the distal tip of lower lobe crossing the upper lobe). In L. lizae n. sp., the terminal bifurcations of the accessory piece are equal in length and unequal in the other 3 new species. Species of Ligophorus are recorded for the first time from Brazil.

  1. Studies on the flora of the Guianas 20. The Dorstenia species (Moraceae) of south-eastern tropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    One new species of Dorstenia from Brazil is described: D. carautae C.C. Berg, and four new combinations are made: D. cayapia Vellozo subsp. asaroides (Hooker) C.C. Berg, D. cayapia Vellozo subsp. paraguariensis (Hassler) C.C. Berg, D. cayapia Vellozo subsp. vitifolia (Gardner) C.C. Berg, and D.

  2. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles Fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Naddaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran.Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phy­logenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P model of neighbor-join­ing method.Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individ­uals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%.Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  3. Redescription of Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, the type species of the genus, and description of a new species from coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda O. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Our analyses showed that the type series of Hisonotus notatus , type species of the genus, is mixed, composed by two different species. Based on that, we redescribe H. notatus with the designation of a lectotype, restricting the species to rio São João drainage and other small coastal drainages running to the Baía de Guanabara and to the Baía de Sepetiba in Rio de Janeiro State. We also describe a new species of Hisonotus from drainages of the rio Paraíba do Sul, Lagoa Feia, rio Macaé, and coastal rivers of Espírito Santo State, from rio Itabapoana to rio Doce basin. These two species are sister-taxa and can be distinguished by the number of plates in the mid-dorsal series.

  4. The use of biomarkers for assessing effects of pollutant stress on fish species from a tropical river in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nona Morado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are measurements within an organism that respond to environmental effects and are used as tools in bioassessment programs since they reflect physiological changes induced by exposure to pollutants. The hepatosomatic index (HSI and the condition factor (CF in three fish species Geophagus brasiliensis, Hypostomus affinis and Hypostomus auroguttatus were used to assess effects of pollutant stress in a tropical river during two seasons (dry and wet. Fish from the least disturbed sites had the lowest condition factor (CF and the lowest HSI, whereas those from sites near pollutant discharges had the highest CF and HSI. Higher HSI and lower CF occurred during the dry season. It is suggested that species adapted to stressful conditions take advantage on food availability from organic loads or unoccupied niches by lesser tolerant species, increasing CF. We concluded that higher HSI values were directly associated with environmental stress whereas the higher CF values are related to availability of food resources derived from organic loads or other sources. CF and HSI are simple and cost-effective, thus suitable as routine screening tools in pollution monitoring, but caution should be taken in relating changes in physiological measurements and any specific pollutant to prevent misinterpretation.

  5. Comparison of saproxylic beetle assemblages on four different broad-leaved tree species in south-eastern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Old hollow trees have declined in Europe and many saproxylic (wood-dwelling) beetles dependent on them are threatened. Several studies have been done on old hollow oaks and they have been shown to harbour a species-rich saproxylic beetle fauna. However, other broad-leaved trees might also be important to consider as supporting habitats. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent saproxylic beetles are tree genus specialists. Pitfall traps and window traps were used to compare the...

  6. Prevalence data of Rickettsia slovaca and other SFG Rickettsiae species in Dermacentor marginatus in the southeastern Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, F J; Rojas, A; Ibarra, V; Cantero, A; Rojas, J; Oteo, J A; Muniain, M A

    2006-10-01

    In southern Spain, Dermacentor marginatus ticks can be infected with several genospecies of spotted fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia. We developed a nested polymerase chain reaction assay by using a species-specific probe targeting the ompA gene to detect and differentiate between the two groups of rickettsiae previously described in D. marginatus. SFG rickettsia has been detected in 85.15% of ticks studied (26.7% of positives have been to R. slovaca, the causative agent of TIBOLA-DEBONEL, and 73.3% to SFG rickettsia closely related to strains RpA4-JL-02-DnS14-DnS28).

  7. Toxicity of puffer fish: two species (Lagocephalus laevigatus, linaeus 1766 and Sphoeroides spengleri, Bloch 1785 from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, where puffer fish are considered poisonous, there are few documented cases on human consumption and consequent poisoning. In this study, toxicity of two puffer fish species from the Brazilian coast was examined. Specimens of Sphoeroides spengleri and Lagocephalus laevigatus were caught in São Sebastião Channel (North coast of São Paulo State, Brazil between January 1996 and May 1997. Acidic ethanol extracts from muscle and skin plus viscera were tested for mice acute toxicity using the standard method of Kawabata. Polar extracts of S. spengleri showed high toxicity up to 946 MU/g. Extracts from L. laevigatus showed very low levels of toxicity, never exceeding 1.7 MU/g. All extracts from both species blocked amielinic nerve fiber evoked impulses of crustacean legs; this effect reverted on washing similar to the standard tetrodotoxin TTX. The aqueous extract solutions were partially purified using an ionic exchange column (Amberlit GC-50 followed by treatment with activated charcoal (Norit-A. The presence of TTX and their analogs in the semi-purified extracts were confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF.

  8. Ecophysiological Responses of Three Tree Species to a High-Altitude Environment in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirui Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper measured the ecophysiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehd., Salix longistamina C. Wang et P. Y. Fu., and Ulmus pumila L. to high altitude in the Tibetan Plateau based on changes in water relations, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence. P. cathayana and U. pumila have higher survival rates than S. longistamina, but the latter has highest biomass. S. longistamina has higher water-use efficiency (WUE, lower transpiration rates (E, higher water potential (Ψ, highest light saturation point (LSP and higher photosystem II (PSII photochemistry efficiency (Fv’/Fm’ and non-photochemistry quenching (NPQ than the other species, and is thus adapted to its habitat for afforestation. U. pumila has lower E, light compensation point (LCP, dark respiration (Rd, Fv’/Fm’ and electron transport rate (ETR, with higher Ψ, apparent quantum yield (AQY, net photosynthetic rate (Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, which helps it maintain water balance and utilize weak light to survive at high altitude. Relative low WUE, Ψ, Rd, NPQ, with high E, Pn, Fv’/Fm’ and biomass, imply that P. cathayana is more suitable for shelterbelt forests than for a semi-arid habitat. These three species can adapt to high-altitude conditions by different physiological mechanisms and morphological characteristics, which can provide a theoretical basis for afforestation and forest management in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Mixed rain forest in southeastern Brazil: tree species regeneration and floristic relationships in a remaining stretch of forest near the city of Itaberá, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tiago Maciel; Ivanauskas, Natália Macedo; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Polisel, Rodrigo Trassi; Santos, Rochelle Lima Ramos dos; Miranda Neto, Aurino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition, richness, and diversity of the upper and lower strata of a stretch of mixed rain forest near the city of Itaberá, in southeastern Brazil. We also investigated the differences between this conservation area and other stretches of mixed rain forest in southern and southeastern Brazil, as well as other nearby forest formations, in terms of their floristic relationships. For our survey of the upper stratum (diameter at breast height ...

  10. Quatro especies nuevas de nematodos del sur del Perú y redescripción de Hedruris Orestiae Moniez, 1889 Four new species of nematodes from southern Peru, with a redescription of Hedruris orestiae Moniez, 1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibâñez H.

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio helmintológico de anfibios del género Telmatobius Wiegmann, 1834, y del pez Orestias luteus Valenciennes, 1839, de las zonas de Arequipa, Puno y del Lago Titicaca, se han encontrado nematodes de los géneros Hedruris Nitzsch, 1821 y Falcaustra Lane, 1915. Se redescribe Hedruris orestiae Moniez, 1889 y se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Hedruris moniezi sp. n., Falcaustra condorcanquii sp. n., Falcaustra pumacahuai sp. n. y Falcaustra tiahuanaquensis sp. n.The collection of large numbers of nematodes from amphibians (Telmatobius sp. and fish Orestias luteus Valenciennes, 1839 Arequipa, Puno, and Titicaca Lake in South Peru has made possible the revision of one species and the description of our new species: Hedruris orestiae Moniez, 1889 is re-described; Hedruris moniezi sp. n., Falcaustra condorcanquii sp. n., Falcaustra pumacahuai sp. and Falcaustra tiahuanaquensis sp. n. are described.

  11. Peru, People and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  12. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  13. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.

  14. Dental education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.

  15. Terrorism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L

    2003-01-01

    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  16. Tree species diversity in a seasonally-dry forest: the case of the Pinkaití site, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area, Southeastern limits of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Salm,Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of forest structure and tree species diversity in an anthropogenic palm grove and undisturbed areas at the seasonally-dry Pinkaití research station, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area. This site, managed by the Conservation International do Brasil, is the most southeastern site floristically surveyed in the Amazon until now. The secondary and a nearby undisturbed forest were sampled in a group of 52 floristic plots of 0.0625-ha (25x25-m) where all trees with DBH > ...

  17. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia : Anura : Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.

  18. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  19. Regional tritrophic relationship patterns of five aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)in agroecosystem-dominated landscapes of southeastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Stanisavljević, L. Ž.; Ćetković, A.; Stamenković, S.; Jovanović, S.; Athanassiou, CH. G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2009), s. 836-854 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant - others:The Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphid parasitoids * southeastern Europe * tritropic interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2009

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Antin1icrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru 9 Ryan C. Maves,1...48 human Brucella melitensis biotype 1 strains from Peru between 2000 and 2006. MICs of isolates to doxycycline, azithromycin, gentamicin, rifampin...of testing. Relapses did nut appear to be related tu drug resistance. Infection by Brucella species is a major cause of zoonotic disease

  1. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  2. Alphus marinonii sp. nov., nova espécie para o Peru e Brasil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Santana Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alphus marinonii sp. nov., new species from Peru and Brazil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. A new species of Alphus, A. marinonii sp. nov., from Peru and Brazil (Rondônia is described. Key to identification and pictures for the four species of the genus are provided. Notes on distribution of A. tuberosus are included, with a new record for Peru and Brazil (Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul.

  3. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Humberto; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Falconí, Eduardo; Bravo, Francisco; Donaires, Ninoska; Van Marck, Eric; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-03-01

    Eight adult patients (ages 18-58, 5 women) with Buruli ulcer (BU) confirmed by at least 2 diagnostic methods were seen in a 10-year period. Attempts to culture Mycobacterium ulcerans failed. Five patients came from jungle areas, and 3 from the swampy northern coast of Peru. The patients had 1-5 lesions, most of which were on the lower extremities. One patient had 5 clustered gluteal lesions; another patient had 2 lesions on a finger. Three patients were lost to follow-up. All 5 remaining patients had moderate disease. Diverse treatments (antituberculous drugs, World Health Organization [WHO] recommended antimicrobial drug treatment for BU, and for 3 patients, excision surgery) were successful. Only 1 patient (patient 7) received the specific drug treatment recommended by WHO. BU is endemic in Peru, although apparently infrequent. Education of populations and training of health workers are first needed to evaluate and understand the full extent of BU in Peru.

  4. Nuclear technology in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with the Nuclear Energy in Peru. It consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter is presented a rapid overview on nuclear science history. The second chapter describes the nuclear proliferation and the nuclear competition in South America. The nuclear organization in Peru, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, and the main centers are described in the third chapter. The following chapters deals with peruvian advances in nuclear medicine, agriculture and food, nuclear application to industry, hydrology, earth sciences and environmental considerations. In the last chapter, the perspectives for nuclear science and technology in Peru are described from the inter institutional cooperation point of view. This book also includes appendix and bibliography. (author)

  5. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  6. Short report: serologic evidence of human ehrlichiosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Pedro L; Shah, Jyotsna; Li, Olga; Gilman, Robert H; Harris, Nick; Moro, Manuel H

    2009-02-01

    A serosurvey for human ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was performed in different regions of Peru by using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). Regions included an urban community in a shantytown in Lima (Pampas) and three rural communities located on the northern coast of Peru (Cura Mori), in the southern Peruvian Andes (Cochapata), and in the Peruvian jungle region (Santo Tomas). An overall E. chaffeensis seroprevalence of 13% (21 of 160) was found by IFA. Seroprevalences in females and males was 15% (16 of 106) and 9% (5 of 53), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori, Cochapata, Pampas, and Santo Tomas were 25% (10 of 40), 23% (9 of 40), 3% (1 of 40), and 3% (1 of 40), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori and Cochapata were significantly higher than in Santo Tomas or Pampas (P Peru. Further studies are needed to characterize Ehrlichia species in Peru, their vectors and their clinical significance.

  7. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  8. IDRC in Peru

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    financial services for the poor. For more information visit the. Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) website: www.idrc.ca/lacro. Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin and our regional bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. PERU. ○. BRAZIL. COLOMBIA. ECUADOR. BOLIVIA. Pacific Ocean. 150 km. Lima. Callao.

  9. English Teaching Profile: Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Peru are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) educational administration of English teaching, (4) materials support, development, and planning, (5) English outside the education system; (6) British and American support for the teaching of…

  10. Religious Regimes in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spier, Fred

    1994-01-01

    This inquiry deals with religion and politics in Peru from the beginning of agrarisation, c. 8000 B.C. up until AD 1991. Of central importance for the analysis are state formation and development, the relations between church and state, the internal and external relations within and among the

  11. IDRC in Peru

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Funding: $3,412,926. Donor: Canadian International Food Secu- rity Research Fund (IDRC and the Canadian. International Development Agency). Duration: 2011–2014. Grantees: Universidad Nacional Agraria La. Molina and Sociedad Peruana de Derecho. Ambiental, Peru and University of British. Columbia, Canada.

  12. My Classroom: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  13. Peru : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  14. Spotlight on Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Lima's population grew from 1 million to 7 million during 1969-89, almost entirely due to rural-urban immigration. Other urban areas such as Iquitos experienced similar growth over the period. National, regional, and municipal governments have been working to restore civil order in the country and to bring basic health, sanitation, and education programs to the population. However, language, attitudinal, and cultural differences impede progress in this diverse and changing country. Peru's young population of median age 21 years presents a challenge to the development and implementation of effective reproductive health care programs for the country. Pathfinder's work in Peru is helped by current President Alberto Fujimori's strong and active support for family planning. In the face of strong opposition from the Roman Catholic Church, President Fujimori has held onto his conviction and commitment to reduce levels of maternal morbidity and mortality in Peru by increasing the accessibility of family planning programs. Pathfinder's work in Peru with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) includes the 5-year program Project 2000 designed to improve maternal and child health in 12 priority regions of the country. Pathfinder is also working with USAID to link family planning to postpartum services in 30 public hospitals throughout the country. New programs will be launched with contributions from individuals and foundations.

  15. Diabetes Mellitus in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime E

    2015-01-01

    Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate Diabetes is a major health care issue in Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction of a comprehensive health care network for early referral in order to prevent, detect, and treat diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exotic "Gill Lice" Species (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae: Salmincola SPP.) Infect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Rash, Jacob M; Besler, Doug A; Roberts, Jackson R; Warren, Micah B; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Salmincola californiensis infected 25 of 31 (prevalence 0.8; intensity 2-35 [mean 6.6 ± standard deviation 7.7; n = 25]) rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a private trout farm connected to the Watauga River, North Carolina. Salmincola edwardsii infected all of 9 (1.0; 2-43 [9.3 ± 13.0; 9]) brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, from Big Norton Prong, a tributary of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina. Both lernaeopodids are well-known salmonid pathogens, but neither is native to, nor has been previously taxonomically confirmed from, the southeastern United States. Herein, we (1) use light and scanning electron microscopy to identify and provide supplemental morphological observations of these lernaeopodids, (2) furnish complementary molecular sequence data from the 28S rDNA (28S), and (3) document the pathological effects of gill infections. We identified and differentiated these lernaeopodids by the second antenna (exopod tip with large [S. californiensis] vs. slender [S. edwardsii] spines; endopod terminal segment with subequal ventral processes shorter than [S. californiensis] vs. longer than or equal to [S. edwardsii] dorsal hook), maxilliped palp (length typically ≤1/3 [S. californiensis] vs. 1/3-1/2 [S. edwardsii] subchela length exclusive of claw), and bulla (sub-circular and concave on manubrium's side [S. californiensis] vs. non-stellate [S. edwardsii]). Analysis of the 28S rDNA sequences confirmed our taxonomic assignments as demonstrated by 100% sequence similarity among the sympatric, morphologically-conspecific isolates. Histopathology revealed focal gill epithelial hyperplasia, obstruction of interlamellar water channels, lamellar fusion, and crypting of gill filaments. High intensity infections by either lernaeopodid are surveillance-worthy because they are potentially pathogenic to trout in the southeastern United States.

  17. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  18. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  19. Fish population studies using parasites from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean: considering host population changes and species body size as sources of variability of parasite communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Nascimento, Mario; Oliva, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Research using parasites in fish population studies in the South Eastern Pacific (SEP) is summarized. There are 27 such studies (snapshots mainly) in single host species sampled at different geographic localities and at somewhat similar times. They have been devoted mainly to economically important species, though others on coastal and intertidal fish or on less- or non-commercial species provide insights on scales of temporal and spatial variation of parasite infracommunities. Later, we assess whether the probability of harbouring parasites depends on the host species body size. Our results indicate that a stronger tool for fish population studies may be developed under regular (long term) scrutiny of parasite communities, especially of small fish host species, due to their larger variability in richness, abundance and total biomass, than in large fish species. Finally, it might also be necessary to consider the effects of fishing on parasite communities as well as the natural oscillations (coupled or not) of host and parasite populations.

  20. A Holistic Approach to Enhance the Use of Neglected and Underutilized Species: The Case of Andean Grains in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Padulosi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The IFAD-NUS project, implemented over the course of a decade in two phases, represents the first UN-supported global effort on neglected and underutilized species (NUS. This initiative, deployed and tested a holistic and innovative value chain framework using multi-stakeholder, participatory, inter-disciplinary, pro-poor gender- and nutrition-sensitive approaches. The project has been linking aspects often dealt with separately by R&D, such as genetic diversity, selection, cultivation, harvest, value addition, marketing, and final use, with the goal to contribute to conservation, better incomes, and improved nutrition and strengthened livelihood resilience. The project contributed to the greater conservation of Andean grains and their associated indigenous knowledge, through promoting wider use of their diversity by value chain actors, adoption of best cultivation practices, development of improved varieties, dissemination of high quality seed, and capacity development. Reduced drudgery in harvest and postharvest operations, and increased food safety were achieved through technological innovations. Development of innovative food products and inclusion of Andean grains in school meal programs is projected to have had a positive nutrition outcome for targeted communities. Increased income was recorded for all value chain actors, along with strengthened networking skills and self-reliance in marketing. The holistic approach taken in this study is advocated as an effective strategy to enhance the use of other neglected and underutilized species for conservation and livelihood benefits.

  1. The Educational System of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Edward J.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Peru is presented. Despite various achievements in education, Peruvian authorities in recent years generally have not considered educational progress sufficient to meet the social and economic needs of their society. As a result, two educational structures are presently operating in Peru. The…

  2. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  3. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern Nigeria And The Potential For Development. ... country can offer feasible operational strategy for sustainable wildlife species development. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.

  5. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  6. PRESENCE OF RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS) IN ITE WETLANDS, TACNA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Jhonson K. Vizcarra

    2012-01-01

    The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758) in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.

  7. Two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza (Solanaceae from Arequipa and Ayacucho (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Linares Perea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza for the flora of Southern Peru are reported, including taxonomical, biogeographical and phytosociological data on this species.

  8. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B. M. Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  9. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  10. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  11. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  12. [Update on tegumentary leishmaniasis and carrion's disease vectors in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; Vásquez, Gissella; Espada, Liz; Ramírez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Among approximately 190 species of Lutzomyia in Peru, only a small number have been identified as vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Western and inter-Andean valleys. These include L. peruensis, L. verrucarum, L. tejadai, L. ayacuchensis, and L. pescei. In the Amazon region, L. yuilli yuilli, L. chagasi, L. davisi, and L. auraensis are naturally infected, among the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. L. auraensis is newly reported as a potential vector of leishmaniasis in neotropical regions. Among the primary and most widely distributed vectors of human bartonellosis or Carrión's disease, L. verrucarum and L. peruensis are predominant in the Andean regions of northern, central, and southern Peru. Other potential vectors of Carrion's disease are L. serrana in the Monzon Valley, Huamalies, and Huanuco; L. pescei in Apurímac and Cusco; and L. robusta and L. maranonensis in Jaén, San Ignacio, and Utcubamba provinces, and the high forests of Peru. Because of the high prevalence of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis outside of known endemic areas in Peru, it is necessary to update data and distribution maps of these disease vectors. This may improve both prevention and control measures. Existing information about sandfly vectors in Peru is also provided in this article.

  13. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-12-21

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation.

  14. Habitat partitioning, habits and convergence among coastal nektonic fish species from the São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Based on a fish survey and preliminary underwater observations, 17 "morphotypes" were identified that characterize the morphological diversity found within 27 nektonic fish species sampled at São Sebastião Channel. Such "morphotypes" were studied using an ecomorphological approach, with the intention to investigate similarities and differences in shape and habits. Underwater field observations were also performed, to verify if the lifestyle of these species, such as vertical occupation of the water column and the habitat use, are in accordance with their distribution in the morphospace. The results, complemented with data from scientific literature on the taxonomy and phylogenies of these species, allowed discussing some of the typical cases of convergent and divergent evolution. Some of the ecomorphological clusters had no phylogenetic support although this is probably due to the environmental conditions in which theirs members have evolved. The body shape and fins positions of a fish clearly influence its ecological performance and habitat use, corroborating the ecomorphological hypothesis on the intimate link between phenotype and ecology.

  15. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  16. May 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  17. Relationship between leaf traits and fire-response strategies in shrub species of a mountainous region of south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lyndsey M; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Resprouting and seed recruitment are important ways in which plants respond to fire. However, the investments a plant makes into ensuring the success of post-fire resprouting or seedling recruitment can result in trade-offs that are manifested in a range of co-occurring morphological, life history and physiological traits. Relationships between fire-response strategies and other traits have been widely examined in fire-prone Mediterranean-type climates. In this paper, we aim to determine whether shrubs growing in a non-Mediterranean climate region exhibit relationships between their fire-response strategy and leaf traits. Field surveys were used to classify species into fire-response types. We then compared specific leaf area, leaf dry-matter content, leaf width, leaf nitrogen and carbon to nitrogen ratios between (a) obligate seeders and all other resprouters, and (b) obligate seeders, facultative resprouters and obligate resprouters. Leaf traits only varied between fire-response types when we considered facultative resprouters as a separate group to obligate resprouters, as observed after a large landscape-scale fire. We found no differences between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters, nor between obligate seeders and resprouters considered as one group. The results suggest that facultative resprouters may require a strategy of rapid resource acquisition and fast growth in order to compete with species that either resprout, or recruit from seed. However, the overall lack of difference between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters suggests that environmental factors are exerting similar effects on species' ecological strategies, irrespective of the constraints and trade-offs that may be associated with obligate seeding and obligate resprouting. These results highlight the limits to trait co-occurrences across different ecosystems and the difficulty in identifying global-scale relationships amongst traits.

  18. Biomarkers and bioindicators of the environmental condition using a fish species (Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède, 1803 in a tropical reservoir in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Araújo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Funil Reservoir receives a large amount of xenobiotics from the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR from large number of industries and municipalities in the watershed. This study aimed to assess environmental quality along the longitudinal profile of the Paraíba do Sul River–Funil Reservoir system, by using biomarkers and bioindicators in a selected fish species. The raised hypothesis is that Funil Reservoir acts as a filter for the xenobiotics of the PSR waters, improving river water quality downstream the dam. Two biomarkers, the ethoxyresorufin–O–deethylase activity (EROD, measured as fluorimetricly in S9 hepatic fraction, and the micronuclei frequency (MN, observed in erythrocytes of the cytoplasm, and three bioindicators, the hepatosomatic index (HSI, gonadosomatic index (GSI and condition factor (CF were used in Pimelodus maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the system. Four zones were searched through a longitudinal gradient: 1, river upstream from the reservoir; 2, upper reservoir; 3, lower reservoir; 4, river downstream of the reservoir. EROD activity and HSI and GSI had significant differences among the zones (P<0.05. The upper reservoir had the lowest EROD activity and HSI, whereas the river downstream of the reservoir had the highest EROD and lowest GSI. The river upstream from the reservoir showed the highest HSI and GSI. It is suggested that the lowest environmental condition occur at the river downstream of the reservoir, where it seems to occur more influence of xenobiotics, which could be associated with hydroelectric plant operation. The hypothesis that Funil reservoir acts as a filter decanting pollution from the Paraíba do Sul River waters was rejected. These results are novel information on this subject for a native fish species and could be useful for future comparisons with other environments.

  19. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  20. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  1. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  2. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  3. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  4. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  5. Species composition and similarities among anuran assemblages of forest sites in southeastern Brazil Composição de espécies e similaridades entre taxocenoses de anuros de áreas florestais do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bertoluci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests show high anuran species richness, but some Brazilian forest formations, like cerradão, semideciduous forests and restingas, remain poorly known. The composition of anuran species were determined for four forest sites belonging to different biomes in southeastern Brazil, based on two complementary techniques (visual encounter survey and survey on breeding sites, both applied simultaneously. A total of 60 anuran species belonging to eight families was recorded. Species richness and levels of endemism were higher in the Atlantic rainforest site. Sites located in the Cerrado domain were more alike than those located in the Atlantic Forest Domain. Similarity in anuran species composition was negatively correlated to the geographical distance among sites, which explains part of similarities in species composition. Factors affecting these occurrence patterns are discussed. One species (if its identity is confirmed is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (The World Conservation Union, though it is not included in the Brazilian list of threatened amphibians. The presence of certain species with special habitats and microclimate requirements (bioindicators suggests well-preserved ecosystems.As florestas neotropicais apresentam altas riquezas de espécies de anuros, mas algumas formações florestais brasileiras, como o cerradão, as florestas semidecíduas e as restingas, permanecem pouco conhecidas. A composição de espécies de anuros de quatro áreas florestais pertencentes a diferentes biomas do sudeste do Brasil foi determinada com base em duas técnicas complementares (procura visual e investigação nos sítios reprodutivos, aplicadas de forma simultânea. Registramos um total de 60 espécies de anuros, incluídas em oito famílias. A riqueza de espécies e o nível de endemismo foram maiores na área coberta por floresta pluvial atlântica. As áreas localizadas no domínio do Cerrado foram mais similares entre si do que as

  6. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A.; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A.; Seixas, Tercia G.; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hg inorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hg inorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress. - Highlights: • Se aids in MeHg detoxification in dolphin liver, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals. • MT was involved in liver Hg inorg detoxification and GSH was associated to muscle Hg. • Feeding habits seem to influence muscle GSH, suggesting different diving capacities. • MT, GSH and Se and Hg in different forms were investigated in two dolphin species. • Hepatic Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg increased with higher Se concentrations. - “Coastal dolphins showed Se-mediated detoxification of MeHg and MT-mediated detoxification of Hg inorg , while GSH suggests different diving capacities”.

  7. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  8. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  9. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Peru: population and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  11. [Bioethics in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, R L

    1990-01-01

    Bioethics has still not acquired an identity of its own in Peru. The Ethics Committee of the Peruvian Medical School and the National AIDS Commission are review committees that deal with ethical problems arising in practice. Doubts regarding quality control of the drugs being tested have been raised in research on human subjects. Questions related to reproduction are very important. There is a high incidence of adolescent pregnancies, and illegal abortions result in many deaths and hospitalizations of women in serious condition. Birth control methods, such as vasectomy, conflict with attitudes about manhood in Peruvian society. Euthanasia is prohibited by the Ethical Code of the Peruvian Medical School, and legislation penalizes assisted suicide. Organ transplantation is hindered by concerns over early declaration of death. Handicapped children are often rejected by society owing to an absurd belief in the possibility that disorders such as Down's syndrome are contagious. The Ministry of Health requires state hospitals to accept AIDS patients, but instances of rejection are still reported.

  12. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  13. A new large squalodelphinid (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from Peru sheds light on the Early Miocene platanistoid disparity and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Giovanni; Bosio, Giulia; Malinverno, Elisa; de Muizon, Christian; Villa, Igor M.; Urbina, Mario; Lambert, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is the only extant survivor of the large clade Platanistoidea, having a well-diversified fossil record from the Late Oligocene to the Middle Miocene. Based on a partial skeleton collected from the Chilcatay Formation (Chilcatay Fm; southern coast of Peru), we report here a new squalodelphinid genus and species, Macrosqualodelphis ukupachai. A volcanic ash layer, sampled near the fossil, yielded the 40Ar/39Ar age of 18.78 ± 0.08 Ma (Burdigalian, Early Miocene). The phylogenetic analysis places Macrosqualodelphis as the earliest branching squalodelphinid. Combined with several cranial and dental features, the large body size (estimated body length of 3.5 m) of this odontocete suggests that it consumed larger prey than the other members of its family. Together with Huaridelphis raimondii and Notocetus vanbenedeni, both also found in the Chilcatay Fm, this new squalodelphinid further demonstrates the peculiar local diversity of the family along the southeastern Pacific coast, possibly related to their partition into different dietary niches. At a wider geographical scale, the morphological and ecological diversity of squalodelphinids confirms the major role played by platanistoids during the Early Miocene radiation of crown odontocetes.

  14. A new large squalodelphinid (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from Peru sheds light on the Early Miocene platanistoid disparity and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, Giulia; Malinverno, Elisa; Villa, Igor M.; Urbina, Mario

    2018-01-01

    The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is the only extant survivor of the large clade Platanistoidea, having a well-diversified fossil record from the Late Oligocene to the Middle Miocene. Based on a partial skeleton collected from the Chilcatay Formation (Chilcatay Fm; southern coast of Peru), we report here a new squalodelphinid genus and species, Macrosqualodelphis ukupachai. A volcanic ash layer, sampled near the fossil, yielded the 40Ar/39Ar age of 18.78 ± 0.08 Ma (Burdigalian, Early Miocene). The phylogenetic analysis places Macrosqualodelphis as the earliest branching squalodelphinid. Combined with several cranial and dental features, the large body size (estimated body length of 3.5 m) of this odontocete suggests that it consumed larger prey than the other members of its family. Together with Huaridelphis raimondii and Notocetus vanbenedeni, both also found in the Chilcatay Fm, this new squalodelphinid further demonstrates the peculiar local diversity of the family along the southeastern Pacific coast, possibly related to their partition into different dietary niches. At a wider geographical scale, the morphological and ecological diversity of squalodelphinids confirms the major role played by platanistoids during the Early Miocene radiation of crown odontocetes.

  15. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  16. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  17. Peru. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…

  18. Camisea: Peru in gassy state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Acosta, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    San Martin and Cashiriari fields, located to 500 kilometers to the southeast of Lima, conform the Camisea field that possesses the reserves more important of gas in Latin America. Camisea has gas and proven liquids of 13 quintillion cubic feet of natural gas and 600 million liquid barrels respectively. The paper includes projections, markets and benefits for the Peru

  19. Pseudotectites from Colombia and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, R.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.

    1955-01-01

    In a previous note on “Americanites” (Martin, 1934) from Colombia and Peru, the writer came to the conclusion, on the basis solely of published data, that it was very likely that these so-called tectites are in reality obsidian of terrestrial origin. He stated, however, that “before it is possible

  20. Contribution to the Uropodina mites of Peru (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan

    2017-02-27

    Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.

  1. llustrated review of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae of the central Andes (Peru and Bolivia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonis, Jonas R.; Diškus, Arunas; Remeikis, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    We review forty-five species of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) based on an analysis of samples collected in the central Andean region of Peru and Bolivia. Thirteen of these species are new to science, and are named and described here: Stigmella paracosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. expressa...

  2. Foreign oil companies weathering Peru's political crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector

  3. Peru Brand: a Nation under Construction?

    OpenAIRE

    Elder Cuevas-Calderón

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peru...

  4. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  5. Distribution and habitat description of Junín Rail Laterallus tuerosi, Andean Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Lars; Chamorro, Alan; Fjeldså, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Distribution and habitat description of the endangered Junín Rail Laterallus tuerosi were assessed during a field study between 6 and 20 February 2014 in the marshes surrounding Lake Junín in the high Andes of Peru, which is the only known locality for the species. By using point counts and playb......Distribution and habitat description of the endangered Junín Rail Laterallus tuerosi were assessed during a field study between 6 and 20 February 2014 in the marshes surrounding Lake Junín in the high Andes of Peru, which is the only known locality for the species. By using point counts...

  6. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    mi) border), on the south by Chile (160 km (99 mi) border), and in the west by the Pacific Ocean (2,414 km (1,497 mi) coast). Peru consists of three...1993), Brazil (1993), Paraguay (1996) and Chile (1997). Two isolates of hantavirus were reported in late 1996 from the rice rat, Oligoryzomys...Simuliidae. Fauna de Agua Dulce de la Republica Argentina. 38. (Insecta, Diptera, Simuliidae), Fascicle 2, 304 pp. +78 pp. of unnumbered figures

  7. Birth Control in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. Francoise

    2014-01-01

    It was carried out a case study of pregnancies and contraceptive methods used by a random sample of 500 women in Lima, Peru . During the five years preceding the interview, the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortions was 19 , 20 and 15 % in the socio- economic middle and lower respectively upper levels . Although the percentage of induced abortions was admitted as low , the rate of abortions was considered relatively high , and it was thought that probably included many whose provocatio...

  8. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeshart, H.

    1978-01-01

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  9. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  10. Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Susan C.

    This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…

  11. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  12. New Trends on Intellectual Assessment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2016-01-01

    The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…

  13. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action would allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection...

  14. The Cyber Media in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.

  15. Chronology of guitarrero cave, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T F; Gillespie, R; Gowlett, J A; Hedges, R E

    1985-08-30

    Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Re-evaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago.

  16. Peru: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on strong measures that are being taken to resuscitate Peru's hydrocarbon sector. The first step last August was the cutting of fuel subsidies in half. Then the administration issued tax vouchers to state utilities for the money they still owed national oil company Petroperu. A precursor to what are expected to be widespread changes to the existing petroleum legislation occurred last fall. As part of a package of fiscal reforms, the official base rate that the government paid Occidental Petroleum to produce crude for Petroperu was dropped. A new, free market rate was adopted, which was six times the old base rate

  17. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Brucella genotypes in patients at a major hospital in central Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nöckler, Karsten; Maves, Ryan; Cepeda, David; Draeger, Angelika; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Chacaltana, Jesus; Castañeda, María; Espinosa, Benjamin; Castillo, Rosa; Hall, Eric; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Gilman, Robert H.; Cabeza, Franco; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    The multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis of 90 human Brucella melitensis isolates from a large urban area in central Peru revealed variations at 4 (Bruce07, Bruce09, Bruce18, and Bruce42) out of 16 loci investigated, of which 1 (Bruce42) also is used for species identification. Ten

  19. Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichuña (Moquegua, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the floristic diversity of vascular plants is presented from the basin of the Tambo-Ichuña River, the high Andean Puna plateau and wetlands of Ichuña, Ubinas and Yunga Districts (3400 - 4700 m altitude, General Sanchez Cerro Province, Department of Moquegua, Peru. Vascular flora is composed of 70 families, 238 genera and 404 species. The Magnoliopsida represent 78% of the species, Liliopsida 16%, Gymnosperms 0.5% and Pteridophytes 6%. Among lifeforms, the Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous. Three vegetation formations have been identified, the humid scrubland being the most diverse in species richness. Between endemic species, 42 taxa are exclusive to Peru. A total number of 272 new additions of vascular species to the flora of the department of Moquegua are presented.

  20. Genetic divergence in populations of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, in Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  2. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontz, Robert D.; Guevara, Carolina; Halsey, Eric S.; Silvas, Jesus; Santiago, Felix W.; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Casanova, Wilma; Vasilakis, Nikos; Watts, Douglas M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America. PMID:25898901

  3. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontz, Robert D; Guevara, Carolina; Halsey, Eric S; Silvas, Jesus; Santiago, Felix W; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Casanova, Wilma; Vasilakis, Nikos; Watts, Douglas M; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Ebihara, Hideki; Aguilar, Patricia V

    2015-05-01

    Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America.

  4. Molecular detection of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome on Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and two species of migratory bats in the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Riley F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Willcox, Emma V; Parise, Katy L; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-04-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), is responsible for widespread mortality of hibernating bats across eastern North America. To document P. destructans exposure and infections on bats active during winter in the southeastern US, we collected epidermal swabs from bats captured during winters 2012-13 and 2013-14 in mist nets set outside of hibernacula in Tennessee. Epidermal swab samples were collected from eight Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), six eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), and three silver-hair bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Using real-time PCR methods, we identified DNA sequences of P. destructans from skin swabs of two Rafinesque's big-eared bats, two eastern red bats, and one silver-haired bat. This is the first detection of the WNS fungus on Rafinesque's big-eared bats and eastern red bats and the second record of the presence of the fungus on silver-haired bats.

  5. Protected area coverage of threatened vertebrates and ecoregions in Peru: Comparison of communal, private and state reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Monteferri, Bruno; Allgas, Nestor; Alarcon Pardo, Alejandro; Horwich, Robert H

    2017-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a conservation mainstay and arguably the most effective conservation strategy for species protection. As a 'megadiverse' country, Peru is a priority for conservation actions. Peruvian legislation allows for the creation of state PAs and private/communal PAs. Using publicly available species distribution and protected area data sets we evaluated the coverage of Threatened terrestrial vertebrate species distributions and ecoregions provided by both kinds of PA in Peru. Peru's state PA system covers 217,879 km 2 and private/communal PAs cover 16,588 km 2 . Of the 462 species of Threatened and Data Deficient species we evaluated, 75% had distributions that overlapped with at least one PA but only 53% had ≥10% of their distributions within PAs, with inclusion much reduced at higher coverage targets. Of the species we evaluated, 118 species are only found in national PAs and 29 species only found in private/communal PAs. Of the 17 terrestrial ecoregions found in Peru all are represented in PAs; the national PA system included coverage of 16 and private/communal PAs protect 13. One ecoregion is only protected in private/communal PAs, whereas four are only covered in national PAs. Our results show the important role private/communal PAs can play in the protection of ecological diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peru - privatisation draws in major new investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranfield, John.

    1994-01-01

    The recent charges in Peru's energy sector are reported as the privatisation campaign draws to a close. Sectors covered include the splitting of the petroleum company into its components of production, refining, transport and marketing. (UK)

  7. Peru Brand: a Nation under Construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Cuevas-Calderón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peruvians and bring them together into the wellknown “melting pot”, becomes the resemantization of the old colonial discourse longing for a republic without natives. Therefore, in the Peru Brand advertising discourse, the “primitive natives” are white people brought from Nebraska and speak English.

  8. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  9. Vocational and technical education in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moock, Peter; Bellew, Rosemary

    1988-01-01

    The relative costs of and returns to VTE (Vocational and Technical Education) and general education in Peru are investigated here. The paper is composed as follows. Following a brief introduction, section 2 describes the system of education in Peru and changes that have occurred in this system over time. Section 3 surveys the (relatively sparse) literature on comparative rates of return to VTE and general education. Sections 4 and 5 describe, respectively, the data used for this study and the...

  10. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  11. The Epidemiology of Bartonellosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-19

    single or of multiple organ systems. Interestingly, the histological features of BA lesions and verruga peruana are virtually identical (Cockerell et al... Biblioteca Nacional del Peru. lima, Peru, 115 pp. Hertig, M., 1937-38. Studies on Phlebotomus as the Possible Vector. Proc Soc Exp Bioi Med. 37: 598-.600...Vectors of Bartonellosis and Leishmaniasis as Early as 1764. Science. 190: 154-155. Herrer. A.. 1990. Epidemiologia de la Verruga Peruana. Biblioteca

  12. Landslides Are Common In The Amazon Rainforests Of SE Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S. P.; Muttiah, R. S.; Janovec, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The recent landslides in La Conchita, California, Mumbai, India, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka and Sugozu village, Turkey have dramatically illustrated prolonged rainfall on water induced change in soil shear stress. In these examples, the human footprint may have also erased or altered the natural river drainage from small to large scales. By studying patterns of landslides in natural ecosystems, government officials, policy makers, engineers, geologists and others may be better informed about likely success of prevention or amelioration programs in risk prone areas. Our study area in the Los Amigos basin in Amazon rainforests of Southeastern Peru, has recorded several hundred landslides. The area has no large human settlements. The basin is characterized by heavy rainfall, dense vegetation, river meander and uniform soils. Our objectives were: 1). Determine the spatial pattern of landslides using GIS and Remotely sensed data, 2). Model the statistical relationship between environmental variables and, 3). Evaluate influence of drainage on landscape and soil loss. GIS layers consisted of: 50cm aerial imagery, DEMs, digitized streams, soils, geology, rainfall from the TRMM satellite, and vegetation cover from the LANDSAT and MODIS sensors.

  13. A new minute species of Pristimantis (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae) with a large head from the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in central Peru, with comments on the phylogenetic diversity of Pristimantis occurring in the Cordillera Yanachaga

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehr, E.; Moravec, J.; Cusi, J. C.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 325, June (2017), s. 1-22 ISSN 2118-9773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Andes * DNA barcoding * frogs * molecular phylogeny * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2016

  14. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  15. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800-100 b.c.) using Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe 3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Moessbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  16. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  19. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  20. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  1. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  2. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  3. On the taxonomy of Trechaleidae (Araneae: Lycosoidea from Colombia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Enna O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 from Cusco, Peru and two new species of Caricelea SILVA & LISE, 2007 based in males collected in Cusco, Peru are described. Enna echarate sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species by the two lateral excavations on the epigynal middle field. Caricelea apurimac sp. nov. an be distinguished from the other members of the genus, by the larger lamellar projection (LP on the median apophysis that covers most of the guide. Caricelea camisea sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the genus, by the smaller lamellar projection and the smaller and acute ental division of the retrolateral apophysis. The males of Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 are described and illustrated for the first time. Trechalea numida Mello-Leitão, 1943 and Trechalea limai Mello-Leitão, 1941 are transferred to Thaumasia Perty, 1833 (Pisauridae and Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 (Trechaleidae as species inquirenda and nomen dubium, respectively. New records of Hesydrus aurantius (Mello-Leitão, 1942, Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005, Enna maya Silva, Lise & Carico, 2008 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 from Colombia and Peru are presented.

  4. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  5. Helminth parasites of amphibians and reptiles from the Ucayali Region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    Twenty individual amphibians representing 9 species within 6 families and 44 individual reptiles representing 15 species within 8 families from the Ucayali Region, Peru, were examined for helminths. Seven (35%) of the amphibian species and 15 (34%) of the reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 5 (25%) of the amphibians and 4 (9%) of the reptiles harbored multiple infections. A cyclophyllidean cestode and 14 taxa of nematodes within 7 families were found in the herpetofauna surveyed. Thirteen new host and 6 new geographic distribution records are documented.

  6. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  7. 75 FR 1 - Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    .... APHIS-2008-0126] RIN 0579-AC93 Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... to allow the importation of Hass avocados from Peru into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, Hass avocados from Peru will have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...

  9. Survey to evaluate escape of Eucalyptus spp. seedlings from plantations in southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; John A. Stanturf; William J. Hammond; Donald L. Rockwood; Evelyn S. Wenk; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biomass-based energy in the southeastern Unites States has led to increased need for fast-growing tree species. Several Eucalyptus species exhibit characteristics that make them attractive in the bioenergy context. However, some of these also possess traits that suggest they could become invasive. To make a preliminary assessment of the...

  10. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  11. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  12. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru's incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report's presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru's petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu's budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described

  13. Occupational Safety and Health in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  15. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  16. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pestana, Adriana; Kouri J., Carlos; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark ( Prionace glauca), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), smooth hammerhead ( Sphyrna zygaena), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus), smooth-hound ( Mustelus whitneyi) and angel shark ( Squatina californica). Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight) are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done. PMID:27635216

  17. Three new cave-dwelling trechine ground beetles from eastern and southeastern Serbia (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new troglobitic trechine ground beetle species are described from three caves in eastern and southeastern Serbia: Duvalius (Paraduvalius bogovinae sp. n., from the Bogovinska Pećina Cave, village of Bogovina, Kučajske Planine Mts., near Boljevac, eastern Serbia; D. (P. milutini sp. n., from the Samar cave system, village of Kopajkošara, Mt. Kalafat, near Svrljig, southeastern Serbia, and D. (P. beljanicae sp. n., from the Velika Atula Cave, village of Strmosten, Mt. Beljanica, near Despotovac, eastern Serbia. The new species are easily distinguished from relatives. All important morphological features, along with the diagnoses and illustrations of the new taxa are presented. The new species are relicts and endemics of eastern and southeastern Serbia. They probably belong to old phyletic lineages of Tertiary or even pre-Tertiary origin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  18. U.S.-Peru Economic Relations and the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villarreal, M. A

    2007-01-01

    .... A free trade agreement with Peru is one of several bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) negotiated or being considered by the United States with Latin American countries in its effort to advance free trade throughout the region...

  19. Characterization and Sequencing of a Genotype XII Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Figueroa, Aling; Segovia, Karen; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; Montalvan, Angela; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the first complete sequence and biological characterization of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a peacock in South America (NDV/peacock/Peru/2011). This isolate, classified as genotype XII in class II, highlights the need for increased surveillance of noncommercial avian species. Copyright © 2015 Chumbe et al.

  20. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  1. Redescriptions of Ckll., Ferris and Ckll. and Parrott and their Transfer to Gen. Nov. (Hemiptera: Coccidae, with Descriptions of Two New Species from the Southeastern U.S.A. and Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Mexican soft scales, Neolecanium leucaenae Cockerell, Toumeyella cerifera Ferris and T. sonorensis Cockerell and Parrott, are redescribed based on the adult females and are transferred to Neotoumeyella gen. nov. as N. leucaenae (Cockerell comb. nov., N. cerifera (Ferris comb. nov. and N. sonorensis (Cockerell and Parrott comb. nov. Two new species, N. caliensis Kondo and Williams sp. nov. from Colombia and N. cephalanthi Kondo and Williams sp. nov. from the U.S.A, are described and illustrated based on the adult female. A key to the genera of New World Myzolecaniinae based on the adult female is provided. We designate lectotypes for N. leucaenae, T. cerifera and T. sonorensis.

  2. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  3. Economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Pedro L; Budke, Christine M; Schantz, Peter M; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.

  4. Economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Moro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost. FINDINGS: The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722 per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629 if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383 if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489 DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.

  5. Vocational and Technical Education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, Rosemary; Moock, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis of Peruvian vocational and technical education (VTE) partly substantiates previous research suggesting that VTE in developing countries fails to offer a return commensurate with its cost. The costs of academic and VTE streams in Peru are similar, and graduates' monetary returns and occupational profiles are almost…

  6. Out of the ordinary: nursing in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    A high school friendship inspired a love of other cultures and a desire to pursue missionary nursing in South America. As a parish nurse in a remote village in Peru, the author trained village health workers in the basics of hygiene, first aid, and disease prevention.

  7. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...

  8. Biogeographical affinities and species richness of copronecrophagous beetles (Scarabaeoidea in the southeastern Mexican High Plateau Afinidades biogeográficas y riqueza de especies de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Scarabaeoidea en el sureste del altiplano mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Arriaga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we establish the biogeographical affinities of the Scarabaeoidea dung beetle fauna in the dry southeast of the Mexican Plateau and analyze species diversity and how it changes with site, soil and vegetation type. Beetles were systematically captured in 6 windows in the region between Perote, Veracruz and El Seco, Puebla. A total of 9 species and 960 beetles belonging to Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae and Trogidae were captured. Canthon humectus humectus and Phanaeus quadridens were found in greater abundance in cattle pastures. Trox plicatus is the only species captured in the badlands. The beetle fauna of this landscape is poor owing to a combination of circumstances, mainly the soil, recent volcanic activity and limited food availability. The results obtained are compared with those of 2 other dry landscapes in central Mexico (Metztitlán and Tehuacán. Our landscape shares 50% of its species with Metztitlán and 37.5% with Tehuacán. The species shared between all 3 landscapes are Canthon (B. puncticollis, Onthophagus lecontei and Labarrus pseudolividus. The fauna was characteristic of the southern Mexican Plateau, but poorer in both the number of species and individuals; some species-expected from a biogeographic perspective-were missing.Establecemos las afinidades biogeográficas de los Scarabaeoidea copronecrófagos del sureste seco del altiplano mexicano, así como la diversidad de especies y sus cambios en diferentes sitios, tipos de vegetación y suelos. Se recolectó en 6 diferentes ventanas entre Perote, Veracruz y El Seco, Puebla, obteniéndose un total de 9 especies y 960 individuos de Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae y Trogidae. Canthon humectus humectus y Phanaeus quadridens fueron más abundantes en las áreas de pastoreo de ganado. Trox plicatus fue la única especie capturada en la zona de malpaís. En conjunto, la fauna de este paisaje es pobre debido a una combinación de circunstancias, principalmente la naturaleza del suelo

  9. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  10. Subcutaneous mycoses in Peru: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos; Malaga, German

    2017-10-01

    There is a worrying lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution and burden of subcutaneous mycoses in Peru, hindering the implementation of surveillance and control programs. This study aimed to estimate the disease burden of subcutaneous mycoses in Peru and identify which fungal species were commonly associated with these mycoses. We performed a meta-analysis after a systematic review of the published literature in PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO to estimate the burden of subcutaneous mycoses in 25 regions in Peru. The disease burden was determined in terms of prevalence (number of cases per 100,000 inhabitants) and the number of reported cases per year per region. A total of 26 studies were eligible for inclusion. Results showed that sporotrichosis was the most common subcutaneous mycosis (99.7%), whereas lobomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis were rare. Cases of eumycetoma and subcutaneous zygomycosis were not found. Of the 25 regions, the burden of sporotrichosis was estimated for four regions classified as endemic; in nine regions, only isolated cases were reported. The highest burden of sporotrichosis was in Apurimac (15 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 57 cases/year), followed by Cajamarca (3/100,000 inhabitants; 30/year), Cusco (0.5/100,000 inhabitants; 4/year), and La Libertad (0.2/100,000 inhabitants; 2/year). In two regions, the mycoses predominantly affected children. Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis in Peru, with a high disease burden in Apurimac. Chromoblastomycosis, lobomycosis, and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis are rare mycoses in Peru. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Treehoppers (Homoptera, Membracidae in southeastern Brazil: use of host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Lopes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the use of host plants by treehoppers in plants in cerrado (savanna vegetation at Moji-Guaçu (São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil was made. Fifty-two species of treehoppers were recorded in association with 40 host plant species from October 1980 to February 1982. The families Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae were the most commonly used for oviposition. Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae had the highest number of associated treehopper species (10 species. The abundance of treehopper individuals was related to the hot and rainy season (from October to February, while during the cold and dry season (from March to September there was a decrease in the number of these Homoptera. After the occurrence of a frost, few adults and nymphs were observed on the host plants for one to two months.

  12. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Tavares; S. Siciliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoo...

  13. Riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas de uma lagoa natural no sudeste do Brasil Species richness and diversity of waterbirds of a natural lake in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    been used as an indicator of water quality and habitat quality. The aim of this paper was to survey and monitor waterfowl population at the largest natural lake of the 'Area of Environmental Protection' of Lagoa Santa, Southeast Brazil. The 'Lagoa do Sumidouro' holds approximately 253 ha with a 12,072 m of perimeter. Species richness and abundance was estimated from June 1999 to December 2002. It was recorded 27 species of 12 families. Twelve species were considered residents, while eight migratory and another seven species did not present any seasonal pattern. Ardeidae was the most representative family holding 23% of the species followed by Anatidae (15% and Socolopacidae (11%. Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 is considered threatened to extinction, while Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 and Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789 are considered rare for the state of Minas Gerais. There was no difference of species richness among the three main seasons ('wet', 'dry', and 'transitional'. Species diversity was higher during the wet season. The occurrence of threatened and migratory species at 'Lagoa do Sumidouro' makes the lake an area of extreme biological importance.

  14. Depositories of the type material of the species Coccidophilus lozadaiGonzalez, 2012 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 6 paratypes of the species Coccidophilus lozadai Gonzalez, 2012, are deposited in the collection of Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria (SENASA, Lima, Peru. The holotype and remaining paratypes are deposited in the Museo de Historia Natural (MUSM, Lima, Peru, and National Museum of Natural History (USNM, Washington, D.C., USA.

  15. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  16. A new species of Lepanthopsis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae) from Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rykaczewski, M.; Baranow, P.; Kolanowska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2017), s. 225-234 ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : phylogenetic-relationships * sequence alignment * nuclear * seaview * genus * dna Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.311.3.2

  17. A new species of Aphanoblastella (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae parasitic on Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae from Southeastern Brazil = Nova espécie de Aphanoblastella (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae parasito de Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Reder de Carvalho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphanoblastella juizforense sp. nov. is described in the gills of the heptapterid fish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 from the Paraibuna River, Juiz de Fora, Minasn Gerais State, Brazil. The new species can be separated from all congeners by the long coiledcopulatory organ with one counterclockwise ring; sinuous accessory piece and for the robust shape of the ventral bar.Aphanoblastella juizforense sp. nov. é descrita parasitando as brânquias de Rhamdia quelen (Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 do rio Paraibuna, Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie podeser diferenciada de todas as outras espécies do gênero por apresentar o órgão copulatório alongado, em forma de espiral, em sentido anti-horário, com peça acessória sinuosa e pela constituição mais robusta da barra ventral.

  18. Peru Subduction Zone Seismic Experiment (PeruSZE): Preliminary Results From a Seismic Network Between Mollendo and Lake Titicaca, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.

  19. Effects of species, sex, length, and locality on the mercury content of school shark Galeorhinus australis (Macleay) and gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus Guenther from south-eastern Australian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, T.I.

    1976-12-01

    The mercury levels detected in the muscle tissues of sharks ranged from 0.01 to 2.7 ppM wet weight for school shark Galeorhinus australis (Macleay) and from 0.07 to 3.0 ppM for gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus Guenther. Estimates of the mean mercury levels for the 1971 Victorian landed commercial shark catch were found to be 0.90 ppM for the school shark and 0.37 ppM for the gummy shark. The analyses for total mercury determinations were carried out by five independent laboratories. Preliminary analyses carried out by one indicated that most of the mercury in school sharks and about two-thirds of the mercury in gummy sharks was present as methylmercury. The mercury concentrations varied exponentially with shark length. School sharks had statistically significant higher mercury levels than gummy sharks of the same length and for both the medium-sized and large individuals of each species males had significantly higher levels than females. Levels in male gummy sharks were found to be affected by locality.

  20. Dendrogramma, new genus, with two new non-bilaterian species from the marine bathyal of southeastern Australia (Animalia, Metazoa incertae sedis--with similarities to some medusoids from the Precambrian Ediacara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Just

    Full Text Available A new genus, Dendrogramma, with two new species of multicellular, non-bilaterian, mesogleal animals with some bilateral aspects, D. enigmatica and D. discoides, are described from the south-east Australian bathyal (400 and 1000 metres depth. A new family, Dendrogrammatidae, is established for Dendrogramma. These mushroom-shaped organisms cannot be referred to either of the two phyla Ctenophora or Cnidaria at present, because they lack any specialised characters of these taxa. Resolving the phylogenetic position of Dendrogramma depends much on how the basal metazoan lineages (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria are related to each other, a question still under debate. At least Dendrogramma must have branched off before Bilateria and is possibly related to Ctenophora and/or Cnidaria. Dendrogramma, therefore, is referred to Metazoa incertae sedis. The specimens were fixed in neutral formaldehyde and stored in 80% ethanol and are not suitable for molecular analysis. We recommend, therefore, that attempts be made to secure new material for further study. Finally similarities between Dendrogramma and a group of Ediacaran (Vendian medusoids are discussed.

  1. Prevalence of fascioliosis in polygastric animals in Peru, 1985-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alim Valderrama Pomé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to compile publications from 1985 to 2015, such as original articles, short communications and case reports, on the prevalence of liver fluke in cattle, sheep and goats in Peru; as well as to collect scientific articles, conference proceedings and theses carried out at Peruvian universities. A descriptive and transversal bibliometric study was performed, with an internet search strategy based on the combination of keywords and Boolean operators used in databases such as Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Proquest. Peru has many hyperendemic areas of fascioliosis in cattle and sheep (>50 %, which are within the highest in the world. Goats only have mesoendemic infection rates (10-50 %. The age group of full mouth goats presents the most prevalence within all three species, but the variable of sex shows no significant difference.

  2. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R W; Malca, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Nilsen, B; Parris, B; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D; Saleda, J; Martinez, M; Carillo, L; Walker, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A

    2011-09-01

    The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a brine-shrimp assay. Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Framework for the strengthening of health information systems in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for encephalomyocarditis virus infection in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, Josephine; Huaman, Jose Luis; Forshey, Brett M; Morrison, Amy C; Castillo, Roger; Huaman, Alfredo; Caceda, Roxana; Eza, Dominique; Rocha, Claudio; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2011-04-01

    Although encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection has been commonly documented among domestic animals, less is known about EMCV transmission among humans. Recently, we described the isolation of EMCV from two febrile patients in Peru. To further investigate EMCV transmission in Peru, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Peru for serological evidence of recent EMCV infection. We also conducted a serological survey for EMCV-neutralizing antibodies in the city of Iquitos, located in the Amazon basin department of Loreto, Peru. Additionally, we screened serum from rodents collected from 10 departments in Peru for evidence of EMCV exposure. EMCV infection was found to be only rarely associated with acute febrile disease in Peru, accounting for 17% in cities in the tropical rainforest of northeastern Peru (Iquitos and Yurimaguas). On the basis of the serological survey conducted in Iquitos, risk factors for past infection include increased age, socioeconomic indicators such as residence construction materials and neighborhood, and swine ownership. Evidence from the rodent survey indicates that EMCV exposure is common among Murinae subfamily rodents in Peru (9.4% EMCV IgG positive), but less common among Sigmodontinae rodents (1.0% positive). Further studies are necessary to more precisely delineate the mode of EMCV transmission to humans, other potential disease manifestations, and the economic impact of EMCV transmission among swine in Peru.

  5. [The national health system in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In 1975, a group of professionals in Peru who were experts on national health systems began a process that led the country to be the first in South America to initiate a modern organization of the health system. This pioneering development meant that the creation of the National Health Services System [in Peru] in 1978 occurred before the health system reforms in Chile (1980), Brazil (1990), Colombia (1993), and Ecuador (2008). This encouraging start has had permanent reformist fluctuations since then, with negative development because of the lack of a State policy. Current features of the Peruvian system are inefficient performance, discontinuity, and lack of assessment, which creates a major setback in comparison with other health systems in America. In the 21st century, significant technical efforts have been missed to modernize the system and its functions. The future is worrying and the role of new generations will be decisive.

  6. Eugenics, medicine and psychiatry in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi-Portocarrero, Santiago

    2018-03-01

    Eugenics was defined by Galton as 'the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race'. In Peru, eugenics was related to social medicine and mental hygiene, in accordance with the neo-Lamarckian orientation, that predominated in Latin America. Peruvian eugenists assumed the mission of fighting hereditary and infectious diseases, malnutrition, alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, criminality and everything that threatened the future of the 'Peruvian race'. There were some enthusiastic advocates of 'hard' eugenic measures, such as forced sterilization and eugenic abortion, but these were never officially implemented in Peru (except for the compulsory sterilization campaign during the 1995-2000 period). Eugenics dominated scientific discourse during the first half of the twentieth century, but eugenic discourse did not disappear completely until the 1970s.

  7. A snapshot of training practices in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hernández Pozas, Ph.D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations need well trained employees in order to maintain a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to describe current training practices in Peru and to provide recommendations for improving organizational performance. This paper also aims to set priorities for future research work. Human capital theory and contributions on need assessment, and training planning, implementation and evaluation served as theoretical framework. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study that used information from surveys conducted in 24 Peru-vian companies. The findings reveal a strong interest in training, particularly with regard to the improvement of competencies, preference for face-to-face training, and the use of reaction evaluation methods. The recommendations include, among others, improving the provisions for internal support, policies, technology, behavioral evaluation, and resources.

  8. Family medicine in Peru: consolidating the discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Olga de los Milagros Romero Albino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family medicine in Peru had its origins in 1989, when the first family medicine residency was created; thereafter has had stages of improving and decline, there are currently more than 250 family physician graduated, between 70 and 90 seats of residency in annually, not having even insert family medicine in undergraduate medical schools. The inclusion of family physicians in the health system has been torpid, Peru has a mixed health system with multiple insurers and providers and 30% of the population without coverage, no real compliance characteristics of systems based on attention primary and first contact and access, longitudinality, comprehensiveness and coordination. It is expected to strengthen the specialty improve future training scenarios and developing a united health system.

  9. Pervasive hydrologic effects on freshwater mussels and riparian trees in southeastern floodplain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We present long-term growth trends for 13 freshwater mussel species from two unregulated rivers and one regulated river in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also collected baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) tree cores adjacent to mussel collection sites in one river and directly compared tree and mussel chronologies in this river. To extend our analysis...

  10. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  11. A hotspot of large branchiopod diversity in south-eastern Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large branchiopods are considered threatened across much of their global range. However, because several regions, including Zimbabwe in general and its south-eastern lowveld in particular, remain largely unstudied, interpretations of species distribution patterns are often based on limited data. A detailed study of large ...

  12. Relationship between crown dieback and drought in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger; Xingang. Fan

    2012-01-01

    Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) and Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data were obtained for 11 states in the southeastern United States to assess the relationship between drought and crown dieback. Correlation analyses were performed at the species group and ecoregion levels within the study area. The results indicate a negative correlation between...

  13. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R W; Malca-García, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Chait, G; Díaz, D; Pourmand, K; Jonat, B; Somogy, S; Guardado, G; Aguirre, C; Chan, R; Meyer, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A; Effio-Carbajal, J; Frías-Fernandez, F; Benito, M

    2010-10-28

    The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as "inflammation". The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli and 38 extracts against Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256 mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. FINDINGS: The to...

  15. A carbon budget for overfishing off Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.

    1981-03-26

    The anchovy harvest off the coast of Peru has decreased from a maximum of about 12 million tons in 1970 to about 1 million tons/year between 1977 and 1979. This rise and collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery between the 1950s and the 1970s was accompanied by marked changes in the fluxes of a carbon budget for the upwelling ecosystem. These carbon budget changes are discussed in relation to anchovy production. (JMT)

  16. Peru : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, a national multi-sectorial Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was created in Peru to increase handwashing with soap among mothers and children. The early years of the HWI focused on laying groundwork, including a formative research study in 2004; the creation of a consultative committee by the Ministry of Health (MoH); and a national decree formalizing the HWI. The Water and Sanitation ...

  17. Sino-American Corporation in Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingcai; Xu Yunming

    1996-01-01

    @@ Sino-American Oil Development Corporation (hereinafter referred to as"SODC") has taken part in the international operation activities in petroleum exploration and development in Latin-American area since 1992 and some progress has been made. At present, SODC is carrying out the operations within the Sixth and Seventh Blocks of Tarara oil field of the Republic of Peru and gains a good prestige.

  18. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  19. A snapshot of training practices in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVIA HERNÁNDEZ POZAS; KETY LOURDES JAUREGUI

    2012-01-01

    Organizations need well trained employees in order to maintain a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to describe current training practices in Peru and to provide recommendations for improving organizational performance. This paper also aims to set priorities for future research work. Human capital theory and contributions on need assessment, and training planning, implementation and evaluation served as theoretical framework. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study that ...

  20. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  1. Child Health and Economic Crisis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The effect of macroeconomic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. This article analyzes the impact of a profound crisis in Peru on infant mortality. It finds an increase of about 2.5 percentage points in the infant mortality rate for children born during the crisis of the late 1980s, which implies that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence o...

  2. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field.

  3. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  4. New beaked whales from the late Miocene of Peru and evidence for convergent evolution in stem and crown Ziphiidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bianucci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ziphiidae (beaked whales represent a large group of open-ocean odontocetes (toothed cetaceans, whose elusive and deep diving behavior prevents direct observation in their natural habitat. Despite their generally large body size, broad geographical distribution, and high species number, ziphiids thus remain poorly known. Furthermore, the evolutionary processes that have led to their extreme adaptations and impressive extant diversity are still poorly understood. Here we report new fossil beaked whales from the late Miocene of the Pisco Formation (southern Peru. The best preserved remains here described are referred to two new genera and species, the Messinian Chavinziphius maxillocristatus and the Tortonian Chimuziphius coloradensis, based on skull remains from two marine vertebrate-rich localities: Cerro Los Quesos and Cerro Colorado, respectively. C. maxillocristatus is medium sized retains a complete set of functional lower teeth, and bears robust rostral maxillary crests similar to those of the extant Berardius. By contrast, C. coloradensis is small and characterized by large triangular nasals and moderately thickened premaxillae that dorsally close the mesorostral groove. Both species confirm the high past diversity of Ziphiidae, the richest cetacean family in terms of the number of genera and species. Our new phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses depart markedly from earlier studies in dividing beaked whales into two major clades: the Messapicetus clade, which, along with other stem ziphiids, once dominated the southeastern Pacific and North Atlantic; and crown Ziphiidae, the majority of which are found in deep-water regions of the Southern Ocean, with possible subsequent dispersal both globally (Mesoplodon and Ziphius and to the cooler waters of the northern oceans (Berardius and Hyperoodon. Despite this relatively clear separation, both lineages seem to follow similar evolutionary trends, including (1 a progressive reduction of

  5. Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, Karen A; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Marks, Morgan A; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M W; Cama, Vitaliano A; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-05-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2-18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7-28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4-6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6-24.7%) among participants Peru.

  6. Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, Karen A.; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Marks, Morgan A.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M. W.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2 – 18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7- 28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4 – 6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6 - 24.7%) among participants Peru. PMID:26000770

  7. Hyphessobrycon taphorni y H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae dos nuevas especies de peces de la cuenca del río Madre de Dios, Perú Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2013-06-01

    y la aleta dorsal (cinco vs. tres a cuatro, se diferencia de H. agulha por el número de escamas: laterales (30-31 vs. 33-34, predorsales (9 vs. 10, dientes en el maxilar (cuatro vs. cero a uno por presentar en vida una banda lateral roja por encima de la banda oscura que se extiende desde la parte posterior del opérculo hasta el pedúnculo caudal (vs. ausencia, y por la presencia de ganchos óseos en machos maduros solo en la aleta anal (vs. todas las aletas incluye la caudal.Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM; and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA. Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8, by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5, teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2, teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8, by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL, number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30 and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present, it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3 and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4, and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9

  8. Habitat use by a tree frog species of Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae at an urban forest fragment from south-eastern Brazil Uso do hábitat por uma espécie de Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae em um fragmento florestal urbano no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pattern of habitat use by the tree frog Scinax aff. perereca. Fieldworks were performed from August 1996 to August 1997 at Parque das Mangabeiras, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Calling males were observed in September, October and December 1996, February to April and June 1997. Females were found only in October 1996. Specimens were found perched on vegetation, on the ground or on stones near waterfall. At Parque das Mangabeiras, S. aff. perereca occupied nine types of substrata. The most frequently used substrata were shrubs, stones at the stream edges, and fallen trunks. The pattern of spatial occupation varied among months. Males were found calling in aggregations on the vegetation and spatial niche breadth was related to species abundance.No presente estudo é tratado o uso do hábitat por Scinax aff. perereca, durante o período de agosto de 1996 a agosto de 1997 em uma área de mata urbana em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Machos em atividade de vocalização foram encontrados em setembro, outubro e dezembro de 1996 e de fevereiro a abril e junho de 1997. As fêmeas foram capturadas apenas em outubro de 1996. Os indivíduos foram encontrados em galhos da vegetação no solo ou em pedras próximas a quedas de água. Na área estudada, S. aff. perereca usa nove tipos de substratos, sendo os mais freqüentes a vegetação herbácea, pedras na margem do riacho e troncos caídos. O padrão de ocupação espacial variou ao longo dos meses. Os machos foram encontrados vocalizando em agregados e a largura de nicho espacial foi diretamente relacionada a abundância da espécie.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815) in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, R L; Paschoal, A M O; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.

  10. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    of glacial lakes and their hazard potential. This phase of glacial lake hazard assessment aims to be geographically comprehensive in order to identify potentially dangerous lakes that may have previously been ignored. A second phase of analysis that includes site visits will be necessary for a thorough analysis at each lake to determine the potential hazard for downstream communities. The objective of the work presented here is to identify potentially dangerous lakes that warrant further study rather than provide a final hazard assessment for each lake of the glacial lake inventory in the Cordillera Blanca. References: Emmer, A. and Vilímek, V.: New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 2391-2439, 2014. UGRH - Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos. Inventario de Lagunas Glaciares del Peru. Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Direcccion de Conservacion y Planeamiento de Recursos Hidricos, Huaraz, Peru, 2014. Wang, W., Yao, T., Gao, Y., Yang, X., and Kattel, D. B.: A first-order method to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes in a region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Mountain Res. Develop., 31, 122-130, 2011.

  11. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  12. Peru 2021: A Business Plan for National Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravedo, Baltazar

    1998-01-01

    Describes Peru 2021, an organization of business-related individuals with a vision for Peruvian society. Outlines aspects of their vision in the areas of leadership, education, economy, environment, government, business, technology, and society. Discusses Peru 2021's efforts to develop a strategic plan for implementing the vision, to involve…

  13. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...

  14. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru.

  15. Improving citizen awareness and democratic elections in Peru ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru. Having little or no savings can be devastating for poor families, especially in times of crisis. View moreMini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru ...

  16. Historical Perspectives on Spanish-Quechua Language Contact in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. (Author/VWL)

  17. MLVA genotyping of human Brucella isolates from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Espinosa, Benjamin; Castillo, Rosa; Hall, Eric; Guillen, Alfredo; Zevaleta, Milagros; Gilman, Robert H.; Melendez, Paolo; Guerra, Carlos; Draeger, Angelika; Broglia, Alessandro; Nöckler, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Recent human Brucella melitensis isolates from Peru were genotyped by multiple locus variable number repeat analysis. All 24 isolates originated from hospitalized patients living in the central part of Peru and consisted of six genomic groups comprising two to four isolates and nine unique

  18. U.S. and Peru Formalize Alliance in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Global Health (CGH) had the pleasure of welcoming a delegation of health officials from the Government of Peru for the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the U.S. and Peru.

  19. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  20. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  1. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  2. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  3. Our man in Peru or Tintin in the Andes. Radiation cooperation Netherlands-Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Albada, M.

    1998-01-01

    The experiences of the author during his stay in Peru at UNSA are described. The purpose of the author's stay was to set up a system to evaluate study results and explore the market for openings for graduated physicists. His task is the result of a cooperation project between the Delft University of Technology and UNSA

  4. Mercury levels in the Smooth Hammerhead Shark Sphyrna zygaena (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae from Northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gonzalez-Pestana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The smooth hammerhead shark Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the elasmobranch species most used for human consumption in Peru. However, the level of mercury in hammerhead muscle tissue is unknown. This study assessed the level of mercury found in the muscle of hammerhead sharks and its relation with human health. Moreover, we evaluated the relationship between shark body size and mercury levels. We analyzed 27 muscle samples of neonates and juveniles captured in northern Peru. Mercury concentrations varied between 0.13 and 0.86 mg kg-1 wet weight. Moreover, we found a negative and significant relationship between shark body size and mercury levels. This study represents the first evaluation of mercury levels of sharks in Peru. Although the values found do not exceed levels recommended by the World Health Organization (< 1 mg kg-1, we recommend expanding this study to include other size classes of sharks as well as other marine resources used for human consumption.

  5. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  6. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement...

  7. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  8. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  9. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  10. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  11. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia E. Milton.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  12. Radiological accidents in Peru: 1977-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcardo L, C.; Espinoza Z, M.

    1999-10-01

    A brief history of twenty four events of real and suspected overexposure to ionizing radiation's reported to IPEN during 1977-1988 period are presented. Thirty-seven persons were involved being twelve really overexposed. Nine of them showed clinically detectable injuries (deterministic effects). The events occurred in different kinds of irradiation facilities or laboratories in Peru, mainly related with the use of radiodiagnostics and gamma radiography equipment. Patients were derived to the radiosanitary medicine service of IPEN were medical examinations and laboratory prescriptions were made. It was possible to perform cytogenetical analysis in eighteen patients. Additional data and comments on six cases of prenatal irradiation reported to this service are presented. (authors)

  13. Genetic counseling about cancer in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Javier E.; Dirección de Promoción de la Salud, Prevención y Control Nacional del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Lima, Perú. Cirujano oncólogo.; Sullcahuamán-Allende, Yasser; Unidad de Genética y Biología Molecular, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Lima, Perú. médico genetista.; Limache-García, Abel; Dirección de Promoción de la Salud, Prevención y Control Nacional del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Lima, Perú. enfermero.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease caused by changes in the DNA sequence or expression. Based on the origin of these changes, cancer can be classified as sporadic, and hereditary or familial. Based on the cancer records in Peru, it is expected that 5 to 30% of all patients with cancer, i.e. about 2,000 to 12,000 people, have hereditary cancer, meaning that a similar number of families have a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Therefore, the purpose of genetic co...

  14. Information technology project risk management in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio Gallegos, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how some principles, uses, and practices of risk management are applied in information technology projects in Peru; in the last four years, in representative sectors like manufacturing, banking, information and communications, academics institutions, construction, government, consulting, services, and others. El presente artículo muestra algunos principios, usos y prácticas de cómo la gestión de riesgos de proyectos de tecnología se ha llevado a cabo en los últimos cuatr...

  15. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C antibody in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, K C; Phillips, I A; Moran, A Y; Tejada, A; Wignall, F S; Escamilla, J

    1992-06-01

    The prevalence in Peru of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) was determined in a survey of populations living in the northern jungle region and in groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. All sera were initially screened for anti-HCV using commercial first and second generation ELISAs; repeatedly reactive sera were further verified with a second generation immunoblot assay. Serum samples were also tested by ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. None of 2,111 sera obtained in the survey of jungle residents was positive for anti-HCV by immunoblot assay. Twelve of 16 HIV-1 antibody positive hemophiliacs, one of 103 HIV-1 antibody positive homosexuals, and three of 602 HIV-1 negative registered female prostitutes were positive for anti-HCV. A high prevalence of total markers of hepatitis B infection was found in all subjects, especially in older subjects and groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. The findings of this study indicate that seropositivity for hepatitis C virus antibody is uncommon in Peru except in high risk groups and suggest that the epidemiology of hepatitis C differs substantially from hepatitis B.

  17. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  18. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  19. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  20. Neurogenetics in Peru: clinical, scientific and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Espinoza-Huertas, Keren; Velit-Salazar, Mario R; Veliz-Otani, Diego; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Marca, Victoria; Ortega, Olimpio; Mazzetti, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Neurogenetics, the science that studies the genetic basis of the development and function of the nervous system, is a discipline of recent development in Peru, an emerging Latin American country. Herein, we review the clinical, scientific and ethical aspects regarding the development of this discipline, starting with the first molecular diagnosis of neurogenetic diseases, to family and population-based genetic association studies. Neurogenetics in Peru aims to better explain the epidemiology of monogenic and complex neurodegenerative disorders that will help in implementing public health policies for these disorders. The characterization of Peru and its health system, legal issues regarding rare diseases and the historical milestones in neurogenetics are also discussed.

  1. Molecular Investigation into a Malaria Outbreak in Cusco, Peru: Plasmodium falciparum BV1 Lineage is Linked to a Second Outbreak in Recent Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Chenet, Stella M.; Arrospide, Nancy; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas, Cesar; Matta, Jose Antonio; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak of 11 cases occurred in Cusco, southern Peru, where falciparum malaria had not been reported since 1946. Although initial microscopic diagnosis reported only Plasmodium vivax infection in each of the specimens, subsequent examination by the national reference laboratory confirmed P. falciparum infection in all samples. Molecular typing of four available isolates revealed identity as the B-variant (BV1) strain that was responsible for a malaria outbreak in Tumbes, northern Peru, between 2010 and 2012. The P. falciparum BV1 strain is multidrug resistant, can escape detection by PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests, and has contributed to two malaria outbreaks in Peru. This investigation highlights the importance of accurate species diagnosis given the potential for P. falciparum to be reintroduced to regions where it may have been absent. Similar molecular epidemiological investigations can track the probable source(s) of outbreak parasite strains for malaria surveillance and control purposes. PMID:26483121

  2. The Globalization of Traditional Medicine in Northern Peru: From Shamanism to Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2013-01-01

    Northern Peru represents the center of the Andean “health axis,” with roots going back to traditional practices of Cupisnique culture (1000 BC). For more than a decade of research, semistructured interviews were conducted with healers, collectors, and sellers of medicinal plants. In addition, bioassays were carried out to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of plants found. Most of the 510 species encountered were native to Peru (83%). Fifty percent of the plants used in colonial times have disappeared from the pharmacopoeia. Market vendors specialized either on common and exotic plants, plants for common ailments, and plants only used by healers or on plants with magical purposes. Over 974 preparations with up to 29 different ingredients were used to treat 164 health conditions. Almost 65% of the medicinal plants were applied in these mixtures. Antibacterial activity was confirmed in most plants used for infections. Twenty-four percent of the aqueous extracts and 76% of the ethanolic extracts showed toxicity. Traditional preparation methods take this into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. The increasing demand for medicinal species did not increase the cultivation of medicinal plants. Most species are wild collected, causing doubts about the sustainability of trade. PMID:24454490

  3. Holocene vegetation history from fossil rodent middens near Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C.A.; Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, K.A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  4. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  5. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  6. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A; Rohwer, Vanya G; Martin, Paul R

    2011-04-28

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  7. Environmental influences on distribution of four Sciaenidae species (Actinopterygii, Perciformes in a tropical bay at Southeastern Brazil Influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies de Sciaenidae (Actinopterygii, Perciformes numa baía tropical do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We sampled fish and measured environmental variables in the Sepetiba Bay, a tropical embayment at Southeastern Brazil. The aim was to assess environmental influences on distribution of four abundant species of Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar, 1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 to test the habitat partition hypothesis. Samples were taken between June 1993 and July 1996, at three bay zones (outer, central and inner. Depth was the most important environmental variable to influence fish distribution, followed by transparency. M. furnieri showed significant negative correlation to depth, transparency and salinity, while C. gracilicirrhus showed the opposite situation. The highest densities of C. leiarchus occurred in the lowest temperature, while M. americanus did not showed preferences for any of the examined environmental variables. Spatial separation, mainly between M. furnieri and C. gracilicirrhus, seems to be the strategy developed to coexist in the Sepetiba Bay, with M. furnieri being more adapted to copy with harsh environmental conditions of the inner bay. The other three species, which use mostly the outer bay zone, seem to be restricted to more stable conditions, where influences from oceanic waters are more intense.Foram coletados peixes e medidas as variáveis ambientais na Baía de Sepetiba, uma baía tropical do Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi determinar influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies abundantes de Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar,1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier,1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 para testar a hipótese de partição do hábitat. Amostragens foram feitas entre Junho de 1993 e Julho de 1996 em três zonas da baía (externa, central e interna. A profundidade foi a mais importante variável ambiental que

  8. All projects related to peru | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Raising taxes in Latin America presents a unique opportunity to improve ... interactions between and among institutions can affect developing countries' ... limited support granted to science, technology and innovation (STI) activities in Peru.

  9. More Decent Jobs in Peru: Strengthening Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More Decent Jobs in Peru: Strengthening Research and Policymaking Capacities. Despite ... In turn, such understanding requires appropriate data. Currently ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  10. A Bilingual Experiment in the Amazonian Jungle of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Ruth

    1971-01-01

    In the Amazonian jungle of Peru 240 Indian leaders representing 20 different South American Indian language groups are successfully teaching their own people to read and write, first in their mother tongue and then in Spanish. (Author/EB)

  11. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  12. All projects related to peru | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. IDRC's Think Tank Initiative is a multi-donor program dedicated to ... Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, North and Central America.

  13. All projects related to Peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: ... Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America. Project ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, North and Central America. Program: ...

  14. All projects related to peru | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to peru. Keyword ... Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.

  15. Finding decent jobs for Peru's youth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... ... job (most of them are self-employed or work in small enterprises). ... Image. Peru Photo. There is an urgent need for solid research and policy ... on Labour Ministry's website (in Spanish); Media articles (in Spanish).

  16. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    comparadas con base en estimaciones de la diversidad para medir la riqueza, dominancia y análisis de varianza (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se colectaron 31.134 formas inmaduras de mosquitos en las bromelias, distribuidas en siete géneros y 37 especies. El ambiente urbano registró mayor abundancia, 14.575 individuos, seguido del periurbano con 10.987, y la selva virgen, con el menor número de ejemplares, 5.572. Fueron colectadas 30 especies en el habitat urbano, 32 en el periurbano y 33 en la selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus en los ambientes urbano y perirurbano, y Culex ocellatus en la selva. De acuerdo con el test de ANOVA la frecuencia de mosquitos en bromelias no fue diferente entre los ambientes investigados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. La diversidad de especies en la selva fue mayor, y semejante entre el periurbano y el urbano. CONCLUSIONES: La composición específica de culícidos en bromelias de suelo se mostró diversificada, siendo mayor en aquellas de ambientes de selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJECTIVE: To compare diversity of Culicidae species collected from ground bromeliads in an urban, and periurban area and primitive forest. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of Ilhabela, northern stretch of the coast of the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1998 to July 1999. Fortnightly immature Culicidae collections were undertaken in bromeliad tanks located in urban, and periurban areas, and primitive forest. The frequencies of species collected in the different environments were compared based on the estimated diversity to assess their richness, dominance and variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 31,134 immature mosquitoes from seven different genera and 37 species were collected from ground bromeliads. The urban environment had the greatest abundance (14,575 specimens, followed by the periurban (10,987 and then the forest environment (5,572. There were collected 30 species

  17. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  18. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  19. Studies on endoparasites of the black bear (Ursus americanus) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, J M; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R

    1978-04-01

    Examination of 53 black bears (Ursus americanus) from six states in the southeastern United States revealed at least 17 species of endoparasites, including Sarcocystis sp., Spirometra mansonoides (spargana), Macracanthorhynchus ingens, Ancylostoma caninum, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris transfuga, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma sp., Cyathospirura sp., Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma sp., Gongylonema pulchrum, microfilariae, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera sp. and Strongyloides sp. Twelve of these represent new host records for black bear, and two are considered to be new species. Data are presented on prevalence, intensity and geographic distribution of each species. Pathologic effects were associated with infections of spargana of S. mansonoides and adults of C. aerophilia.

  20. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005, had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions in the Global Network have not had temporary clear definition. The media progressed at their own pace, depending among other factors –at the time of entry into the network, the staff assigned to the publication, and especially on the strength of the journalistic company and its policy regarding digital editing. With regard to the presence on the Internet, digital newspapers have shown a steady and numerous growth, over the first decade (1995-2005.

  1. [First report of alkaptonuria in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Mendoza, Daniel; Quiroga de Michelena, María

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) which produces an excess of homogentisic acid (HGA). A case is presented of a 57 year old woman whose urine has turned black since birth. For 9 years she presented a greenish pigmentation in her nail beds that did not improve with antifungal treatments, and in the last 9 months she showed worsening large joint osteoarthritis. This situation forced her to use a wheelchair due to the intense pain caused by osteoarthritis in her hips and lumbar spine. From the description of symptoms, her urinary HGA was measured which confirmed the diagnosis of alkaptonuria. Analgesics and a diet without tyrosine-containing products were suggested. The patient was also referred for hip replacement surgery. This is the first reported case of alkaptonuria in Peru.

  2. The Ecuador-Peru Peace Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    Full Text Available Abstract The 1998 Brasilia Peace Agreement ended a territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru that, due to the size and location of the contested area, had remained a source of regional instability and continental tensions for decades. This paper examines the circumstances that finally allowed negotiations, beginning in 1995, to overcome an almost two-centuries-old conflict, long after almost all territorial disputes in South America had been laid to rest. It will focus in particular on the diplomatic endeavours by the guarantor countries of the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which involved a unique set of negotiations, and the setting up of the first effective multilateral peace operation in South America. It also suggests that the peace agreement benefited from the dynamics of economic integration underway since the 1980s. Finally, it considers the implications for regional security arrangements, as well as Brazil’s leadership credentials in South America.

  3. [An experience with implementation of electronic medical records in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revoredo Iparraguirre, José Francisco; Cavalcanti Oscátegui, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Analyze the process for implementation of health provider information systems in Peru. A qualitative study was conducted on implementation of a health provider information system in coastal, mountain, and jungle regions of Peru. Factors were identified that hinder and that facilitate the implementation process. Critical success factors included planning of implementation, executive commitment, commitment of the implementation leader, organizational culture, and human resources capacity. Implementation processes for provider information systems demonstrate various difficulties associated primarily with human barriers.

  4. The LAGO (Large Aperture GRB Observatory) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros-Cuadros, E.; Otiniano, L.; Chirinos, J.; Soncco, C.; Guevara-Day, W.

    2012-07-01

    The Large Aperture GRBs Observatory is a continental-wide observatory devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) at high mountain sites of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru. Details of the instalation and operation of the detectors in Marcapomacocha in Peru at 4550 m.a.s.l. are given. The detector calibration method will also be shown.

  5. The Japanese in multiracial Peru, 1899-1942

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephanie Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...

  6. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  7. Motives and Effectiveness of Forex Interventions; Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Tashu

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind” as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to episodes ...

  8. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  9. Status of birds at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Johnson, A.R.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has entered into agreements with the Washington State Department of Ecology, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Hanford Site contractors to focus work activities on cleanup and stabilization of radioactive and hazardous waste sites located at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Ecological characterization is an essential part of the remediation process, and the identification of biotic components such as bird species that could be impacted by cleanup activities is an important part of the initial environmental characterizations. Site characterization work has resulted in this list of 238 birds that have been observed at the Hanford Site. This list is presented with a status rating for abundance and seasonal occurrence

  10. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  11. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diawo Diallo

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal.Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground, savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes tested: Ae. furcifer (5, Ae. luteocephalus (5, Ae. africanus (5, Ae. vittatus (3, Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each collected in June (3, September (10, October (11, November (6 and December (1. ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated.This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

  12. Rare Plants of Southeastern Hardwood Forests and the Role of Predictive Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imm, D.W.; Shealy, H.E. Jr.; McLeod, K.W.; Collins, B.

    2001-01-01

    Habitat prediction models for rare plants can be useful when large areas must be surveyed or populations must be established. Investigators developed a habitat prediction model for four species of Southeastern hardwood forests. These four examples suggest that models based on resource and vegetation characteristics can accurately predict habitat, but only when plants are strongly associated with these variables and the scale of modeling coincides with habitat size

  13. Signal-transfer Modeling for Regional Assessment of Forest Responses to Environmental Changes in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Luxmoore; William W. Hargrove; M. Lynn Tharp; Wilfred M. Post; Michael W. Berry; Karen S. Minser; Wendell P. Cropper; Dale W. Johnson; Boris Zeide; Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart; V. Clark Baldwin; Kelly D. Peterson

    2000-01-01

    Stochastic transfer of information in a hierarchy of simulators is offered as a conceptual approach for assessing forest responses to changing climate and air quality across 13 southeastern states of the USA. This assessment approach combines geographic information system and Monte Carlo capabilities with several scales of computer modeling for southern pine species...

  14. Soil fungal communities respond compositionally to recurring frequent prescribed burning in a managed southeastern US forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena K. Oliver; Mac A. Callaham; Ari Jumpponen

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important management tool to reduce fuel loads, to remove non-fire adapted species and to sustain fire-adapted taxa in many forested ecosystems of the southeastern USA. Yet, the long-term effects of recurring prescribed fires on soil fungi and their communities in these ecosystems remain unclear. We Illumina MiSeq sequenced and analyzed fungal...

  15. Trophic relationships between the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas and the lightfish (Vinciguerria lucetia in the Humboldt Current System off Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Rosas-Luis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic surveys for assessing the biomass and distribution of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas and the lightfish (Vinciguerria lucetia were carried out in the Humboldt Current System of Peru in 2007 and 2008. At the same time, 937 jumbo squid were caught and their stomach contents analyzed. The diet of the jumbo squid was dominated by mesopelagic fish. The first component of their fish diet was V. lucetia and the second component was the myctophid fish Diogenichthys laternatus. Acoustic biomass estimates of these species show that V. lucetia is an important component in aggregative structures in the Humboldt Current System of Peru and its distribution and movements are closely related to the migratory movements of the jumbo squid. The trophic relationship observed between D. gigas and V. lucetia promotes an increase in jumbo squid biomass and, has a positive trophic effect on the ocean ecosystem.

  16. Balanço de carbono e nutrientes em plantio puro e misto de espécies florestais nativas no sudeste da Bahia Carbon and nutrient balance in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues

    2008-06-01

    plantation systems of forest species native in the Atlantic Forest. The plantation systems consisted of 22 year-old mixed stand and pure stands of six hardwood species (Peltogyne angustiflora, Centrolobium robustum, Arapatiella psilophylla, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, Cordia trichotoma, Macrolobium latifolium native to the southeastern region of Bahia, Brazil, that were evaluated from August 1994 through July 1995. As references, the study included a natural forest and a 40-year-old, naturally regenerating secondary forest. Total stocks of carbon and nutrients in the soil-plant-litter systems varied among species in pure stands, but the capacity of accumulation of these elements in the mixed stands was greater than in the pure stands. The intensity of biochemical cycling of all studied nutrients in mixed stands was greater than the average values observed for pure stands. A similar result was obtained for biogeochemical cycling, with exception of Ca. The C, P, K balances were negative for all forest species, whereas the N balance was positive. The Ca balance was only positive in the pure stand of Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, and the Mg balance was negative only in the pure stands of Centrolobium robustum and Macrolobium latifolium. The most negative balances were found for P, K and Ca. The mean carbon and nutrient balances in the mixed-tree stands were similar to those in pure stands. The biochemical and biogeochemical cycling in mixed-tree stands was more efficient and the balance more equilibrated than in pure stands. Therefore, mixed-tree stands proved to be the best plantation system, in view of the more efficient biochemical and biogeochemical cycling and better balanced of carbon and nutrients.

  17. Systematics of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species complex (Anura: Hylidae): Cryptic diversity and the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A.; Milá, Borja; Jansen, Martin; Fouquet, Antoine; Venegas, Pablo J.; Chávez, Germán; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. This means that real species richness may be significantly higher than current estimates. Here we combine genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data to assess the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of two Amazonian species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group: D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum. Our results uncovered the existence of five confirmed and four unconfirmed candidate species. Among the confirmed candidate species, three have available names: Dendropsophus leucophyllatus, Dendropsophus triangulum, and Dendropsophus reticulatus, this last being removed from the synonymy of D. triangulum. A neotype of D. leucophyllatus is designated. We describe the remaining two confirmed candidate species, one from Bolivia and another from Peru. All confirmed candidate species are morphologically distinct and have much smaller geographic ranges than those previously reported for D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum sensu lato. Dendropsophus leucophyllatus sensu stricto occurs in the Guianan region. Dendropsophus reticulatus comb. nov. corresponds to populations in the Amazon basin of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru previously referred to as D. triangulum. Dendropsophus triangulum sensu stricto is the most widely distributed species; it occurs in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and Brazil, reaching the state of Pará. We provide accounts for all described species including an assessment of their conservation status. PMID:28248998

  18. Colombia's War on Drugs: Can Peru Provide the Recipe for Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hobaugh, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines counternarcotics strategies of interdiction, eradication, and alternative development used in Peru during the 199Os to determine if Peru's success can provide the recipe for success in Colombia...

  19. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  20. New country records for five species of Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870 from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Yánez-Muñoz, Mario; Toral-Contreras, Eduardo; Meza-Ramos, Paúl; Reyes-Puig, Juan; Bejarano-Muñoz, E.; Mueses-Cisneros, Jonh; Paucar, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of frogs from the genus Pristimantis are reported for Ecuador, thus extending the distribution range for these species, previously described only for the southern Andes of Colombia and the northern Andes of Peru. The diversity of Pristimantis in Ecuador increases to 148 species, adding five additional species to the total of 508 anurans already described for Ecuador.

  1. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  2. Frequency of fungi in dogs with mycoses in a veterinary clinic from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luján-Roca, D.Á.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoses affecting dogs are widely distributed worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fungi isolated from dogs. A retrospective study was performed to determine the main mycoses that affected dogs at a private veterinary clinic in Callao, Peru. Isolates were collected from skin and ear from 2003 to 2012. Fungi species were identified by standard microbiological techniques. A total of 54 fungi were isolated from 124 mycological studies; the most prevalent fungal species were Malassezia pachydermatis (51.86 % and Microsporum canis (27.78 %. The principal breeds affected were mongrel (31.52 %, boxer (11.1% and shih tzu (11.1 %. M. pachydermatis represented 58.8 % and 43.2 % of isolates in mongrel breed and in skin samples respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent fungus getting >50 % of all isolates. Microsporum canis and Aspergillus spp. had >40 % presence.

  3. A new Miocene baleen whale from Peru deciphers the dawn of cetotheriids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Felix G.; Lambert, Olivier; de Muizon, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Cetotheriidae are an iconic, nearly extinct family of baleen whales (Mysticeti) with a highly distinct cranial morphology. Their origins remain a mystery, with even the most archaic species showing a variety of characteristic features. Here, we describe a new species of archaic cetotheriid, Tiucetus rosae, from the Miocene of Peru. The new material represents the first mysticete from the poorly explored lowest portion of the highly fossiliferous Pisco Formation (allomember P0), and appears to form part of a more archaic assemblage than observed at the well-known localities of Cerro Colorado, Cerro los Quesos, Sud-Sacaco and Aguada de Lomas. Tiucetus resembles basal plicogulans (crown Mysticeti excluding right whales), such as Diorocetus and Parietobalaena, but shares with cetotheriids a distinct morphology of the auditory region, including the presence of an enlarged paroccipital concavity. The distinctive morphology of Tiucetus firmly places Cetotheriidae in the context of the poorly understood `cetotheres' sensu lato, and helps to resolve basal relationships within crown Mysticeti.

  4. Genetic variation in the emblematic Puya raimondii (Bromeliaceae from Huascarán National Park, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Teresa Hornung-Leoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Puya raimondii, the giant Peruvian and Bolivian terrestrial bromeliad, is an emblematic endemic Andean species well represented in Huascarán National Park in Peru. This park is the largest reserve of puna (high altitude plateau vegetation. The objective of this study is to report on genetic variation in populations of P. raimondii from Huascarán and neighboring areas. AFLP profiles with four selective primer combinations were retrieved for 60 individuals from different zones. Genetic variability was estimated and a total of 172 bands were detected, of which 79.1% were polymorphic loci. The results showed genetic differentiation among populations, and gene flow. A cluster analysis showed that individuals of P. raimondii populations located in different mountain systems could be grouped together, suggesting long distance dispersal. Thus, conservation strategies for P. raimondii have to take into account exchange between populations located far apart in distance in order to preserve the genetic diversity of this showy species.

  5. The genomic history of southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Iain; Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songül; Posth, Cosimo; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Iñigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Cheronet, Olivia; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Fortes, Gloria González; Haak, Wolfgang; Harney, Eadaoin; Jones, Eppie; Keating, Denise; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Kucukkalipci, Isil; Michel, Megan; Mittnik, Alissa; Nägele, Kathrin; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Patterson, Nick; Pfrengle, Saskia; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Vai, Stefania; Alexandrov, Stefan; Alt, Kurt W; Andreescu, Radian; Antonović, Dragana; Ash, Abigail; Atanassova, Nadezhda; Bacvarov, Krum; Gusztáv, Mende Balázs; Bocherens, Hervé; Bolus, Michael; Boroneanţ, Adina; Boyadzhiev, Yavor; Budnik, Alicja; Burmaz, Josip; Chohadzhiev, Stefan; Conard, Nicholas J; Cottiaux, Richard; Čuka, Maja; Cupillard, Christophe; Drucker, Dorothée G; Elenski, Nedko; Francken, Michael; Galabova, Borislava; Ganetsovski, Georgi; Gély, Bernard; Hajdu, Tamás; Handzhyiska, Veneta; Harvati, Katerina; Higham, Thomas; Iliev, Stanislav; Janković, Ivor; Karavanić, Ivor; Kennett, Douglas J; Komšo, Darko; Kozak, Alexandra; Labuda, Damian; Lari, Martina; Lazar, Catalin; Leppek, Maleen; Leshtakov, Krassimir; Vetro, Domenico Lo; Los, Dženi; Lozanov, Ivaylo; Malina, Maria; Martini, Fabio; McSweeney, Kath; Meller, Harald; Menđušić, Marko; Mirea, Pavel; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Petrova, Vanya; Price, T Douglas; Simalcsik, Angela; Sineo, Luca; Šlaus, Mario; Slavchev, Vladimir; Stanev, Petar; Starović, Andrej; Szeniczey, Tamás; Talamo, Sahra; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Thevenet, Corinne; Valchev, Ivan; Valentin, Frédérique; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veljanovska, Fanica; Venelinova, Svetlana; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Viola, Bence; Virag, Cristian; Zaninović, Joško; Zäuner, Steve; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Catalano, Giulio; Krauß, Raiko; Caramelli, David; Zariņa, Gunita; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Lillie, Malcolm; Nikitin, Alexey G; Potekhina, Inna; Papathanasiou, Anastasia; Borić, Dušan; Bonsall, Clive; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-03-08

    Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.

  6. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  7. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  8. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Resistance in Peru: A Ten-year Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    Laboratorio Gastrolab, Lima, Peru 9 Hospital Apoyo de Iquitos, Iquitos, Peru 10 Hospital Regional, Iquitos, Peru 11 Facultad de Medicina ...index.html:  [cited 2012 May 10]. 40. El Peruano – Normas Legales . Decreto Supremo Nº 015-98-AG: Reglamento de Registro, Control y Comercialización

  9. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  10. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7417] Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the third meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest...

  11. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 6889] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for...) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the...

  12. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8339] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fourth meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the...

  13. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam...

  14. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7873] Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fifth meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest Sector...

  15. 77 FR 33624 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... and Ethnological Materials From Peru AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... archaeological and ethnological material from Peru. The restrictions, which were originally imposed by Treasury... with the Republic of Peru on June 9, 1997, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on pre...

  16. Economic burden of neurocysticercosis: results from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkotia, Yogesh; Lescano, Andres G; Gilman, Robert H; Cornejo, Christian; Garcia, Hector H

    2007-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the developing world. This study aimed to assess the treatment costs and productivity losses associated with NCC in Peru. NCC patients were identified through retrospective chart analysis. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were interviewed in order to obtain data on symptom history, treatment costs, productivity losses and health service utilisation patterns. These data were modelled to determine average treatment costs and productivity losses over 2 years. Our findings show that treatment costs and productivity losses consume 54% of an annual minimum wage salary during the first year of treatment and 16% during the second year. Diagnosis (36%) and drug therapy (27%) represent the most expensive healthcare-related costs. These costs are prohibitive for some-8% of our study sample had no diagnostic tests during their first 6 months of disease, and two-thirds of those who delayed treatment reportedly did so due to their inability to pay. Two-thirds of wage-earners lost their jobs owing to NCC and only 61% were able to re-engage in wage-earning activities. This study highlights the need to expand financial coverage to ensure the poor have access to health services and do not become further impoverished.

  17. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Hidy, George M.

    2018-06-01

    Ozone (O3) formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions using long-term (1990s-2015) surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p total oxidized nitrogen (NOy) mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry) nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ˜ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3) concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy-NOx) support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and provides important information supporting strategies for reducing O3 mixing ratios.

  18. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae) in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcus Rodrigues da; Albieri,Rafael Jardim; Neves,Leonardo Mitrano; Santos,Alex Braz Lacone; Araujo,Francisco Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal) dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner), defined according ...

  19. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  20. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  1. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-02-01

    The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly's higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil

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    RL Massara

    Full Text Available AbstractWe examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.

  3. Epidemiology of taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Peruvian village. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, F; Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Gonzales, A E; Castro, M; Tsang, V C; Pilcher, J B; Vasquez, L E; Lescano, M; Carcamo, C

    1992-04-15

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru.

  4. Safe management of discussed sealed sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, M.

    2000-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Peru, in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply an Institutional policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of disused sealed sources in Peru. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment, conditioning and storage of conditioned sealed sources are presented in this paper. The waste management system in Peru comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislation. The Nuclear Research Center RACSO has a radioactive waste management department which is in charge of the management of disused sealed sources produced in the country. It is considered as a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF). (author)

  5. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  6. Implications for changes in Anopheles darlingi biting behaviour in three communities in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon P; Bickersmith, Sara A; Lainhart, William; Tong, Carlos; Alava, Freddy; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2015-07-30

    Malaria transmission in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru has been designated as seasonal and hypo-endemic with recently described hyper-endemic hotspots. Despite relatively recent distribution of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs), malaria in Amazonian Peru persists and increased substantially in 2014 compared to previous years. Anopheles darlingi, identified as the main malaria vector, is known for its variable behaviour depending on locality and environment. To evaluate vector biology metrics in relation to seasonality and malaria transmission, mosquito collections were carried out in three localities in the peri-Iquitos region, Loreto, Peru in 2011-2012. Human landing catch (HLC) collection method, Shannon (SHA) and CDC trap types were compared for effectiveness in a neotropical setting. Abundance, human biting rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) were measured to provide an updated view of transmission patterns post-LLIN distribution. HLC collected significantly more anopheline mosquitoes than SHA and CDC light traps. Anopheles darlingi was the most prevalent species in all three villages (84% overall). Biting patterns varied depending on trap type, season and village. EIR varied temporally (monthly) and spatially and the highest (2.52) occurred during the 2012 malaria outbreak in Cahuide. Unexpectedly there was a high infection rate (1.47 and 1.75) outside the normal malaria transmission season, coincident with a second local outbreak in Cahuide. The first identification of Anopheles dunhami and Anopheles oswaldoi C in Peru, using molecular markers, is also reported in this study. These data underscore the importance of HLC as the most meaningful collection method for measuring vector biology indices in this region. The highest monthly EIR provides additional evidence of seasonal transmission in riverine localities correlated with high river levels, and An. darlingi as the only contributor to transmission. The trend of an increase in

  7. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gonzalez-Pestana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark (Prionace glauca, shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus, smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena, common thresher (Alopias vulpinus, smooth-hound (Mustelus whitneyi and angel shark (Squatina californica. Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done.

  8. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  9. Assessing the Potential for Interstate Conflict Between Chile and Peru: A Political Economy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo,” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. 329 Chile/Peru: Tensions Flare on Maritime Border Change.” 330 “FF...Relaciones Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo.” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. “Relations Falter for Peru, Chile.” Chicago Tribune...América Latina y el Mediterráneo (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Militares: Santiago, 2000), 82. 129 “A. P. Bureau Chief in Peru is Ordered out of

  10. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  11. Radiation Therapy in Peru: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, P.; Má, C.; Venegas, D.; Bustamante, R.

    2015-01-01

    Peru is the fastest growing economy in Latin America (sustained increase in GDP, low inflation and poverty reduction). The health system is fragmented and until 2012, almost half of the population had no health insurance. The current government poses: Improved access to health and education, employment and social security, reducing extreme poverty, within a context of social inclusion. The Plan for Prevention and Control of Cancer (“Plan Esperanza”) was established in 2012 in order to reduce cancer mortality and morbidity, with greater access to oncology services (promotion, prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and palliative care). With an area of 1 285 216 square kilometers and almost 30 million inhabitants, cancer treatment resources are scarce. Regarding Radiation Therapy, until 2007, it existed only in Lima, the capital city (over 9 million inhabitants). Later, another services were established in two more regions. At present, there is 23 radiotherapy machines in whole country. In this regard, Plan Esperanza is working on strengthening Radiation Therapy Services nationwide. Considering the population demand and availability of other cancer services (chemotherapy, oncologic surgery), the regions where need create new radiotherapy services were identified: 3 Hospitals in Lima (in peripheral areas: Cayetano Heredia at the North, Hipólito Unanue at East and Maria Auxiliadora at South). Also, other Regions of the country: Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad at North; Junín in the Central Highland, Cusco in the Southern Highland, and Loreto in the Northern Forest. Each with 2 linear accelerators, except Loreto, where they will consider two 60 Cobalt bomb instead, due to the geographical conditions. Moreover, one linear accelerator in Arequipa Region will be acquired. In Lima, the Hospitals are projected to become operational in 2016, while in the Regions, the Ministry of Health is providing them technical assistance in needs identification, planning and

  12. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  13. Popular video for rural development in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Rios, J M

    1989-01-01

    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course.

  14. Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites off Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J

    2009-06-01

    Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.

  15. Hábitos alimentarios de los peces Lutjanus peru y Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeen Guerrero,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín A Rojas-Herrera

    2004-12-01

    guttatus 120-550 mm FL,was analyzed.Monthly samples were obtained from commercial landings in three regions off the coast of Guerrero,Mexico.Percentage by number (%N,percentage by weight (%W,and percentage of occurrence (%Owere calculated for each prey and summarized as the index of relative importance.Both species are polyphagous predators feeding on a variety of prey:Sixty-eight prey items,mainly fish (%W =50.9,crustaceans (%W =35.6,and mollusks (%W =7.2,were found in the stomach contents of L.peru ,while 88 components were identified in the diet of L.guttatus ,the most important prey being fish (%W =50.8and crustaceans (%W =43.4.Diet overlap between species is not significant (p<0.05,indicating that competition for food is unlikely.Based on published values of the relative importance index,the diets of these Lutjanidae were analyzed considering different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico and Costa Rica,and similarities among sites and species were discussed.The cluster analysis showed that similarities among species inhabiting in the same area are more important than within organisms of the same species living in different zones.Results suggest that prey availability rather than food selectivity,conditions the feeding behavior of these fish species.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:959-971.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  16. Description of Thecavermiculatus andinus n.sp. (Meloidoderidae), a Round Cystoid Nematode from the Andes Mountains of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, A M; Franco, J; Jatala, P; Astogaza, E

    1983-07-01

    Thecavermiculatus andinus n.sp. is described and illustrated from Oxalis tuberosa originally collected in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca high in the Andes mountains of southern Peru. This new species differs markedly front the other two species in the genus, especially in having a much greater female vulval-anal distance and annules with lined punctation on most of the female body with a lacelike pattern restricted to the posterior portion, particularly at the vulva and anus which do not protrude. Females are essentially spherical with protruding neck, white to yellowish in color, and can easily be mistaken for potato cyst nematodes. Among the dozen or more known weed and crop host plants are potato and eggplant. In order to accommodate this new species, the genus Thecavermieulatus is emended. A key to the species of this genus is presented.

  17. Outbreak of Paratyphoid Fever Among Naval Personnel in Peru (Brote de Fiebre Paratifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina Del Peru.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    son menosde 2Okniquecaiusania nvar comun Cs la tifoidea cldsica producida por S parte de las infecciones hunanas La fiebre Isv’lht la parat-foidea. par...TITLE (Include Secunty Clasifi4tin) Brote de Fiebre Parutifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina del Peru 1.PERSON4AL AUTHORCS) Pazzagllia G; Wgnall FS...CLASSIFIATIO F THIS PAGE All othe~redmtons areobolete. ZINCLASSIITIED Best Avai~lable Copy BROTE Dl FIEBRE PARATIFOIDEA ENTRE PERSONAL DE1 LA MARINA DEL PERU G

  18. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans – and their descendants – who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study’s findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Methods Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants’ countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. Results All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations

  19. The Peru cervical cancer prevention study (PERCAPS): community-based participatory research in Manchay, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants. (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate

  20. Strains of Peru tomato virus infecting cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum), tomato and pepper in Peru with reference to genome evolution in genus Potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, T A; Alminaite, A; Fribourg, C; Spetz, C; Valkonen, J P T

    2004-10-01

    Two isolates (SL1 and SL6) of Peru tomato virus (PTV, genus Potyvirus) were obtained from cocona plants (Solanum sessiliflorum) growing in Tingo María, the jungle of the Amazon basin in Peru. One PTV isolate (TM) was isolated from a tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) growing in Huaral at the Peruvian coast. The three PTV isolates were readily transmissible by Myzus persicae. Isolate SL1, but not SL6, caused chlorotic lesions in inoculated leaves of Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Isolate TM differed from SL1 and SL6 in causing more severe mosaic symptoms in tomato, and vein necrosis in the leaves of cocona. Pepper cv. Avelar (Capsicum annuum) showed resistance to the PTV isolates SL1 and SL6 but not TM. The 5'- and 3'-proximal sequences of the three PTV isolates were cloned, sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of four PTV isolates from pepper, the only host from which PTV isolates have been previously characterised at the molecular level. Phylogenetic analyses on the P1 protein and coat protein amino acid sequences indicated, in accordance with the phenotypic data from indicator hosts, that the PTV isolates from cocona represented a distinguishable strain. In contrast, the PTV isolates from tomato and pepper were not grouped according to the host. Inclusion of the sequence data from the three PTV isolates of this study in a phylogenetic analysis with other PTV isolates and other potyviruses strengthen the membership of PTV in the so-called "PVY subgroup" of Potyvirus. This subgroup of closely related potyvirus species was also distinguishable from other potyviruses by their more uniform sizes of the protein-encoding regions within the polyprotein.

  1. Mammal diversity in the middle basin of the river Tambopata, Puno, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the mammalian diversity in the Tambopata River middle basin, one of the most important information gaps in Peru. Five sites were evaluated in Puno (San Fermín 850 m, Curva Alegre 950 m, Challohuma 1200 m, Yanahuaya 1600 m, and Yanacocha 1985 m. The trapping effort was 7072 trap-nights and 201 mistnet-nights. 76 species were recorded in the study area, including 16 species under some conservation’s category. Bats and rodents were the most diverse orders (67.5%. The diversity indices of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson for small mammals show a moderate and mild negative correlation with elevation, respectively. Meanwhile the altitude is negatively correlated with the relative abundance (RA of bats, and positively with the RA of non-volant mammals. The marsupials Marmosa (Micoureus demerarae, Marmosops bishopi and Marmosops impavidus; the rodent Neacomys musseri, and bats Platyrrhinus albericoi, P. masu, P. nigellus, Eumops auripendulus and Cormura brevirostris are first records for the department of Puno. Akodon baliolus and Oxymycterus juliacae are considered valid species. The species Sturnira lilium and Akodon baliolus were those with the highest RA. Our records, added to published and unpublished data, indicate that the Río Tambopata watershed is habitat of 141 species of mammals. Finally, we recommend the extension of the southern part of the buffer zone of the PNBS to include the montane forests of Yanacocha, to protect the unique middleelevation fauna of the Río Tambopata watershed.

  2. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  3. Response of the Invasive Grass Imperata cylindrica to Disturbance in the Southeastern Forests, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Jose

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Imperata cylindrica is an invasive plant species that threatens diversity and forest productivity in southeastern ecosystems. We examined the effects of disturbance events, particularly fire and hurricane/salvage harvesting, to determine the effects on I. cylindrica abundance in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris forests in the Florida panhandle. Areas that were burned or had greater biomass removal following a hurricane had a greater number of I. cylindrica patches and larger patch size. These results highlight the importance of disturbance events on expanding invasive species populations in this region and are likely applicable for other invasive species as well. Monitoring and treatment should follow disturbance events to ensure that invasive species populations do not exceed unmanageable levels.

  4. Host records and tissue locations for Diplostomum mordax (metacercariae) inhabiting the cranial cavity of fishes from Lake Titicaca, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, R A

    1992-06-01

    Metacercariae of Diplostomum mordax were found in the cranial cavity of Orestias agasii, Orestias olivaceous, Orestias luteus, and Basilichthys bonariensis, fishes from Lake Titicaca, Peru. Metacercariae were not found in Oncorhynchus mykiss introduced into the lake during 1939 and 1940. Compression of neural tissue within and on the surface of the brain was observed in all infected fishes. Metacercariae migrating into the cerebrum and cerebellum of the piscine host caused hemorrhaging, cell necrosis, inflammation, fiber formation, and nerve fiber disruption. The presence of D. mordax in B. bonariensis and the 3 species of Orestias constitute new host records. Infections in the cerebrum and cerebellum add new information on specific parasite location.

  5. The use of Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries as biomonitors of environmental pollution in Lima city, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, Patricia; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillus, Marco; Torres, Blanca; Hurtado, Jazmin; Maza, Ily; Espinoza, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollution in the city of Lima, Peru, an environmental monitoring was carried out using two species of biomonitors: Liquen Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries. Both samples were taken from an uncontaminated area to be exposed during three months in different sampling sites of the city. Then samples were collected, prepared and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, based k 0 method. Results showed important contamination in East and North sites of the city coming from industrial activities and automotive vehicles emissions. (author).

  6. Ecohealth in Focus Cities - Lima, Peru | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Lima, Peru, solid waste management is an informal activity involving poor communities working under difficult conditions. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  7. An Historical Account of the Bilingual Education Policy in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bienvenu, Elena; Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of bilingual education programs in Peru. The first part of the paper consists of a general discussion of Peruvian history and the problem of native language suppression under Spanish colonialism and, later, a Spanish dominant independent government. Educational policies and the…

  8. All projects related to peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Mexico, North and Central America, Peru ... to be a significant obstacle to equitable, human development in Latin America. ... SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, EMPLOYMENT POLICY, ... and institutions that allow them to adapt and evolve in their natural environment.

  9. Maternal health enters the information age in Peru | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... ... technology to improve the health-care system's efficiency could one day ... Women in Ventanilla, Peru, connect with life-saving information on their ... was recognized for its efforts to improve health service provision and the ...

  10. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  11. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the…

  12. Finding decent jobs for Peru's youth | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... There is an urgent need for solid research and policy guidance to tackle youth employment challenges in Latin America. In the region almost 9 million youth are unemployed. Regionally, for every three young workers, two are employed in precarious jobs. Peru surpasses the regional average: almost 4 out ...

  13. Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru and Latin America. IDRC's telecentre.org supports various efforts to strengthen the capacity of people working in telecentres across the world through knowledge-sharing, collaboration and networking. Through these efforts, strong telecentre networks in Africa ...

  14. All projects related to Peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-30

    Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Topic: Gender. Region: Ghana, Peru, Canada. Program: ...

  15. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  16. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  17. Emerging and reemerging arboviruses: A new threat in Eastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Urcia, Carlos; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Weilg, Pablo; Manrique, Carlos; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Del Valle, Luis J; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana

    2017-01-01

    Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) and a significant health problem in South America. In Peru, laboratory etiologic identification of these infections occurs in less than 50% of cases, leading to underdiagnoses of important emerging arboviruses. To assess the prevalence of the Dengue (DENV), Oropouche (OROV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in patients with acute febrile illness from Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Serum samples were obtained from patients with AFI during January 2016 to March 2016. A total of 139 specimens were analyzed for the presence of DENV, OROV, CHIKV, MAYV, and ZIKV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CHIKV in 9.4% and OROV in 8.6% were the most prevalent arboviruses, followed by DENV and ZIKV, with a prevalence of 6.5% and 5%, respectively. Among all patients, the most common symptoms accompanying fever were headaches 79.9%, muscle pain 65.5% and joint pain 63.3%. During this short 3-month period, 4 arboviruses were detected by PCR, CHIKV and OROV being the most common arboviruses in Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Thus, it is crucial to include OROV detection in the national health surveillance. Furthermore, the etiologic clinical diagnosis of arboviral infections is not possible due to the low specificity of symptoms; therefore an increase of cases confirmed by molecular diagnostic methods will enhance arboviral surveillance in Peru.

  18. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  19. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  20. Internationalization at home: Technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Olivos Rossini, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines intercultural competence as an outcome of both intervening variables of ICT and the training methods used by experts.