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Sample records for species regulate properties

  1. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Spivak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1 chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2 gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3 gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1 combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2 combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species.

  2. Ginkgolide B Exerts Cardioprotective Properties against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species, Akt and Calcium Signaling Pathways In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junqing; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Deqiang; Zheng, Jianpu; Liu, Zongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ginkgolide B (GB) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 was pretreated with GB and subsequently subjected to doxorubicin treatment. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Akt phosphorylation and intracellular calcium were equally determined in order to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. To verify the in vivo therapeutic effect of GB, we established a mouse model of cardiotoxicity and determined left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular mass (LVM). The in vitro experimental results indicated that pretreatment with GB significantly decreases the viability and apoptosis of H9c2 cells by decreasing ROS and intracellular calcium levels and activating Akt phosphorylation. In the in vivo study, we recorded an improved LVEF and a decreased LVM in the group of cardiotoxic rats treated with GB. Altogether, our findings anticipate that GB exerts a cardioprotective effect through possible regulation of the ROS, Akt and calcium pathways. The findings suggest that combination of GB with DOX in chemotherapy could help avoid the cardiotoxic side effects of GB.

  3. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  4. 41 CFR 101-1.102 - Federal Property Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal Property Management Regulations. 101-1.102 Section 101-1.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation...

  5. 41 CFR 128-1.101 - Justice Property Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justice Property Management Regulations. 128-1.101 Section 128-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1...

  6. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in Yersinia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea A Schiano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of gene expression is required by bacterial pathogens to respond to continually changing environmental conditions and the host response during the infectious process. While transcriptional regulation is perhaps the most well understood form of controlling gene expression, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation that allow for more refined management of the bacterial response to host conditions. Yersinia species of bacteria are known to use various forms of post-transcriptional regulation for control of many virulence-associated genes. These include regulation by cis- and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, RNases, and thermoswitches. The effects of these and other regulatory mechanisms on Yersinia physiology can be profound and have been shown to influence type III secretion, motility, biofilm formation, host cell invasion, intracellular survival and replication, and more. In this review, we will discuss these and other post-transcriptional mechanisms and their influence on virulence gene regulation, with a particular emphasis on how these processes influence the virulence of Yersinia in the host.

  7. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal Aristolochiaceae species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Department of Botany, Plant Tissue Culture Division, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil nadu, India. Accepted 15 August, 2007. Antioxidant properties of ... raising interest among scientists and food manufacturers as consumers move toward functional foods with specific health effects (Lo liger, 1991).

  8. Comparing optical properties of different species of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Su, Y.

    2015-01-01

    species dependent with huge variety in size, shape, and micro- structure. We have experimentally investigated optical properties of frustules of several species of diatoms to further understand light harvesting properties together with commo n traits, effects and differences between the different...... analysis software. The software uses parameters which are extracted from experimental im ages as basis for simulation and allows us to extract the influence of the different elements of the frustule. The information could be used both for predicting optical properties of diatoms and by changing frustule...... parameters, maybe by altering growth conditions of the diatoms tailor their optical properties....

  9. Discriminating Microbial Species Using Protein Sequence Properties and Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahib, Ali Al-; Gilbert, David; Breitling, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Much work has been done to identify species-specific proteins in sequenced genomes and hence to determine their function. We assumed that such proteins have specific physico-chemical properties that will discriminate them from proteins in other species. In this paper, we examine the validity of this

  10. Vasopressinergic Neurocircuitry Regulating Social Attachment in a Monogamous Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Tickerhoof

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms a lasting connection between mates, known as a pair bond. The pair bond is primarily characterized by three distinct behaviors: partner preference, selective aggression, and biparental care of the young. The presence of these behaviors in the prairie vole and their absence in closely related non-monogamous species makes the prairie vole an important model of social relationships and facilitates the study of the neurobiological mechanisms of social affiliation and attachment. The nona-peptide arginine-vasopressin (AVP is an important neuromodulator of social behavior and has been implicated in the regulation of the pair bond-related behaviors of the prairie vole, through activation of the AVP receptor subtype 1a (AVPR1a. Modulation of AVPR1a activity in different regions of the prairie vole brain impacts pair bond behavior, suggesting a role of AVP in neurocircuitry responsible for the regulation of social attachment. This review will discuss findings that have suggested the role of AVP in regulation of the pair bond-related behaviors of the prairie vole and the specific brain regions through which AVP acts to impact these unique behaviors.

  11. CALORIFIC PROPERTIES OF WASTES FROM SOME EXOTIC WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel LUNGULEASA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some results about the calorific properties of biomass wastes from exotic species used as fuels. There are presented the main characteristics of biomass energy, respectively the low and high calorific value, burning speed and energy efficiency. Methodology takes into consideration the equipment, wooden species and relationships for calorific determination. The final conclusion resulting from the experiments is that the biomass of exotic species is as good as any other woody biomass, when is used as fuel, because the calorific properties are closely, even slightly higher than of classical fuels.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of gaseous ruthenium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miradji, Faoulat; Souvi, Sidi; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent; Vallet, Valérie

    2015-05-21

    The review of thermodynamic data of ruthenium oxides reveals large uncertainties in some of the standard enthalpies of formation, motivating the use of high-level relativistic correlated quantum chemical methods to reduce the level of discrepancies. The reaction energies leading to the formation of ruthenium oxides RuO, RuO2, RuO3, and RuO4 have been calculated for a series of reactions. The combination of different quantum chemical methods has been investigated [DFT, CASSCF, MRCI, CASPT2, CCSD(T)] in order to predict the geometrical parameters, the energetics including electronic correlation and spin-orbit coupling. The most suitable method for ruthenium compounds is the use of TPSSh-5%HF for geometry optimization, followed by CCSD(T) with complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations for the calculation of the total electronic energies. SO-CASSCF seems to be accurate enough to estimate spin-orbit coupling contributions to the ground-state electronic energies. This methodology yields very accurate standard enthalpies of formations of all species, which are either in excellent agreement with the most reliable experimental data or provide an improved estimate for the others. These new data will be implemented in the thermodynamical databases that are used by the ASTEC code (accident source term evaluation code) to build models of ruthenium chemistry behavior in severe nuclear accident conditions. The paper also discusses the nature of the chemical bonds both from molecular orbital and topological view points.

  13. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of diversity on soil respiration. We hypothesized that plant diversity could affect soil respiration in two ways. On the one hand, more diverse plant communities have been shown to promote plant productivity, which could increase soil respiration. On the other hand, the nutrient concentration in the biomass produced has been shown to decrease with diversity, which could counteract the production-induced increase in soil respiration. Our results clearly show that soil respiration increased with species richness. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was not due to differences in species composition. In general, soil respiration in mixtures was higher than would be expected from the monocultures. Path analysis revealed that species richness predominantly regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity. No evidence supporting the hypothesized negative effect of lower N concentration on soil respiration was found. We conclude that shifts in productivity are the main mechanism by which changes in plant diversity may affect soil respiration.

  14. Development of international regulation of intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz Vaccaro, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have seen a true internationalization of intellectual property laws. So today one can easily familiarize with foreign laws on intellectual property, due to their increasing uniformity and homogeneity. This is the result of numerous international treaties and two international organizations. At the multilateral level, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) administers 24 treaties on intellectual property, and for its part, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is i...

  15. Spatial correlation between weed species densities and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Mette; Christensen, Svend; Simmelsgaard, Svend Erik

    2002-01-01

    The spatial cross-correlation between weed species densities and six soil properties within fields was analysed using cross-semivariograms. The survey was carried out in three successive years in two fields. The most consistent relationship between weed species density (numbers m−2) and soil...... properties was negative cross-correlation between the density of Viola arvensis Murray and clay content. This correlation was found in both fields; however, the range of spatial dependence varied between fields. In one of the fields, the density of Lamium purpureum L. was positively cross......-correlated with the phosphorus content in the soil in all years. The density of Veronica spp. and Poa annua L. was negatively cross-correlated with pH in all three years. Other spatial cross-correlations that were found in this study were inconsistent over time or field site. The densities of some of the weed species were...

  16. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  17. Development and regulation of response properties in spinal cord motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    vertebrates in terms of both phylogeny and ontogeny. Spinal motoneurons in adults are remarkably similar in many respects ranging from the resting membrane potential to pacemaker properties. Apart from the axolotls, spinal motoneurons from all species investigated have latent intrinsic response properties...

  18. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Species-free species distribution models describe macroecological properties of protected area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason L; Fordyce, James A

    2017-01-01

    Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM). We extend the use of species distribution modeling techniques in order to model the climate envelope (or "footprint") of individual protected areas within a network of protected areas distributed across the 48 conterminous United States and managed by the US National Park System. In our approach we treat each protected area as the geographic range of a hypothetical endemic species, then use MaxEnt and 5 uncorrelated BioClim variables to model the geographic distribution of the climatic envelope associated with each protected area unit (modeling the geographic area of park units as the range of a species). We describe the individual and aggregated climate envelopes predicted by a large network of 163 protected areas and briefly illustrate how macroecological measures of geodiversity can be derived from our analysis of the landscape ecological context of protected areas. To estimate trajectories of change in the temporal distribution of climatic features within a protected area network, we projected the climate envelopes of protected areas in current conditions onto a dataset of predicted future climatic conditions. Our results suggest that the climate envelopes of some parks may be locally unique or have

  20. Context-dependent interactions and the regulation of species richness in freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Andrew S.; Harvey, Eric; McCune, Jenny L.; Nilsson, Karin A.; Bennett, Joseph; Firn, Jennifer; Bartley, Timothy; Grace, James B.; Kelly, Jocelyn; Tunney, Tyler D.; McMeans, Bailey; Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.; Kadoya, Taku; Esch, Ellen; Cazelles, Kevin; Lester, Nigel; McCann, Kevin S.

    2018-01-01

    Species richness is regulated by a complex network of scale-dependent processes. This complexity can obscure the influence of limiting species interactions, making it difficult to determine if abiotic or biotic drivers are more predominant regulators of richness. Using integrative modeling of freshwater fish richness from 721 lakes along an 11olatitudinal gradient, we find negative interactions to be a relatively minor independent predictor of species richness in lakes despite the widespread presence of predators. Instead, interaction effects, when detectable among major functional groups and 231 species pairs, were strong, often positive, but contextually dependent on environment. These results are consistent with the idea that negative interactions internally structure lake communities but do not consistently ‘scale-up’ to regulate richness independently of the environment. The importance of environment for interaction outcomes and its role in the regulation of species richness highlights the potential sensitivity of fish communities to the environmental changes affecting lakes globally.

  1. Development and regulation of response properties in spinal cord motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic response properties of spinal motoneurons determine how converging premotor neuronal input is translated into the final motor command transmitted to muscles. From the patchy data available it seems that these properties and their underlying currents are highly conserved in terrestrial...... vertebrates in terms of both phylogeny and ontogeny. Spinal motoneurons in adults are remarkably similar in many respects ranging from the resting membrane potential to pacemaker properties. Apart from the axolotls, spinal motoneurons from all species investigated have latent intrinsic response properties...... mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels. This mature phenotype is reached gradually during development through phases in which A-type potassium channels and T-type calcium channels are transiently expressed. The intrinsic response properties of mature spinal motoneurons are subject to short-term adjustments via...

  2. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  3. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  4. BASIC PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO DRYING PROPERTIES OF THREE WOOD SPECIES FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida Basri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate basic and drying properties of three wood species from Indonesia, i.e. kuda (Lannea coromandelica Merr., waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and mindi besar (Melia dubia Cav.. The basic properties include density, shrinkages, modulus of rupture (MOR, compression parallel to grain (C//, wood strength and anatomical structures. Meanwhile, the drying properties included drying time and drying defects. The initial-final temperature and humidity for each species was based on defects that resulted from high temperature drying trial. The results showed that the drying properties were significantly affected by wood anatomical structure. The initial-final drybulb temperature and wetbulb depression   for kuda wood are 50 -70ºC and 3-30ºC respectively, while the corresponding figures for waru wood are 65-80ºC and 6-30ºC, and for mindi besar wood are 55-80ºC and 4-30ºC. These drying schedules, however, still need further trial prior to their implementation in the factory-scale operation. All wood species studied have density and considerable strength recommended in their use for light medium construction purposes. Mindi besar wood has decorative appearance so it is suitable for furniture.

  5. 76 FR 61090 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Counterpart Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ..., National Fire Plan Counterpart Regulation Alternative Consultation Agreements (ACAs). DATES: This is effective on October 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The final decision of revocation is available on the internet at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/laws/esa/policies.htm#consultation and http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa...

  6. 41 CFR 101-1.101 - Federal Property Management Regulations System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal Property Management Regulations System. 101-1.101 Section 101-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1...

  7. Thermodynamic properties of chemical species of waste radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.; Nitsche, H.

    1984-01-01

    The object of the experimental program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is to identify gaps or conflicts in thermodynamic data on the solubilities of compounds and on the formation of solution complexes of waste radionuclides needed for the reliable prediction of solution concentrations. It involves laboratory measurements necessary to (1) generate specific new data, where none exists, in order to demonstrate the importance of a particular solution species, compound or solution parameter (e.g., temperature, Eh) and to (2) resolve conflicts in existing thermodynamic data on important species or compounds. The measurement of the solubility of AmOHCO 3 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 at 25 0 C and 1 atmosphere pressure has been completed. From the experimental data, an average solubility product quotient, Qsp, was evaluated for the reaction, AmOHCO 3 (S) + 2H + = Am 3+ + HCO 3 - + H 2 O. The logarithm of Qsp was calculated to be 2.74 +/- .17. Speciation calculations, using this new data plus reported data on the solubility of Am(OH) 3 and the hydrolysis and carbonate complexation of Am 3+ , indicate that the presence of carbonate can have a substantial effect on the nature of compounds and solution species formed by americium in ground waters. Since actinides in a given oxidation state tend to exhibit similar chemical properties, this result should apply to other actinides in the trivalent state. Thus, the effect of carbonate on the solubilities and complexation of trivalent actinides should be included in any predictive modelling studies required for licensing. 27 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  8. HIF and reactive oxygen species regulate oxidative phosphorylation in cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hervouet, E.; Čížková, Alena; Demont, J.; Vojtíšková, Alena; Pecina, Petr; Franssen-van Hal, N.; Keijer, J.; Simonnet, H.; Ivánek, Robert; Kmoch, S.; Godinot, C.; Houštěk, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 8 (2008), s. 1528-1537 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GA303/07/0781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : carcinoma * mitochondrial biogenesis * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2008

  9. Antioxidant activity and irritation property of venoms from Apis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwongin, Suvimol; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Chaiyana, Wantida

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay were used to determine the antioxidant activity, whereas, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay was used to determine the irritation property of each bee venom extracts. Melittin was the major constituent in all bee venom extracts. The melittin content in A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. florea, and A. cerena were 95.8 ± 3.2%, 76.5 ± 1.9%, 66.3 ± 8.6%, and 56.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. Bee venom extract from A. dorsata possessed the highest antioxidant activity with the inhibition of 41.1 ± 2.2% against DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 10.21 ± 0.74 mM Trolox/mg and equivalent concentration (EC 1 ) of 0.35 ± 0.02 mM FeSO 4 /mg. Bee venom extract from A. mellifera exhibited the highest irritation, followed by A. cerena, A. dorsata, and A. florea, respectively. Melittin was the compound responsible for the irritation property of bee venom extracts since it could induce severe irritation (irritation score was 13.7 ± 0.5, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml). The extract from A. dorsata which possessed the highest antioxidant activity showed no irritation up to the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. Therefore, bee venom extract from A. dorsata at the concentration not more than 0.1 mg/ml would be suggested for using

  10. Dynamic regulation of hepatic lipid droplet properties by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunk, Amanda E; Monks, Jenifer; Murakami, Aya; Jackman, Matthew; Maclean, Paul S; Ladinsky, Mark; Bales, Elise S; Cain, Shannon; Orlicky, David J; McManaman, James L

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLD) are organelle-like structures that function in neutral lipid storage, transport and metabolism through the actions of specific surface-associated proteins. Although diet and metabolism influence hepatic CLD levels, how they affect CLD protein composition is largely unknown. We used non-biased, shotgun, proteomics in combination with metabolic analysis, quantitative immunoblotting, electron microscopy and confocal imaging to define the effects of low- and high-fat diets on CLD properties in fasted-refed mice. We found that the hepatic CLD proteome is distinct from that of CLD from other mammalian tissues, containing enzymes from multiple metabolic pathways. The hepatic CLD proteome is also differentially affected by dietary fat content and hepatic metabolic status. High fat feeding markedly increased the CLD surface density of perilipin-2, a critical regulator of hepatic neutral lipid storage, whereas it reduced CLD levels of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, an enzyme regulator of homocysteine levels linked to fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively our data demonstrate that the hepatic CLD proteome is enriched in metabolic enzymes, and that it is qualitatively and quantitatively regulated by diet and metabolism. These findings implicate CLD in the regulation of hepatic metabolic processes, and suggest that their properties undergo reorganization in response to hepatic metabolic demands.

  11. 41 CFR 105-1.101 - General Services Administration Property Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.101 General Services Administration Property Management Regulations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Services Administration Property Management Regulations. 105-1.101 Section 105-1.101 Public Contracts and Property...

  12. In vitro anticancer properties of selected Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sakoff, Jennette; Bond, Danielle R; Predebon, Melanie; Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; van Altena, Ian A; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    In spite of the recent advancements in oncology, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer has not improved over the last five decades. Eucalypts have been linked with cytotoxic and anticancer properties in various studies; however, there is very little scientific evidence that supports the direct role of eucalypts in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This study assessed the anticancer properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four Eucalyptus species using an MTT assay. The most promising extracts were further evaluated using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptotic studies were performed using a caspase 3/7 assay in MIA PaCa-2 cells. The aqueous extract of Eucalyptus microcorys leaf and the ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus microcorys fruit inhibited the growth of glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, lung and pancreatic cancer cells by more than 80% at 100 μg/mL. The E. microcorys and Eucalyptus saligna extracts showed lower GI 50 values than the ethanolic Eucalyptus robusta extract in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Aqueous E. microcorys leaf and fruit extracts at 100 μg/mL exerted significantly higher cell growth inhibition in MIA PaCa-2 cells than other extracts (p  0.05) were observed in aqueous E. microcorys leaf (86.05 ± 4.75 μg/mL) and fruit (64.66 ± 15.97 μg/mL) and ethanolic E. microcorys leaf (79.30 ± 29.45 μg/mL) extracts in MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CCK-8 assay. Caspase 3/7-mediated apoptosis and morphological changes of cells were also witnessed in MIA PaCa-2 cells after 24 h of treatment with the extracts. This study highlighted the significance of E. microcorys as an important source of phytochemicals with efficacy against pancreatic cancer cells. Further studies are warranted to purify and structurally identify individual compounds and elucidate their mechanisms of action for the development of more potent and specific chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  13. Plant species diversity affects infiltration capacity in an experimental grassland through changes in soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Tischer, J.; Roscher, C.; Eisenhauer, N.; Ravenek, J.; Gleixner, G.; Attinger, S.; Jensen, B.; Kroon, de H.; Mommer, L.; Scheu, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soil hydraulic properties drive water distribution and availability in soil. There exists limited knowledge of how plant species diversity might influence soil hydraulic properties. Methods We quantified the change in infiltration capacity affected by soil structural variables

  14. Pivotal Roles of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Tumor Apoptosis Through Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hwa Yeon; Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Yoon, Yeo Min; Yun, Chul Won; Kim, Jae Heon; Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-09-01

    Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is observed in various cancer types and pathophysiological conditions. In cancer cells, ROS induce cell proliferation, genetic instability, and a malignant phenotype. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the main pharmacologically active component in ginseng and has been reported to have an antioxidant effect. To overcome lung cancer by regulating the ROS level, we investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of Rg3 and its antioxidative property on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Inhibition of ROS was suppressed in LLC cells by Rg3 treatment, and these cells were used to investigate the antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor effects in LLC cells. ROS production was increased in cells grown in serum-containing media (conditioned media) compared to those grown in serum-free media. The high level of ROS induced LLC cell proliferation, but treatment with Rg3 (200 ng/ml) resulted in reduction of ROS, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Treatment with Rg3 significantly reduced cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in LLC cells. Additionally, Rg3 treatment significantly suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced LLC cell apoptosis through activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and suppression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the role of Rg3 in reduction of the intracellular ROS level, attenuation of proliferation via augmentation of cell cycle- and cell proliferation-associated proteins, and activation of apoptosis through regulation of apoptosis-associated proteins in LLC. These findings suggest that Rg3 could be used as a therapeutic agent in lung cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...

  16. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  17. Effects of tree species on soil properties in a forest of the Northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in

  18. Antimicrobial properties of poriferan species from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mokashe, S.S.; Tulaskar, A.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Poriferan species belonging to Class Demospongiae were collected from the rocky intertidal pools of Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India) and extracted with methanol. The methanol extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six fouling...

  19. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, Lorena G.A.; Coelho, Lívia L.; Resende, Helder C.; Tavares, Mara G.; Campos, Lucio A.O.; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M.

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis ...

  20. Conservation of the response regulator gene gacA in Pseudomonas species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, J.T.; Mazzola, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The response regulator gene gacA influences the production of several secondary metabolites in both pathogenic and beneficial Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we developed primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas species and sequenced a 425 bp fragment of gacA from ten Pseudomonas strains

  1. Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity of thermally-regulated traits in an eruptive species, Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Ryan B. Bracewell; Karen E. Mock; Michael E. Pfrender

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in thermally-regulated traits enables close tracking of changing environmental conditions, and can thereby enhance the potential for rapid population increase, a hallmark of outbreak insect species. In a changing climate, exposure to conditions that exceed the capacity of existing phenotypic plasticity may occur. Combining information on genetic...

  2. Dust retaining properties of leaves of some tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, M I

    1960-05-01

    A study was made in Tashkent, Russia of the dust-retaining power of leaves of several tree species. Investigations were made in a park where these tree species were growing in close proximity, exposed to the effects of dust from the main city street and from the highway passing through the park. Observations on the dust-retaining power of leaves were made mostly during the summer and fall months. The dust-retaining power of leaves of different tree species varied with the dust concentration in the air. In the summer and fall when rains are scarce a steady accumulation of dust was observed on the surface of the leaves. 1 table.

  3. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of essential oils from Cedrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.

  4. Investigation of Thermo-regulating Properties of Multilayer Textile Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Baltušnikaitė

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort of a clothing system is one of the important goals of the developer that require an engineering approach. In this research work a thermo-regulating textile packages were developed and a wearing comfort of protective clothing consisting from those packages was improved. The microcapsules were added on the fabric surface using pad-dry-cure method. The thermal properties and stabilities were measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The results suggest that higher values of thermal resistance were obtained after incorporation of fabric, coated by PCMs, into inert layer of multilayer textile package. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.6920

  5. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this.

  6. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  7. Light-regulated leaf expansion in two Populus species: dependence on developmentally controlled ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Kari A; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    2002-07-01

    Leaf growth responses to light have been compared in two species of Populus, P. deltoides and P. trichocarpa. These species differ markedly in morphology, anatomy, and dependence on light during leaf expansion. Light stimulates the growth rate and acidification of cell walls in P. trichocarpa but not in P. deltoides, whereas leaves of P. deltoides maintain growth in the dark. Light-induced growth is promoted in P. deltoides when cells are provided 50-100 mM KCl. In both species, light initially depolarizes, then hyperpolarizes mesophyll plasma membranes. However, in the dark, the resting E(m) of mesophyll cells in P. deltoides, but not in P. trichocarpa, is relatively insensitive to decade changes in external [K+]. Results suggest that light-stimulated leaf growth depends on developmentally regulated cellular mechanisms controlling ion fluxes across the plasma membrane. These developmental differences underlie species-level differences in growth and physiological responses to the photoenvironment.

  8. 78 FR 29245 - U.S. General Services Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage Garnishment AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the U.S. General Services Administration Property Management Regulation (GSPMR) to remove information... Administrative Wage Garnishment Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts affected are as follows: 41 CFR part 105...

  9. The tripeptide feG regulates the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species by neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Joseph S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The D-isomeric form of the tripeptide FEG (feG is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that suppresses type I hypersensitivity (IgE-mediated allergic reactions in several animal species. One of feG's primary actions is to inhibit leukocyte activation resulting in loss of their adhesive and migratory properties. Since activation of neutrophils is often associated with an increase in respiratory burst with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we examined the effect of feG on the respiratory burst in neutrophils of antigen-sensitized rats. A role for protein kinase C (PKC in the actions of feG was evaluated by using selective isoform inhibitors for PKC. Results At 18h after antigen (ovalbumin challenge of sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats a pronounced neutrophilia occurred; a response that was reduced in animals treated with feG (100 μg/kg. With antigen-challenged animals the protein kinase C (PKC activator, PMA, significantly increased intracellular ROS of circulating neutrophils, as determined by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine-123. This increase was prevented by treatment with feG at the time of antigen challenge. The inhibitor of PKCδ, rottlerin, which effectively prevented intracellular ROS production by circulating neutrophils of animals receiving a naïve antigen, failed to inhibit PMA-stimulated ROS production if the animals were challenged with antigen. feG treatment, however, re-established the inhibitory effects of the PKCδ inhibitor on intracellular ROS production. The extracellular release of superoxide anion, evaluated by measuring the oxidative reduction of cytochrome C, was neither modified by antigen challenge nor feG treatment. However, hispidin, an inhibitor of PKCβ, inhibited the release of superoxide anion from circulating leukocytes in all groups of animals. feG prevented the increased expression of the β1-integrin CD49d on the circulating neutrophils elicited by antigen

  10. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the Brazilian Melipona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Lorena G A; Coelho, Lívia L; Resende, Helder C; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee), only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.

  11. Analyzing fractal property of species abundance distribution and diversity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang

    2016-03-07

    Community diversity is usually characterized by numerical indexes; however it indeed depends on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Diversity indexes and SAD are based on the same information but treating as separate themes. Ranking species abundance from largest to smallest, the decreasing pattern can give the information about the SAD. Frontier proposed such SAD might be a fractal structure, and first applied the Zipf-Mandelbrot model to the SAD study. However, this model fails to include the Zipf model, and also fails to ensure an integer rank. In this study, a fractal model of SAD was reconstructed, and tested with 104 community samples from 8 taxonomic groups. The results show that there was a good fit of the presented model. Fractal parameter (p) determines the SAD of a community. The ecological significance of p relates to the "dominance" of a community. The correlation between p and classical diversity indexes show that Shannon index decreases and Simpson index increases as p increases. The main purpose of this paper is not to compare with other SADs models; it simply provides a new interpretation of SAD model construction, and preliminarily integrates diversity indexes and SAD model into a broader perspective of community diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of plant growth regulators and reactive oxygen species to regulate petal senescence in wallflowers (Erysimum linifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Faezah Mohd; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Spadafora, Natasha D; Price, Anna M; Picciarelli, Piero; Wagstaff, Carol; Lombardi, Lara; Rogers, Hilary

    2016-04-02

    transcript abundance of WPS46, an auxin-induced gene. A model for the interaction between cytokinins, ethylene, reactive oxygen species and auxin in the regulation of floral senescence in wallflowers is proposed. The combined increase in ethylene and reduction in cytokinin triggers the initiation of senescence and these two plant growth regulators directly or indirectly result in increased reactive oxygen species levels. A fall in conjugated auxin and/or the total auxin pool eventually triggers abscission.

  13. Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Dimmers, W.J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet

  14. Thermodynamic properties of actinide aqueous species relevant to geochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuger, J.

    1992-01-01

    The status of our knowledge of the basic thermodynamic properties of the aqueous complexes of the actinides in their different valency states with two environmentally important ligands, namely hydroxide and carbonate is overviewed. Even in the case of uranium which has been the most studied, gaps are found among the relative wealth of trustworthy formation constants, especially for the less stable valence states. The need for substantial improvement of our knowledge in the case of the other actinides, especially transuranium elements, is outlined. The relative scarcity of enthalpy of formation data is also stressed. (orig.)

  15. Immunomodulation properties of multi-species fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foligné, Benoît; Parayre, Sandrine; Cheddani, Redouane; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Plé, Coline; Breton, Jérôme; Dewulf, Joëlle; Jan, Gwénaël; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Dairy propionibacteria (PAB) are used as a ripening starter in combination with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for dairy products such as Swiss-type cheese. LAB and PAB have also been studied for their probiotic properties but little is still known about their individual and/or synergistic beneficial effects within dairy matrices. In the context of a rising incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, it has become crucial to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of bacteria ingested in large numbers via dairy products. We therefore selected different strains and combinations of technological LAB and PAB. We determined their immunomodulatory potential by IL-10 and IL-12 induction, in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, on either single or mixed cultures, grown on laboratory medium or directly in milk. Milk was fermented with selected anti-inflammatory strains of LAB or PAB/LAB mixed cultures and the resulting bacterial fractions were also evaluated for these properties, together with starter viability and optimum technological aspects. The most promising fermented milks were evaluated in the context of TNBS- or DSS-induced colitis in mice. The improvement in inflammatory parameters evidenced an alleviation of colitis symptoms as a result of fermented milk consumption. This effect was clearly strain-dependent and modulated by growth within a fermented dairy product. These findings offer new tools and perspectives for the development of immunomodulatory fermented dairy products for targeted populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a Genetically Encoded, Cross-Species Biosensor for Detecting Ammonium and Regulating Biosynthesis of Cyanophycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2017-10-20

    Responding to nitrogen status is essential for all living organisms. Bacteria have evolved various complex and exquisite regulatory systems to control nitrogen metabolism. However, natural nitrogen regulatory systems, owing to their complexity, often function only in their original hosts and do not respond properly when transferred to another species. By harnessing the Lactococcus GlnRA system, we developed a genetically encoded, cross-species ammonium biosensor that displays a dynamic range up to 9-fold upon detection of ammonium ion. We demonstrated applications of this ammonium biosensor in three different species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Synechocystis sp.) to detect different nitrogen sources. This ammonium sensor was further used to regulate the biosynthesis of a nitrogen-rich polymer, cyanophycin, based on ammonium concentration. Given the importance of nitrogen responses, the developed biosensor should be broadly applicable to synthetic biology and bioengineering.

  17. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBiewer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem gene, a transformer (tra ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2 sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway.

  18. Understanding Noncompliance with Protected Species Regulations in the Northeast USA Gillnet Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn D Bisack

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammals and sea turtles in the United States are protected from commercial fishery interactions under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act. To reduce harbor porpoise bycatch in the northeast sink gillnet fishery, fishermen are mandated to attach pingers to their nets in regulated areas. Although, pinger regulations have been in place for over a decade, in practice, enforcement is weak and the penalty for a violation is almost non-existent. In this scenario, the presence of normative factors may motivate a fisherman to comply with the pinger regulation. This study considers both economic and normative factors within a probit framework to explain a fisherman’s compliance decision. Model results indicate fishermen who previously violated pinger regulations, who are not completely dependent on gillnet gear and face a lower chance of being detected by an observer, are more likely to violate. Understanding the influence of normative factors on compliance decisions is a key component for higher compliance. That is, incorporation of these factors in the design of policy instruments may achieve higher compliance rates and thus more success in protecting these species. Our model findings were ground-truthed by conducting focus group research with fishermen using pingers; some preliminary findings are shared in the discussion in support of our model results. Finally, these results also suggest observer data can be used to support compliance and enforcement mechanisms in this fishery and possibly other fisheries as well.

  19. 25 CFR 1.4 - State and local regulation of the use of Indian property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise governing, regulating, or controlling the use or development of any real or personal property... property. In determining whether, or to what extent, such laws, ordinances, codes, resolutions, rules or...

  20. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena G.A. Lage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw, percentage of soluble solids (Brix %, pH, acidity (meq/Kg and moisture (% were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee, only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.Análises fisico-quimicas foram realizadas para avaliar vinte e sete amostras de mel de três espécies do gênero Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris e M. mondury coletadas nos Estados do Espírito Santo e de Minas Gerais. Os parâmetros atividade de água (aW, porcentagem de sólidos solúveis (Brix %, pH, acidez (meq.Kg-1 e umidade (% foram avaliados. As características do mel dessas amostras foram muito similares às do mel de outras espécies de Melipona. Entretanto, para o mel de Apis apenas os valores de pH foram similares. O baixo valor de pH e a elevada acidez detectados no mel de Melipona são fatores potenciais para uma maior vida útil do mesmo por não oferecerem condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento microbiano. Por outro lado, o alto teor de atividade de água favorece o crescimento de microrganismos, especialmente de leveduras o que requer maior cuidado no manuseio e armazenamento do mel. As diferenças observadas

  1. Thermodynamic properties for arsenic minerals and aqueous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj; Königsberger, Erich; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative geochemical calculations are not possible without thermodynamic databases and considerable advances in the quantity and quality of these databases have been made since the early days of Lewis and Randall (1923), Latimer (1952), and Rossini et al. (1952). Oelkers et al. (2009) wrote, “The creation of thermodynamic databases may be one of the greatest advances in the field of geochemistry of the last century.” Thermodynamic data have been used for basic research needs and for a countless variety of applications in hazardous waste management and policy making (Zhu and Anderson 2002; Nordstrom and Archer 2003; Bethke 2008; Oelkers and Schott 2009). The challenge today is to evaluate thermodynamic data for internal consistency, to reach a better consensus of the most reliable properties, to determine the degree of certainty needed for geochemical modeling, and to agree on priorities for further measurements and evaluations.

  2. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liodakis, S.; Katsigiannis, G.; Kakali, G.

    2005-01-01

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  3. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, S. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)]. E-mail: liodakis@central.ntua.gr; Katsigiannis, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece); Kakali, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  4. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  5. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  6. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  7. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    SKB will submit applications for permits and admissibility under the Environmental Act and under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. In the final repository the spent nuclear fuel from Swedish nuclear power plants is placed in order to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Construction and operation of the disposal facility in Forsmark will make an impact, give effects and consequences for the natural environment. Utilization of land for the construction of the facility and the impact on ground water as a result of groundwater drainage is expected to have negative consequences for the species included in species protection regulation. Thus, the planned activity require exemption from species protection regulation (SFS 2007:845). The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for an application for exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation from the prohibitions of 4, 6, 7 and 8 paragraph species protection regulation. A basis for the exemption application is that the proposed activity is considered to have an 'overriding public interest' prescribed in 14 paragraph species protection regulation. The document reports the impact, effects and consequences of the planned activities on species covered in the species protection regulation. The impact on protected species can be divided into two categories: - Direct effects on protected species and their habitats by utilization of the land. - Indirect effects on protected species and their habitats in the drainage of groundwater and the effect on groundwater levels. The document also includes a description of planned actions to prevent, restrict and compensate for the effects and consequences that the activity may cause. By applying for an exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation in a separate order from the application for permit according to chapters 9 and 11

  8. 13 native human interferon-alpha species assessed for immunoregulatory properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Hokland, M; Berg, K

    1983-01-01

    Human leukocytes treated with Sendai virus yield interferon predominantly of the alpha-type (HuIFN-alpha). Successful attempts to purify these "native" species have been performed and the final analysis, which included an SDS-PAGE disclosed 13 stained and separated IFN-proteins in the molecular...... by IFN titration on human cells, the "immunological efficacies" of the 13 different HuIFN-alpha species were determined in three different immunological systems with the following results: (1) Augmentation of the NK function was a property of all species, although the two lower species (16.6 kD, 16.9 k...

  9. QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning across species via NF-YC interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zheng, Wenguang; Zhu, Yanbing; Ye, Huaxun; Tang, Buyun; Arendsee, Zebulun W; Jones, Dallas; Li, Ruoran; Ortiz, Diego; Zhao, Xuefeng; Du, Chuanlong; Nettleton, Dan; Scott, M Paul; Salas-Fernandez, Maria G; Yin, Yanhai; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2015-11-24

    The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua-Quine Starch; At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates metabolic processes affecting carbon and nitrogen partitioning among proteins and carbohydrates, modulating leaf and seed composition in Arabidopsis and soybean. Here the universality of QQS function in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation is exemplified by a series of transgenic experiments. We show that ectopic expression of QQS increases soybean protein independent of the genetic background and original protein content of the cultivar. Furthermore, transgenic QQS expression increases the protein content of maize, a C4 species (a species that uses 4-carbon photosynthesis), and rice, a protein-poor agronomic crop, both highly divergent from Arabidopsis. We determine that QQS protein binds to the transcriptional regulator AtNF-YC4 (Arabidopsis nuclear factor Y, subunit C4). Overexpression of AtNF-YC4 in Arabidopsis mimics the QQS-overexpression phenotype, increasing protein and decreasing starch levels. NF-YC, a component of the NF-Y complex, is conserved across eukaryotes. The NF-YC4 homologs of soybean, rice, and maize also bind to QQS, which provides an explanation of how QQS can act in species where it does not occur endogenously. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first insight into the mechanism of action of QQS in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation across species. They have major implications for the emergence and function of orphan genes, and identify a nontransgenic strategy for modulating protein levels in crop species, a trait of great agronomic significance.

  10. Epidermal Expression and Regulation of Interleukin-33 during Homeostasis and Inflammation: Strong Species Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundnes, Olav; Pietka, Wojciech; Loos, Tamara; Sponheim, Jon; Rankin, Andrew L; Pflanz, Stefan; Bertelsen, Vibeke; Sitek, Jan C; Hol, Johanna; Haraldsen, Guttorm; Khnykin, Denis

    2015-07-01

    IL-33 is a novel IL-1 family member with a putative role in inflammatory skin disorders and a complex biology. Therefore, recent conflicting data regarding its function in experimental models justify a close assessment of its tissue expression and regulation. Indeed, we report here that there are strong species differences in the expression and regulation of epidermal IL-33. In murine epidermis, IL-33 behaved similar to an alarmin, being constitutively expressed in keratinocyte nuclei and rapidly lost during acute inflammation. By contrast, human and porcine IL-33 were weakly expressed or absent in keratinocytes of noninflamed skin but induced during acute inflammation. To this end, we observed that expression of IL-33 in human keratinocytes but not murine keratinocytes was strongly induced by IFN-γ, and this upregulation completely depended on the presence of EGFR ligands. Accordingly, IFN-γ increased the expression of IL-33 in the basal layers of the epidermis in human ex vivo skin cultures only, despite good evidence of IFN-γ activity in cultures from both species. Together these findings demonstrate that a full understanding of IL-33 function in clinical settings must take species-specific differences into account.

  11. A novel mechanism of myostatin regulation by its alternative splicing variant during myogenesis in avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangsu; Song, Yan; Ahn, Jinsoo; Kim, Eunsoo; Chen, Paula; Yang, Shujin; Suh, Yeunsu; Lee, Kichoon

    2015-11-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a key negative regulator of muscle growth and development, and an increase of muscle mass is achieved by inhibiting MSTN signaling. In the current study, five alternative splicing isoforms of MSTN mRNAs in avian species were identified in various tissues. Among these five, three truncated forms of myostatin, MSTN-B, -C, and -E created premature stop codons and produced partial MSTN prodomains encoded from exon 1. MSTN-B is the second dominant isoform following full-length MSTN-A, and their expression was dynamically regulated during muscle development of chicken, turkey, and quail in vivo and in vitro. To clarify the function of MSTN-B, two stable cell lines of quail myoblasts (QM7) were generated to overexpress MSTN-A or MSTN-B. Interestingly, MSTN-B promoted both cell proliferation and differentiation similar to the function of the MSTN prodomain to counteract the negative role of MSTN on myogenesis. The coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that MSTN-B binds to MSTN-A and reduces the generation of mature MSTN. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that the partial prodomain encoded from exon 1 is critical for binding of MSTN-B to MSTN-A. Altogether, these data imply that alternative splicing isoforms of MSTN could negatively regulate pro-myostatin processing in muscle cells and prevent MSTN-mediated inhibition of myogenesis in avian species. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  13. The effect of listing the lesser prairie chicken as a threatened species on rural property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietelman, Derek C; Melstrom, Richard T

    2017-04-15

    This paper estimates the effect of Endangered Species Act protections for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on rural property values in Oklahoma. The political and legal controversy surrounding the listing of imperiled species raises questions about the development restrictions and opportunity costs the Endangered Species Act imposes on private landowners. Examining parcel-level sales data before and after the listing of the endemic lesser prairie chicken, we employ difference-in-differences (DD) regression to measure the welfare costs of these restrictions. While our basic DD regression provides evidence the listing was associated with a drop in property values, this finding does not hold up in models that control for latent county and year effects. The lack of a significant price effect is confirmed by several robustness checks. Thus, the local economic costs of listing the lesser prairie chicken under the Endangered Species Act appear to have been small. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation. (paper)

  15. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation.

  16. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  17. 75 FR 38675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... contractor to use the property on an independent research and development (IR&D) program rent free, if-- (a... Government for all property acquired or fabricated by the Contractor in accordance with the financing...-0029; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL41 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property...

  18. Anesthetic propofol reduces endotoxic inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. Propofol also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis showed propofol inhibited LPS-induced activation and phosphorylation of IKKβ (Ser180 and nuclear factor (NF-κB (Ser536; the subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Additionally, propofol inhibited LPS-induced Akt activation and phosphorylation (Ser473 partly by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS generation; inter-regulation that ROS regulated Akt followed by NF-κB activation was found to be crucial for LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. An in vivo study using C57BL/6 mice also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties against LPS in peritoneal macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that propofol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathways.

  19. Anesthetic Propofol Reduces Endotoxic Inflammation by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Lin, Ming-Chung; Choi, Pui-Ching; Huang, Wei-Ching; Kai, Jui-In; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. Propofol also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis showed propofol inhibited LPS-induced activation and phosphorylation of IKKβ (Ser180) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (Ser536); the subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Additionally, propofol inhibited LPS-induced Akt activation and phosphorylation (Ser473) partly by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; inter-regulation that ROS regulated Akt followed by NF-κB activation was found to be crucial for LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. An in vivo study using C57BL/6 mice also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties against LPS in peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that propofol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21408125

  20. Study on the changes of properties of Myanma lesser-used timber species following gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye Thwe Kywe Aye; Win Kyi; Tin Hlaing

    2001-01-01

    The proper changes of some physical properties and mechanical properties of Leza [Laderstroemra tomentofa (PREFL.)] one of Myanmar lesser-used timber species, following radiation processing with 1 Mrad gamma-radiation has been studied. It is found that some properties of Leza-timber species are significantly changed at 95 percent confidence level. (author)

  1. Patterns of woody plant species diversity in Lebanon as affected by climatic and soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahreddine, H.; Barker, D.; Struve, D.; Martin, F.; Quigley, M.; Sleem, K.

    2007-01-01

    Lebanese biodiversity is threatened by tourist and urban development, political instability, over-collection of medicinal and aromatic plants, lack of compliance to the regulations prohibiting over-exploitation from the wild, over-grazing and forest fires. A large number of the native species have unexplored economic potential for either medicinal or ornamental use. One way to preserve these species is by propagation and reintroduction into appropriate habitats. However, this requires an understanding of the species biology and environment. The relationship of nine species to the soil and climatic conditions in eight sites along an altitudinal gradient was studied. Individual species were counted and identified within transects at each site. Climatic data were collected and soil samples were taken and analyzed for soil texture, soil pH, EC, CaCO3, organic matter content and the following nutrients: Ca, Mn, Na, Fe, P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn. Each ecosystem had a unique environment that could be described using the first two factors (70.3 % of variation) in a Factor Analysis of the six most important variables. Some species densities were affected by soil conditions (the first factor) while climatic conditions (the second factor) explained the densities of other species. Recommendations are made for the in-situ and ex-situ preservations of the nine species and their ecosystems.(author)

  2. Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.K.; Carter, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves from 26 species with growth forms from annual herbs to trees were collected from open, intermediate, and shaded understory habitats in Mississippi and Kansas, USA. Leaf optical properties including reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths were measured along with leaf thickness and specific leaf mass (SLM). These leaf properties and internal light scattering have been reported to vary with light availability in studies that have focused on a limited number of species. Our objective was to determine whether these patterns in leaf optics and light availability were consistent when a greater number of species were evaluated. Leaf thickness and SLM varied by tenfold among species sampled, but within-habitat variance was high. Although there was a strong trend toward thicker leaves in open habitats, only SLM was significantly greater in open vs. understory habitats. In contrast, leaf optical properties were strikingly similar among habitats. Reflectance and reflectance/transmittance in the NIR were used to estimate internal light scattering and there were strong relationships (r2 0.65) between these optical properties and leaf thickness. We concluded that leaf thickness, which did not vary consistently among habitats, was the best predictor of NIR reflectance and internal light scattering. However, because carbon allocation to leaves was lower in understory species (low SLM) yet gross optical properties were similar among all habitats, the energy investment by shade leaves required to achieve optical equivalence with sun leaves was lower. Differences in leaf longevity and growth form within a habitat may help explain the lack of consistent patterns in leaf optics as the number of species sampled increases

  3. Intracellular pH regulation in hepatocytes isolated from three teleost species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, M; Moon, T W; Perry, S F

    1999-09-01

    The mechanisms of intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation were studied in hepatocytes isolated from three species of teleost: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata). Intracellular pH was monitored over time using the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF in response to acid loading under control conditions and in different experimental media containing either low Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations, the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger blocker amiloride or the blocker of the V-type H(+)-ATPase, bafilomycin A(1). In trout and bullhead hepatocytes, recovery to an intracellular acid load occurred principally by way of a Na(+)-dependent amiloride-sensitive Na(+)-H(+) exchanger. In eel hepatocytes, the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger did not contribute to recovery to an acid load though evidence suggests that it is present on the cell membrane and participates in the maintenance of steady-state pH(i). The V-type H(+)-ATPase did not participate in recovery to an acid load in any species. A Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger may play a role in recovery to an acid load in eel hepatocytes by switching off and retaining base that would normally be tonically extruded. Thus, it is clear that hepatocytes isolated from the three species are capable of regulating pH(i), principally by way of a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger and a Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger, but do not exploit identical mechanisms for pH(i) recovery. J. Exp. Zool. 284:361-367, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Cross-species microarray hybridization to identify developmentally regulated genes in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. Several regulatory genes essential for fruiting body development were previously isolated by complementation of the sterile mutants pro1, pro11 and pro22. To establish the genetic relationships between these genes and to identify downstream targets, we have conducted cross-species microarray hybridizations using cDNA arrays derived from the closely related fungus Neurospora crassa and RNA probes prepared from wild-type S. macrospora and the three developmental mutants. Of the 1,420 genes which gave a signal with the probes from all the strains used, 172 (12%) were regulated differently in at least one of the three mutants compared to the wild type, and 17 (1.2%) were regulated differently in all three mutant strains. Microarray data were verified by Northern analysis or quantitative real time PCR. Among the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the mutant strains are genes encoding the pheromone precursors, enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis and a lectin-like protein. Analysis of gene expression in double mutants revealed a complex network of interaction between the pro gene products.

  5. Spectral estimation of soil properties in siberian tundra soils and relations with plant species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Blok, Daan

    2012-01-01

    yields a good prediction model for K and a moderate model for pH. Using these models, soil properties are determined for a larger number of samples, and soil properties are related to plant species composition. This analysis shows that variation of soil properties is large within vegetation classes......Predicted global warming will be most pronounced in the Arctic and will severely affect permafrost environments. Due to its large spatial extent and large stocks of soil organic carbon, changes to organic matter decomposition rates and associated carbon fluxes in Arctic permafrost soils...

  6. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Upland-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    The weight, volume, and physical properties oftrees1 to 20 inchesd.b.h.were determined for sweetgum, yellow-poplar, hickory, post oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oakin northern Alabama and Mississippi, eastern Arkansas, southern Kentucky and Tennessee. Hard hardwoods, soft hardwoods, and individual species equations are presented for predicting green and...

  7. Up-regulation of A1M/α1-microglobulin in skin by heme and reactive oxygen species gives protection from oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Magnus G; Allhorn, Maria; Larsson, Jörgen; Cederlund, Martin; Lundqvist, Katarina; Schmidtchen, Artur; Sørensen, Ole E; Mörgelin, Matthias; Akerström, Bo

    2011-01-01

    During bleeding the skin is subjected to oxidative insults from free heme and radicals, generated from extracellular hemoglobin. The lipocalin α(1)-microglobulin (A1M) was recently shown to have reductase properties, reducing heme-proteins and other substrates, and to scavenge heme and radicals. We investigated the expression and localization of A1M in skin and the possible role of A1M in the protection of skin tissue from damage induced by heme and reactive oxygen species. Skin explants, keratinocyte cultures and purified collagen I were exposed to heme, reactive oxygen species, and/or A1M and investigated by biochemical methods and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that A1M is localized ubiquitously in the dermal and epidermal layers, and that the A1M-gene is expressed in keratinocytes and up-regulated after exposure to heme and reactive oxygen species. A1M inhibited the heme- and reactive oxygen species-induced ultrastructural damage, up-regulation of antioxidation and cell cycle regulatory genes, and protein carbonyl formation in skin and keratinocytes. Finally, A1M bound to purified collagen I (K(d) = 0.96×10(-6) M) and could inhibit and repair the destruction of collagen fibrils by heme and reactive oxygen species. The results suggest that A1M may have a physiological role in protection of skin cells and matrix against oxidative damage following bleeding.

  8. Physical and mechanical properties evaluation of Acropora palmata coralline species for bone substitution applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, K; Camero, S; Alarcón, M E; Rivas, A; González, G

    2002-05-01

    The search for ideal materials for bone substitution has been a challenge for many decades. Numerous natural and synthetic materials have been studied. For this application, exoskeletons of coral have been considered a good alternative given its tendency to resorption, biocompatibility and similarity to the mineral bone phase. Very few studies of these materials consider a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship. The purpose of this work was to carry out the microstructural characterization of a coralline species named Acropora palmata and the determination of the mechanical and physico-chemical properties. Measurements of hardness, compressive strength, bulk density and apparent porosity were performed. From these results it was determined that this marine coral species could be an alternative xenograft due to its mechanical properties and osteoconductive nature.

  9. Web building and silk properties functionally covary among species of wolf spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, Mariángeles; Camargo, Arley; Garcia, Luis F; Benamú, Marco A; Santana, Martin; Fang, Jian; Wang, Xungai; Blamires, Sean J

    2018-04-15

    Although phylogenetic studies have shown covariation between the properties of spider major ampullate (MA) silk and web building, both spider webs and silks are highly plastic so we cannot be sure whether these traits functionally covary or just vary across environments that the spiders occupy. As MaSp2-like proteins provide MA silk with greater extensibility, their presence is considered necessary for spider webs to effectively capture prey. Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are predominantly non-web building, but a select few species build webs. We accordingly collected MA silk from two web-building and six non-web-building species found in semirural ecosystems in Uruguay to test whether the presence of MaSp2-like proteins (indicated by amino acid composition, silk mechanical properties and silk nanostructures) was associated with web building across the group. The web-building and non-web-building species were from disparate subfamilies so we estimated a genetic phylogeny to perform appropriate comparisons. For all of the properties measured, we found differences between web-building and non-web-building species. A phylogenetic regression model confirmed that web building and not phylogenetic inertia influences silk properties. Our study definitively showed an ecological influence over spider silk properties. We expect that the presence of the MaSp2-like proteins and the subsequent nanostructures improves the mechanical performance of silks within the webs. Our study furthers our understanding of spider web and silk co-evolution and the ecological implications of spider silk properties. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  11. 75 FR 40763 - Federal Management Regulation; Sale of Personal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... to read as follows: Sec. 102-38.130 Must we publicly advertise sales of Federal personal property... Sec. Sec. 102- 38.365 and 102-38.370 must report quarterly sales performance measures to the GSA... designated by GSA as an SC. To select a sales solution, an executive agency must review the effectiveness of...

  12. Developmental and environmental regulation of Aquaporin gene expression across Populus species: divergence or redundancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Merret, Rémy; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Moretti, Sébastien; Bizet, François; Guilliot, Agnès; Hummel, Irène

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants). The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of functional redundancy

  13. Developmental and environmental regulation of Aquaporin gene expression across Populus species: divergence or redundancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants. The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of

  14. 76 FR 67370 - Federal Property Management Regulation (FPMR); Procurement Sources and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... to agency management and personnel. List of Subjects in 41 CFR Part 101-26 Procurement sources and... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS PART 101-26--PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAMS 0 1. The authority for 41 CFR part 101...; Docket Number 2011-017; Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ19 Federal Property Management Regulation (FPMR...

  15. Microalgal Species Selection for Biodiesel Production Based on Fuel Properties Derived from Fatty Acid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurun Nabi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and species selection through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles were used to calculate the likely key chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel [cetane number (CN, iodine value (IV, cold filter plugging point, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value] of nine microalgal species (this study and twelve species from the literature, selected for their suitability for cultivation in subtropical climates. An equal-parameter weighted (PROMETHEE-GAIA ranked Nannochloropsis oculata, Extubocellulus sp. and Biddulphia sp. highest; the only species meeting the EN14214 and ASTM D6751-02 biodiesel standards, except for the double bond limit in the EN14214. Chlorella vulgaris outranked N. oculata when the twelve microalgae were included. Culture growth phase (stationary and, to a lesser extent, nutrient provision affected CN and IV values of N. oculata due to lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents. Application of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA weighting to saturation led to a lower ranking of species exceeding the double bond EN14214 thresholds. In summary, CN, IV, C18:3 and double bond limits were the strongest drivers in equal biodiesel parameter-weighted PROMETHEE analysis.

  16. A comparative study on the emulsifying properties of various species of gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Mina; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2013-06-01

    Emulsification activities of three different species of gum tragacanth containing Astragalus gossypinus, A. compactus and A. rahensis were investigated. Emulsion stability indexes, particle size distributions, steady and unsteady rheological properties and some other physicochemical attributes including the surface tensions and uronic acid contents were taken into consideration. It was revealed that A. gossypinus created the most stable emulsions although having lower viscosity than A. compactus. It is believed that higher insoluble fraction and higher uronic content made this species a good steric and electrostatic emulsifier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of LVL panels made from three amazonic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerci Nina Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the physical-mechanical performance of laminated veneer lumber (LV produced with different compositions of tropical Amazonian species and Pinus oocarpa. Three tropical species were used: Cordia goeldiana Huber. (Freijó, Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke (Faveira and Brosimum parinarioides Ducke (Amapá doce. For comparison, Pinus oocarpa wood obtained from an experimental stand was used. Three types of veneer combination were evaluated: (i one species; (ii the three Amazonian species combination and (iii combination of Amazonian species with Pinus oocarpa. The acoustic propagation velocity was also evaluated with the stress wave timer for correlation between dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEd and static modulus of elasticity (MOEs of the panel. Panels produced with Amazonian species presented lower water absorption than Pinus oocarpa panels. Regarding the mechanical properties, the lowest strength was verified for "faveira" panels. There was no statistical difference among panels in glue line shear strength. The stress wave timer could be used for prediction of MOEs by using MOEd.

  18. Output regulation control for switched stochastic delay systems with dissipative property under error-dependent switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. L.; Jin, C. L.; Ge, X.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the output regulation problem with dissipative property for a class of switched stochastic delay systems is investigated, based on an error-dependent switching law. Under the assumption that none subsystem is solvable for the problem, a sufficient condition is derived by structuring multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals with respect to multiple supply rates, via designing error feedback regulators. The condition is also established when dissipative property reduces to passive property. Finally, two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the present method.

  19. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  20. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Epidermis architecture and material properties of the skin of four snake species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of structural and experimental data, it was previously demonstrated that the snake integument consists of a hard, robust, inflexible outer surface (Oberhäutchen and β-layer) and softer, flexible inner layers (α-layers). It is not clear whether this phenomenon is a general adaptation of snakes to limbless locomotion or only to specific conditions, such as habitat and locomotion. The aim of the present study was to compare the structure and material properties of the outer scale layers (OSLs) and inner scale layers (ISLs) of the exuvium epidermis in four snake species specialized to live in different habitats: Lampropeltis getula californiae (terrestrial), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (generalist), Morelia viridis (arboreal) and Gongylophis colubrinus (sand-burrowing). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of skin cross sections revealed a strong variation in the epidermis structure between species. The nanoindentation experiments clearly demonstrated a gradient of material properties along the epidermis in the integument of all the species studied. The presence of such a gradient is a possible adaptation to locomotion and wear minimization on natural substrates. In general, the difference in both the effective elastic modulus and hardness of the OSL and ISL between species was not large compared with the difference in epidermis thickness and architecture. PMID:22896567

  2. Abscisic acid regulates seed germination of Vellozia species in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, B C; Bicalho, E M; Munné-Bosch, S; Garcia, Q S

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) and light and temperature on seed germination is still not well understood. We aimed to investigate the role of the ABA and GA on seed germination of Vellozia caruncularis, V. intermedia and V. alutacea in response to light/dark conditions on different temperature. Seeds were incubated in GA (GA 3 or GA 4 ) or ABA and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors (paclobutrazol - PAC, and fluridone - FLU) solutions at two contrasting temperatures (25 and 40 °C). Furthermore, endogenous concentrations of active GAs and those of ABA were measured in seeds of V. intermedia and V. alutacea during imbibition/germination. Exogenous ABA inhibited the germination of Vellozia species under all conditions tested. GA, FLU and FLU + GA 3 stimulated germination in the dark at 25 °C (GA 4 being more effective than GA 3 ). PAC reduced seed germination in V. caruncularis and V. alutacea, but did not affect germination of V. intermedia at 40 °C either under light or dark conditions. During imbibition in the dark, levels of active GAs decreased in the seeds of V. intermedia, but were not altered in those of V. alutacea. Incubation at 40 °C decreased ABA levels during imbibition in both V. caruncularis and V. alutacea. We conclude that the seeds of Vellozia species studied here require light or high temperature to germinate and ABA has a major role in the regulation of Vellozia seed germination in response to light and temperature. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus Species From Soil and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus species are the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant-endospore formation and production of essential antibiotics such as bacitracin. Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate Bacillus spp. from riverside soil and investigate their antimicrobial characteristics against some pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Fifty soil samples were collected from different sites of Bahmanshir riverside in Abadan city, Iran, and analyzed for the presence of Bacillus species. The media used in this research were nutrient broth and agar. Bacillus species were identified by their phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial effects of Bacillus extract against the target bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae were examined. Results The identified Bacillus species included B. cereus (86.6%, B. subtilis (6.6%, B. thuringiensis (3.3%, and B. pumilus (3.3%. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted compounds was carried out against five different bacteria. Antibiotic production tests indicated that two Bacillus strains belong to B. cereus, which showed antimicrobial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these compounds ranged between 8.34-33.34 mg/mL for the target bacteria. Conclusions This study indicated that some Bacillus species have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds which can be used to control microbial infections.

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate the Inflammatory Function of NKT Cells through Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeung-Hyen; Kumar, Ajay; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Pyaram, Kalyani

    2017-11-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic metabolism and contribute to both physiological and pathological conditions as second messengers. ROS are essential for activation of T cells, but how ROS influence NKT cells is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in NKT cell function. We found that NKT cells, but not CD4 or CD8 T cells, have dramatically high ROS in the spleen and liver of mice but not in the thymus or adipose tissues. Accordingly, ROS-high NKT cells exhibited increased susceptibility and apoptotic cell death with oxidative stress. High ROS in the peripheral NKT cells were primarily produced by NADPH oxidases and not mitochondria. We observed that sorted ROS-high NKT cells were enriched in NKT1 and NKT17 cells, whereas NKT2 cells were dominant in ROS-low cells. Furthermore, treatment of NKT cells with antioxidants led to reduced frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-expressing cells, indicating that ROS play a role in regulating the inflammatory function of NKT cells. The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) seemed to control the ROS levels. NKT cells from adipose tissues that do not express PLZF and those from PLZF haplodeficient mice have low ROS. Conversely, ROS were highly elevated in CD4 T cells from mice ectopically expressing PLZF. Thus, our findings demonstrate that PLZF controls ROS levels, which in turn governs the inflammatory function of NKT cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Regulation of radiation protective agents on cell damage induced by reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Gao, Eu Feng [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we developed candidates of new radio-protective agents and elucidated the regulation mechanism of these candidates on cell damage induced by reactive oxygen species. The methanol extracts and ethylacetate fractions of NP-1, NP-5, NP-7, NP-11, NP-12 and NP-14 showed higher radical scavenging activity. The extracts of NP-7, NP-12 and NP-14 showed strong protective effect against oxidative damage induced by UV and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The most of samples enhanced SOD, CAT and GPX activity in V79-4 cells. The protective effect of samples on H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis was observed with microscope and flow cytometer. Cells exposed to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exhibit distinct morphological features of programmed cell death, such as nuclear fragmentation and increase in the percentage of cells with a sub-G1 DNA content. However, cells which was pretreated with samples significantly reduced the characteristics of apoptotic cells. Their morphological observation and DNA profiles were similar to those of the control cells. NP-14 which had excellent antioxidant activity restored G2/M arrest induced by oxidative stress. These data suggested that natural medicinal plants protected H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. 42 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  7. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  8. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D Olden

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006 in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA. After accounting for structural (e.g., house size, locational (e.g., boat launch, and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price, corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue, justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  9. Development of Timber Property Classification Based on the End-Use with Reference to Twenty Sri Lankan Timber Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing, treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied timber species into property levels. The final objective of this study was to develop relationships between the end-uses of timber and their property requirements and levels with reference to 20 Sri Lankan timber species.   Timber selection for the use in Sri Lanka is species-oriented and sometimes it is based on the traditional use. Based on wood properties of 20 Sri Lankan timber species selected, an attempt was made to recognise the most important wood properties and their levels to develop a four end-use property classification. In general, the proposed end-use property classification in this study could be differentiated as (i. for building construction, (ii. for furniture and joinery (iii. for light construction, and (iv. for miscellaneous uses. Among the selected timber species, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is eminently suitable for under-water work. Eucalyptus microcorys is regarded as one of the best timbers for dancing floors. These specialty and causative factors of timber, however, must be explored and documented in order to prepare end-use property classification for miscellaneous use.

  10. EU Regulation 1143/2014 and the Bern Convention : Allied forces in the war on invasive alien species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, Arie

    This article identifies and analyzes current and potential synergies between the new EU Regulation 1143/2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species on the one hand, and the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural

  11. Structural properties of the linkers connecting the N- and C- terminal domains in the MocR bacterial transcriptional regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Milano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide inter-domain linkers are peptide segments covalently linking two adjacent domains within a protein. Linkers play a variety of structural and functional roles in naturally occurring proteins. In this work we analyze the sequence properties of the predicted linker regions of the bacterial transcriptional regulators belonging to the recently discovered MocR subfamily of the GntR regulators. Analyses were carried out on the MocR sequences taken from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. The results suggest that MocR linkers display phylum-specific characteristics and unique features different from those already described for other classes of inter-domain linkers. They show an average length significantly higher: 31.8 ± 14.3 residues reaching a maximum of about 150 residues. Compositional propensities displayed general and phylum-specific trends. Pro is dominating in all linkers. Dyad propensity analysis indicate Pro–Pro as the most frequent amino acid pair in all linkers. Physicochemical properties of the linker regions were assessed using amino acid indices relative to different features: in general, MocR linkers are flexible, hydrophilic and display propensity for β-turn or coil conformations. Linker sequences are hypervariable: only similarities between MocR linkers from organisms related at the level of species or genus could be found with sequence searches. The results shed light on the properties of the linker regions of the new MocR subfamily of bacterial regulators and may provide knowledge-based rules for designing artificial linkers with desired properties.

  12. Casticin from Vitex species: a short review on its anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei Chiang; Wong, Siu Kuin; Chan, Hung Tuck

    2018-05-01

    This short review provides an update of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of casticin from Vitex species. Casticin is a polymethylflavone with three rings, an orthocatechol moiety, a double bond, two hydroxyl groups and four methoxyl groups. Casticin has been isolated from various tissues of plants in the Vitex genus: fruits and leaves of V. trifolia, aerial parts and seeds of V. agnus-castus and leaves of V. negundo. Studies have reported the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of casticin from Vitex species. The compound is effective against many cancer cell lines via different molecular mechanisms. Studies have also affirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin, with several molecular mechanisms identified. Other pharmacological properties include anti-asthmatic, tracheospasmolytic, analgesic, antihyperprolactinemia, immunomodulatory, opioidergic, oestrogenic, anti-angiogenic, antiglioma, lung injury protection, rheumatoid arthritis amelioration and liver fibrosis attenuation activities. Clinical trials and commercial use of the casticin-rich fruit extract of V. agnus-castus among women with premenstrual syndrome were briefly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) regulates skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling via altered mitochondrial oxidation and reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Enxuan; Emanuelli, Brice; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout...... mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species......, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle....

  14. Biochemical Properties and Neuroprotective Effects of Compounds in Various Species of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of berries, such as blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., have attracted much scientific attention in recent years, especially due to their reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Berries, as with other types of plants, have developed metabolic mechanisms to survive various environmental stresses, some of which involve reactive oxygen species. In addition, the fruits and leaves of berries have high amounts of polyphenols, such as flavonoids, which act as potent antioxidants. These compounds could potentially be beneficial for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. There are now several studies documenting the beneficial effects of various berries in cell models of neurotoxicity as well as in vivo models of neurodegenerative disease. In the current review, we discuss the metabolic strategies that plants and animals have developed in order to combat reactive oxygen species. We then discuss issues of bioavailability of various compounds in mammals and provide a synopsis of studies demonstrating the neuroprotective ability of berries and polyphenols. We also summarize findings from our own research group. For example, we have detected various polyphenols in samples of blueberries and lingonberries and have found that the leaves have a much higher antioxidant capacity than the fruits. Extracts from these species have also demonstrated neuroprotective effects in cellular models of toxicity and inflammation, which are being further pursued in animal models.

  15. Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. – plant species of potential medicinal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiem Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. is a widespread circumboreal plant species belonging to Linnaeaceae family (previously Caprifoliaceae. L. borealis commonly grows in taiga and tundra. In some countries in Europe, including Poland, twinflower is protected as a glacial relict. Chemical composition of this species is not well known, however in folk medicine of Scandinavian countries, L. borealis has a long tradition as a cure for skin diseases and rheumatism. It is suggested that twinflower has potential medicinal properties. The new study on lead secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity are necessary. This short review summarizes very sparse knowledge on twinflower: its biology, distribution, conservation status, chemical constituents, and describes the role of this plant in folk tradition of Scandinavian countries.

  16. Element uptake, accumulation, and resorption in leaves of mangrove species with different mechanisms of salt regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; W. Fernandez; F. Barboza

    2015-01-01

    Element uptake from substrate and resorption capacity of nutrients before leaf shedding are frequently species-specific and difficult to determine in natural settings. We sampled populations of Rhizophora mangle (salt-excluding species) and Laguncularia racemosa (salt-secreting species) in a coastal lagoon in the upper section of the Maracaibo strait in western...

  17. Impact of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drougard, Anne; Fournel, Audren; Valet, Philippe; Knauf, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites) from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Hypothalamic ROS release is under the influence of different factors such as pancreatic and gut hormones, adipokines (leptin, apelin,…), neurotransmitters and nutrients (glucose, lipids,…). The sources of ROS production are multiple including NADPH oxidase, but also the mitochondria which is considered as the main ROS producer in the brain. ROS are considered as signaling molecules, but conversely impairment of this neuronal signaling ROS pathway contributes to alterations of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine function, leading to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review we focus our attention on factors that are able to modulate hypothalamic ROS release in order to control food intake and energy metabolism, and whose deregulations could participate to the development of pathological conditions. This novel insight reveals an original mechanism in the hypothalamus that controls energy balance and identify hypothalamic ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic disorders.

  18. Optimization of microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK) inhibitors with improved physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, David L.; Noucti, Njamkou; Altman, Michael D.; Chen, Dapeng; Mislak, Andrea C.; Szewczak, Alexander; Hayashi, Mansuo; Warren, Lee; Dellovade, Tammy; Wu, Zhenhua; Marcus, Jacob; Walker, Deborah; Su, Hua-Poo; Edavettal, Suzanne C.; Munshi, Sanjeev; Hutton, Michael; Nuthall, Hugh; Stanton, Matthew G. (Merck)

    2016-09-01

    Inhibition of microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK) represents a potentially attractive means of arresting neurofibrillary tangle pathology in Alzheimer’s disease. This manuscript outlines efforts to optimize a pyrazolopyrimidine series of MARK inhibitors by focusing on improvements in potency, physical properties and attributes amenable to CNS penetration. A unique cylcyclohexyldiamine scaffold was identified that led to remarkable improvements in potency, opening up opportunities to reduce MW, Pgp efflux and improve pharmacokinetic properties while also conferring improved solubility.

  19. Impact of Vertical Canopy Position on Leaf Spectral Properties and Traits across Multiple Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda W. Gara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical pattern of leaf traits across plant canopies provide critical information on plant physiology, ecosystem functioning and structure and vegetation response to climate change. However, the impact of vertical canopy position on leaf spectral properties and subsequently leaf traits across the entire spectrum for multiple species is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the ability of leaf optical properties to track variability in leaf traits across the vertical canopy profile using Partial Least Square Discriminatory Analysis (PLS-DA. Leaf spectral measurements together with leaf traits (nitrogen, carbon, chlorophyll, equivalent water thickness and specific leaf area were studied at three vertical canopy positions along the plant stem: lower, middle and upper. We observed that foliar nitrogen (N, chlorophyll (Cab, carbon (C, and equivalent water thickness (EWT were higher in the upper canopy leaves compared with lower shaded leaves, while specific leaf area (SLA increased from upper to lower canopy leaves. We found that leaf spectral reflectance significantly (P ≤ 0.05 shifted to longer wavelengths in the ‘red edge’ spectrum (685–701 nm in the order of lower > middle > upper for the pooled dataset. We report that spectral bands that are influential in the discrimination of leaf samples into the three groups of canopy position, based on the PLS-DA variable importance projection (VIP score, match with wavelength regions of foliar traits observed to vary across the canopy vertical profile. This observation demonstrated that both leaf traits and leaf reflectance co-vary across the vertical canopy profile in multiple species. We conclude that canopy vertical position has a significant impact on leaf spectral properties of an individual plant’s traits, and this finding holds for multiple species. These findings have important implications on field sampling protocols, upscaling leaf traits to canopy level

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation of Na/K-ATPase Regulates Fibrosis and Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in the regulation of Na/K-ATPase activity, its signaling, fibrosis, and RPT sodium reabsorption.

  1. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have developed several survival strategies that involve exploitation of 7TM receptors. These include virus-encoded 7TM receptors and ligands and viral regulation of endogenous receptors. Many functional properties have been ascribed to virus-exploited...

  2. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback

  3. Structural and functional conservation of CLEC-2 with the species-specific regulation of transcript expression in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Ren, Shifang; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Dongmei; Hao, Yuqing; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Lee, Chiayu; Qiu, Lin; Yun, Xiaojing; Xie, Jianhui

    2012-08-01

    CLEC-2 was first identified by sequence similarity to C-type lectin-like molecules with immune functions and has been reported as a receptor for the platelet-aggregating snake venom toxin rhodocytin and the endogenous sialoglycoprotein podoplanin. Recent researches indicate that CLEC-2-deficient mice were lethal at the embryonic stage associated with disorganized and blood-filled lymphatic vessels and severe edema. In view of a necessary role of CLEC-2 in the individual development, it is of interest to investigate its phylogenetic homology and highly conserved functional regions. In this work, we reported that CLEC-2 from different species holds with an extraordinary conservation by sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis. The functional structures including N-linked oligosaccharide sites and ligand-binding domain implement a structural and functional conservation in a variety of species. The glycosylation sites (N120 and N134) are necessary for the surface expression CLEC-2. CLEC-2 from different species possesses the binding activity of mouse podoplanin. Nevertheless, the expression of CLEC-2 is regulated with a species-specific manner. The alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, a regulatory mechanism of gene expression, and the binding sites on promoter for several key transcription factors vary between different species. Therefore, CLEC-2 shares high sequence homology and functional identity. However the transcript expression might be tightly regulated by different mechanisms in evolution.

  4. IN VITRO SCREENING OF LOCALLY ISOLATED LACTOBACILLUS SPECIES FOR PROBIOTIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ASHRAF, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND G. MUHAMMAD1

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the probiotic properties of locally isolated lactobacilli in-vitro conditions. For this purpose, intestinal contents (n=20 were collected from crop, gizzard, ileum and caecum of adult healthy chicks and conventional yogurt samples (n=20 were procured from the local market for the isolation of lactobacilli. These samples were mixed homogeneously in sterilized phosphate buffer saline (PBS separately. Samples from both sources were inoculated on deMan Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS agar. L. acidophilus 3, L. rhamnosus and L. salivarius were isolated from intestinal contents, while L. delbrucekii ssp bulgaricus and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 1 were isolated from yogurt samples. These lactobacilli were identified through standard API-50 CHL system and then screened for resistance against bile salt, acidic pH, gastric transit and ability to inhibit pathogens as well as survival under different storage temperatures. Tolerance level was found variable (P<0.05 among all the tested species of lactobacillus. All the tested species, except L. delbrucekii and L. paracasei, showed good survival (P<0.05. All lactobacilli inhibited the growth of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, except L. delbrucekii that showed significantly (P<0.05 low antimicrobial effect. The results showed that L. acidophilus 3, L. rhamnosus and L. salivarius fulfilled the criteria of in-vitro screening for probiotic properties.

  5. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  6. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  7. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of Three Sedge (Cyperaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade Adeyemi ADENIYI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the medicinal value of notorious sedge weeds, three species:Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four fungi species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans, and three bacteria species: Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used to produce the extracts and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the extracts against pathogens was carried out at 100 mg/ml concentration by Disc Diffusion method for fungi, Disc Diffusion and Agar Well Diffusion methods for bacteria. Observed activities were related to standard antibiotics, antifungal and antibacterial, which served as controls. Phytochemically, the plant extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, ketose sugars, steroids, reducing sugars and tannins. The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus exhibited the highest activity against A. niger, E. coli and S. aureus. No extract was active against C. albicans. From these findings, it was concluded that C. rotundus is a potential source of bioactive compounds for new drugs upon isolation and purification for treating infections caused by these pathogens.

  8. Anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of salt tolerant tree species grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Awan, A.R.; Chughtai, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Some anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of four tree species were studied. Twelve wood logs each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora and Tamarix aphylla, collected from two saline sites near Lahore and Faisalabad, were analyzed in both green and air-dry (12% moisture) conditions. The tested tree species differed greatly with respect to different wood quality parameters. Maximum density (842 kg m-3) was observed in P. juliflora followed by E. camaldulensis (817 kg m-3), A. nilotica (701 kg m-3) and T. aphylla (635 kg m-3). Static bending strength was found maximum (1240 kg cm-2) in A. nilotica and minimum (778 kg cm-2) in T. aphylla. The modulus of elasticity ranged from 53735 to 86977 kg cm-2 with maximum value in A. nilotica and minimum in T. aphylla. The crushing strength parallel to grain was observed maximum in P. juliflora (610 kg cm-2) and minimum in A. nilotica (321 kg cm-2). Cleavage value was observed maximum (40 kg cm-1) in P. juliflora and minimum (31 kg cm-1) in E. camaldulensis.The results of impact bending indicated that the wood of P. juliflora has maximum (4.35 kg m-1) tendency to absorb sudden shocks and minimum in T. aphylla (1.47 kg m-1). Calorific value was observed maximum in E. camaldulensis (4900 kcal kg-1) and minimum in T. aphylla (4607 kcal kg-1). Overall, it is concluded that all tested tree species have strength properties comparable with Dalbergia sissoo wood and thus have good utilization potential for different wood products. (author)

  9. Species differences in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in Cnemidophorus whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Sarah C; Crews, David

    2004-09-05

    Evolution of behavioral phenotype involves changes in the underlying neural substrates. Cnemidophorus whiptail lizards enable the study of behavioral and neural evolution because ancestral species involved in producing unisexual, hybrid species still exist. Catecholaminergic systems modulate the expression of social behaviors in a number of vertebrates, including whiptails, and therefore we investigated how changes in catecholamine production correlated with evolutionary changes in behavioral phenotype by measuring the size and number of catecholamine producing (tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive, or TH-ir) cells across the reproductive cycle in females from two related whiptail species. Cnemidophorusuniparens is a triploid, parthenogenetic species that arose from hybridization events involving the diploid, sexual species C. inornatus. Prior to ovulation, females from both species display femalelike receptive behaviors. However, after ovulation, only parthenogenetic individuals display malelike mounting behavior. In all nuclei measured, we found larger TH-ir cells in the parthenogen, a difference consistent with species differences in ploidy. In contrast, species differences in the number of TH-ir cells were nucleus specific. In the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, parthenogens had fewer TH-ir cells than females of the sexual species. Reproductive state only affected TH-ir cell number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and C. uniparens individuals had more TH-ir cells after ovulation than when previtellogenic. Thus, species differences over the reproductive cycle in the SNpc are correlated with species differences in behavior, and it appears that the process of speciation may have produced a novel neural and behavioral phenotype in the parthenogen.

  10. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  11. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  12. 77 FR 14199 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of... Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or Treaty or Convention) by...

  13. Functional properties of myoglobins from five whale species with different diving capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbo, Signe; Fago, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Whales show an exceptionally wide range of diving capabilities and many express high amounts of the O(2) carrier protein myoglobin (Mb) in their muscle tissues, which increases their aerobic diving capacity. Although previous studies have mainly focused on the muscle Mb concentration and O(2) carrying capacity as markers of diving behavior in whales, it still remains unexplored whether whale Mbs differ in their O(2) affinities and nitrite reductase and peroxidase enzymatic activities, all functions that could contribute to differences in diving capacities. In this study, we have measured the functional properties of purified Mbs from five toothed whales and two baleen whales and have examined their correlation with average dive duration. Results showed that some variation in functional properties exists among whale Mbs, with toothed whale Mbs having higher O(2) affinities and nitrite reductase activities (similar to those of horse Mb) compared with baleen whale Mbs. However, these differences did not correlate with average dive duration. Instead, a significant correlation was found between whale Mb concentration and average duration and depth of dives, and between O(2) affinity and nitrite reductase activity when including horse Mb. Despite the fact that the functional properties showed little species-specific differences in vitro, they may still contribute to enhancing diving capacity as a result of the increased muscle Mb concentration found in extreme divers. In conclusion, Mb concentration rather than specific functional reactivities may support whale diving performance.

  14. Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; O'Grady, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Choat, Brendan; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Jiang, Yanan; Tissue, David T

    2015-07-01

    Future climate regimes characterized by rising [CO2], rising temperatures and associated droughts may differentially affect tree growth and physiology. However, the interactive effects of these three factors are complex because elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature may generate differential physiological responses during drought. To date, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on drought-induced tree mortality remain poorly understood in gymnosperm species that differ in stomatal regulation strategies. Water relations and carbon dynamics were examined in two species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies: Pinus radiata D. Don (relatively isohydric gymnosperm; regulating stomata to maintain leaf water potential above critical thresholds) and Callitris rhomboidea R. Br (relatively anisohydric gymnosperm; allowing leaf water potential to decline as the soil dries), to assess response to drought as a function of [CO2] and temperature. Both species were grown in two [CO2] (C(a) (ambient, 400 μl l(-1)) and C(e) (elevated, 640 μl l(-1))) and two temperature (T(a) (ambient) and T(e) (ambient +4 °C)) treatments in a sun-lit glasshouse under well-watered conditions. Drought plants were then exposed to a progressive drought until mortality. Prior to mortality, extensive xylem cavitation occurred in both species, but significant depletion of non-structural carbohydrates was not observed in either species. Te resulted in faster mortality in P. radiata, but it did not modify the time-to-mortality in C. rhomboidea. C(e) did not delay the time-to-mortality in either species under drought or T(e) treatments. In summary, elevated temperature (+4 °C) had greater influence than elevated [CO2] (+240 μl l(-1)) on drought responses of the two studied gymnosperm species, while stomatal regulation strategies did not generally affect the relative contributions of hydraulic failure and carbohydrate depletion to mortality under severe drought.

  15. Dipeptide species regulate p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling to maintain chronic myelogenous leukaemia stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Kazuhito; Jomen, Yoshie; Ishihara, Kaori; Kim, Junil; Ishimoto, Takahiro; Bae, Eun-Jin; Mohney, Robert P.; Stirdivant, Steven M.; Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Kato, Yukio; Ooshima, Akira; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the specific survival of the rare chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) stem cell population could provide a target for therapeutics aimed at eradicating these cells. However, little is known about how survival signalling is regulated in CML stem cells. In this study, we survey global metabolic differences between murine normal haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and CML stem cells using metabolomics techniques. Strikingly, we show that CML stem cells accumulate significantly higher levels of certain dipeptide species than normal HSCs. Once internalized, these dipeptide species activate amino-acid signalling via a pathway involving p38MAPK and the stemness transcription factor Smad3, which promotes CML stem cell maintenance. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of dipeptide uptake inhibits CML stem cell activity in vivo. Our results demonstrate that dipeptide species support CML stem cell maintenance by activating p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling in vivo, and thus point towards a potential therapeutic target for CML treatment. PMID:26289811

  16. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servais Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. Results The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  17. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Belouze, Maud; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Desplanches, Dominique; Sibille, Brigitte; Servais, Stéphane; Duchamp, Claude

    2010-04-28

    Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP) remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA) or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase). This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  18. Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Rahman, M Aminur; Islam, Mohamad Tofazzal

    2017-10-17

    Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose. Cytotoxicity is the common biological property of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers. Besides cytotoxicity, triterpene glycosides also exhibit antifungal, antiviral and hemolytic activities. This review updates and summarizes our understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities. Mechanisms of action and structural-activity relationships (SARs) of sea cucumber glycosides are also discussed briefly.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Amorim

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o. and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  1. An evaluation of fuelwood properties of some Aravally mountain tree and shrub species of Western India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirmal Kumar, J.I.; Patel, Kanti; Bhoi, Rohit Kumar [P.G. Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research (ISTAR), Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Kumar, Rita N. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, N.V. Patel college of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India)

    2011-01-15

    The study analyses the fuelwood characteristics of 26 trees including shrub species from the dry deciduous forest in Aravally region, Rajasthan, Western India was carried out to explore trees with potential for fuelwood production. Fuelwood value index (FVI) based on the properties of calorific value, wood density and ash. Calorific value was ranged between 18.54 {+-} 0.04 and 27.44 {+-} 0.09 KJ g{sup -1} in Jatropha curcus and Wrightia tinctoria respectively. Wood density varied from 0.538 {+-} 0.01 to 0.966 {+-} 0.07 g/cm{sup 3} in J. curcus and Acacia nilotica. Same way ash and moisture content was highest in J. curcus (3.38 {+-} 0.19%) and Sterculia urens (70.28 {+-} 7.52%) and lowest in Miliusa tomentosa (0.85 {+-} 0.06%) and Azadirachta indica (30.7 {+-} 10.02%) respectively. On the basis, of the 26 species analyzed, M. tomentosa has the highest FVI, followed by Lannea coromandelica, Acacia leucophloea, Madhuca indica, A. nilotica, W. tinctoria, Butea monosperma, Zizyphus nummularia, S. urens, Boswellia serrata, A. indica, Grewia tenax, Syzygium cuminii, Tectona grandis and Dalbergia sissoo were shown to have promising fuelwood production. (author)

  2. Allelochemical regulation of reproduction and seed germination of two BrazilianBaccharis species by phytotoxic trichothecenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, J O; Jarvis, B B; Mokhtari-Rejali, N; Bean, G A

    1990-12-01

    The potent phytotoxic trichothecene roridins and baccharinoids occur naturally in the Brazilian plants,Baccharis coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Biosynthesis of roridins inB. coridifolia appears to be linked to pollination, and the phytotoxins then accumulate in the seed. The roles of the phytotoxins in pollination, seed maturation, and germination of theBaccharis species were investigated. The high production of roridins occurred only in seeds resulting from intraspecific pollination, and the concentration of the toxins in the seeds generally increased with seed maturity. Removal of seed coats from trichothecene-producing BrazilianBaccharis species (B. coridifolia andB. megapotamica) and non-trichothecene-producing AmericanBaccharis species (B. halimifolia andB. glutinosa) resulted in improved seed germination ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa but complete inhibition of seed germination ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Addition of seed coat extracts of the BrazilianBaccharis species of dilute solutions (10(-6)μg/ml) of roridins or baccharinoids to the decoated seeds ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica resulted in germination, while seeds ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa were killed by the phytotoxins. Roridins interacted with gibberellic acid, a germination promoter, but not with abscisic acid, a germination inhibitor. The results from this study suggest that macrocyclic trichothecenes have a regulatory role(s) on reproduction and germination of BrazilianBaccharis species in their natural habitat.

  3. Screening reactive oxygen species scavenging properties of platinum nanoparticles on a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenfu; Jiang, Bo; Hao, Yi; Zhao, Yuyun; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-09-12

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and inflammation are key risk factors for atherosclerosis and can lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays a critical role in vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent progress of atherosclerosis. However, there is currently a lack of effective drugs that deal with ROS. Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) have proven to be promising antioxidant drugs in vitro and in vivo. To optimize the efficacy of Pt-NP based drugs, we synthesized and characterized the ROS scavenging properties of three kinds of small molecules that capped Pt-NPs (Pt-AMP-NPs, Pt-ATT-NPs, Pt-MI-NPs) on a blood vessel-mimicking microfluidic chip. The Pt-NPs showed superior superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like functions and can scavenge ROS and recover compromised cell-cell junctions under hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and proinflammatory conditions. Amongst these NPs, Pt-AMP-NPs showed the most superior antioxidant properties, suggesting its potency to serve as a novel drug to treat vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Our microfluidic chip, providing physiological hemodynamic conditions for the experiments, is potentially a promising tool for a wide range of biological research on the vascular system.

  4. Glulam Properties of Fast-growing Species Using Mahogany Tannin Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sri Rahayu Diza Lestari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing glued laminated timber (glulam can help overcome the limited availability of large-sized timber, and the use of bio-adhesives may resolve environmental problems associated with synthetic adhesives containing high formaldehyde contents. Tannin adhesive is a bio-adhesive that can be used as alternative glue in the manufacture of glulam. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of glulam made with mahogany (Swietenia sp. tannin adhesive and wood from three fast-growing species, namely pine (Pinus merkusii, jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, and sengon (Falcataria moluccana. Glulam (3 cm × 6 cm × 120 cm in thickness, width, and length, respectively was manufactured with three layers of lamina. The physical and mechanical properties of the glulams were tested based on relevant standards. The results showed that pine glulam fulfilled the standard for the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, while sengon glulam met the standard for shear strength. In the delamination test, sengon glulam was resistant to immersion in cold water and hot water. All glulams had low formaldehyde emission levels and therefore fulfilled the standard requirements. The results showed that the tannin adhesive from mahogany bark was equal in quality to methylene diphenyl di-isocyanate for glulam manufacturing.

  5. Functional properties and utilization of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam seed starch from new species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Hu, Meijie; Zhu, Kexue; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2018-02-01

    Jackfruit is now receiving extensive attention as a new source of starch. However, jackfruit seeds are discarded as waste, although they are rich in starch. The functional properties of the starches were investigated from new Chinese jackfruit species. All the starches have a high amylose (26.56-38.34%) with a potential to become functional foods rich in resistant starch. The jackfruit starches varied from trigonal and tetragonal, round to semi-oval/bell shapes and showed significant variations in particle sizes (5.53-14.46μm). These variations led to significant differences in their functional properties, and significant correlations were found in their pasting, thermal, crystal and texture parameters. Hierarchical cluster analysis sorted the samples into three groups of 1) Malaysia 8 (M8) and ZhenZhu (ZZ); 2) Malaysia 2, Malaysia 3 and Malaysia 4, (M2, M3, M4); and 3) Xiangyinsuo 11, Xiangyinsuo 4, Xiangyinsuo 3 and Xiangyinsuo 2 (X11, X4, X3, X2). The first group could be used as food thickening or gelling agents. The second group could be applied in glutinous foods. The third group make them suitable for fillings in confectionery or weaning foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescents' Attitudes towards E-cigarette Ingredients, Safety, Addictive Properties, Social Norms, and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents’ attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents’ attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from Calif...

  7. Threatened species indicate hot-spots of top-down regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallach, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of alien mesopredators and herbivores has been implicated as the main driver of mammalian extinction in Australia. Recent studies suggest that the devastating effects of invasive species are mitigated by top-order predators. The survival of many threatened species may therefore depend on the presence and ecological functioning of large predators. Australia’s top predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo, has been intensively persecuted across the continent and it is extremely rare to find dingo populations that are not being subjected to lethal control. We predicted that the presence of threatened species point out places where dingo populations are relatively intact, and that their absence may indicate that dingoes are either rare or socially fractured. A comparison of a site which harbors a threatened marsupial, the kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei, and a neighboring site where the kowari is absent, offers support for this suggested pattern.

  8. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Xi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lian, Xiaojie [College of Mechanics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guo, Zhongwu [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Hong-Jiang [Wendeng Hospital of Traditional Chinese Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shandong 264400 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration.

  9. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Lian, Xiaojie; Guo, Zhongwu; Jiang, Hong-Jiang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration

  10. COMPOSITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THREE FRESHWATER CARP SPECIES GROWN IN BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail Chughtai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three freshwater fish species viz. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Gibelion catla, grown in brackish water ponds were analyzed for compositional properties to assess the potential of this habitat to produce nutritionally adequate fish for human consumption. Overall, the unsaturated fatty acids were lower in L. rohita (46.6% than saturated fatty acids; while in C. mrigala and G. catla, the unsaturated fatty acids were 50.4% and 58.2%, respectively. The most abundant saturated fatty acid in examined species was palmitic acid (C16:0, 23.7 to 34.1%; mono-unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1 19.6 to 31.7% and poly-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2 9.46 to 13.3%. A reasonable amount of essential fatty acids ω-3 (5.80 to 9.26% and ω-6 (9.46 to 13.3% was also found in these species while growing in brackish water on salt tolerant forages like Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica and Kochia indica as supplemental feed. The ω-3/ω-6 ratio was calculated as 0.46, 0.80 and 0.69 in L. rohita, C. mrigala and G. catla, respectively. The maximum EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 was observed in C. mrigala (2.23%, followed by G. catla (1.62% and L. rohita (0.98%. While the DHA (docosahexanenoic acids, C22:6 was found maximum in G. catla (1.97% and minimum in C. mrigala (0.95%. The results of body composition indicated that L. rohita found maximum protein contents (19.2% with minimum total fats (1.28% while C. mrigala found maximum total fats (2.11% but minimum protein contents (18.3%. Overall results indicated that the Indian carps grown in brackish water have comparable chemical composition and nutritive value with the same species grown in freshwater medium.

  11. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-09-01

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Variability in larval gut pH regulation defines sensitivity to ocean acidification in six species of the Ambulacraria superphylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian; Tseng, Yung-Che; Su, Yi-Hsien; Lein, Etienne; Lee, Hae-Gyeong; Lee, Jay-Ron; Dupont, Sam; Stumpp, Meike

    2017-10-11

    The unusual rate and extent of environmental changes due to human activities may exceed the capacity of marine organisms to deal with this phenomenon. The identification of physiological systems that set the tolerance limits and their potential for phenotypic buffering in the most vulnerable ontogenetic stages become increasingly important to make large-scale projections. Here, we demonstrate that the differential sensitivity of non-calcifying Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) larvae towards simulated ocean acidification is dictated by the physiology of their digestive systems. Gastric pH regulation upon experimental ocean acidification was compared in six species of the superphylum Ambulacraria. We observed a strong correlation between sensitivity to ocean acidification and the ability to regulate gut pH. Surprisingly, species with tightly regulated gastric pH were more sensitive to ocean acidification. This study provides evidence that strict maintenance of highly alkaline conditions in the larval gut of Ambulacraria early life stages may dictate their sensitivity to decreases in seawater pH. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and understanding pH regulatory systems in marine larval stages that may contribute to substantial energetic challenges under near-future ocean acidification scenarios. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase nickel phytoextraction by Alyssum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Conejo, M I; Centofanti, T; Kidd, P S; Prieto-Fernández, A; Chaney, R L

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytohormones on the Ni phytoextraction capacity of four Alyssum species. Two different commercially available phytohormones (Cytokin and Promalin) based on cytokinins and/or gibberellins were applied on shoot biomass of four Ni hyperaccumulating Alyssum species (A. corsicum, A. malacitanum, A. murale, and A. pintodasilvae). Cytokin was applied in two concentrations and promalin in one concentration. The application of phytohormones had no clear positive effect on biomass production, Ni accumulation and Ni phytoextraction efficiency in the studied Alyssum species. A. malacitanum was the only species in which a significantly negative effect of these treatments was observed (in Ni uptake). A slightly positive response to promalin treatment was observed in the biomass production and Ni phytoextraction efficiency of A. corsicum. Although this effect was not significant it does indicate a potential application of these approaches to improve phytoextraction ability. Further studies will be needed to identify the most adequate phytohormone treatment as well as the appropriate concentrations and application times.

  14. MxiN Differentially Regulates Monomeric and Oligomeric Species of the Shigella Type Three Secretion System ATPase Spa47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Heather B; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2018-04-17

    Shigella rely entirely on the action of a single type three secretion system (T3SS) to support cellular invasion of colonic epithelial cells and to circumvent host immune responses. The ATPase Spa47 resides at the base of the Shigella needle-like type three secretion apparatus (T3SA), supporting protein secretion through the apparatus and providing a likely means for native virulence regulation by Shigella and a much needed target for non-antibiotic therapeutics to treat Shigella infections. Here, we show that MxiN is a differential regulator of Spa47 and that its regulatory impact is determined by the oligomeric state of the Spa47 ATPase, with which it interacts. In vitro and in vivo characterization shows that interaction of MxiN with Spa47 requires the six N-terminal residues of Spa47 that are also necessary for stable Spa47 oligomer formation and activation. This interaction with MxiN negatively influences the activity of Spa47 oligomers while upregulating the ATPase activity of monomeric Spa47. Detailed kinetic analyses of monomeric and oligomeric Spa47 in the presence and absence of MxiN uncover additional mechanistic insights into the regulation of Spa47 by MxiN, suggesting that the MxiN/Spa47 species resulting from interaction with monomeric and oligomeric Spa47 are functionally distinct and that both could be involved in Shigella T3SS regulation. Uncovering regulation of Spa47 by MxiN addresses an important gap in the current understanding of how Shigella controls T3SA activity and provides the first description of differential T3SS ATPase regulation by a native T3SS protein.

  15. Crosstalk between nitrite, myoglobin and reactive oxygen species to regulate vasodilation under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Totzeck

    Full Text Available The systemic response to decreasing oxygen levels is hypoxic vasodilation. While this mechanism has been known for more than a century, the underlying cellular events have remained incompletely understood. Nitrite signaling is critically involved in vessel relaxation under hypoxia. This can be attributed to the presence of myoglobin in the vessel wall together with other potential nitrite reductases, which generate nitric oxide, one of the most potent vasodilatory signaling molecules. Questions remain relating to the precise concentration of nitrite and the exact dose-response relations between nitrite and myoglobin under hypoxia. It is furthermore unclear whether regulatory mechanisms exist which balance this interaction. Nitrite tissue levels were similar across all species investigated. We then investigated the exact fractional myoglobin desaturation in an ex vivo approach when gassing with 1% oxygen. Within a short time frame myoglobin desaturated to 58±12%. Given that myoglobin significantly contributes to nitrite reduction under hypoxia, dose-response experiments using physiological to pharmacological nitrite concentrations were conducted. Along all concentrations, abrogation of myoglobin in mice impaired vasodilation. As reactive oxygen species may counteract the vasodilatory response, we used superoxide dismutase and its mimic tempol as well as catalase and ebselen to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species during hypoxic vasodilation. Incubation of tempol in conjunction with catalase alone and catalase/ebselen increased the vasodilatory response to nitrite. Our study shows that modest hypoxia leads to a significant nitrite-dependent vessel relaxation. This requires the presence of vascular myoglobin for both physiological and pharmacological nitrite levels. Reactive oxygen species, in turn, modulate this vasodilation response.

  16. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  17. The regulated synthesis of a Bacillus anthracis spore coat protein that affects spore surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, A; Goodman, B; Smith, Z

    2014-05-01

    Examine the regulation of a spore coat protein and the effects on spore properties. A c. 23 kDa band in coat/exosporial extracts of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores varied in amount depending upon the conditions of sporulation. It was identified by MALDI as a likely orthologue of ExsB of Bacillus cereus. Little if any was present in an exosporial preparation with a location to the inner coat/cortex region established by spore fractionation and immunogold labelling of electron micrograph sections. Because of its predominant location in the inner coat, it has been renamed Cotγ. It was relatively deficient in spores produced at 37°C and when acidic fermentation products were produced a difference attributable to transcriptional regulation. The deficiency or absence of Cotγ resulted in a less robust exosporium positioned more closely to the coat. These spores were less hydrophobic and germinated somewhat more rapidly. Hydrophobicity and appearance were rescued in the deletion strain by introduction of the cotγ gene. The deficiency or lack of a protein largely found in the inner coat altered spore hydrophobicity and surface appearance. The regulated synthesis of Cotγ may be a paradigm for other spore coat proteins with unknown functions that modulate spore properties in response to environmental conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Intellectual Property and the Tourism Industry: From ACTA Protests towards a Restrictive Interpretation of Innovation Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speriusi-Vlad Alin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 became reality James Boyle’s desire exposed in his essay from 1997 regarding a politics of intellectual property concerning the great deal of attention that must be paid to the Intellectual Property. At that time Boyle was disappointed by the lack of attention from lawyers, scholars, legal academics and the media for the Clinton administration’s proposal for copyright on the Net, a document that provided the blueprint of domestic and international regulatory efforts to expand intellectual property rights. Certainly this was not the case with ACTA where the public media forced by the private citizen’s protests tried to weight both the benefits and the costs of the new protection standards brought by the new international convention. After those moments Intellectual Property regulations are no more an esoteric and arcane field, something that is only interesting and comprehensible to the practitioners in the field, but a matter of public interests like the environment which arouse the attention of all the persons. In this way we all become aware that intellectual property radiates beyond the legal frame and interferes with several aspects of our lives, including our free time and the tourism consequently.

  19. The diffusion properties of ion implanted species in selected target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Dellwo, J.; Carter, H.K.; Kormicki, J.; Bartolo, G. di; Batchelder, J.C.; Breitenbach, J.; Chediak, J.A.; Jentoff-Nilsen, K.; Ichikawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments important to the future success of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) are in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory which are designed to select the most appropriate target material for generating a particular radioactive ion beam (RIB). The 25-MV HHIRF tandem accelerator is used to implant stable complements of interesting radioactive elements into refractory targets mounted in a high-temperature FEBIAD ion source which is open-quotes on-lineclose quotes at the UNISOR facility. The intensity versus time of implanted species, which diffuse from the high-temperature target material (∼1700 degrees C) and are ionized in the FEBIAD ion source, is used to determine release times for a particular projectile/target material combination. From such release data, diffusion coefficients can be derived by fitting the theoretical results obtained by computational solution of Fick's second equation to experimental data. The diffusion coefficient can be used subsequently to predict the release properties of the particular element from the same material in other target geometries and at other temperatures, provided that the activation energy is also known. Diffusion coefficients for Cl implanted into and diffused from CeS and Zr 5 Si 3 and As, Br, and Se implanted into and diffused from Zr 5 Ge 3 have been derived from the resulting intensity versus time profiles. Brief descriptions of the experimental apparatus and procedures utilized in the present experiments and plans for future related experiments are presented

  20. Regulation of cancer stem cell properties by CD9 in human B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroto [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Wilson Xu, C. [Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naito, Motohiko [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Nishida, Hiroko [Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Toshihiro; Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Iwata, Satoshi [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Inukai, Takeshi; Sugita, Kanji [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} We performed more detailed analysis of CD9 function for CSC properties in B-ALL. {yields} Leukemogenic fusion/Src family proteins were markedly regulated in the CD9{sup +} cells. {yields} Proliferation of B-ALL cells was inhibited by anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody. {yields} Knockdown of CD9 by RNAi remarkably reduced the leukemogenic potential. {yields} CD9-knockdown affected the expression and phosphorylation of Src family and USP22. -- Abstract: Although the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved considerably in recent years, some of the cases still exhibit therapy-resistant. We have previously reported that CD9 was expressed heterogeneously in B-ALL cell lines and CD9{sup +} cells exhibited an asymmetric cell division with greater tumorigenic potential than CD9{sup -} cells. CD9{sup +} cells were also serially transplantable in immunodeficient mice, indicating that CD9{sup +} cell possess self-renewal capacity. In the current study, we performed more detailed analysis of CD9 function for the cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. In patient sample, CD9 was expressed in the most cases of B-ALL cells with significant correlation of CD34-expression. Gene expression analysis revealed that leukemogenic fusion proteins and Src family proteins were significantly regulated in the CD9{sup +} population. Moreover, CD9{sup +} cells exhibited drug-resistance, but proliferation of bulk cells was inhibited by anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody. Knockdown of CD9 remarkably reduced the leukemogenic potential. Furthermore, gene ablation of CD9 affected the expression and tyrosine-phosphorylation of Src family proteins and reduced the expression of histone-deubiquitinase USP22. Taken together, our results suggest that CD9 links to several signaling pathways and epigenetic modification for regulating the CSC properties of B-ALL.

  1. Functional properties and differential mode of regulation of the nitrate transporter from a plant symbiotic ascomycete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, Barbara; Viscomi, Arturo R.; Bolchi, Angelo; Martin, Yusé; Siverio, José M.; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen assimilation by plant symbiotic fungi plays a central role in the mutualistic interaction established by these organisms, as well as in nitrogen flux in a variety of soils. In the present study, we report on the functional properties, structural organization and distinctive mode of regulation of TbNrt2 (Tuber borchii NRT2 family transporter), the nitrate transporter of the mycorrhizal ascomycete T. borchii. As revealed by experiments conducted in a nitrate-uptake-defective mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, TbNrt2 is a high-affinity transporter (Km=4.7 μM nitrate) that is bispecific for nitrate and nitrite. It is expressed in free-living mycelia and in mycorrhizae, where it preferentially accumulates in the plasma membrane of root-contacting hyphae. The TbNrt2 mRNA, which is transcribed from a single-copy gene clustered with the nitrate reductase gene in the T. borchii genome, was specifically up-regulated following transfer of mycelia to nitrate- (or nitrite)-containing medium. However, at variance with the strict nitrate-dependent induction commonly observed in other organisms, TbNrt2 was also up-regulated (at both the mRNA and the protein level) following transfer to a nitrogen-free medium. This unusual mode of regulation differs from that of the adjacent nitrate reductase gene, which was expressed at basal levels under nitrogen deprivation conditions and required nitrate for induction. The functional and expression properties, described in the present study, delineate TbNrt2 as a versatile transporter that may be especially suited to cope with the fluctuating (and often low) mineral nitrogen concentrations found in most natural, especially forest, soils. PMID:16201972

  2. Quantifying in situ phenotypic variability in the hydraulic properties of four tree species across their distribution range in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Sterck, F.; Torres-Ruiz, J.M.; Petit, G.; Cochard, H.; Arx, von G.; Lintunen, A.; Caldeira, M.C.; Capdeville, G.; Copini, P.; Gebauer, R.; Grönlund, L.; Hölttä, T.; Lobo-do-Vale, R.; Peltoniemi, M.; Stritih, A.; Urban, J.; Delzon, S.

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchi, Irineu; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  4. Liability for contaminated property : the interaction between regulation and the common law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacWilliam, A.G. [Milner Fenerty, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The criteria used for guidelines by environmental regulators to set acceptable levels of contamination for the purposes of site remediation were discussed. For the purposes of liability under environmental legislation, the guidelines allow `persons responsible` for property contamination to have an idea of the extent to which they must remediate. The guidelines provide a standard of cleanliness which takes into account the protection of environmental quality and human health. This paper describes common law causes of action, including claims in tort and claims in contract. Issues of negligence, nuisance, and liability under Rylands v. Fletcher are also addressed.

  5. Cranberry Flavonoids Modulate Cariogenic Properties of Mixed-Species Biofilm through Exopolysaccharides-Matrix Disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyeop Kim

    Full Text Available The exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtfs are essential virulence factors associated with the initiation of cariogenic biofilms. EPS forms the core of the biofilm matrix-scaffold, providing mechanical stability while facilitating the creation of localized acidic microenvironments. Cranberry flavonoids, such as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs and myricetin, have been shown to inhibit the activity of Gtfs and EPS-mediated bacterial adhesion without killing the organisms. Here, we investigated whether a combination of cranberry flavonoids disrupts EPS accumulation and S. mutans survival using a mixed-species biofilm model under cariogenic conditions. We also assessed the impact of cranberry flavonoids on mechanical stability and the in situ pH at the biofilm-apatite interface. Topical application of an optimized combination of PACs oligomers (100-300 μM with myricetin (2 mM twice daily was used to simulate treatment regimen experienced clinically. Treatments with cranberry flavonoids effectively reduced the insoluble EPS content (>80% reduction vs. vehicle-control; p<0.001, while hindering S. mutans outgrowth within mixed-species biofilms. As a result, the 3D architecture of cranberry-treated biofilms was severely compromised, showing a defective EPS-matrix and failure to develop microcolonies on the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA surface. Furthermore, topical applications of cranberry flavonoids significantly weaken the mechanical stability of the biofilms; nearly 90% of the biofilm was removed from sHA surface after exposure to a shear stress of 0.449 N/m2 (vs. 36% removal in vehicle-treated biofilms. Importantly, in situ pH measurements in cranberry-treated biofilms showed significantly higher pH values (5.2 ± 0.1 at the biofilm-apatite interface vs. vehicle-treated biofilms (4.6 ± 0.1. Altogether, the data provide important insights on how cranberry flavonoids treatments modulate

  6. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the" Emotional Regulation Checklist" in 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Sahin; Iman, Esra Dereli; Demircan, Zeynep Akin; Yaya, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional Regulation Checklist is frequently used to determine emotional developments of children by teacher and parents of children. The purpose of this study was to examining the Psychometric Properties of "Emotional Regulation Check List" for 4-5 years age in preschool children. Method: The sample of the research was…

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON EFFECTS OF FREEZING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLETS TWO FISH SPECIES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of fishes Sparidentex hasta and Pampus argenteus in the southern of Iran are consumed abundant in a particular season and it should be frozen for consumption throughout the year. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the effects of freezing on some of the physicochemical properties of fillets the fishes. Factors such as fat with chloroform-methanol method, amount of TBA (Thiobarbituric acid in fish muscle accordance method of Pearson, pH using a pH meter, FFA (Free fatty acids with titration in the presence of phenolphthalein was determined based on the percentage of oleic acid, peroxide value according to AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, in fresh samples at time zero and after different periods of freezing were tested respectively. Result showd that TBA (Thiobarbituric acid content in fish fillet, found Pampus argenteus and Sparidentex hasta 0.65 and 0.53 respectively. The results showed that the highest percentage of fat found for Pampus argenteus at 95 days 24.2(%2 and for Sparidentex hasta at 35 days (25.19%, free fatty acids contents found highest (0.9% and (0.97% for Sparidentex hasta and Pampus argenteus after 95 days. It can conclude that the TBA (Thiobarbituric acid, FFA (Free fatty acids  contents and pH of both fish species during storage in freezer were increased. Peroxide value in fish Pampus argenteus was reduced but, in Sparidentex hasta showed no significant differently.  The best time of storage of fishes Pampus argenteus and Sparidentex hasta at -18 °C was 35 days freezing, but nutritional value of fillets and fatty acids greatly reduced

  8. Regulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by salicylic acid in rice plants under salinity stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Bong-Gyu; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Shahzad, Raheem; Imran, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the regulatory role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in rice and its effects on toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during short-term salinity stress. SA application (0.5 and 1.0 mM) during salinity-induced stress (100 mM NaCl) resulted in significantly longer shoot length and higher chlorophyll and biomass accumulation than with salinity stress alone. NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species production led to increased levels of lipid peroxidation in rice plants, which were significantly reduced following SA application. A similar finding was observed for superoxide dismutase; however, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly reduced in rice plants treated with SA and NaCl alone and in combination. The relative mRNA expression of OsCATA and OsAPX1 was lower in rice plants during SA stress. Regarding nitrogenous species, S-nitrosothiol (SNO) was significantly reduced initially (one day after treatment [DAT]) but then increased in plants subjected to single or combined stress conditions. Genes related to SNO biosynthesis, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1), NO synthase-like activity (NOA), and nitrite reductase (NIR) were also assessed. The mRNA expression of GSNOR1 was increased relative to that of the control, whereas OsNOA was expressed at higher levels in plants treated with SA and NaCl alone relative to the control. The mRNA expression of OsNR was decreased in plants subjected to single or combination treatment, except at 2 DAT, compared to the control. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that SA can regulate the generation of NaCl-induced oxygen and nitrogen reactive species in rice plants. PMID:29558477

  9. Fine tuning of reactive oxygen species homeostasis regulates primed immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Victoria; Luna, Estrella; Ton, Jurriaan; Cerezo, Miguel; García-Agustín, Pilar; Flors, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Selected stimuli can prime the plant immune system for a faster and stronger defense reaction to pathogen attack. Pretreatment of Arabidopsis with the chemical agent β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) augmented H2O2 and callose production after induction with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) chitosan, or inoculation with the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. However, BABA failed to prime H2O2 and callose production after challenge with the bacterial PAMP Flg22. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (rbohD) or ROS scavenging (pad2, vtc1, and cat2) suggested a regulatory role for ROS homeostasis in priming of chitosan- and P. cucumerina-inducible callose and ROS. Moreover, rbohD and pad2 were both impaired in BABA-induced resistance against P. cucumerina. Gene expression analysis revealed direct induction of NADPH/respiratory burst oxidase protein D (RBOHD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase 1 (GSH1), and vitamin C defective 1 (VTC1) genes after BABA treatment. Conversely, ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) transcription was repressed by BABA after challenge with chitosan or P. cucumerina, probably to provide a more oxidized environment in the cell and facilitate augmented ROS accumulation. Measuring ratios between reduced and oxidized glutathione confirmed that augmented defense expression in primed plants is associated with a more oxidized cellular status. Together, our data indicate that an altered ROS equilibrium is required for augmented defense expression in primed plants.

  10. Novel Phosphorylation and Ubiquitination Sites Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species-dependent Degradation of Anti-apoptotic c-FLIP Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P.; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The cytosolic protein c-FLIP (cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) is an inhibitor of death receptor-mediated apoptosis that is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, contributing to apoptosis resistance. Several compounds found to restore sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, a TNF family death ligand with promising therapeutic potential, act by targeting c-FLIP ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in c-FLIP protein degradation. However, the mechanism by which ROS post-transcriptionally regulate c-FLIP protein levels is not well understood. We show here that treatment of prostate cancer PPC-1 cells with the superoxide generators menadione, paraquat, or buthionine sulfoximine down-regulates c-FLIP long (c-FLIPL) protein levels, which is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, pretreatment of PPC-1 cells with a ROS scavenger prevented ubiquitination and loss of c-FLIPL protein induced by menadione or paraquat. We identified lysine 167 as a novel ubiquitination site of c-FLIPL important for ROS-dependent degradation. We also identified threonine 166 as a novel phosphorylation site and demonstrate that Thr-166 phosphorylation is required for ROS-induced Lys-167 ubiquitination. The mutation of either Thr-166 or Lys-167 was sufficient to stabilize c-FLIP protein levels in PPC-1, HEK293T, and HeLa cancer cells treated with menadione or paraquat. Accordingly, expression of c-FLIP T166A or K167R mutants protected cells from ROS-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death. Our findings reveal novel ROS-dependent post-translational modifications of the c-FLIP protein that regulate its stability, thus impacting sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL. PMID:23519470

  11. Water exchange and permeability properties of the skin in three species of amphibious sea snakes (Laticauda spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B; Menon, J G; Menon, G K; Sheehy, C M; Tu, M C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary transitions between different environmental media such as air and water pose special problems with respect to skin permeability because of the dramatic changes in the driving gradients and nature of water exchange processes. Also, during the transitional periods prior to complete adaptation to a new medium, the skin is exposed to two very different sets of environmental conditions. Here, we report new data for transepidermal evaporative water loss (TEWL) and cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (R(s)) of sea snakes that are transitional in the sense of being amphibious and semi-terrestrial. We investigated three species of sea kraits (Elapidae: Laticaudinae) that are common to Orchid Island (Lanyu), Taiwan. Generally, R(s) of all three species is lower than that characteristic of terrestrial/xeric species of snakes measured in other taxa. Within Laticauda, R(s) is significantly greater (TEWL lower) in the more terrestrial species and lowest (TEWL highest) in the more aquatic species. Previously reported losses of water from snakes kept in seawater exhibit a reversed trend, with lower rates of loss in the more aquatic species. These data suggest selection for adaptive traits with respect to increasing exposure to the marine environment. Thus, a countergradient of traits is reflected in decreased TEWL in aerial environments and decreased net water efflux in marine environments, acting simultaneously in the three species. The pattern for TEWL correlates with ultrastructural evidence for increased lipogenesis in the stratum corneum of the more terrestrial species. The skin surfaces of all three species are hydrophobic. Species differences in this property possibly explain the pattern for water efflux when these snakes are in seawater, which remains to be investigated.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hidarnia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ and the BREQ-2 are the most commonly used measures of behavioural regulation in exercise psychology. The purpose of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Iranian version of the BREQ-2 on a sample of university students.Methods: The BREQ-2 was translated into Persian by qualified experts and the psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed. Content validity was established, using a panel of 12 Iranian experts in the areas of health education, psychology, and exercise. Construct validity was assessed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, using LISREL 8.80 (N = 418. The reliability of the BREQ-2 was assessed, using a 2-week test-retest to establish its stability and Cronbach’s Alpha to estimate its internal consistency.Results: The Iranian version of the BREQ-2 was slightly modified to improve content validity. Primary results of confirmatory factor analysis did not fully support the 5-factor uncorrelated model. The model was modified; and the fit indices indicated that the 5-factor correlated model was the best fit. The scale was found to have acceptable internal consistency (α > 0.7 and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.80.Conclusion: The Iranian BREQ-2 has acceptable validity and reliability in the study sample and may be used in relevant studies to assess behavioural regulation in similar samples.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Feliu-Soler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS is associated with problems in emotion regulation, the importance of assessing this construct is widely acknowledged by clinical psychologists and pain specialists. Although the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ is a self-report measure used worldwide, there are no data on its psychometric properties in patients with FMS. This study analyzed the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the CERQ in a sample of 231 patients with FMS. Given that “fibrofog” is one of the most disabling FMS symptoms, in the present study, items in the CERQ were grouped by dimension. This change in item presentation was conceived as an efficient way of facilitating responses as a result of a clear understanding of what the items related to each dimension are attempting to measure. The following battery of measures was administered: the CERQ, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Four models of the CERQ structure were examined and confirmatory factor analyses supported the original factor model, consisting of nine factors—Self-blame, Acceptance, Rumination, Positive refocusing, Refocus on planning, Positive reappraisal, Putting into perspective, Catastrophizing, and Other-blame. There was minimal overlap between CERQ subscales and their internal consistency was adequate. Correlational and regression analyses supported the construct validity of the CERQ. Our findings indicate that the CERQ (items-grouped version is a sound instrument for assessing cognitive emotion regulation in patients with FMS.

  14. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Salazar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land–atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  15. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan Fernando; Villegas, Juan Camilo; María Rendón, Angela; Rodríguez, Estiven; Hoyos, Isabel; Mercado-Bettín, Daniel; Poveda, Germán

    2018-03-01

    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land-atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling) that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  16. Ethylene sensitivity and relative air humidity regulate root hydraulic properties in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Ibort, Pablo; Molina, Sonia; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    The effect of ethylene and its precursor ACC on root hydraulic properties, including aquaporin expression and abundance, is modulated by relative air humidity and plant sensitivity to ethylene. Relative air humidity (RH) is a main factor contributing to water balance in plants. Ethylene (ET) is known to be involved in the regulation of root water uptake and stomatal opening although its role on plant water balance under different RH is not very well understood. We studied, at the physiological, hormonal and molecular levels (aquaporins expression, abundance and phosphorylation state), the plant responses to exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; precursor of ET) and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; inhibitor of ET biosynthesis), after 24 h of application to the roots of tomato wild type (WT) plants and its ET-insensitive never ripe (nr) mutant, at two RH levels: regular (50%) and close to saturation RH. Highest RH induced an increase of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp o ) of non-treated WT plants, and the opposite effect in nr mutants. The treatment with ACC reduced Lp o in WT plants at low RH and in nr plants at high RH. The application of AIB increased Lp o only in nr plants at high RH. In untreated plants, the RH treatment changed the abundance and phosphorylation of aquaporins that affected differently both genotypes according to their ET sensitivity. We show that RH is critical in regulating root hydraulic properties, and that Lp o is affected by the plant sensitivity to ET, and possibly to ACC, by regulating aquaporins expression and their phosphorylation status. These results incorporate the relationship between RH and ET in the response of Lp o to environmental changes.

  17. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  18. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  19. Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on blood glucose regulation in two decapod species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the best known crustacean hormones is the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH. However, the mechanisms involved in hormone release in these animals are poorly understood, and thus constitute the central objective of the present study. Different groups of crustaceans belonging to diverse taxa (Chasmagnathus granulata, a grapsid crab and Orconectes limosus, an astacid were injected with serotonin, fluoxetine, or a mixture of both, and glycemic values (C. granulata and O. limosus and CHH levels (O. limosus were determined after 2 h in either submerged animals or animals exposed to atmospheric air. Both serotonin and fluoxetine caused significant hyperglycemia (P<0.05 after injection into the blood sinus of the two species, an effect enhanced after exposure to atmospheric air. In C. granulata blood glucose increased from 6.1 to 43.3 and 11.4 mg/100 ml in submerged animals and from 5.7 to 55.2 and 22.5 mg/100 ml in air-exposed animals after treatment with serotonin and fluoxetine, respectively. In O. limosus the increases were from 1.2 to 59.7 and 135.2 mg/100 ml in submerged animals and from 2.5 to 200.3 and 193.6 mg/100 ml in air-exposed animals after treatment with serotonin and fluoxetine, respectively. Serotonin and fluoxetine also caused a significant increase in the circulating levels of CHH in O. limosus, from 11.9 to 43 and 45.7 fmol/ml in submerged animals and from 13.2 to 32.6 and 45.7 fmol/ml in air-exposed animals, respectively, thus confirming their action as neuroregulators in these invertebrates.

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Homeostasis as Regulators of Stem Cell Fate and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Darren Q; Suda, Toshio

    2018-07-10

    The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remain of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation, all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent Advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments, particularly those of hematopoietic, neural, and muscle tissues. In recent years, the importance of proteostasis and mitochondria in relation to stem cell biology and redox homeostasis has garnered considerable interest. Here, we explore the reciprocal relationship between ROS and stem cells, with significant emphasis on mitochondria as a core component of redox homeostasis. We discuss how redox signaling, involving cell-fate determining protein kinases and transcription factors, can control stem cell function and fate. We also address the impact of oxidative stress on stem cells, especially oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. We further discuss ROS management in stem cells, and present recent evidence supporting the importance of mitochondrial activity and its modulation (via mitochondrial clearance, biogenesis, dynamics, and distribution [i.e., segregation and transfer]) in stem cell redox homeostasis. Therefore, elucidating the intricate links between mitochondria, cellular metabolism, and redox homeostasis is envisioned to be critical for our understanding of ROS in stem cell biology and its therapeutic relevance in regenerative medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  1. The regulation of virulence in phytopathogenic Erwinia species: quorum sensing, antibiotics and ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Neil A; Byers, Joseph T; Commander, Paul; Corbett, Mark J; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Everson, Lee; Harris, Abigail K P; Pemberton, Clare L; Simpson, Natalie J L; Slater, Holly; Smith, Debra S; Welch, Martin; Williamson, Neil; Salmond, George P C

    2002-08-01

    Erwinia carotovora is a Gram-negative bacterial phytopathogen that causes soft-rot disease and potato blackleg. The organism is environmentally widespread and exhibits an opportunistic plant pathogenesis. The ability to secrete multiple plant cell wall-degrading enzymes is a key virulence trait and exoenzyme production is responsive to multiple environmental and physiological cues. One important cue is the cell population density of the pathogen. Cell density is monitored via an acylated homoserine lactone (acyl HSL) signalling molecule, which is thought to diffuse between Erwinia cells in a process now commonly known as 'quorum sensing'. This molecule also acts as the chemical communication signal controlling production of a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic (1-carbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid; carbapenem) synthesised in concert with exoenzyme elaboration, possibly for niche defence. In antibiotic production control, quorum sensing acts at the level of transcriptional activation of the antibiotic biosynthetic cluster. This is achieved via a dedicated LuxR-type protein, CarR that is bound to the signalling molecule. The molecular relay connecting acyl HSL production and exoenzyme induction is not clear, despite the identification of a multitude of global regulatory genes, including those of the RsmA/rsmB system, impinging on enzyme synthesis. Quorum sensing control mediated by acyl HSLs is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for the regulation of diverse phenotypes. Although there is still a paucity of meaningful information on acyl HSL availability and in-situ biological function, there is growing evidence that such molecules play significant roles in microbial ecology.

  2. Physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sanagawa, Akimasa; Sobajima, Yu; Fujii, Satoshi

    2011-10-31

    Pressure ulcers can form with excess pressure and shearing stress on skin tissue. Because pressure ulcer is often accompanies by exudates, selection of appropriate topical emulsion ointment is difficult. Blended ointments consisting of emulsion base and water-soluble base are clinically used for adjustment of wound moist environment. Because regulating the amount of wound exudates can enhance treatment efficacy, two new blended ointments were developed. LY-SL blended ointment consisted of lysozyme hydrochloride water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion (LY-cream) and sulfadiazine macrogol (polyethylene glycol) ointment (SL-pasta). TR-SL blended ointment consisted of tretinoin tocoferil oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion (TR-cream) and SL-pasta (TR-SL). LY-SL and TR-SL were applied to Franz diffusion cell with cellulose membranes for the evaluation of water absorption characteristics at 32 °C. Water absorption rate constants (mg/cm(2)/min(0.5)) were 12.5, 16.3 and 34.6 for LY-cream, TR-cream and SL-pasta, respectively. Water absorption rate constants for LY-SL and TR-SL (SL-pasta 70%) exhibited intermediate values of 21.2 and 27.2, as compared to each ointment alone, respectively. Because amount of water absorbed was linearly related to square root of time, it was suggested that water-absorbable macrogol was surrounded by oily ingredients forming matrix structure. This diffusion-limited structure may regulate water absorption capacity. This is the first report of physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption. The blended ointment can properly regulate amount of exudates in wounds and may be useful for treatment of pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical properties of the cuticles of three cockroach species that differ in their wind-evoked escape behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Clark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The structural and material properties of insect cuticle remain largely unexplored, even though they comprise the majority (approximately 80% of animals. Insect cuticle serves many functions, including protection against predatory attacks, which is especially beneficial to species failing to employ effective running escape responses. Despite recent advances in our understanding of insect escape behaviors and the biomechanics of insect cuticle, there are limited studies on the protective qualities of cuticle to extreme mechanical stresses and strains imposed by predatory attacks, and how these qualities vary between species employing different escape responses. Blattarians (cockroaches provide an appropriate model system for such studies. Wind-evoked running escape responses are strong in Periplaneta americana, weak in Blaberus craniifer and absent in Gromphodorhina portentosa, putting the latter two species at greater risk of being struck by a predator. We hypothesized that the exoskeletons in these two larger species could provide more protection from predatory strikes relative to the exoskeleton of P. americana. We quantified the protective qualities of the exoskeletons by measuring the puncture resistance, tensile strength, strain energy storage, and peak strain in fresh samples of thoracic and abdominal cuticles from these three species. We found a continuum in puncture resistance, tensile strength, and strain energy storage between the three species, which were greatest in G. portentosa, moderate in B. craniifer, and smallest in P. americana. Histological measurements of total cuticle thickness followed this same pattern. However, peak strain followed a different trend between species. The comparisons in the material properties drawn between the cuticles of G. portentosa, B. craniifer, and P. americana demonstrate parallels between cuticular biomechanics and predator running escape responses.

  4. Genetic regulation of salt stress tolerance revealed by RNA-Seq in cotton diploid wild species, Gossypium davidsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Guozhong; Du, Lei; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Yang, Bing; Hu, Yan; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-02-03

    Cotton is an economically important crop throughout the world, and is a pioneer crop in salt stress tolerance research. Investigation of the genetic regulation of salinity tolerance will provide information for salt stress-resistant breeding. Here, we employed next-generation RNA-Seq technology to elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in cotton using the diploid cotton species Gossypium davidsonii which has superior stress tolerance. A total of 4744 and 5337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be involved in salt stress tolerance in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene function annotation elucidated salt overly sensitive (SOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathways. Furthermore, we found that photosynthesis pathways and metabolism play important roles in ion homeostasis and oxidation balance. Moreover, our studies revealed that alternative splicing also contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, implying its functional role in response to salinity stress. This study not only provides a valuable resource for understanding the genetic control of salt stress in cotton, but also lays a substantial foundation for the genetic improvement of crop resistance to salt stress.

  5. Intraspecies variation in a widely distributed tree species regulates the responses of soil microbiome to different temperature regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Jing; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Drake, John E; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Tissue, David T; Wang, Jun-Tao; He, Ji-Zheng; Singh, Brajesh K

    2018-04-01

    Plant characteristics in different provenances within a single species may vary in response to climate change, which might alter soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions. We conducted a glasshouse experiment and grew seedlings of three provenances (temperate, subtropical and tropical origins) of a tree species (i.e., Eucalyptus tereticornis) at different growth temperatures (18, 21.5, 25, 28.5, 32 and 35.5°C) for 54 days. At the end of the experiment, bacterial and fungal community composition, diversity and abundance were characterized. Measured soil functions included surrogates of microbial respiration, enzyme activities and nutrient cycling. Using Permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA) and network analysis, we found that the identity of tree provenances regulated both structure and function of soil microbiomes. In some cases, tree provenances substantially affected the response of microbial communities to the temperature treatments. For example, we found significant interactions of temperature and tree provenance on bacterial community and relative abundances of Chloroflexi and Zygomycota, and inorganic nitrogen. Microbial abundance was altered in response to increasing temperature, but was not affected by tree provenances. Our study provides novel evidence that even a small variation in biotic components (i.e., intraspecies tree variation) can significantly influence the response of soil microbial community composition and specific soil functions to global warming. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inorganic Polyphosphates Regulate Hexokinase Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mitochondria of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Menezes, Jackson; da Silva Vaz Jr, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Campos, Eldo

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (poly P) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. microplus. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Both poly Ps inhibited hexokinase activity by up to 90% and, interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase activity was stimulated by the hexokinase reaction product, glucose-6-phosphate. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively. All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. microplus embryos. PMID:23983617

  7. Regulation of morphogenesis and biocontrol properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET protein, Vel1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2010-04-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species.

  8. Conserved properties of Drosophila Insomniac link sleep regulation and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Kellner, David A; Hatch, Hayden A M; Yumita, Tomohiro; Sanchez, Sandrine; Machold, Robert P; Frank, C Andrew; Stavropoulos, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Sleep is an ancient animal behavior that is regulated similarly in species ranging from flies to humans. Various genes that regulate sleep have been identified in invertebrates, but whether the functions of these genes are conserved in mammals remains poorly explored. Drosophila insomniac (inc) mutants exhibit severely shortened and fragmented sleep. Inc protein physically associates with the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase, and neuronal depletion of Inc or Cul3 strongly curtails sleep, suggesting that Inc is a Cul3 adaptor that directs the ubiquitination of neuronal substrates that impact sleep. Three proteins similar to Inc exist in vertebrates-KCTD2, KCTD5, and KCTD17-but are uncharacterized within the nervous system and their functional conservation with Inc has not been addressed. Here we show that Inc and its mouse orthologs exhibit striking biochemical and functional interchangeability within Cul3 complexes. Remarkably, KCTD2 and KCTD5 restore sleep to inc mutants, indicating that they can substitute for Inc in vivo and engage its neuronal targets relevant to sleep. Inc and its orthologs localize similarly within fly and mammalian neurons and can traffic to synapses, suggesting that their substrates may include synaptic proteins. Consistent with such a mechanism, inc mutants exhibit defects in synaptic structure and physiology, indicating that Inc is essential for both sleep and synaptic function. Our findings reveal that molecular functions of Inc are conserved through ~600 million years of evolution and support the hypothesis that Inc and its orthologs participate in an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitination pathway that links synaptic function and sleep regulation.

  9. Transferability of microsatellite markers located in candidate genes for wood properties between Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia V. Acuña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:  To analyze the feasibility of extrapolating conclusions on wood quality genetic control between different Eucalyptus species, particularly from species with better genomic information, to those less characterized. For this purpose, the first step is to analyze the conservation and cross-transferability of microsatellites markers (SSRs located in candidate genes.Area of study: Eucalyptus species implanted in Argentina coming from different Australian origins.Materials and methods: Twelve validated and polymorphic SSRs in candidate genes (SSR-CGs for wood quality in E. globulus were selected for cross species amplification in six species: E. grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.Main results: High cross-species transferability (92% to 100% was found for the 12 polymorphic SSRs detected in E. globulus. These markers revealed allelic diversity in nine important candidate genes: cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3, the transcription factor LIM1, homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT, shikimate kinase (SK, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2 (XTH2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD and peroxidase (PER.Research highlights: The markers described are potentially suitable for comparative QTL mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding (MAB and for population genetic studies across different species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.Keywords: validation; cross-transferability; SSR; functional markers; eucalypts; Symphyomyrtus.

  10. The agreement as a universal means of legal regulation of property relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. В. Новохатська

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The participants of the civil circulation are given the opportunity to conclude a contract which constitutes a fundamental framework of civil relations. The interests of the parties are realized through the conclusion and implementation of contracts. The agreement is a universal means of legal regulation of property relations, which provides the achievement of objectives defined by the parties. The purpose of the contract may be economic, social or other, while remaining expressed in legal terms, that is legal. Civil contracts are concluded for the purpose of transferring items of property, execution of work or providing services. Analysis of recent research works and publications. The modern theory of civil contract has been presented in the works by V.Lutsya, I. Zhylinkova, M. Sibilova and other authors. The aim of this work is define the specific features of a civil contract as a regulator of civil relations, the order of its conclusion, modification and termination, the correlation of terms and conditions that constitute its content. The main research material. A contract is an agreement between two or more parties on the establishment, modification or termination of civil rights and obligations. The agreement is a unity of the subjective element - the will and the objective element - declaration of intent. The free declaration of intent (will of the parties to a contract is one of the manifestations of freedom of agreement as one of the principles of civil law. The parties are free to conclude a contract, to choose a contracting party and determine the contract terms and conditions on the basis of the law and customs of business conduct, the principle of prudence, integrity and fairness. The concurrence of the wills of the parties - the expression of will by one party and counter-declaration by the other - creates an agreement that gives rise to a contractual relationship. That is a contract provides for expression of the

  11. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, Scott J; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R 2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  12. Leaf development and photosynthetic properties of three tropical tree species with delayed greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Slot, M.; Fan, Z.X.

    2005-01-01

    Leaf developmental patterns were characterized for three tropical tree species with delayed greening. Changes in the pigment contents, photosynthetic capacity, stomata development, photosystem 2 efficiency, rate of energy dissipation, and the activity of partial protective enzymes were followed in

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Piper species: a perspective from screening to molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Malhotra, Shashwat; Prasad, Ashok K; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Bracke, Marc E; Stetler-Stevenson, William G; Parmar, Virinder S; Ghosh, Balaram

    2015-01-01

    Identifying novel therapeutic agents from natural sources and their possible intervention studies has been one of the major areas in biomedical research in recent years. Piper species are highly important - commercially, economically and medicinally. Our groups have been working for more than two decades on the identification and characterization of novel therapeutic lead molecules from Piper species. We have extensively studied the biological activities of various extracts of Piper longum and Piper galeatum, and identified and characterized novel molecules from these species. Using synthetic chemistry, various functional groups of the lead molecules were modified and structure activity relationship (SAR) studies identified synthetic molecules with better efficacy and lower IC50 values. Moreover, the mechanisms of actions of some of these molecules were studied at the molecular level. The objective of this review is to summarize experimental data published from our laboratories and others on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of Piper species and their chemical constituents.

  14. The Emergent Properties of Conspecific Attraction Can Limit a Species' Ability to Track Environmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Kirk W; Ward, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Multiple biotic, abiotic, and evolutionary constraints interact to determine a species' range. However, most species are not present in all suitable and accessible locations. Dispersal ability may explain why many species do not occupy all suitable habitat, but highly mobile species also exhibit a mismatch. Habitat selection behavior where individuals are site faithful and settle near conspecifics could create a social pressure that make a species' geographic range resistant to change. We investigated this possibility by using an individual-based model of habitat selection where habitat quality moved each year. Our model demonstrated the benefits of conspecific attraction in relatively stable environments and its detrimental influence when habitat quality shifted rapidly. These results were most apparent when adult survival was high, because site fidelity led to more individuals occupying poor-quality habitat areas as habitat quality changed. These individuals attracted other dispersing individuals, thereby decreasing the ability to track shifts in habitat quality, which we refer to as "social inertia." Consequently, social inertia may arise for species that exhibit site fidelity and conspecific attraction, which may have conservation implications in light of climate change and widespread alteration of natural habitats.

  15. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate a Chinese's adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck. This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044. A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test-retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01 over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76. In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015. Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods.

  16. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Blue, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a Chinese’s adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker–Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test–retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children’s Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods. PMID:26925586

  17. Growth regulating properties of isoprene and isoprenoid-based essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell P; Shukla, Mukund R; Sherif, Sherif M; Brown, Paula B; Saxena, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils have growth regulating properties comparable to the well-documented methyl jasmonate and may be involved in localized and/or airborne plant communication. Aromatic plants employ large amounts of resources to produce essential oils. Some essential oils are known to contain compounds with plant growth regulating activities. However, the potential capacity of essential oils as airborne molecules able to modulate plant growth/development has remained uninvestigated. Here, we demonstrate that essential oils from eight taxonomically diverse plants applied in their airborne state inhibited auxin-induced elongation of Pisum sativum hypocotyls and Avena sativa coleoptiles. This response was also observed using five monoterpenes commonly found in essential oils as well as isoprene, the basic building block of terpenes. Upon transfer to ambient conditions, A. sativa coleoptiles resumed elongation, demonstrating an antagonistic relationship rather than toxicity. Inclusion of essential oils, monoterpenes, or isoprene into the headspace of culture vessels induced abnormal cellular growth along hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. These responses were also elicited by methyl jasmonate (MeJA); however, where methyl jasmonate inhibited root growth essential oils did not. Gene expression studies in A. thaliana also demonstrated differences between the MeJA and isoprenoid responses. This series of experiments clearly demonstrate that essential oils and their isoprenoid components interact with endogenous plant growth regulators when applied directly or as volatile components in the headspace. The similarities between isoprenoid and MeJA responses suggest that they may act in plant defence signalling. While further studies are needed to determine the ecological and evolutionary significance, the results of this study and the specialized anatomy associated with aromatic plants suggest that essential oils may act as airborne signalling molecules.

  18. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-10-01

    SF6-Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF6-Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1-10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1-10), and copper molar proportions (0-50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation.

  19. Toxic properties of specific radiation determinant molecules, derived from radiated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Kedar, Prasad; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce the formation of radiation toxins in the organs of irradiated mammals. After whole body irradiation, cellular macromolecules and cell walls are damaged as a result of long-lived radiation-induced free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and fast, charged particles of radiation. High doses of radiation induce breaks in the chemical bonds of macromolecules and cross-linking reactions via chemically active processes. These processes result in the creation of novel modified macromolecules that possess specific toxic and antigenic properties defined by the type and dose of irradiation by which they are generated. Radiation toxins isolated from the lymph of irradiated animals are classified as hematotoxic, neurotoxic, and enteric non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, and they play an important role in the development of hematopoietic, cerebrovascular, and gastrointestinal acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Seven distinct toxins derived from post-irradiated animals have been designated as Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD): SRD-1 (neurotoxic radiation toxin generated by the cerebrovascular form of ARS), SRD-3 (enteric non-bacterial radiation toxins generated by the gastrointestinal form of ARS), and SRD-4 (hematotoxic radiation toxins generated by the hematological, bone marrow form of ARS). SRD-4 is further subdivided into four groups depending on the severity of the ARS induced: SRD-4/1, mild ARS; SRD-4/2, moderate ARS; SRD-4/3, severe ARS; and SRD-4/4, extremely severe ARS. The seventh SRD, SRD-2 is a toxic extract derived from animals suffering from a fourth form of ARS, as described in European literature and produces toxicity primarily in the autonimic nervous system. These radiation toxins have been shown to be responsible for the induction of important pathophysiological, immunological, and biochemical reactions in ARS. Materials and Methods: These studies incorporated the use of statistically significant numbers of a

  20. THE CANOPY EFFECTS OF Prosopis juliflora (DC. AND Acacia tortilis (HAYNE TREES ON HERBACEOUS PLANTS SPECIES AND SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN NJEMPS FLATS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Kahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The canopy effects of an exotic and indigenous tree species on soil properties and understorey herbaceous plant species were investigated on the Njemps Flats, Baringo district, Kenya. Samples of soil and herbaceous plant species were obtained within the canopies of systematically selected P. juliflora (exotic and A. tortilis (indigenous trees, and from adjacent open areas. Standing biomass, frequency and cover of understorey plant species were significantly (P

  1. Hydrological properties of bark of selected forest tree species. Part 2: Interspecific variability of bark water storage capacity

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    Ilek Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present research is the water storage capacity of bark of seven forest tree species: Pinus sylvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Ehrh. and Fagus sylvatica L. The aim of the research is to demonstrate differences in the formation of bark water storage capacity between species and to identify factors influencing the hydrological properties of bark. The maximum water storage capacity of bark was determined under laboratory conditions by performing a series of experiments simulating rainfall and by immersing bark samples in containers filled with water. After each single experiment, the bark samples were subjected to gravity filtration in a desiccator partially filled with water. The experiments lasted from 1084 to 1389 hours, depending on the bark sample. In all the studied species, bark sampled from the thinnest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in mm H2O · cm-3, while bark sampled from the thickest trees - by the lowest capacity. On the other hand, bark sampled from the thickest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in H2O · cm-2 whereas bark from the thinnest trees - by the lowest capacity. In most species tested, as the tree thickness and thus the bark thickness and the coefficient of development of the interception surface of bark increase, the sorption properties of the bark decrease with bark depth, and the main role in water retention is played by the outer bark surface. The bark of European beech is an exception because of the smallest degree of surface development and because the dominant process is the absorption of water. When examining the hydrological properties of bark and calculating its parameters, one needs to take into account the actual surface of the bark of trees. Disregarding the actual bark surface may lead to significant errors in the interpretation of research

  2. Xylem hydraulic properties of roots and stems of nine Mediterranean woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Prat, Ester; Oliveras, Imma; Piñol, Josep

    2002-09-01

    We studied the hydraulic architecture and water relations of nine co-occurring woody species in a Spanish evergreen oak forest over the course of a dry season. Our main objectives were to: (1) test the existence of a trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and security in the xylem, and (2) establish the safety margins at which the species operated in relation to hydraulic failure, and compare these safety margins between species and tissues (roots vs. stems). Our results showed that the relationship between specific hydraulic conductivity (K s) and resistance to cavitation followed a power function with exponent ≈-2, consistent with the existence of a trade-off between conductivity and security in the xylem, and also consistent with a linear relationship between vessel diameter and the size of inter-vessel pores. The diameter of xylem conduits, K s and vulnerability to xylem embolism were always higher in roots than in stems of the same species. Safety margins from hydraulic failure were narrower in roots than in stems. Among species, the water potential (Ψ) at which 50% of conductivity was lost due to embolism ranged between -0.9 and Cistus albidus=Ilex aquifolium>Phillyrea latifolia>Juniperus oxycedrus. Gas exchange and seasonal Ψ minima were in general correlated with resistance to xylem embolism. Hydraulic safety margins differed markedly among species, with some of them (J. oxycedrus, I. aquifolium, P. latifolia) showing a xylem overly resistant to cavitation. We hypothesize that this overly resistant xylem may be related to the shape of the relationship between K s and security we have found.

  3. IMPACT OF WOODY PLANTS SPECIES ON SOIL PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ALONG GRAZING GRADIENTS IN RANGELANDS OF EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the lowlands of arid and semiarid rangelands woody plants plays an important role in soil fertility maintenance, providing food, medicine, cosmetics, fodder, fuel wood and pesticides. A better understanding of the interaction of woody plants on their immediate environment is needed to guide optimum management of native vegetation in the production landscapes. However, the impact of woody plant species on soil properties remains poorly understood. This study evaluates the impact of two dominant woody plant species (A. senegal and B. aegyptica on soil physico-chemical properties along grazing gradients in rangelands of eastern Ethiopia. Six trees of each species were selected from light, moderate and heavy grazing sites.  Soil sample data at two depths (0-15 and 16-30 cm were collected from under and open areas of A. senegal and B. aegyptica from each grazing sites, and analysed for nutrient contents. The nutrient status of soil under both woody species was significantly higher especially with regard to soil organic matter (4.37%, total nitrogen (0.313%, and available phosphorus (11.62 than the open grassland with soil organic matter (3.82%, total nitrogen (0.246%, and available phosphorus (10.94 mg/Kg soil for A. Senegal. The soil organic matter (3.93%, total nitrogen (0.285%, available phosphorus (11.66 mg/Kg soil were significantly higher than open grassland with soil organic matter (3.52%, total nitrogen (0.218%, available phosphorus (10.73 mg/Kg soil for B. aegyptica. This was more pronounced in the top 15 cm of soil under A. senegal woody plant species and on the light and moderate grazing site. Therefore, this tree has a significant effect on soil fertility improvement in resource poor rangelands and as a result, it is important to retain scattered A. senegal and B. aegyptica plants in the lowlands of eastern Ethiopia.

  4. Novel roles of folic acid as redox regulator: Modulation of reactive oxygen species sinker protein expression and maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kun-Goung; Chen, Chi-Fen; Ho, Chun-Te; Liu, Jun-Jen; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chern, Chi-Liang

    2017-06-01

    We provide herein several lines of evidence to substantiate that folic acid (or folate) is a micronutrient capable of functioning as a novel redox regulator on hepatocellular carcinoma. First, we uncovered that folate deficiency could profoundly downregulate two prominent anti-apoptotic effectors including survivin and glucose-regulated protein-78. Silencing of either survivin or glucose-regulated protein-78 via small interfering RNA interfering technique established that both effectors could serve as reactive oxygen species sinker proteins. Second, folate deficiency-triggered oxidative-nitrosative stress could strongly induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that in turn could provoke cellular glutathione depletion through the modulation of the following two crucial events: (1) folate deficiency could strongly inhibit Bcl-2 expression leading to severe suppression of the mitochondrial glutathione pool and (2) folate deficiency could also profoundly inhibit two key enzymes that governing cellular glutathione redox regulation including γ-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase heavy chain, a catalytic enzyme for glutathione biosynthesis, and mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, an enzyme responsible for providing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate necessary for regenerating oxidized glutathione disulfide back to glutathione via mitochondrial glutathione reductase. Collectively, we add to the literature new data to strengthen the notion that folate is an essential micronutrient that confers a novel role to combat reactive oxygen species insults and thus serves as a redox regulator via upregulating reactive oxygen species sinker proteins and averting mitochondrial glutathione depletion through proper maintenance of redox homeostasis via positively regulating glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione transporting system, and mitochondrial glutathione recycling process.

  5. Enhancement of durability properties of heat-treated oil palm shell species lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ming Kun; Yew, Ming Chian; Saw, Lip Huat; Ang, Bee Chin; Lee, Min Lee; Lim, Siong Kang; Lim, Jee Hock

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm shell (OPS) are non-hazardous waste materials and can be used as alternative coarse aggregates to substitute depleting conventional raw materials. A study on preparing the OPS species (dura and tenera) lightweight concrete (LWC) using with and without heat-treated OPS aggregate has been investigated. Two different species of OPS coarse aggregate are subjected to heat treatment at 65 and 130 °C with duration of 1 hour. The results reveal that the slump value of the OPSC increases significantly with an increase in temperature of heat treatment of the tenera OPS aggregates. It is found that the maximum achievable 28-days and 180-days compressive strength is 45.6 and 47.5 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) and water absorption tests were performance to signify the effects of heat-treated on OPS species LWC. The use of heat-treated OPS LWC induced the advantageous of reducing the permeability and capillary porosity as well as water absorption. Hence, the findings of this study are of primary importance as they revealed the heat treatment on OPS species LWC can be used as a new environmentally friendly method to enhance the durability of OPSLWC.

  6. MT and WY Tamarix soil properties influence germination and early growth of three native grass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a riparian invader, Tamarix spp. often leads to native species (e.g., plains cottonwood and willows, grasses) decline and lower habitat quality. Since Tamarix excretes excess salt and has high salt tolerance, negative soil feedback via high soil salinity may negatively affect native plants. Howev...

  7. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BRANCH-WOOD OF Schizolobium amazonicum DUCKE SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Amin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia has inspired the use of lesser-known wood species, which are potentially abundant and so far has not much been utilized. Utilization of these woods should be imposed not only of the stem wood but also of the branch-wood portions. Schizolobiumamazonicum Ducke treeis one of those lesser-known species, and growing fast with an MAIof3.68 cm/year.In Indonesia this species is only found in the Purwodadi Botanical Garden. A research was conducted to study the basic characteristics (anatomical aspects and chemical properties of the branch-wood portion of this species. The branch-wood materials were obtained from the Purwodadi Botanical Garden situated in Pasuruan (East Java. The specimens used were the first branch of the trunk (stem of nine-year old S. amazonicum tree (= 29.46 cm. The branch-wood samples were then examined for the anatomical aspects (macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and chemical properties (chemical composition. Results revealed that the anatomical properties of S.amazonicum branch-wood exhibited close similarities to those of sengon wood; it was light in appearance and white in color. Its fiber averaged about 1500 μm, and based on the fiber dimension's derived values the branch- wood fiber of this species was categorized into first-class quality for pulp and paper manufacture. Further, the chemical composition of this branch-wood compared favorably with that of sengon and mangium wood. The composition of extractive content thatsoluble in alcohol-benzene; lignin; holocellulose; and α-cellulose of this branch-wood were 2.46; 28.71; 80.64; and 50.47%, respectively. The overall assessment implied that the branch-wood portion of S.amazonicum tree affords favorable potential to be developed as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture. Also, considering that both sengon and mangium woods were already used in the pulp and paper industries as well as the trees are

  8. Asymptotic Properties of the Number of Matching Coalescent Histories for Caterpillar-Like Families of Species Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-01-01

    Coalescent histories provide lists of species tree branches on which gene tree coalescences can take place, and their enumerative properties assist in understanding the computational complexity of calculations central in the study of gene trees and species trees. Here, we solve an enumerative problem left open by Rosenberg (IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 10: 1253-1262, 2013) concerning the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees with a matching labeled topology that belongs to a generic caterpillar-like family. By bringing a generating function approach to the study of coalescent histories, we prove that for any caterpillar-like family with seed tree t , the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 describing the number of matching coalescent histories of the n th tree of the family grows asymptotically as a constant multiple of the Catalan numbers. Thus, h n  ∼ β t c n , where the asymptotic constant β t > 0 depends on the shape of the seed tree t. The result extends a claim demonstrated only for seed trees with at most eight taxa to arbitrary seed trees, expanding the set of cases for which detailed enumerative properties of coalescent histories can be determined. We introduce a procedure that computes from t the constant β t as well as the algebraic expression for the generating function of the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 .

  9. Foxp3(+) T cells regulate immunoglobulin a selection and facilitate diversification of bacterial species responsible for immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Kato, Lucia M; Suda, Wataru; Atarashi, Koji; Doi, Yasuko; Tsutsui, Yumi; Qin, Hongyan; Honda, Kenya; Okada, Takaharu; Hattori, Masahira; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-17

    Foxp3(+) T cells play a critical role for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Here we show that in mice, Foxp3(+) T cells contributed to diversification of gut microbiota, particularly of species belonging to Firmicutes. The control of indigenous bacteria by Foxp3(+) T cells involved regulatory functions both outside and inside germinal centers (GCs), consisting of suppression of inflammation and regulation of immunoglobulin A (IgA) selection in Peyer's patches, respectively. Diversified and selected IgAs contributed to maintenance of diversified and balanced microbiota, which in turn facilitated the expansion of Foxp3(+) T cells, induction of GCs, and IgA responses in the gut through a symbiotic regulatory loop. Thus, the adaptive immune system, through cellular and molecular components that are required for immune tolerance and through the diversification as well as selection of antibody repertoire, mediates host-microbial symbiosis by controlling the richness and balance of bacterial communities required for homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16.10years [SD=1.6]; 26.61% White, 21.98% Asian/Pacific Islander, 29.82% Hispanic, and 21.59% other). Results indicated that 19.05% of participants believed smoke from e-cigarettes is water; 23.03% believed e-cigarettes aren't a tobacco product; 40.36% considered e-cigarettes to be for cessation, and 43.13% felt they were safer than cigarettes. Participants felt it was more acceptable to use e-cigarettes indoors and outdoors compared to cigarettes (pe-cigarette taxes is a bad idea, 63.95% thought e-cigarettes were easier to get than cigarettes, 54.42% felt e-cigarettes cost too much, 64.33% felt the age for buying e-cigarettes should be raised, and 64.37% favored e-cigarette regulation. Adolescents who used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes had significantly more favorable e-cigarette attitudes than non-users. This study indicates that adolescents are aware of some of the risks of e-cigarettes, although many harbor misperceptions and hold more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Of concern is the relationship between favorable e-cigarette attitudes and use. Findings suggest the need to provide adolescents with correct information about e-cigarette ingredients, risks, and the insufficient evidence of their role in cigarette cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inter-species investigation of the mechano-regulation of bone healing: comparison of secondary bone healing in sheep and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Sara; Prendergast, Patrick J; Duda, Georg N

    2011-04-29

    Inter-species differences in regeneration exist in various levels. One aspect is the dynamics of bone regeneration and healing, e.g. small animals show a faster healing response when compared to large animals. Mechanical as well as biological factors are known to play a key role in the process. However, it remains so far unknown whether different animals follow at all comparable mechano-biological rules during tissue regeneration, and in particular during bone healing. In this study, we investigated whether differences observed in vivo in the dynamics of bone healing between rat and sheep are only due to differences in the animal size or whether these animals have a different mechano-biological response during the healing process. Histological sections from in vivo experiments were compared to in silico predictions of a mechano-biological computer model for the simulation of bone healing. Investigations showed that the healing processes in both animal models occur under significantly different levels of mechanical stimuli within the callus region, which could explain histological observations of early intramembranous ossification at the endosteal side. A species-specific adaptation of a mechano-biological model allowed a qualitative match of model predictions with histological observations. Specifically, when keeping cell activity processes at the same rate, the amount of tissue straining defining favorable mechanical conditions for the formation of bone had to be increased in the large animal model, with respect to the small animal, to achieve a qualitative agreement of model predictions with histological data. These findings illustrate that geometrical (size) differences alone cannot explain the distinctions seen in the histological appearance of secondary bone healing in sheep and rat. It can be stated that significant differences in the mechano-biological regulation of the healing process exist between these species. Future investigations should aim towards

  12. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  13. Antioxidant properties of species from the Brazilian cerrado by different assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1 in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

  14. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    Weight, volume, and physical properties of trees 1 to 20 inches d.b.h.were determined for red maple, sweetgum, sycamore, yellow-poplar, elm, hickory, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oak in the Piedmont of the Southeastern United States. A total of 772 trees were destructively sampled at 16 locations from Viryinia to Alabama. Hard hardwoods, soft...

  15. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  16. Spectroscopic Properties of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Technetium-99 (Tc) exists predominately in soluble forms in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, attempts to remove Tc from the Hanford tank waste using ion-exchange processes specific to TcO4- only met with limited success, particularly processing tank waste samples containing elevated concentrations of organic complexants. This suggests that a significant fraction of the soluble Tc can be present as non-pertechnetate low-valent Tc (oxidation state < +7) (non-pertechnetate). The chemical identities of these non-pertechnetate species are poorly understood. Previous analysis of the SY-101 and SY-103 tank waste samples provided strong evidence that non-pertechnetate can be comprised of [Tc(CO)3]+ complexes containing Tc in oxidation state +1 (Lukens et al. 2004). During the last two years, our team has expanded this work and demonstrated that high-ionic-strength solutions typifying tank waste supernatants promote oxidative stability of the [Tc(CO)3]+ species (Rapko et al. 2013; Levitskaia et al. 2014). It also was observed that high-ionic-strength alkaline matrices stabilize Tc(VI) and potentially Tc(IV) oxidation states, particularly in presence organic chelators, suggesting that the relevant Tc compounds can serve as important redox intermediates facilitating the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(I). Designing strategies for effective Tc processing, including separation and immobilization, necessitates understanding the molecular structure of these non-pertechnetate species and their identification in the actual tank waste samples. To-date, only limited information exists regarding the nature and characterization of the Tc(I), Tc(IV), and Tc(VI) species. One objective of this project is to

  17. Effect of tree species and soil properties on nutrient immobilization in the forest floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Vejre, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in the soil solution was much higher at the loamy site under all species showing a stronger microbial activity. It is therefore hypothesized that the differences in accumulation rates were, at least partly, caused by differences in the mineralization regimes. Strong root...... infiltration in the forest floors at the sandy site compared to almost none at the loamy site, is probably responsible for the differences in mineralization rate due to competition between the organic matter decomposers and the tree-roots/mycorrhiza for nutrients. Author Keywords: EFFECTS OF ROOTS; NUTRIENT...

  18. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for an 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui

    1990-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are reviewed and supplemented for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium up to temperatures of 3000 K. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Curve fits are given for the various species properties for their efficient computation in flowfield codes. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in a high energy environment. Limitations of the approximate mixing laws are discussed for a mixture of ionized species. An electron number-density correction for the transport properties of the charged species is obtained. This correction has been generally ignored in the literature.

  19. Alleviation of reactive oxygen species enhances PUFA accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. through regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular heterotrophic thraustochytrids are attractive candidates for commercial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA production. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in their aerobic fermentation process often limits their PUFA titer. Yet, the specific mechanisms of ROS involvement in the crosstalk between oxidative stress and intracellular lipid synthesis remain poorly described. Metabolic engineering to improve the PUFA yield in thraustochytrids without compromising growth is an important aspect of economic feasibility. To fill this gap, we overexpressed the antioxidative gene superoxide dismutase (SOD1 by integrating it into the genome of thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 using a novel genetic transformation system. This study reports the ROS alleviation, enhanced PUFA production and transcriptome changes resulting from the SOD1 overexpression. SOD1 activity in the recombinant improved by 5.2–71.6% along with 7.8–38.5% decline in ROS during the fermentation process. Interestingly, the total antioxidant capacity in the recombinant remained higher than wild-type and above zero in the entire process. Although lipid profile was similar to that of wild-type, the concentrations of major fatty acids in the recombinant were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher. The PUFA titer increased up to 1232 ± 41 mg/L, which was 32.9% higher (p ≤ 0.001 than the wild type. Transcriptome analysis revealed strong downregulation of genes potentially involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisome and upregulation of genes catalyzing lipid biosynthesis. Our results enrich the knowledge on stress-induced PUFA biosynthesis and the putative role of ROS in the regulation of lipid metabolism in oleaginous thraustochytrids. This study provides a new and alternate strategy for cost-effective industrial fermentation of PUFA. Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Schizochytrium sp., Superoxide dismutase, Transgene

  20. Combining Human Epigenetics and Sleep Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans: A Cross-Species Approach for Finding Conserved Genes Regulating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyan; Zhu, Yong; Eliot, Melissa N; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Carskadon, Mary A; Hart, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test a combined approach to identify conserved genes regulating sleep and to explore the association between DNA methylation and sleep length. We identified candidate genes associated with shorter versus longer sleep duration in college students based on DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Orthologous genes in Caenorhabditis elegans were identified, and we examined whether their loss of function affected C. elegans sleep. For genes whose perturbation affected C. elegans sleep, we subsequently undertook a small pilot study to re-examine DNA methylation in an independent set of human participants with shorter versus longer sleep durations. Eighty-seven out of 485,577 CpG sites had significant differential methylation in young adults with shorter versus longer sleep duration, corresponding to 52 candidate genes. We identified 34 C. elegans orthologs, including NPY/flp-18 and flp-21, which are known to affect sleep. Loss of five additional genes alters developmentally timed C. elegans sleep (B4GALT6/bre-4, DOCK180/ced-5, GNB2L1/rack-1, PTPRN2/ida-1, ZFYVE28/lst-2). For one of these genes, ZFYVE28 (also known as hLst2), the pilot replication study again found decreased DNA methylation associated with shorter sleep duration at the same two CpG sites in the first intron of ZFYVE28. Using an approach that combines human epigenetics and C. elegans sleep studies, we identified five genes that play previously unidentified roles in C. elegans sleep. We suggest sleep duration in humans may be associated with differential DNA methylation at specific sites and that the conserved genes identified here likely play roles in C. elegans sleep and in other species. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ebselen exerts antifungal activity by regulating glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamani, Shankar; Eldesouky, Hassan E; Mohammad, Haroon; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Avramova, Larisa; Hazbun, Tony R; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-01-01

    Ebselen, an organoselenium compound and a clinically safe molecule has been reported to possess potent antifungal activity, but its antifungal mechanism of action and in vivo antifungal activity remain unclear. The antifungal effect of ebselen was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and C. gattii clinical isolates. Chemogenomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify the antifungal target of ebselen. Ebselen's antifungal activity in vivo was investigated in a Caenorhabditis elegans animal model. Ebselen exhibits potent antifungal activity against both Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp., at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2μg/ml. Ebselen rapidly eradicates a high fungal inoculum within 2h of treatment. Investigation of the drug's antifungal mechanism of action indicates that ebselen depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby disturbs the redox homeostasis in fungal cells. Examination of ebselen's in vivo antifungal activity in two Caenorhabditis elegans models of infection demonstrate that ebselen is superior to conventional antifungal drugs (fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin) in reducing Candida and Cryptococcus fungal load. Ebselen possesses potent antifungal activity against clinically relevant isolates of both Candida and Cryptococcus by regulating GSH and ROS production. The potent in vivo antifungal activity of ebselen supports further investigation for repurposing it for use as an antifungal agent. The present study shows that ebselen targets glutathione and also support that glutathione as a potential target for antifungal drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  3. Assessing Morphological and Physiological Properties of Forest Species Using High Throughput Plant Phenotyping and Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, A.; Hiller, J.; Morgan, P.; Awada, T.; Stoerger, V.

    2017-12-01

    High throughput plant phenotyping is increasingly being used to assess morphological and biophysical traits of economically important crops in agriculture. In this study, the potential application of this technique in natural resources management, through the characterization of woody plants regeneration, establishment, growth, and responses to water and nutrient manipulations was assessed. Two woody species were selected for this study, Quercus prinoides and Quercus bicolor. Seeds were collected from trees growing at the edge of their natural distribution in Nebraska and Missouri, USA. Seeds were germinated in the greenhouse and transferred to the Nebraska Innovation Campus Lemnatec3D High Throughput facility at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Seedlings subjected to water and N manipulations, were imaged twice or three times a week using four cameras (Visible, Fluorescence, Infrared and Hyperspectral), throughout the growing season. Traditional leaf to plant levels ecophysiological measurements were concurrently acquired to assess the relationship between these two techniques. These include gas exchange (LI 6400 and LI 6800, LICOR Inc., Lincoln NE), chlorophyll content, optical characteristics (Ocean Optics USB200), water and osmotic potentials, leaf area and weight and carbon isotope ratio. In the presentation, we highlight results on the potential use of high throughput plant phenotyping techniques to assess the morphology and physiology of woody species including responses to water availability and nutrient manipulation, and its broader application under field conditions and natural resources management. Also, we explore the different capabilities imaging provides us for modeling the plant physiological and morphological growth and how it can complement the current techniques

  4. Chemistry and functional properties in prevention of neurodegenerative disorders of five Cistus species essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2013-09-01

    The chemical composition of Cistus creticus, Cistus salvifolius, Cistus libanotis, Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus villosus essential oils has been examined by GC and GC-MS analysis. Height-nine constituents were identified in C. salvifolius oil, sixty in C. creticus, fifty-six in C. libanotis, fifty-four in C. villosus, forty-five in C. monspeliensis. Although the five species belong to the same genus, the composition showed interesting differences. Essential oils were screened also for their potential antioxidant effects (by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching test) and their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity, useful for prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. C. monspeliensis exhibited the most promising activity in β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ of 54.7 μg/mL). In FRAP test C. libanotis showed a value of 19.2 μM Fe(II)/g. C. salvifolius showed the highest activity against AChE (IC₅₀ of 58.1 μg/mL) while C. libanotis, C. creticus, C. salvifolius demonstrated a good inhibitory activity against BChE with IC₅₀ values of 23.7, 29.1 and 34.2 μg/mL, respectively. Overall our results could promote the use of the essential oil of different Cistus species as food additives and for formulation of herbal infusion or nutraceutical products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive characterisation of atmospheric aerosols in Budapest, Hungary: physicochemical properties of inorganic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Imre; Maenhaut, Willy; Zemplén-Papp, Éva; Záray, Gyula

    As part of an air pollution project in Budapest, aerosol samples were collected by stacked filter units and cascade impactors at an urban background site, two downtown sites, and within a road tunnel in field campaigns conducted in 1996, 1998 and 1999. Some criteria pollutants were also measured at one of the downtown sites. The aerosol samples were analysed by one or more of the following methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission analysis, a light reflection technique, gravimetry, thermal profiling carbon analysis and capillary electrophoresis. The quantities measured or derived include atmospheric concentrations of elements (from Na to U), of particulate matter, of black and elemental carbon, and total carbonaceous fraction, of some ionic species (e.g., nitrate and sulphate) in the fine ( EAD) or in both coarse (10- 2 μm EAD) and fine size fractions, atmospheric concentrations of NO, NO 2, SO 2, CO and total suspended particulate matter, and meteorological parameters. The analytical results were used for characterisation of the concentration levels, elemental composition, time trends, enrichment of and relationships among the aerosol species in coarse and fine size fractions, for studying their fine-to-coarse concentration ratios, spatial and temporal variability, for determining detailed elemental mass size distributions, and for examining the extent of chemical mass closure.

  6. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property. Government property includes both Government... to the Plant Clearance Officer. (l) FAR 52.245-9(d) requires a contractor to identify the property...; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  7. Recovery of soil physical properties by green manure, liming, gypsum and pasture and spontaneous native species¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Santos Batista Bonini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate usage can degrade natural resources, particularly soils. More attention has been paid to practices aiming at the recovery of degraded soils in the last years, e.g, the use of organic fertilizers, liming and introduction of species adapted to adverse conditions. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the recovery of physical properties of a Red Latosol (Oxisol degraded by the construction of a hydroelectric power station. In the study area, a soil layer about 8m thick had been withdrawn by heavy machines leading not only to soil compaction, but resulting in high-degree degradation. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with nine treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of: 1- soil mobilization by tilling (to ensure the effect of mechanical mobilization in all treatments without planting, but growth of spontaneous vegetation; 2- Black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy; 3- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. DC; 4- Liming + black velvet bean; 5-Liming + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis; 6- Liming + gypsum + black velvet bean; 7- Liming + gypsum + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean; and two controls as reference: 8- Native Cerrado vegetation and 9- bare soil (no tilling and no planting, left under natural conditions and in this situation, without spontaneous vegetation. In treatments 1 through 7, the soil was tilled. Treatments were installed in 1992 and left unmanaged for seven years, until brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens was planted in all plots in 1999. Seventeen years after implantation, the properties soil macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, bulk density and aggregate stability were assessed in the previously described treatments in the soil layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, and soil Penetration Resistance and soil moisture in 0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. The plants were evaluated for: brachiaria

  8. Integrating effects of species composition and soil properties to predict shifts in montane forest carbon-water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Toby M; Silva, Lucas C R; Horwath, William R

    2018-05-01

    This study was designed to address a major source of uncertainty pertaining to coupled carbon-water cycles in montane forest ecosystems. The Sierra Nevada of California was used as a model system to investigate connections between the physiological performance of trees and landscape patterns of forest carbon and water use. The intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE)-an index of CO 2 fixed per unit of potential water lost via transpiration-of nine dominant species was determined in replicated transects along an ∼1,500-m elevation gradient, spanning a broad range of climatic conditions and soils derived from three different parent materials. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen measured at the leaf level were combined with field-based and remotely sensed metrics of stand productivity, revealing that variation in iWUE depends primarily on leaf traits (∼24% of the variability), followed by stand productivity (∼16% of the variability), climatic regime (∼13% of the variability), and soil development (∼12% of the variability). Significant interactions between species composition and soil properties proved useful to predict changes in forest carbon-water relations. On the basis of observed shifts in tree species composition, ongoing since the 1950s and intensified in recent years, an increase in water loss through transpiration (ranging from 10 to 60% depending on parent material) is now expected in mixed conifer forests throughout the region. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Sando, Richard; Lewis, Tommy L; Hirabayashi, Yusuke; Maximov, Anton; Polleux, Franck

    2016-07-01

    Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance.

  10. Functional significance of O-GlcNAc modification in regulating neuronal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hongik; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2018-03-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) covalently modify proteins and diversify protein functions. Along with protein phosphorylation, another common PTM is the addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and/or threonine residues. O-GlcNAc modification is similar to phosphorylation in that it occurs to serine and threonine residues and cycles on and off with a similar time scale. However, a striking difference is that the addition and removal of the O-GlcNAc moiety on all substrates are mediated by the two enzymes regardless of proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. O-GlcNAcylation can interact or potentially compete with phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues, and thus serves as an important molecular mechanism to modulate protein functions and activation. However, it has been challenging to address the role of O-GlcNAc modification in regulating protein functions at the molecular level due to the lack of convenient tools to determine the sites and degrees of O-GlcNAcylation. Studies in this field have only begun to expand significantly thanks to the recent advances in detection and manipulation methods such as quantitative proteomics and highly selective small-molecule inhibitors for OGT and OGA. Interestingly, multiple brain regions, especially hippocampus, express high levels of both OGT and OGA, and a number of neuron-specific proteins have been reported to undergo O-GlcNAcylation. This review aims to discuss the recent updates concerning the impacts of O-GlcNAc modification on neuronal functions at multiple levels ranging from intrinsic neuronal properties to synaptic plasticity and animal behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial estimation of foliar phosphorus in different species of the genus Coffea based on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Assis Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information underlying analyses of coffee fertilization systems should consider both the soil and the nutritional status of plants. This study investigated the spatial relationship between phosphorus (P levels in coffee plant tissues and soil chemical and physical properties. The study was performed using two arabica and one canephora coffee variety. Sampling grids were established in the areas, and the points georeferenced. The assessed properties of the soil were levels of available phosphorus (P-Mehlich, remaining phosphorus (P-rem and particle size, and of the plant tissue, phosphorus levels (foliar P. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and probability tests. Geostatistical and trend analyses were only performed for pairs of variables with significant linear correlation. The spatial variability for foliar P content was high for the variety Catuai and medium for the other evaluated plants. Unlike P-Mehlich, the variability in P-rem of the soil indicated the nutritional status of this nutrient in the plant.

  12. Stiff mutant genes of Phycomyces target turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. E. Ortega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses. Stiff mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least four genes; madD, madE, madF and madG. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the growth zone. Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type. A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (- and C216 geo- (-. Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible deformation rates of the wall within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to wild type. These findings explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores and suggest that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner

  13. Relationships between respiration, chemical and microbial properties of afforested mine soils with different soil texture and tree species: Does the time of incubation matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Józefowska, A.; Pietrzykowski, M.; Woś, B.; Cajthaml, T.; Frouz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, May (2017), s. 102-109 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : afforested mine soils * soil texture * tree species * chemical properties * microbial properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2016

  14. 76 FR 6003 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b) Use the clause at 252.245-7001, Tagging...

  15. Emergent properties of gene evolution: Species as attractors in phenotypic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Eli; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    The question how the observed discrete character of the phenotype emerges from a continuous genetic distance metrics is the core argument of two contrasted evolutionary theories: punctuated equilibrium (stable evolution scattered with saltations in the phenotype) and phyletic gradualism (smooth and linear evolution of the phenotype). Identifying phenotypic saltation on the molecular levels is critical to support the first model of evolution. We have used DNA sequences of ∼1300 genes from 6 isolated populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that while the equivalent measure of the genetic distance show a continuum between lineage distance with no evidence of discrete states, the phenotypic space illustrates only two (discrete) possible states that can be associated with a saltation of the species phenotype. The fact that such saltation spans large fraction of the genome and follows by continuous genetic distance is a proof of the concept that the genotype-phenotype relation is not univocal and may have severe implication when looking for disease related genes and mutations. We used this finding with analogy to attractor-like dynamics and show that punctuated equilibrium could be explained in the framework of non-linear dynamics systems.

  16. Ornithine Decarboxylase-Mediated Production of Putrescine Influences Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Gao; Tian, Jia-Long; Liu, Rui; Cao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Tian-Jun; Ren, Ang; Shi, Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-10-15

    Putrescine is an important polyamine that participates in a variety of stress responses. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of putrescine. A homolog of the gene encoding ODC was cloned from Ganoderma lucidum In the ODC -silenced strains, the transcript levels of the ODC gene and the putrescine content were significantly decreased. The ODC -silenced strains were more sensitive to oxidative stress. The content of ganoderic acid was increased by approximately 43 to 46% in the ODC -silenced strains. The content of ganoderic acid could be recovered after the addition of exogenous putrescine. Additionally, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly increased by approximately 1.3-fold in the ODC -silenced strains. The ROS content was significantly reduced after the addition of exogenous putrescine. The gene transcript levels and the activities of four major antioxidant enzymes were measured to further explore the effect of putrescine on the intracellular ROS levels. Further studies showed that the effect of the ODC-mediated production of putrescine on ROS might be a factor influencing the biosynthesis of ganoderic acid. Our study reports the role of putrescine in large basidiomycetes, providing a basis for future studies of the physiological functions of putrescine in microbes. IMPORTANCE It is well known that ODC and the ODC-mediated production of putrescine play an important role in resisting various environmental stresses, but there are few reports regarding the mechanisms underlying the effect of putrescine on secondary metabolism in microorganisms, particularly in fungi. G. lucidum is gradually becoming a model organism for studying environmental regulation and metabolism. In this study, a homolog of the gene encoding ODC was cloned in Ganoderma lucidum We found that the transcript level of the ODC gene and the content of putrescine were significantly decreased in the ODC -silenced strains. The content of

  17. 75 FR 75444 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.245-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b... Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property. As prescribed in 245.107(a), use the following...

  18. The development, factor structure and psychometric properties of driving self-regulation scales for older adults: Has self-regulation evolved in the last 15 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ides Y; Smith, Simon S; Sullivan, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    The term driving self-regulation is typically used to describe the practice of drivers who avoid driving in situations that they regard as unsafe because of perceived physical impairment. Older adults report using this strategy to improve safety while retaining mobility. Self-regulation is typically assessed using the driving avoidance items from the driving habits questionnaire (DHQ) and the driver mobility questionnaire (DMQ-A). However, the psychometric properties of these measures are not well understood. Using data from 277 older drivers, exploratory factor analysis was used to test the homogeneity of three driving self-regulation scales: the DHQ, DMQ-A, and an extended DMQ-A. Good internal consistency for each of the scales was identified (all αs≥.9). A one factor solution was identified for two of the measures (DHQ, DMQ-A) and a two factor solution accounting for over 70% of the score variance was identified for the third measure. The two factors assessed situations that may be avoided while driving because of the "external" (e.g., weather-related) or "internal" (e.g., passenger-related) driving environments, respectively. The findings suggest that the interpretation of an overall summated scale score, or single-item interpretations, may not be appropriate. Instead, driving self-regulation may be a multifaceted construct comprised of distinct dimensions that have not been identified previously but can be reliably measured. These data have implications for our understanding of driving self-regulation by older adults and the way in which this behavior is measured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytochemical Screening: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Potamogeton Species in Order to Obtain Valuable Feed Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoae, Paul; Cristea, Victor; Borda, Daniela; Lupoae, Mariana; Gurau, Gabriela; Dinica, Rodica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The alcoholic extracts from three submerged perennial plants Potamogeton crispus L., P. pusillus L. and P. pectinatus L. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC/MS) and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their volatile fingerprint and polyphenols composition was mutually compared. Twenty-nine chemical compounds were detected and identified in ethanolic and methanolic extracts; the highest abundance (over 5%) in descending order, was detected for 9,9-dimethyl-8,10- dioxapentacyclo (5,3,0(2,5) 0(3,5,)0 (3,6) decane (21.65%), phenol 2,6 bis (1,1 dimethyletyl) 4-1-methylpropil (20.8%), pentadecanoic acid (14.3%), 2-(5-chloro-2-Methoxyphenyl) pyrrole (8.66%), propanedioic (malonic) acid 2-(4-methylphenyl) sulfonyl ethylidene (5.77%), 2 hydroxy-3 tert butyl-5-isopropyl-6 methyl phenyl ketone (5.76%). The highest total polyphenols and flavonoids content was found in the methanolic extract of P. crispus (112.5±0.5 mg tannic acid/g dry extract; 64.2±1.2 mg quercitin/g dry extract). Antioxidant activities (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil, hydrogen peroxide and reducing power assays) of obtained extracts are comparable with the standard compounds, butylated hydroxytoluene, rutin and ascorbic acid. Antibacterial efficiency of methanolic extracts was notably demonstrated against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter hormaechei) and Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus casseliflavus). The data reported for the first time for Romanian Potamogeton species, provides extensive support for the chemical investigations of these plants of the aquatic anthropogene ecosystems in order to obtain valuable bioadditives for animal feed and/or pharmaceutical/food industry.

  20. Biomimetic chromatographic analysis of selenium species: Application for the estimation of their pharmacokinetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsopelas, Fotios [National Technical University of Athens, Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece); University of Athens, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Athens (Greece); Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna [University of Athens, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Athens (Greece); Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The retention behavior of selenites, selenates, seleno-dl-methionine, selenocystine, selenocystamine, selenourea, dimethyl selenide, and dimethyl diselenide was investigated by means of biomimetic liquid chromatography. For this purpose, two immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) columns, namely, IAM.PC.DD2 and IAM.PC.MG, and two immobilized plasma protein columns, human serum albumin (HSA) and {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein (AGP) columns, were employed using different mobile phase conditions in respect to pH and buffer composition. In general, satisfactory interrelations between retention factors obtained with the two IAM stationary phases and HSA/AGP columns were obtained. Large differences were observed between biomimetic retention factors and octanol-water logD values, since the latter fail to describe electrostatic interactions. In contrast, despite the column diversity, the net retention outcome on all four biomimetic columns was quite similar, especially in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline, which by its effective shielding alleviates the differences between the stationary phases. Of the two IAM columns, IAM.PC.DD2 showed better performance when compared with HSA and AGP columns as well as to octanol-water partitioning. Biomimetic chromatographic indices were further used to estimate the percentage of human oral absorption and plasma protein binding of the eight selenium species investigated, according to equations previously reported in the literature. The estimated values of human oral absorption imply moderate absorption only for dimethyl diselenide, which also may exhibit considerable plasma protein binding. Moderate affinity for plasma proteins should also be expected for dimethyl selenide and selenocystamine. (orig.)

  1. Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elsayed Edriss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas. Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz., Solenostemma argel “Hargel” (seeds and leaves and Calotropis procera “Usher” (leaves and flowers, as natural larvicides against An. arabiensis. The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. argel seemed to be the richest one. Hence, S. argel extracts caused higher larval mortalities than those of C. procera. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. argel extracts exerted the highest knockdown effect (90% mortality after 24 h, which were comparable with those obtained by two standard insecticides. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter. However, S. argel seed petroleum ether extract at 0.5% was the most effective of all botanicals up to three weeks of exposure. This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide.

  2. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Properties of Two Afromomum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Olasehinde, Tosin Abiola; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the antioxidant, antidiabetic and antihypertensive effects of essential oils from A. melegueta and A. danielli seeds. The essential oils were extracted via hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antioxidant properties and inhibition of some pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas and heart homogenates were also determined. The results revealed that eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpineol, α-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant components in A. melegueta and A. danielli seeds. The essential oils inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme in vitro. A.melegueta oil showed a higher α-amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activities with EC 50 values of 139.00 µL/mL and 91.83 µL/mL respectively than A. danielli. However, A. danielli oil (EC 50 = 48.73 µL/mL) showed the highest ACE inhibitory acivity. The highest NO radical scavenging ability was observed in A. melegueta oil while A. danielli had the highest OH radical scavenging and Fe 2+ - chelating ability. Furthermore, both essential oils inhibited SNP and Fe 2+ - induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas and heart respectively in a dose dependent manner. This study reveals the biochemical principle by which essential oils from A. danielli and A.melegueta seed elicits their therapeutic effects on type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Lasa-Aristu, Amaia; Amor, Pedro J.; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-S), originally developed by Garnefski, Kraaij, and Spinhoven. To date, it is the only available instrument that permits a conceptually pure quantification of cognitive strategies of emotional regulation. A sample of 615 students (25…

  4. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law... respects and follows the policies and laws regarding worker labor protections particularly as they [[Page...

  5. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that...

  6. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations... objectives, this proposed rule adds a subpart and clause entitled Labor Law Violations to the Agriculture...

  7. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene:Effects of nitrogen species on the properties of the vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Lang; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhen; Shen, Junxi

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (NGS), prepared by a simple hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with urea as nitrogen source were studied as positive electrodes in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The synthesized NGS with the nitrogen level as high as 10.12 atom% is proven to be a promising material for VRFB. The structures and electrochemical properties of the materials are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that not only the nitrogen doping level but the nitrogen type in the NGS are significant for its catalytic activity towards the [VO] 2+ /[VO 2 ] + redox couple reaction. In more detail, among four types of nitrogen species (pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N, quaternary-N, oxidic-N) doped into the graphene lattice, quaternary-N play mainly roles for improving the catalytic activity toward the [VO] 2+ /[VO 2 ] + couple reaction

  8. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source. PMID:26690454

  9. Can biosecurity and local network properties predict pathogen species richness in the salmonid industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J.; Geoghegan, Fiona; McManus, Catherine; Hill, Ashley E.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Salmonid farming in Ireland is mostly organic, which implies limited disease treatment options. This highlights the importance of biosecurity for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Similarly, the effect of local network properties on infection spread processes has rarely been evaluated. In this paper, we characterized the biosecurity of salmonid farms in Ireland using a survey, and then developed a score for benchmarking the disease risk of salmonid farms. The usefulness and validity of this score, together with farm indegree (dichotomized as ≤ 1 or > 1), were assessed through generalized Poisson regression models, in which the modeled outcome was pathogen richness, defined here as the number of different diseases affecting a farm during a year. Seawater salmon (SW salmon) farms had the highest biosecurity scores with a median (interquartile range) of 82.3 (5.4), followed by freshwater salmon (FW salmon) with 75.2 (8.2), and freshwater trout (FW trout) farms with 74.8 (4.5). For FW salmon and trout farms, the top ranked model (in terms of leave-one-out information criteria, looic) was the null model (looic = 46.1). For SW salmon farms, the best ranking model was the full model with both predictors and their interaction (looic = 33.3). Farms with a higher biosecurity score were associated with lower pathogen richness, and farms with indegree > 1 (i.e. more than one fish supplier) were associated with increased pathogen richness. The effect of the interaction between these variables was also important, showing an antagonistic effect. This would indicate that biosecurity effectiveness is achieved through a broader perspective on the subject, which includes a minimization in the number of suppliers and hence in the possibilities for infection to enter a farm. The work presented here could be used to elaborate indicators of a farm’s disease risk based on its biosecurity score and indegree, to inform risk-based disease surveillance and

  10. Can biosecurity and local network properties predict pathogen species richness in the salmonid industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaishi Yatabe

    Full Text Available Salmonid farming in Ireland is mostly organic, which implies limited disease treatment options. This highlights the importance of biosecurity for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Similarly, the effect of local network properties on infection spread processes has rarely been evaluated. In this paper, we characterized the biosecurity of salmonid farms in Ireland using a survey, and then developed a score for benchmarking the disease risk of salmonid farms. The usefulness and validity of this score, together with farm indegree (dichotomized as ≤ 1 or > 1, were assessed through generalized Poisson regression models, in which the modeled outcome was pathogen richness, defined here as the number of different diseases affecting a farm during a year. Seawater salmon (SW salmon farms had the highest biosecurity scores with a median (interquartile range of 82.3 (5.4, followed by freshwater salmon (FW salmon with 75.2 (8.2, and freshwater trout (FW trout farms with 74.8 (4.5. For FW salmon and trout farms, the top ranked model (in terms of leave-one-out information criteria, looic was the null model (looic = 46.1. For SW salmon farms, the best ranking model was the full model with both predictors and their interaction (looic = 33.3. Farms with a higher biosecurity score were associated with lower pathogen richness, and farms with indegree > 1 (i.e. more than one fish supplier were associated with increased pathogen richness. The effect of the interaction between these variables was also important, showing an antagonistic effect. This would indicate that biosecurity effectiveness is achieved through a broader perspective on the subject, which includes a minimization in the number of suppliers and hence in the possibilities for infection to enter a farm. The work presented here could be used to elaborate indicators of a farm's disease risk based on its biosecurity score and indegree, to inform risk-based disease surveillance and

  11. Transcriptional Regulations on the Low-Temperature-Induced Floral Transition in an Orchidaceae Species, Dendrobium nobile: An Expressed Sequence Tags Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernalization-induced flowering is a cold-relevant adaptation in many species, but little is known about the genetic basis behind in Orchidaceae species. Here, we reported a collection of 15017 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the vernalized axillary buds of an Orchidaceae species, Dendrobium nobile, which were assembled for 9616 unique gene clusters. Functional enrichment analysis showed that genes in relation to the responses to stresses, especially in the form of low temperatures, and those involving in protein biosynthesis and chromatin assembly were significantly overrepresented during 40 days of vernalization. Additionally, a total of 59 putative flowering-relevant genes were recognized, including those homologous to known key players in vernalization pathways in temperate cereals or Arabidopsis, such as cereal VRN1, FT/VRN3, and Arabidopsis AGL19. Results from this study suggest that the networks regulating vernalization-induced floral transition are conserved, but just in a part, in D. nobile, temperate cereals, and Arabidopsis.

  12. 26 CFR 1.927(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of export property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... commercial or home use), goodwill, trademark, tradebrand, franchise, or other like property. Although a... and future technologies. For example, petroleum coke, although not derived from the destructive...

  13. Morphology, Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Biomass Particles/High Density Polyethylene Composites: Effect of Species and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binshan Mu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of four types of biomass particles, including hardwood (poplar, softwood (radiata pine, crop (wheat straw and bamboo (moso bamboo, as reinforcing fillers in preparing high density polyethylene (HDPE based composites was studied. To improve interfacial compatibility, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE was applied as the coupling agent. The effects of the biomass species on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the resulting composites were evaluated based on chemical composition analysis. A creep-recovery test was conducted in single cantilever mode using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Results show that the four types of biomass particles had similar chemical compositions but different composition contents. Poplar particles with high cellulose content loading in the HDPE matrix exhibited higher tensile and flexure properties and creep resistance. Fracture morphology analysis indicated a weak particle-matrix interface in wheat straw based composites. Given the high crystallinity and minimum hemicellulose content, the moso bamboo reinforced composite showed high impact strength and better water resistance.

  14. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  15. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 74-Rules and Regulations Governing Conduct on Federal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from— (a) Being under the influence, using or possessing any narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines. Alcoholic... the GSA Regional Administrator, which will have the same force and effect as these regulations; (e...

  16. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of hyaluronidases from two species of lionfish (Pterois antennata and Pterois volitans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriake, Aya; Madokoro, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    Lionfish are representative venomous fish, having venomous glandular tissues in dorsal, pelvic and anal spines. Some properties and primary structures of proteinaceous toxins from the venoms of three species of lionfish, Pterois antennata, Pterois lunulata and Pterois volitans, have so far been clarified. Our recent survey established the presence of hyaluronidase, presumably a toxin-spreading factor, in the venoms of P. antennata and P. volitans. This prompted us to examine enzymatic properties and primary structures of lionfish hyaluronidases. The hyaluronidases of P. antennata and P. volitans were shown to be optimally active at pH 6.6, 37°C and 0.1 M NaCl and specifically active against hyaluronan. These enzymatic properties are almost the same as those of stonefish hyaluronidases. The primary structures (483 amino acid residues) of the lionfish hyaluronidases were elucidated by a cDNA cloning strategy using degenerate primers designed from the reported amino acid sequences of the stonefish hyaluronidases. Both lionfish hyaluronidases share as high as 99.6% of sequence identity with each other and also considerably high identities (72-77%) with the stonefish hyaluronidases but rather low identities (25-40%) with other hyaluronidases from mammals and venomous animals. In consistent with this, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the lionfish hyaluronidases, together with the stonefish hyaluronidases, form a cluster independently of other hyaluronidases. Nevertheless, the lionfish hyaluronidases as well as the stonefish hyaluronidases almost maintain structural features (active site, glyco_hydro_56 domain and cysteine location) observed in other hyaluronidases.

  17. Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hua, Rui-Xi; Du, Yi-Qun; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yu Fang; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2016-09-27

    Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor and be down-regulated in several human cancers including gastric cancer. It was also found that Mel-18 negatively regulates self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to clarify its role in gastric CSCs and explore the mechanisms. We found that low-expression of Mel-18 was correlated with poor prognosis and negatively correlated with overexpression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Gli1 in 101 gastric cancer tissues. Mel-18 was down-regulated in cultured spheroid cells, which possess CSCs, and overexpression of Mel-18 inhibits cells sphere-forming ability and tumor growth in vivo. Besides, Mel-18 was lower-expressed in ovary metastatic lesions compared with that in primary lesions of gastric cancer, and Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the migration ability of gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of Mel-18 resulted in down-regulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells and the expression of Mel-18 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-21 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-21 overexpression partially restored sphere-forming ability, migration potential and chemo-resistance in Mel-18 overexpressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggests Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells.

  18. 78 FR 46805 - Certain Transfers of Property to Regulated Investment Companies [RICs] and Real Estate Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Property 1 has a fair market value of $500, PRS transfers Property 1 to X, a REIT, in exchange for stock of..., however, does not apply if the C corporation transferor makes a ``deemed sale election'' provided for... person at fair market value. The NPRM proposed to amend Sec. 1.337(d)-7 to provide two exceptions from...

  19. 41 CFR 102-35.20 - What definitions apply to GSA's personal property regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determine its capitalization thresholds as discussed in Financial Accounting Standard Advisory Board (FASAB) Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards No. 6 Accounting for Property, Plant and Equipment... vulnerability to theft, waste, fraud, or abuse. Excess personal property (see § 102-36.40 of this subchapter B...

  20. 41 CFR 102-35.15 - What are the goals of GSA's personal property regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to agencies where the transfer will avoid a new Federal procurement. A transfer to an agency where... donation of surplus personal property to State and local public agencies and other eligible non-Federal... personal property sold under the exchange/sale authority; and (e) Reduce management and inventory costs by...

  1. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  2. Dynamic autophagic activity affected the development of thoracic aortic dissection by regulating functional properties of smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Guan-Xin; Yang, Fan; Yan, Yan; Liu, Su-Xuan; Li, Song-Hua; Wang, Guo-Kun; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The aortic medial degeneration is the key histopathologic feature of Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). The aim of this study was to identify the change of autophagic activity in the aortic wall during TAD development, and to explore the roles of autophagy on regulating functional properties of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Firstly, compared with control group (n = 11), the increased expression of autophagic markers Beclin1 and LC3 was detected in the aortic wall from TAD group (n = 23) by immunochemistry and western blot. We found that more autophagic vacuoles were present in the aortic wall of TAD patients using Transmission electron microscopy. Next, autophagic activity was examined in AD mice model established by β-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN) and angiotensin II. Immunochemistry proved that autophagic activity was dynamically changed during AD development. Beclin1 and LC3 were detected up-regulated in the aortic wall in the second week after BAPN feeding, earlier than the fragmentation or loss of elastic fibers. When AD occurred in the 4th week, the expression of Beclin1 and LC3 began to decrease, but still higher than the control. Furthermore, autophagy was found to inhibit starvation-induced apoptosis of SMCs. Meanwhile, blockage of autophagy could suppress PDGF-induced phenotypic switch of SMCs. Taken together, autophagic activity was dynamically changed in the aortic wall during TAD development. The abnormal autophagy could regulate the functional properties of aortic SMCs, which might be the potential pathogenesis of TAD. - Highlights: • Autophagy is up-regulated in aorta wall from thoracic aorta dissection (TAD) patient. • Autophagic activity is dynamically changed during TAD development. • Dynamically change of autophagy is associated with pathological process of TAD. • Autophagy participate in the development of TAD by regulating function of SMCs.

  3. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Underlag till ansoekan om dispens enligt artskyddsfoerordningen. Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    SKB will submit applications for permits and admissibility under the Environmental Act and under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. In the final repository the spent nuclear fuel from Swedish nuclear power plants is placed in order to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Construction and operation of the disposal facility in Forsmark will make an impact, give effects and consequences for the natural environment. Utilization of land for the construction of the facility and the impact on ground water as a result of groundwater drainage is expected to have negative consequences for the species included in species protection regulation. Thus, the planned activity require exemption from species protection regulation (SFS 2007:845). The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for an application for exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation from the prohibitions of 4, 6, 7 and 8 paragraph species protection regulation. A basis for the exemption application is that the proposed activity is considered to have an 'overriding public interest' prescribed in 14 paragraph species protection regulation. The document reports the impact, effects and consequences of the planned activities on species covered in the species protection regulation. The impact on protected species can be divided into two categories: - Direct effects on protected species and their habitats by utilization of the land. - Indirect effects on protected species and their habitats in the drainage of groundwater and the effect on groundwater levels. The document also includes a description of planned actions to prevent, restrict and compensate for the effects and consequences that the activity may cause. By applying for an exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation in a separate order from the application for permit according to chapters 9

  4. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Underlag till ansoekan om dispens enligt artskyddsfoerordningen. Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    SKB will submit applications for permits and admissibility under the Environmental Act and under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. In the final repository the spent nuclear fuel from Swedish nuclear power plants is placed in order to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Construction and operation of the disposal facility in Forsmark will make an impact, give effects and consequences for the natural environment. Utilization of land for the construction of the facility and the impact on ground water as a result of groundwater drainage is expected to have negative consequences for the species included in species protection regulation. Thus, the planned activity require exemption from species protection regulation (SFS 2007:845). The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for an application for exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation from the prohibitions of 4, 6, 7 and 8 paragraph species protection regulation. A basis for the exemption application is that the proposed activity is considered to have an 'overriding public interest' prescribed in 14 paragraph species protection regulation. The document reports the impact, effects and consequences of the planned activities on species covered in the species protection regulation. The impact on protected species can be divided into two categories: - Direct effects on protected species and their habitats by utilization of the land. - Indirect effects on protected species and their habitats in the drainage of groundwater and the effect on groundwater levels. The document also includes a description of planned actions to prevent, restrict and compensate for the effects and consequences that the activity may cause. By applying for an exemption under 14 paragraph species protection regulation in a separate order from the application for permit according to chapters 9 and 11

  5. Impact of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis on individual worker bees of the two host species (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera) and regulation of host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinpoo, Chainarong; Paxton, Robert J; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Krongdang, Sasiprapa; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively. Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. apis and N. ceranae in both A. mellifera and A. cerana were carried out to compare pathogen proliferation and impact on hosts, including host immune response. Infection by N. ceranae led to higher spore loads than by N. apis in both host species, and there was greater proliferation of microsporidia in A. mellifera compared to A. cerana. Both N. apis and N. ceranae were pathogenic in both host Apis species. N. ceranae induced subtly, though not significantly, higher mortality than N. apis in both host species, yet survival of A. cerana was no different to that of A. mellifera in response to N. apis or N. ceranae. Infections of both host species with N. apis and N. ceranae caused significant up-regulation of AMP genes and cellular mediated immune genes but did not greatly alter apoptosis-related gene expression. In this study, A. cerana enlisted a higher immune response and displayed lower loads of N. apis and N. ceranae spores than A. mellifera, suggesting it may be better able to defend itself against microsporidia infection. We caution against over-interpretation of our results, though, because differences between host and parasite species in survival were insignificant and because size differences between microsporidia species and between host Apis species may alternatively explain the differential proliferation of N. ceranae in A. mellifera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulations Concerning the ‘Temporary Period’ in The New System Sought to be Established in Cyprus and Its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp Tamçelik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, regulations concerning the ‘temporary period’ in the new system sought to be established in Cyprus and its properties have been addressed. From this point of view, as the main purpose of this research, the regulations required during the talks taking place between the parties in Cyprus before a federal state is established and how the institutions expected to fulfill these will be structured have been observed. As could be understood from its name, temporary period reflects a certain period and is the period assumed to continue in Cyprus until the formation envisioned to be established there is achieved. Therefore, it is also possible to call this period a ‘transition period’. Actually, the most consistent for-mula that could be brought forward towards this period seems to be the formula of ‘temporary joint administration based on the principle of equality’. This formula, which is important for providing the necessary element of trust for negotiation particularly on issues of territory and constitution and also for displaying whether or not the functional properties of the federal state to be established is based upon a true foundation, appears for now as the most realistic method. On the other hand, the regulations to be made during the temporary period will come into effect with the preparation of the Federal Constitution and the Electoral Law, installing federal bureaucracy, analyzing property claims, determining economic development and protective provisions, regulations regarding territorial adjustments and through Committees, formed by the two communities, in charge of preparing the activity programme. Before a Federal Republic is established, a new state of partnership will emerge after the ‘Temporary Regulations’ enter into force. This partnership will reveal itself as a new state system organized within a framework of a federation that consists of two communities from a constitutional aspect and of two

  7. 76 FR 12666 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security number for each person.../dars/government_furnished_property.html and submit the following information: (1) Company or...

  8. 77 FR 52254 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... comments in the development of the final rule. A discussion of the comments and the changes made to the... eventual demise of other, existing property management systems. The respondent specifically recommended...

  9. 75 FR 25160 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... to track and trace property items throughout their lifecycle (in acquisition and logistics business... entities to which this rule will apply. DoD invites comments from small business concerns and other...

  10. Epigenetic regulation of neural stem cell property from embryo to adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Murao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs have the ability to self-renew and give rise to neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system. This multipotency is acquired by NSCs during development and is maintained throughout life. Proliferation, fate specification, and maturation of NSCs are regulated by both cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Epigenetic modification is a representative intrinsic factor, being involved in many biological aspects of central nervous system development and adult neurogenesis through the regulation of NSC dynamics. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the epigenetic regulation of NSC behavior in the embryonic and adult brain, with particular reference to DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs.

  11. Study the effect of salinity levels and seed priming on germination and seedling properties of two medicinal plant species from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water sources salinity are important constrains which threat the sustainable agriculture production in Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of different antioxidants and salinity levels on germination and seedling properties of two medicinal species (Cnicus benedictus L., and (Cichorium intybus L., an experiment was conducted using a factorial based on completely randomized design with four replications at Special Crops Laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The studied factor for each plant included: seed priming at 4 levels including control (distilled water, ascorbic acid (40 mM, gibberlic acid (75 mg.lit-1 and salicylic acid (1.5 mM, and five salinity levels according to electrical conductivity by adding NaCl to distilled water (control, 5,10,15 and 20 ds.m-1. According to results, pretreatment with salicylic acid improved all of the germination and seedling properties in Cnicus benedictus L. but gibberlic acid could to improved germination and seedling properties in Cichorium intybus L. species. There were strong correlation between germination rate and radical and caulicle length especially on Cichorium intybus species. Generally, seed priming with gibberlic acid and salicylic acid could improve germination and seedling properties of these two species. Both species showed a reliable tolerance to NaCl salinity at germination stage, and germination was 60% compared with control at 20 ds.m-1 treatment.

  12. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  13. Development and psychometric properties of a self-regulation scale about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Abasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-regulation is one of the current psychological concepts that have been known as a determinant of leisure time physical activity. Due to cultural and social diversity in different societies and age groups, application of specific questionnaires is essential to perform investigations about physical activities. The aim of this study is development and evaluation of psychometric properties of a self-regulation questionnaire about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, and data of 603 male students from 12 high schools in Isfahan were collected. A comprehensive literature review and similar questionnaire review were conducted and 25 items were selected or developed to measure self-regulation. Comprehensibility of items was evaluated in a pilot study and an expert panel evaluated face and content validity. Exploratory factors analysis (EFA was used for evaluation of construct validity and extraction of sub-constructs of self-regulation. Leisure time physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Results: The mean age of the participants was 16.3 years (SD =1.0 and the range was 15-19 years. Cronbach′s α coefficient of the questionnaire in the pilot and main study was 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. EFA resulted in four sub-constructs including "enlistment of social support," "goal setting," "self-construction," and "self-monitoring," which explained 63.6% of the variance of self-regulation. Conclusions: Results of this investigation provide some support to the validity and reliability of the 16-item questionnaire of self-regulation abut leisure time physical activity in the target group.

  14. Development and psychometric properties of a self-regulation scale about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shiri, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation is one of the current psychological concepts that have been known as a determinant of leisure time physical activity. Due to cultural and social diversity in different societies and age groups, application of specific questionnaires is essential to perform investigations about physical activities. The aim of this study is development and evaluation of psychometric properties of a self-regulation questionnaire about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, and data of 603 male students from 12 high schools in Isfahan were collected. A comprehensive literature review and similar questionnaire review were conducted and 25 items were selected or developed to measure self-regulation. Comprehensibility of items was evaluated in a pilot study and an expert panel evaluated face and content validity. Exploratory factors analysis (EFA) was used for evaluation of construct validity and extraction of sub-constructs of self-regulation. Leisure time physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The mean age of the participants was 16.3 years (SD =1.0) and the range was 15-19 years. Cronbach's α coefficient of the questionnaire in the pilot and main study was 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. EFA resulted in four sub-constructs including "enlistment of social support", "goal setting", "self-construction", and "self-monitoring", which explained 63.6% of the variance of self-regulation. Results of this investigation provide some support to the validity and reliability of the 16-item questionnaire of self-regulation abut leisure time physical activity in the target group.

  15. 76 FR 52139 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government; Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... responsibility for compliance with export control law and regulations a ``due diligence responsibility.'' DoD... clearance officer suspects data integrity issues; however, 245.602-1(2) has been clarified to specify... that the supplier name and part number be required for all items in Federal condition code A1 being...

  16. 77 FR 22516 - Certain Transfers of Property to Regulated Investment Companies [RICs] and Real Estate Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... the IRS believe that the inclusion of direct or indirect transfers by tax-exempt entities in the scope... regulations to provide that the definition of a C corporation excludes tax-exempt entities within the meaning... General Utilities doctrine in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-514, 100 Stat. 2085), as amended by...

  17. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that, to the best of its knowledge...

  18. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment.

  19. [Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition.

  20. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattox, Taylor A; Young, Martin E; Rubel, Carrie E

    2014-01-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1's role in regulating mitoc...

  1. The WTP for property rights for the Giant Panda: can a charismatic species be an instrument for conservation of natural habitat?

    OpenAIRE

    Kontoleon, A.; Swanson, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a stated preference study to address issues concerning the potential for using flag-ship species, such as the Giant Panda, to purchase the property rights for the conservation of natural habitat. The study finds, first, that there is clear WTP for acquiring the property rights for panda habitat. The nature of this demand is found both convincing and logically coherent in that it is an increasing function of land (at a diminishing rate). Secondly, the stu...

  2. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for the 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are provided for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in such environments.

  3. Network and neuronal membrane properties in hybrid networks reciprocally regulate selectivity to rapid thalamocortical inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Pinto, David J

    2012-11-01

    Rapidly changing environments require rapid processing from sensory inputs. Varying deflection velocities of a rodent's primary facial vibrissa cause varying temporal neuronal activity profiles within the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus. Local neuron populations in a single somatosensory layer 4 barrel transform sparsely coded input into a spike count based on the input's temporal profile. We investigate this transformation by creating a barrel-like hybrid network with whole cell recordings of in vitro neurons from a cortical slice preparation, embedding the biological neuron in the simulated network by presenting virtual synaptic conductances via a conductance clamp. Utilizing the hybrid network, we examine the reciprocal network properties (local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic convergence) and neuronal membrane properties (input resistance) by altering the barrel population response to diverse thalamic input. In the presence of local network input, neurons are more selective to thalamic input timing; this arises from strong feedforward inhibition. Strongly inhibitory (damping) network regimes are more selective to timing and less selective to the magnitude of input but require stronger initial input. Input selectivity relies heavily on the different membrane properties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. When inhibitory and excitatory neurons had identical membrane properties, the sensitivity of in vitro neurons to temporal vs. magnitude features of input was substantially reduced. Increasing the mean leak conductance of the inhibitory cells decreased the network's temporal sensitivity, whereas increasing excitatory leak conductance enhanced magnitude sensitivity. Local network synapses are essential in shaping thalamic input, and differing membrane properties of functional classes reciprocally modulate this effect.

  4. The staphylococcal accessory regulator, SarA, is an RNA-binding protein that modulates the mRNA turnover properties of late-exponential and stationary phase Staphylococcus aureus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Morrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of mRNA turnover is gaining recognition as a mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus regulates gene expression, but the factors that orchestrate alterations in transcript degradation are poorly understood. In that regard, we previously found that 138 mRNA species, including the virulence factors protein A (spa and collagen binding protein (cna, are stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner during exponential phase growth, suggesting that SarA protein may directly or indirectly effect the RNA turnover properties of these transcripts. Herein, we expanded our characterization of the effects of sarA on mRNA turnover during late exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results revealed that the locus affects the RNA degradation properties of cells during both growth phases. Further, using gel mobility shift assays and RIP-ChIP, it was found that SarA protein is capable of binding mRNA species that it stabilizes both in vitro and within bacterial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SarA post-transcriptionally regulates S. aureus gene expression in a manner that involves binding to and consequently altering the mRNA turnover properties of target transcripts.

  5. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  6. Comparative evaluation of particle properties, formation of reactive oxygen species and genotoxic potential of tungsten carbide based nanoparticles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Dana, E-mail: dana.kuehnel@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Scheffler, Katja [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Wellner, Peggy [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Meissner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret [Fraunhofer-Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Busch, Wibke [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Springer, Armin [Centre for Translational Bone, Cartilage and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of toxic potential of tungsten carbide-based nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of ROS and micronuclei induction of three hard metal nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependency of observed toxic effects on the materials physical-chemical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences in several particle properties seem to modulate the biological response. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co) are constituents of hard metals and are used for the production of extremely hard tools. Previous studies have identified greater cytotoxic potential of WC-based nanoparticles if particles contained Co. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and micronuclei would help explain the impact on cultured mammalian cells by three different tungsten-based nanoparticles (WC{sub S}, WC{sub L}, WC{sub L}-Co (S: small; L: large)). The selection of particles allowed us to study the influence of particle properties, e.g. surface area, and the presence of Co on the toxicological results. WC{sub S} and WC{sub L}/WC{sub L}-Co differed in their crystalline structure and surface area, whereas WC{sub S}/WC{sub L} and WC{sub L}-Co differed in their cobalt content. WC{sub L} and WC{sub L}-Co showed neither a genotoxic potential nor ROS induction. Contrary to that, WC{sub S} nanoparticles induced the formation of both ROS and micronuclei. CoCl{sub 2} was tested in relevant concentrations and induced no ROS formation, but increased the rate of micronuclei at concentrations exceeding those present in WC{sub L}-Co. In conclusion, ROS and micronuclei formation could not be associated with the presence of Co in the WC-based particles. The contrasting responses elicited by WC{sub S} vs. WC{sub L} appear to be due to large differences in crystalline structure.

  7. Effect of salt species on electrochemical properties of gel-type polymer electrolyte based on chemically crosslinking rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kab Youl; Jo, Nam Ju [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering; Chung, Won Sub [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2004-11-30

    In our study, for ion-polymer interaction in gel-type polymer electrolyte (GPE), two kinds of ions were used. GPE systems were composed of Mg or Li salt, organic solvent ({gamma}-BL), and polymer matrix prepared by chemical crosslinking of NBR with poly(ethylene glycol) methylethermethacrylate (PEGMEM) having polar group (--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--) in the side chain of monomer. GPE consisting of Li{sup +} ion had higher ionic conductivity than that of Mg{sup 2+} ion at below 100 wt.% of electrolyte content (1 M salt/{gamma}-BL). On the other hand, GPE consisting of Mg{sup 2+} ion had higher ionic conductivity than that consisting of Li{sup +} ion at over 120 wt.% of electrolyte content (1 M salt/{gamma}-BL). The maximum liquid electrolyte content was 200 wt.% for all GPE systems. And the highest ionic conductivity of 3.3 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} was achieved for the case of Mg{sup 2+}-GPE with 200 wt.% of liquid electrolyte contents at 20 C. The interaction between ionic species and polymer matrix in GPE was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Also, cyclic voltammogram of Mg{sup 2+}-GPE confirmed the electrochemical property of divalent cation with two electron-transfer reactions.

  8. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of alginate lyase and cellulase co-produced by Exiguobacterium species Alg-S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R

    2017-05-01

    In an effort to screen out the alginolytic and cellulolytic bacteria from the putrefying invasive seaweed Sargassum species accumulated off Barbados' coast, a potent bacterial strain was isolated. This bacterium, which simultaneously produced alginate lyase and cellulase, was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. Alg-S5 via the phylogenetic approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase exhibited maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.5 and at 40°C and 45°C, respectively. The K m and V max values recorded as 0.91mg/mL and 21.8U/mg-protein, respectively, for alginate lyase, and 10.9mg/mL and 74.6U/mg-protein, respectively, for cellulase. First order kinetic analysis of the thermal denaturation of the co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase in the temperature range from 40°C to 55°C revealed that both the enzymes were thermodynamically efficient by displaying higher activation energy and enthalpy of denaturation. These enzymatic properties indicate the potential industrial importance of this bacterium in algal biomass conversion. This appears to be the first report on assessing the efficacy of a bacterium for the co-production of alginate lyase and cellulase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ACCERBATIN, a small molecule at the intersection of auxin and reactive oxygen species homeostasis with herbicidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuming; Depaepe, Thomas; Smet, Dajo; Hoyerova, Klara; Klíma, Petr; Cuypers, Ann; Cutler, Sean; Buyst, Dieter; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Martins, José; Petrášek, Jan; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-07-10

    The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling. We demonstrated that AEX functions at the intersection of auxin metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. AEX inhibited auxin efflux in BY-2 cells and promoted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidation in the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons of etiolated seedlings. Gene expression studies and superoxide/hydrogen peroxide staining further revealed that the disrupted auxin homeostasis was accompanied by oxidative stress. Interestingly, in light conditions, AEX exhibited properties reminiscent of the quinoline carboxylate-type auxin-like herbicides. We propose that AEX interferes with auxin transport from its major biosynthesis sites, either as a direct consequence of poor basipetal transport from the shoot meristematic region, or indirectly, through excessive IAA oxidation and ROS accumulation. Further investigation of AEX can provide new insights into the mechanisms connecting auxin and ROS homeostasis in plant development and provide useful tools to study auxin-type herbicides. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Some properties and cDNA cloning of proteinaceous toxins from two species of lionfish (Pterois antennata and Pterois volitans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriake, Aya; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2011-11-01

    Lionfish, members of the genera Pterois, Parapterois and Dendrochirus, are well known to be venomous, having venomous glandular tissues in dorsal, pelvic and anal spines. The lionfish toxins have been shown to cross-react with the stonefish toxins by neutralization tests using the commercial stonefish antivenom, although their chemical properties including structures have been little characterized. In this study, an antiserum against neoverrucotoxin, the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa toxin, was first raised in a guinea pig and used in immunoblotting and inhibition immunoblotting to confirm that two species of Pterois lionfish (P. antennata and P. volitans) contain a 75kDa protein (corresponding to the toxin subunit) cross-reacting with neoverrucotoxin. Then, the amino acid sequences of the P. antennata and P. volitans toxins were successfully determined by cDNA cloning using primers designed from the highly conserved sequences of the stonefish toxins. Notably, either α-subunits (699 amino acid residues) or β-subunits (698 amino acid residues) of the P. antennata and P. volitans toxins share as high as 99% sequence identity with each other. Furthermore, both α- and β-subunits of the lionfish toxins exhibit high sequence identity (70-80% identity) with each other and also with the β-subunits of the stonefish toxins. As reported for the stonefish toxins, the lionfish toxins also contain a B30.2/SPRY domain (comprising nearly 200 amino acid residues) in the C-terminal region of each subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in two Chlorella species in response to nitrate treatments and the potential of binary blending microalgae oils for biodiesel application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye San; Chen, Jian Woon; Goh, Eng Giap; Aziz, Ahmad; Loh, Saw Hong

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different nitrate concentrations in culture medium on oil content and fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1) and Chlorella sorokiniana (KS-MB2). Results showed that both species produced significant higher (pdifferentially regulated fatty acid accumulation patterns in response to nitrate treatments at early stationary growth phase. Their potential use for biodiesel application could be enhanced by exploring the concept of binary blending of the two microalgae oils using developed mathematical equations to calculate the oil mass blending ratio and simultaneously estimated the weight percentage (wt.%) of desirable fatty acid compositions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Up-regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2α expression by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate in PC12 cells; involvement of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Nobuteru; Nabemoto, Maiko; Hatori, Yoshio; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Hirabayashi, Tetsuya; Fujino, Hiromichi; Saito, Takeshi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    Disulfiram (an alcohol-aversive drug) and related compounds are known to provoke several side effects involving behavioral and neurological complications. N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is considered as one of the main toxic species of disulfiram and acts as an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase. Since arachidonic acid (AA) formation is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related to toxicity in neuronal cells, we investigated the effects of DDC on AA release and expression of the α type of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 α) in PC12 cells. Treatment with 80-120 μM DDC that causes a moderate increase in ROS levels without cell toxicity stimulated cPLA 2 α mRNA and its protein expression. The expression was mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), one of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Treatment with N G nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 1 mM) and oxy-hemoglobin (a scavenger of nitric oxide, 2 mg/mL) abolished the DDC-induced responses (ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cPLA 2 α expression). We also showed DDC-induced up-regulation of the mRNA expression of lipocortin 1, an inhibitor of PLA 2 . Furthermore, DDC treatment of the cells enhanced Ca 2+ -ionophore-induced AA release in 30 min, although the effect was limited. Changes in AA metabolism in DDC-treated cells may have a potential role in mediating neurotoxic actions of disulfiram. In this study, we show the first to demonstrate the up-regulation of cPLA 2 α expression by DDC treatment in neuronal cells

  13. 75 FR 22729 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...-based processes to greater use of automation. This proposed rule revises requirements for all DoD... identified in the contract, or in the absence of such identification, the item's fair-market value... of material, equipment, special tooling, special test equipment, and real property. (b) Policy for...

  14. 76 FR 6006 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... rarely occurs. Similarly, a respondent stated the need to address the materiality of the loss and that... pertaining to Government property losses. It does not require reporting of the estimated harm or materiality... assigned by the Government and identified in the contract; and adds the method for determining the...

  15. 75 FR 80426 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... data base for capturing records of Government-furnished property sent on a non-reimbursable basis to a... number. (vii) Medium code; how the data is recorded, e.g., barcode, contact memory button. (viii) Value... January 1, 2004, for unique item identifier pedigree data established at delivery, as defined by DFARS 252...

  16. 76 FR 64885 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Accounting Procedures manual, along with a hyperlink to the URL. It is not necessary to add condition code...D items and will be available to users in the logistics, financial, and property accountability... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules...

  17. A redox-dependent dimerization switch regulates activity and tolerance for reactive oxygen species of barley seed glutathione peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric and dimeric forms of recombinant barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) glutathione peroxidase 2 (HvGpx2) are demonstrated to display distinctly different functional properties in vitro. Monomeric HvGpx2 thus has five fold higher catalytic efficiency than the dimer towards tert-butyl h...

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Crambe koktebelica (JUNGE N. BUSCH AND EFFECT OF ASEPTIC IN VITRO CULTIVATION ON ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkarova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish efficient protocols of seed surface sterilization with further multiplication in vitro for threatened species Crambe koktebelica (Junge N. Busch and to show the effect of biotechnological approach (in vitro cultivation of biodiversity conservation on plants biochemical properties. Seed surface sterilization was carried out according to the original method with further microclonal multiplication of aseptic sprouts from lateral buds on the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. Fatty acid content was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of fatty acid ethers. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Total soluble protein content was measured using Bradford method and polyfructan content determination was based upon ketosugars ability to color in the acidic environment with resorcinol. Plants that were grown under in vitro and in vivo conditions and seeds were used in this research. Efficient protocol of surface sterilization that resulted in 45% of aseptic seed material 50% of which has sprouted was elaborated for C. koktebelica as well as fast microclonal multiplication methods that provided with up to 5.25 ± 0.50 new formed plantlets from 1 lateral bud (on the MS medium that contained 1 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. It was also shown that aseptic cultivation benefits to saturated fatty acid accumulation and increases protein content but on the other hand it reduces unsaturated fatty acid amount and polyfructan content as well as antioxidant activity of plant material. Obtained data confirms the prospect of biotechnology approach to biodiversity conservation and suggest the necessity of father in vitro cultivation effect on biochemical composition of plant study.

  19. Plant species and functional group effects on abiotic and microbial soil properties and plant-soil feedback responses in two grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Lawson, C.S.; Hedlund, K.; Edwards, A.R.; Brooks, A.J.; Igual, J.M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2006-01-01

    1 Plant species differ in their capacity to influence soil organic matter, soil nutrient availability and the composition of soil microbial communities. Their influences on soil properties result in net positive or negative feedback effects, which influence plant performance and plant community

  20. Regulation of redox reactions of chemical species (arsenic and chromium) in sediment of Marque river. From experimentation to modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, Josselin

    2015-01-01

    The French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra) and the Nord-Pas de Calais (NPDC) Region aim to better understand the fate of the redox sensitive trace elements in soils and river sediments to ameliorate the management of polluted sediments and of the storage of radioactive wastes. To address this problematic, some river sediments were selected as proxies, as strong redox gradients can be observed. Two methods have been developed to study the speciation of As and Cr: (i) HPIC-ICP-MS (High Performance Ionic Performance - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) coupling in order to separate and quantify As [As(III), As(V), DMMA V and MMAA V ] and Cr species [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)], and (ii) DGT probes (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film) containing specific chelating binding gels to quantify As species [As(III) and total As]. These methods have been implemented to monitor the low contaminated pore waters of the Marque river during 9 months. The results demonstrated that chromium is present only under its reduced form Cr(III), which makes difficult to assess the parameters that force redox interconversions between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Arsenic is present only under its inorganic forms: As(III), As(V), and thio-arsenical species. Seasonal changes of As speciation in the dissolved phase depends mainly of S(-II) production by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which makes the amount of dissolved S(- II) an important parameter to follow through time since the As reduction increases its mobility and toxicity. (author) [fr

  1. Persona Rights for User-Generated Content: A Normative Framework for Privacy and Intellectual Property Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Shepherd

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term “persona rights” as a normative conceptual framework for analyzing the language of regulatory debates around privacy and intellectual property online, mainly from a Canadian perspective. In using the concept of persona rights to interrogate and critique the current limitations of regulatory discourses in protecting user rights online, the legal implications of persona rights law are translated into more conceptual terms. As a normative framework, persona rights is shown to be useful in addressing the gaps in regulatory understandings of privacy and intellectual property – particularly in spaces for user-generated content (UGC – and in suggesting how policy might be written to account for user rights to the integrity of identity in commercial UGC platforms.

  2. Regulation of Cys-based protein tyrosine phosphatases via reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in mast cells and basophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heneberg, Petr; Dráber, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 16 (2005), s. 1859-1871 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0594; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/03/0596; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5052310; GA MZd(CZ) NR8079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0506; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OE158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mast cell * tyrosine phosphatase * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.904, year: 2005

  3. Allosteric regulation by oleamide of the binding properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, P B; Carson, M J; Sutcliffe, J G; Thomas, E A

    1999-12-01

    Oleamide belongs to a family of amidated lipids with diverse biological activities, including sleep induction and signaling modulation of several 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C, and 5-HT7. The 5-HT7 receptor, predominantly localized in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, stimulates cyclic AMP formation and is thought to be involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Recently, it was proposed that oleamide acts at an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor to regulate cyclic AMP formation. We have further investigated the interaction between oleamide and 5-HT7 receptors by performing radioligand binding assays with HeLa cells transfected with the 5-HT7 receptor. Methiothepin, clozapine, and 5-HT all displaced specific [3H]5-HT (100 nM) binding, with pK(D) values of 7.55, 7.85, and 8.39, respectively. Oleamide also displaced [3H]5-HT binding, but the maximum inhibition was only 40% of the binding. Taking allosteric (see below) cooperativity into account, a K(D) of 2.69 nM was calculated for oleamide. In saturation binding experiments, oleamide caused a 3-fold decrease in the affinity of [3H]5-HT for the 5-HT7 receptor, without affecting the number of binding sites. A Schild analysis showed that the induced shift in affinity of [3H]5-HT reached a plateau, unlike that of a competitive inhibitor, illustrating the allosteric nature of the interaction between oleamide and the 5-HT7 receptor. Oleic acid, the product of oleamide hydrolysis, had a similar effect on [3H]5-HT binding, whereas structural analogs of oleamide, trans-9,10-octadecenamide, cis-8,9-octadecenamide, and erucamide, did not alter [3H]5-HT binding significantly. The findings support the hypothesis that oleamide acts via an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor regulating receptor affinity.

  4. Study of the self-regulating properties of a WWER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filo, J.; Trnkusz, J.; Polak, V.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a self-regulation experiment carried out on the V-1 reactor in Czechoslovakia in the period of the start-up are presented. The kinetic state of the reactor was modified by varying the position of the automatic control rods, the power of the turbogenerators and by switching off a main pump in the primary circuit, on power levels of 35, 55, 75 and 90%. The important thermal parameters of the reactor, the electric power of the turbogenerators, the neutron flux, the position of the automatic control rod group and the concentration of the boric acid in the coolant have been measured. (R.J.)

  5. Auxin-cytokinin interaction and variations in their metabolic products in the regulation of organogenesis in two Eucomis species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A. O.; Plačková, Lenka; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2016), s. 883-890 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306; GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : in-vitro propagation * plant-growth regulators * arabidopsis-thaliana * quantitative-analysis * mass-spectrometry * isotope-dilution * biosynthesis * gradients * cultures * hormones * Asparagaceae * Indole-3-acetic acid * Phytohormones * meta-Topolin * Ornamentals * Rooting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  6. Abnormal Cell Properties and Down-Regulated FAK-Src Complex Signaling in B Lymphoblasts of Autistic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Malik, Mazhar; Sheikh, Ashfaq M.; Merz, George; Ted Brown, W.; Li, Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that one of the major pathways to the pathogenesis of autism is reduced cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has an important role in neural migration, dendritic morphological characteristics, axonal branching, and synapse formation. The FAK-Src complex, activated by upstream reelin and integrin β1, can initiate a cascade of phosphorylation events to trigger multiple intracellular pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase–extracellular signal–regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt signaling. In this study, by using B lymphoblasts as a model, we tested whether integrin β1 and FAK-Src signaling are abnormally regulated in autism and whether abnormal FAK-Src signaling leads to defects in B-lymphoblast adhesion, migration, proliferation, and IgG production. To our knowledge, for the first time, we show that protein expression levels of both integrin β1 and FAK are significantly decreased in autistic lymphoblasts and that Src protein expression and the phosphorylation of an active site (Y416) are also significantly decreased. We also found that lymphoblasts from autistic subjects exhibit significantly decreased migration, increased adhesion properties, and an impaired capacity for IgG production. The overexpression of FAK in autistic lymphoblasts countered the adhesion and migration defects. In addition, we demonstrate that FAK mediates its effect through the activation of Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades and that paxillin is also likely involved in the regulation of adhesion and migration in autistic lymphoblasts. PMID:21703394

  7. The properties of genome conformation and spatial gene interaction and regulation networks of normal and malignant human cell types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available The spatial conformation of a genome plays an important role in the long-range regulation of genome-wide gene expression and methylation, but has not been extensively studied due to lack of genome conformation data. The recently developed chromosome conformation capturing techniques such as the Hi-C method empowered by next generation sequencing can generate unbiased, large-scale, high-resolution chromosomal interaction (contact data, providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the spatial structure of a genome and its applications in gene regulation, genomics, epigenetics, and cell biology. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale computational analysis of this new stream of genome conformation data generated for three different human leukemia cells or cell lines by the Hi-C technique. We developed and applied a set of bioinformatics methods to reliably generate spatial chromosomal contacts from high-throughput sequencing data and to effectively use them to study the properties of the genome structures in one-dimension (1D and two-dimension (2D. Our analysis demonstrates that Hi-C data can be effectively applied to study tissue-specific genome conformation, chromosome-chromosome interaction, chromosomal translocations, and spatial gene-gene interaction and regulation in a three-dimensional genome of primary tumor cells. Particularly, for the first time, we constructed genome-scale spatial gene-gene interaction network, transcription factor binding site (TFBS - TFBS interaction network, and TFBS-gene interaction network from chromosomal contact information. Remarkably, all these networks possess the properties of scale-free modular networks.

  8. Intercomparison and closure calculations using measurements of aerosol species and optical properties during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William C.; Day, Derek E.; Carrico, Christian; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; McMeeking, Gavin; Lee, Taehyoung; Carrillo, Jacqueline; Schichtel, Bret

    2005-07-01

    Physical and optical properties of inorganic aerosols have been extensively studied, but less is known about carbonaceous aerosols, especially as they relate to the non-urban settings such as our nation's national parks and wilderness areas. Therefore an aerosol characterization study was conceived and implemented at one national park that is highly impacted by carbonaceous aerosols, Yosemite. The primary objective of the study was to characterize the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a carbon-dominated aerosol, including the ratio of total organic matter weight to organic carbon, organic mass scattering efficiencies, and the hygroscopic characteristics of a carbon-laden ambient aerosol, while a secondary objective was to evaluate a variety of semi-continuous monitoring systems. Inorganic ions were characterized using 24-hour samples that were collected using the URG and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitoring systems, the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) cascade impactor, as well as the semi-continuous particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) technology. Likewise, carbonaceous material was collected over 24-hour periods using IMPROVE technology along with the thermal optical reflectance (TOR) analysis, while semi-continuous total carbon concentrations were measured using the Rupprecht and Patashnick (R&P) instrument. Dry aerosol number size distributions were measured using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and optical particle counter, scattering coefficients at near-ambient conditions were measured with nephelometers fitted with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets, and "dry" PM2.5 scattering was measured after passing ambient air through Perma Pure Nafion® dryers. In general, the 24-hour "bulk" measurements of various aerosol species compared more favorably with each other than with the semi-continuous data. Semi-continuous sulfate measurements correlated well with the 24-hour measurements, but were biased low by

  9. Assessment of an Impact of Mechanical Regulation on Selected Morphometric and Productive Parameters of Invasive Species Solidago Canadensis Population in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končeková Lýdia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated mowing is considered as one of the effective control methods against species of the genus Solidago. This paper evaluates the impact of the repeated mowing on selected morphometric and productive characteristics of the invasive neophyte Solidago canadensis in the district of Rimavská Sobota in Central Slovakia. Permanent research plots (PRPs were established within anthropogenic habitat on an abandoned land that was divided into two variants. In the first variant, the mechanical regulation - mowing was applied. The second variant was without the regulation. The mechanical regulation of the populations was carried out in June and August during the growing season 2011. The results showed that the mechanical regulation did not have a clear impact on the population density. The decreasing trend of the number of shoots within the mowed variant was found only in one research plot (PRP3. The other plots showed an increase in the number of individuals by 2.7 and 32.7% between the mowings. Statistically highly significant differences in terms of the mowing impact on the height of the individuals were found in all PRPs. The difference in the weight of dry aboveground biomass between the mowings was 221.87 g, which represents 36.41%. Double the difference (48.8% was recorded in the dry weight of the underground biomass in the regulated stand compared with the unregulated stand (165.1 and 322.5 g/m2, respectively. Although there was a short-term success achieved by the application of the two mowings during the growing period, the pursued objective was not reached.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of vascular NADPH oxidase expression and reactive oxygen species production by histone deacetylase-dependent mechanisms in experimental diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Adriana Manea

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox contribute to structural-functional alterations of the vascular wall in diabetes. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation, emerged as important regulators of gene expression in cardiovascular disorders. Since their role in diabetes is still elusive we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC-dependent mechanisms could mediate vascular Nox overexpression in diabetic conditions. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive vehicle or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor. In vitro studies were performed on a human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC line. Aortic SMCs typically express Nox1, Nox4, and Nox5 subtypes. HDAC1 and HDAC2 proteins along with Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 levels were found significantly elevated in the aortas of diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic animals. Treatment of diabetic mice with SAHA mitigated the aortic expression of Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 subtypes and NADPH-stimulated ROS production. High concentrations of glucose increased HDAC1 and HDAC2 protein levels in cultured SMCs. SAHA significantly reduced the high glucose-induced Nox1/4/5 expression, ROS production, and the formation malondialdehyde-protein adducts in SMCs. Overexpression of HDAC2 up-regulated the Nox1/4/5 gene promoter activities in SMCs. Physical interactions of HDAC1/2 and p300 proteins with Nox1/4/5 promoters were detected at the sites of active transcription. High glucose induced histone H3K27 acetylation enrichment at the promoters of Nox1/4/5 genes in SMCs. The novel data of this study indicate that HDACs mediate vascular Nox up-regulation in diabetes. HDAC inhibition reduces vascular ROS production in experimental diabetes, possibly by a mechanism involving negative regulation of Nox expression. Keywords: NADPH oxidase, Epigenetics, HDAC, Histone acetylation, Diabetes

  11. Interferon Potentiates Toll-Like Receptor-Induced Prostaglandin D2 Production through Positive Feedback Regulation between Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription 1 and Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 is a potent lipid mediator that controls inflammation, and its dysregulation has been implicated in diverse inflammatory disorders. Despite significant progress made in understanding the role of PGD2 as a key regulator of immune responses, the molecular mechanism underlying PGD2 production remains unclear, particularly upon challenge with different and multiple inflammatory stimuli. Interferons (IFNs potentiate macrophage activation and act in concert with exogenous inflammatory mediators such as toll-like receptor (TLR ligands to amplify inflammatory responses. A recent study found that IFN-γ enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced PGD2 production, indicating a role of IFNs in PGD2 regulation. Here, we demonstrate that TLR-induced PGD2 production by macrophages was significantly potentiated by signaling common to IFN-β and IFN-γ in a signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT1-dependent mechanism. Such potentiation by IFNs was also observed for PGE2 production, despite the differential regulation of PGD synthase and PGE synthase isoforms mediating PGD2 and PGE2 production under inflammatory conditions. Mechanistic analysis revealed that the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was remarkably potentiated by IFNs and required for PGD2 production, but was nullified by STAT1 deficiency. Conversely, the regulation of STAT1 level and activity by IFNs was largely dependent on ROS levels. Using a model of zymosan-induced peritonitis, the relevance of this finding in vivo was supported by marked inhibition of PGD2 and ROS produced in peritoneal exudate cells by STAT1 deficiency. Collectively, our findings suggest that IFNs, although not activating on their own, are potent amplifiers of TLR-induced PGD2 production via positive-feedback regulation between STAT1 and ROS.

  12. Evaluation of three pumpkin species: correlation with physicochemical, antioxidant properties and classification using SPME-GC-MS and E-nose methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Li; Mi, Li; Hu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Bi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the most discriminant variables for three pumpkin species principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Twenty-four parameters (pH, conductivity, sucrose, glucose, total soluble solids, L* , a* , b* , individual weight, edible rate, firmness, citric acid, fumaric acid, l-ascorbic acid, malic acid, PPO activity, POD activity, total flavonoids, vitamin E, total phenolics, DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene, and aroma) were considered. The studied pumpkin species were Cucurbita maxima , Cucurbita moschata , and Cucurbita pepo . Three pumpkin species were classified by PCA based on aroma, physicochemical and antioxidant properties because the sum of PC1 and PC2 were both greater than 85% (85.06 and 93.64% respectively). Results were validated by the PCA and showed that PPO activity, total flavonoid, sucrose, glucose, TSS, a* , pH, malic acid, vitamin E, DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene, and aroma are highly useful parameters to classify pumpkin species.

  13. miR-335 negatively regulates osteosarcoma stem cell-like properties by targeting POU5F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaodong; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Zhengpei; Dai, Guo; Gao, Tian; Guo, Weichun

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to link cancer stem cells to the pathogenesis and progression of osteosarcoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-335 in osteosarcoma stem cells. Tumor spheroid culture and flow cytometry were applied to screen out osteosarcoma stem cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of miR-335 in MG63, U2OS and 143B osteosarcoma stem cells. The relationship of miR-335 expression with osteosarcoma stem cells was then analyzed. Transwell assay and transplantation assay were performed to elucidate biological effects of miR-335 on cell invasion and vivo tumor formation. Western Blot and luciferase assays were executed to investigate the regulation of POU5F1 by miR-335. The expression of miR-335 in osteosarcoma stem cells was lower than their differentiated counterparts. Cells expressing miR-335 possessed decreased stem cell-like properties. Gain or loss of function assays were applied to find that miR-335 antagonist promoted stem cell-like properties as well as invasion. Luciferase report and transfection assay showed that POU5F1 was downregulated by miR-335. Pre-miR-335 resulted in tumor enhanced sensitivity to traditional chemotherapy, whereas anti-miR-335 promoted chemoresistance. Finally, the inhibitory effect of miR-335 on in vivo tumor formation showed that combination of pre-miR-335 with cisplatin further reduced the tumor size, and miR-335 brought down the sphere formation capacity induced by cisplatin. The current study demonstrates that miR-335 negatively regulates osteosarcoma stem cell-like properties by targeting POU5F1, and miR-335 could target CSCs to synergize with traditional chemotherapeutic agents to overcome osteosarcoma.

  14. Injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair materials with regulable self-setting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2011-12-15

    An injectable and self-setting bone repair materials (nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nHAC/CSH) was developed in this study. The nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) composite, which is the mineralized fibril by self-assembly of nano-hydrocyapatite and collagen, has the same features as natural bone in both main hierarchical microstructure and composition. It is a bioactive osteoconductor due to its high level of biocompatibility and appropriate degradation rate. However, this material lacks handling characteristics because of its particle or solid-preformed block shape. Herein, calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) was introduced into nHAC to prepare an injectable and self-setting in situ bone repair materials. The morphology of materials was observed using SEM. Most important and interesting of all, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD), which is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, was introduced into nHAC as setting accelerator to regulate self-setting properties of injectable nHAC/CSH composite, and thus the self-setting time of nHAC/CSH composite can be regulated from more than 100 min to about 30 min and even less than 20 min by adding various amount of setting accelerator. The compressive properties of bone graft substitute after final setting are similar to those of cancellous bone. CSD as an excellent setting accelerator has no significant effect on the mechanical property and degradability of bone repair materials. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies demonstrated that the nHAC/CSH composite could provide more adequate stimulus for cell adhesion and proliferation, embodying favorable cell biocompatibility and a strong ability to accelerate bone formation. It can offer a satisfactory biological environment for growing new bone in the implants and for stimulating bone formation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chondrogenesis on sulfonate-coated hydrogels is regulated by their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that sulfur-containing acidic groups induce chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Recently, it is increasingly clear that mechanical properties of cell substrates largely influence cell differentiation. Thus, the present study investigated how mechanical properties of sulfonate-coated hydrogels influences chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Sulfonate-coated polyacrylamide gels (S-PAAm gels) which have the elastic modulus, E, of about 1, 15 and 150 kPa, were used in this study. MSCs cultured on the high stiffness S-PAAm gels (E=∼150 kPa) spread out with strong expression of stress fibers, while MSCs cultured on the low stiffness S-PAAm gels (E=∼1 kPa) had round shapes with less stress fibers but more cortical actins. Importantly, even in the absence of differentiation supplements, the lower stiffness S-PAAm gels led to the higher mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers such as Col2a1, Agc and Sox9 and the lower mRNA levels of an undifferentiation marker Sca1, indicating that the mechanical properties of S-PAAm gels strongly influence chondrogenesis. Blebbistatin which blocks myosin II-mediated mechanical sensing suppressed chondrogenesis induced by the low stiffness S-PAAm gels. The present study demonstrates that the soft S-PAAm gels effectively drive MSC chondrogenesis even in the absence of soluble differentiation factors and thus suggests that sulfonate-containing hydrogels with low stiffness could be a powerful tool for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  17. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Conservation of AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3 homolog gene regulation by salt stress in evolutionarily distant plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eD'Orso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-rich tandem zinc-finger proteins (RR-TZF participate in a wide range of plant developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic stress, such as cold, salt and drought. This study investigates the conservation of the genes AtTZF1-5 at the level of their sequences and expression across plant species. The genomic sequences of the two RR-TZF genes TdTZF1-A and TdTZF1-B were isolated in durum wheat and assigned to chromosomes 3A and 3B, respectively. Sequence comparisons revealed that they encode proteins that are highly homologous to AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3. The expression profiles of these RR-TZF durum wheat and Arabidopsis proteins support a common function in the regulation of seed germination and responses to abiotic stress. In particular, analysis of plants with attenuated and overexpressed AtTZF3 indicate that AtTZF3 is a negative regulator of seed germination under conditions of salt stress. Finally, comparative sequence analyses establish that the RR-TZF genes are encoded by lower plants, including the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The regulation of the Physcomitrella AtTZF1-2-3-like genes by salt stress strongly suggests that a subgroup of the RR-TZF proteins has a function that has been conserved throughout evolution.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MACROSSOPIC, MICROSCOPIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS SPEJES, SPEJES, CULTIVATED IN IRAN, WITH STANDARD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samsam shariat sadeghi-aliabadi

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the volatile oil of staendard species of Eucalyptus with those species cultivated in Iran. The investigation was carried out as bellow:"nA The seeds of elven species were supplied from Germany and cultivated in Research Center of Agriculture of Isfahan and then extracted for volatile oil and cineole."nB Besides, we supplied 2 species from Isfahan, 7 species from Fars province, 9 from Khuzestan province, one from Tehran and one from Hormozgan, province."nC We extracted total volatile oil of 28 E. species, then injected to G. G. column and the results were as follow:"n1 - In the following species : E. saligna, E. loxophleba and E. Stratycalyx from Esfahan province. E."nloxophleba, E.camaldulensis, E.stratycalyx, intertexta and E. caleicultrix from Fars"nprovince. E. Stratycalyx, E. OCCidsntalis, E. gillii and E. sargentii from khozestan prcvince. E. globulus from Tehran and E. camaldulensis from Hormozgan province. The amount of essential oil extracted from the mentioned species was in accord with the standard of pharmacopial level. But the extracted oil from others was not as standard levl."n2 - E. gillii, E. camaldulensis, E. sargentii and OCCidentalis from khouzestan and the species of"nE.intertexta, E. camaldulensis, E. lansdownean from fars and the species of E. camaldulensis, E. saligna from Esfahan and the species of E. globulus from Tehran, the amount of measured cineol was in accordance the standard pharmacopeial level."n3 - Some of the species studied such as : were qualified for the amount of Alpha and Beta pinen.

  20. Regulation of Morphogenesis and Biocontrol Properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET Protein, Vel1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Kenerley, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species. PMID:20154111

  1. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  2. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern?) regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R; Gao, Yan; DeLeon, Eric R; Arif, Maaz; Arif, Faihaan; Arora, Nitin; Straub, Karl D

    2017-08-01

    Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O 2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS). Here we examine catalase metabolism of H 2 S n , the sulfur analog of H 2 O 2 , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H 2 S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H 2 S n ; SSP4) and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF). Catalase eliminated H 2 S n , but did not anaerobically generate H 2 S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H 2 S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P 50 of 20mmHg. H 2 O 2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H 2 S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az), H 2 O 2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H 2 S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H 2 O 2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H 2 S from dithiothreitol (DTT) in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H 2 S in the presence of O 2 . H 2 S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H 2 S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears

  3. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Adesso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus Interferon-γ (IFN in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6. The inflammatory response induced by NIV and DON involves tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, nitrotyrosine formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS release, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

  4. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Autore, Giuseppina; Quaroni, Andrea; Popolo, Ada; Severino, Lorella; Marzocco, Stefania

    2017-12-11

    Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus Interferon-γ (IFN) in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The inflammatory response induced by NIV and DON involves tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, nitrotyrosine formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

  5. Estrogen receptor α induces prosurvival autophagy in papillary thyroid cancer via stimulating reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal regulated kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dahua; Liu, Shirley Y W; van Hasselt, C Andrew; Vlantis, Alexander C; Ng, Enders K W; Zhang, Haitao; Dong, Yujuan; Ng, Siu Kwan; Chu, Ryan; Chan, Amy B W; Du, Jing; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhimin; Xing, Mingzhao; Chen, George G

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) shows a predominance in females, with a male:female ratio of 1:3, and none of the known risk factors are associated with gender difference. Increasing evidence indicates a role of estrogen in thyroid tumorigenesis, but the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess the contribution of autophagy to estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated growth of PTC. The expression of ERα in thyroid tissue of patients with PTC tissues was analyzed. Cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated after chemical and genetic inhibition of autophagy. Autophagy in PTC cell lines BCPAP and BCPAP-ERα was assessed. ERα expression was increased in PTC tissues compared with the adjacent nontumor tissues. Estrogen induced autophagy in an ERα-dependent manner. Autophagy induced by estrogen/ERα is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species, activation of ERK1/2, and the survival/growth of PTC cells. Chemical and genetic inhibition of autophagy dramatically decreased tumor cell survival and promoted apoptosis, confirming the positive role of autophagy in the growth of PTC. ERα contributes to the growth of PTC by enhancing an important prosurvival catabolic process, autophagy, in PTC cells. The inhibition of autophagy promotes apoptosis, implicating a novel strategy for the treatment of ERα-positive PTC.

  6. A review of physical properties of separators for valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zguris, G.C. [Hovosorb Separators, Hollingsworth and Vose Co., West Groton, MA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The microglass separator has been used from the conception of valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology. There is increasing recognition that the separator has a critical role in battery performance. Research is supporting the position that compression exerted by the separator has an important role in premature capacity loss. Some companies have suggested that the separator compression set/creep plays a critical role in the battery failure mechanism in float applications. ALABC studies have shown that designs with higher compression improve the cycle life of batteries. Increasing numbers of manufacturers are designing their separators around the end-application of the battery. The separator in a VRLA battery is not an inactive spacer/barrier, as in a flooded lead/acid cell. Instead, these separators function as a key element, the third electrode. This paper reviews aspects of the microglass separator used in VRLA batteries. Information is provided to make a better separator selection, since a 100% microglass media, or any recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM) for a VRLA battery has a critical role in assuring the performance of the battery. A poor design can thus decrease the expected life of the battery. (orig.)

  7. Genomic insights into the broad antifungal activity, plant-probiotic properties, and their regulation, in Pseudomonas donghuensis strain SVBP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Andrés; Valverde, Claudio Fabián

    2018-01-01

    Plant-growth promotion has been linked to the Pseudomonas genus since the beginning of this research field. In this work, we mined the genome of an Argentinean isolate of the recently described species P. donghuensis. Strain SVBP6, isolated from bulk soil of an agricultural plot, showed a broad antifungal activity and several other plant-probiotic activities. As this species has been recently described, and it seems like some plant-growth promoting (PGP) traits do not belong to the classical pseudomonads toolbox, we decide to explore the SVBP6 genome via an bioinformatic approach. Genome inspection confirmed our previous in vitro results about genes involved in several probiotic activities. Other genetic traits possibly involved in survival of SVBP6 in highly competitive environments, such as rhizospheres, were found. Tn5 mutagenesis revealed that the antifungal activity against the soil pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina was dependent on a functional gacS gene, from the regulatory cascade Gac-Rsm, but it was not due to volatile compounds. Altogether, our genomic analyses and in vitro tests allowed the phylogenetic assignment and provided the first insights into probiotic properties of the first P. donghuensis isolate from the Americas. PMID:29538430

  8. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Calcium Binding Properties and Allosteric Regulation of Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Craig, Theodore A; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L

    2017-07-18

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is an EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that also binds to a specific DNA sequence, downstream regulatory elements (DRE), and thereby regulates transcription in a calcium-dependent fashion. DREAM binds to DRE in the absence of Ca 2+ but detaches from DRE under Ca 2+ stimulation, allowing gene expression. The Ca 2+ binding properties of DREAM and the consequences of the binding on protein structure are key to understanding the function of DREAM. Here we describe the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the Ca 2+ binding properties and the subsequent conformational changes of full-length DREAM. We demonstrate that all EF-hands undergo large conformation changes upon calcium binding even though the EF-1 hand is not capable of binding to Ca 2+ . Moreover, EF-2 is a lower-affinity site compared to EF-3 and -4 hands. Comparison of HDX profiles between wild-type DREAM and two EF-1 mutated constructs illustrates that the conformational changes in the EF-1 hand are induced by long-range structural interactions. HDX analyses also reveal a conformational change in an N-terminal leucine-charged residue-rich domain (LCD) remote from Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands. This LCD domain is responsible for the direct interaction between DREAM and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and regulates the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB-binding protein. These long-range interactions strongly suggest how conformational changes transmit the Ca 2+ signal to CREB-mediated gene transcription.

  9. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  10. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  11. Superficial physicochemical properties of polyurethane biomaterials as osteogenic regulators in human mesenchymal stem cells fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrousvand, Mohsen; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Shahrousvand, Ehsan; Ghollasi, Marzieh; Salimi, Ali

    2017-08-01

    All of the cells' interactions are done through their surfaces. Evaluation of surface physicochemical scaffolds along with other factors is important and determines the fate of stem cells. In this work, biodegradable and biocompatible polyester/polyether based polyurethanes (PUs) were synthesized by polycaprolactone diol (PCL) and poly (tetra methylene ether) glycol (PTMEG) as the soft segment. To assess better the impact of surface parameters such as stiffness and roughness effects on osteogenic differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC), the dimension effect of substrates was eliminated and two-dimensional membranes were produced by synthesized polyurethane. Surface and bulk properties of prepared 2D membranes such as surface chemistry, roughness, stiffness and tensile behavior were evaluated by Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile behavior. The prepared 2D PU films had suitable hydrophilicity, biodegradability, water absorption, surface roughness and bulk strength. The hMSCs showed greater osteogenesis expression in PU substrates with more roughness and stiffness than others. The results demonstrated that surface parameters along with other differentiation cues have a synergistic effect on stem cells fates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enterococcus faecalis Infection and Reactive Oxygen Species Down-Regulates the miR-17-92 Cluster in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation due to bacterial overgrowth of the stomach predisposes to the development of gastric cancer and is also associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years increasing attention has been drawn to microRNAs (miRNAs) due to their role in the pathogenesis...... of many human diseases including gastric cancer. Here we studied the impact of infection by the gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) on global miRNA expression as well as the effect of ROS on selected miRNAs. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MKN74 was infected with living E...... by living E. faecalis bacteria caused a significant global response in miRNA expression in the MKN74 cell culture. E. faecalis infection as well as ROS stimulation down-regulated the expression of the miR-17-92 cluster. We believe that these changes could reflect a general response of gastric epithelial...

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the structure of incorporated oxalate species and photoluminescent properties of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevsky, I.; Jagminas, A.; Hemeltjen, S.; Goedel, W. A.

    2008-09-01

    The present work focuses on the use of IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectral measurements for studying the treatment temperature effect on the compositional and luminescent properties of oxalic acid alumina films. In line with the recent researches we have also found that heat treatment of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid leads to considerable changes in their photoluminescence properties: upon annealing the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) increases reaching a maximum at the temperature of around 500 °C and then decreases. IR spectra of as-grown and heat-treated films have proved that PL emission in the anodic alumina films is related with the state of 'structural' oxalate species incorporated in the oxide lattice. These results allowed us to conclude that PL behavior of oxalic acid alumina films can be explained through the concept of variations in the bonding molecular orbitals of incorporated oxalate species including σ- and π-bonds.

  14. Effect of age on calorific value and some mechanical properties of three Eucalyptus species grown in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Tsegaye Bekele [Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Shashemene (Ethiopia)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of age on calorific value, specific gravity, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of three plantation grown Eucalyptus species in the south-central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. The species investigated were Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. saligna Sm. and E grandis W. Hill ex Maid. The investigation was made on sample trees taken from age sequences of stands of the three species. Calorific values were determined on sample discs taken at 4, 8, 12 and 16 m up the stems of the sample trees. Calorific values were also determined for heartwood and sapwood of each disc separately. Specific gravity, MOR and MOE were investigated on a 1 -m long sample log taken from the butt end of each sample tree. The results showed that there was no significant difference in calorific values between the three species when considering a similar age category. Similarly, there was no significant difference in calorific values between disc positions and wood types (heartwood versus sapwood) within species. However, calorific values tend to increase along the tree stem towards the treetop for each of the three species. Correlation between calorific values of each disc position and tree age was generally weak and dominantly negative for E. saligna and E. globulus, but positive for E. grandis. On the other hand, there was a weak but positive correlation between tree age and specific gravity and MOR for the three species. MOE was almost non-correlated with age. Generally, the results showed that waiting for older ages for the three Eucalyptus species may not further increase their calorific values. Hence, stands of the three Eucalyptus species can be harvested and used for fuelwood at an early age as traditionally managed on short-rotation basis. (author)

  15. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  16. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Eight COL Superfamily Genes in Group I Related to Photoperiodic Regulation of Flowering Time in Wild and Domesticated Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  17. Regulating effect of SiO2 interlayer on optical properties of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Miao, Juhong; Su, Jing; Zhang, Chengyi; Shen, Hua; Zhao, Lilong

    2013-01-01

    ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films with periodic structure were prepared by electron beam evaporation technique. Regulating effect of SiO 2 interlayer with various thicknesses on the optical properties of ZnO/SiO 2 thin films was investigated deeply. The analyses of X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO layers in ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films have a wurtzite structure and are preferentially oriented along the c-axis while the SiO 2 layers are amorphous. The scanning electron microscope images display that the ZnO layers are composed of columnar grains and the thicknesses of ZnO and SiO 2 layers are all very uniform. The SiO 2 interlayer presents a significant modulation effect on the optical properties of ZnO thin films, which is reflected in the following two aspects: (1) the transmittance of ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films is increased; (2) the photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films is largely enhanced compared with that of pure ZnO thin films. The ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films have potential applications in light-emitting devices and flat panel displays. -- Highlights: ► ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films with periodic structure were prepared by electron beam evaporation technique. ► The SiO 2 interlayer presents a significant modulation effect on the optical properties of ZnO thin films. ► The photoluminescence of ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films is largely enhanced compared with that of pure ZnO thin films. ► The ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films have potential applications in light-emitting devices and flat panel displays

  18. Identification of Coccoidal Bacteria in Traditional Fermented Milk Products from Mongolia, and the Fermentation Properties of the Predominant Species, Streptococcus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the coccoidal bacteria present in 188 samples of fermented yaks’, mares’ and cows’ milk products collected from 12 different regions in Mongolia. Furthermore, we evaluated the fermentation properties of ten selected isolates of the predominant species, Streptococcus (S.) thermophiles, during the process of milk fermentation and subsequent storage of the resulting yoghurt at 4℃. Overall, 159 isolates were obtained from 188 samples using M17 agar. These isolates were presumed to be lactic acid bacteria based on their gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and were identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These coccoid isolates were distributed in four genera and six species: Enterococcus (E.) durans, Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, Lactococcus (Lac.) subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc (Leuc.) lactis, Leuconostoc (Leuc.) mesenteroides. subsp. mesenteroides and S. thermophilus. Among these S. thermophilus was the most common species in most samples. From evaluation of the fermentation characteristics (viable counts, pH, titratable acidity [TA]) of ten selected S. thermophilus isolates we could identify four isolates (IMAU 20246, IMAU20764, IMAU20729 and IMAU20738) that were fast acid producers. IMAU20246 produced the highest concentrations of lactic acid and formic acid. These isolates have potential as starter cultures for yoghurt production. PMID:26761898

  19. Long-chain bases and their phosphorylated derivatives differentially regulate cryptogein-induced production of reactive oxygen species in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursol, Sylvie; Fromentin, Jérôme; Noirot, Elodie; Brière, Christian; Robert, Franck; Morel, Johanne; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Lherminier, Jeannine; Simon-Plas, Françoise

    2015-02-01

    The proteinaceous elicitor cryptogein triggers defence reactions in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) through a signalling cascade, including the early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the plasma membrane (PM)-located tobacco respiratory burst oxidase homologue D (NtRbohD). Sphingolipid long-chain bases (LCBs) are emerging as potent positive regulators of plant defence-related mechanisms. This led us to question whether both LCBs and their phosphorylated derivatives (LCB-Ps) are involved in the early signalling process triggered by cryptogein in tobacco BY-2 cells. Here, we showed that cryptogein-induced ROS production was inhibited by LCB kinase (LCBK) inhibitors. Additionally, Arabidopsis thaliana sphingosine kinase 1 and exogenously supplied LCB-Ps increased cryptogein-induced ROS production, whereas exogenously supplied LCBs had a strong opposite effect, which was not driven by a reduction in cellular viability. Immunogold-electron microscopy assay also revealed that LCB-Ps are present in the PM, which fits well with the presence of a high LCBK activity associated with this fraction. Our data demonstrate that LCBs and LCB-Ps differentially regulate cryptogein-induced ROS production in tobacco BY-2 cells, and support a model in which a cooperative synergism between LCBK/LCB-Ps and NtRbohD/ROS in the cryptogein signalling pathway is likely at the PM in tobacco BY-2 cells. © 2014 INRA New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  1. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6–Cu mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-01-01

    SF 6 –Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF 6 –Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1–10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1–10), and copper molar proportions (0–50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF 6 –Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation. (paper)

  2. Induction of apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma by reactive oxygen species: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38delta/gamma, cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulation, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, Monica

    2012-02-03

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Unfortunately, RCCs are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be sought for the successful treatment of RCCs. We now report that 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583), an inhibitor of cyclic GMP production, induced growth arrest and apoptosis of the RCC cell line 786-0. It did not prove deleterious to normal renal epithelial cells, an important aspect of chemotherapy. To address the cellular mechanism(s), we used both genetic and pharmacological approaches. LY83583 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in RCC apoptosis through dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1\\/2 and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and -2. In addition, we observed a decrease in Elk-1 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) down-regulation. We were surprised that we failed to observe an increase in either c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38alpha and -beta mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contradiction, reintroduction of p38delta by stable transfection or overexpression of p38gamma dominant negative abrogated the apoptotic effect. Cell death was associated with a decrease and increase in Bcl-x(L) and Bax expression, respectively, as well as release of cytochrome c and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. These events were associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species formation. The antioxidant N-acetyl l-cysteine, however, opposed LY83583-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, ERK1\\/2 inactivation, COX-2 down-regulation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LY83583 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RCC, which remains highly refractory to antineoplastic agents. Our data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer activity of LY83583.

  3. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF Shorea mujongensis P.S. Ashton, A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES OF DIPTEROCARPS FROM KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listya Mustika Dewi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of Shorea mujongensis P.S. Ashton was investigated in order to ensure this species belongs to yellow meranti group. Such study is very important since this species is already listed in the red list of IUCN and classified as critically endangered species. The microscopic slides were prepared according to the Johansen's method, while the anatomical features observed according to the IAWA  List. The results show that S. mujongensis wood exhibit brown heartwood, light brown sapwood, rough texture, straight grain sometimes interlocked and somewhat rough. The main microscopic characters are growth rings indistinct; vessel diffuse, mostly solitary, rounded to oval; simple perforation plate and alternate intervessel pits; parenchyma scanty paratracheal to thin vasicentric; axial intercellular canals in long tangential line, radial intercellular canal and vasicentric tracheids present; rays uniseriate and multiseriate, prismatic crystal in procumbent cells; fiber length 1,294 µm, diameter 26 µm and wall thickness 4µm. Macroscopic and microscopic observation of S. mujongensis wood confirms the species belongs to yellow meranti group. The assesment on fiber dimensions and derived values of the wood fibers classified the wood into class quality II. It indicates that this species is moderately favorable as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture.

  4. Cohesive Properties of the Caulobacter crescentus Holdfast Adhesin Are Regulated by a Novel c-di-GMP Effector Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin S. Sprecher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. Here we identify HfsK, a member of a versatile N-acetyltransferase family, as a novel c-di-GMP effector involved in holdfast biogenesis. Cells lacking HfsK form highly malleable holdfast structures with reduced adhesive strength that cannot support surface colonization. We present indirect evidence that HfsK modifies the polysaccharide component of holdfast to buttress its cohesive properties. HfsK is a soluble protein but associates with the cell membrane during most of the cell cycle. Coincident with peak c-di-GMP levels during the C. crescentus cell cycle, HfsK relocalizes to the cytosol in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Our results indicate that this c-di-GMP-mediated dynamic positioning controls HfsK activity, leading to its inactivation at high c-di-GMP levels. A short C-terminal extension is essential for the membrane association, c-di-GMP binding, and activity of HfsK. We propose a model in which c-di-GMP binding leads to the dispersal and inactivation of HfsK as part of holdfast biogenesis progression.

  5. Specific gravity and other properties of wood and bark for 156 tree species found in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports information for the estimation of biomass for 156 tree species found in North America for use in national forest inventory applications. We present specific gravities based on average green volume as well as 12 percent moisture content volume for calculation of oven-dry biomass....

  6. Induction of molecular endpoints by reactive oxygen species in human lung cells predicted by physical chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide engineered nanomaterials were assessed for their ability to induce cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and various types of DNA and protein damage in human respiratory BEAS-2B cells exposed in vitro for 72 hours at se...

  7. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson; Møller, Per

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella...... antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source....

  8. Solvent optimization extraction of antioxidants from foxtail millet species' insoluble fibers and their free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, Mohamed Lamine; Nsor-Atindana, John; Ming, Zhou Hui

    2013-11-15

    In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS(+). No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS(+). In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic management and cover crop species steer soil microbial community structure and functionality along with soil organic matter properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-García, Laura B.; Korthals, Gerard; Brussaard, Lijbert; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Deyn, de Gerlinde B.

    2018-01-01

    It is well recognized that organic soil management stimulates bacterial biomass and activity and that including cover crops in the rotation increases soil organic matter (SOM). Yet, to date the relative impact of different cover crop species and organic vs. non-organic soil management on soil

  10. Impacts of pine species, stump removal, cultivation, and fertilization on soil properties half a century after planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G Sanchez; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the long-term effects of species selection and forest management practices on soil quality and soil C retention, we analyzed soil samples from an experimental planting of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf ((Pinus palustris Mill.), and slash ((Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pines under...

  11. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition and properties of two amaranth species: starch and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallem, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of two Amaranth species were studied. The starch contents were 543 and 623 g kg-1 while crude protein contents were 154 and 169 g kg-1 for Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds, respectively. The effect of several treatments, including cooking, popping and germination and flour

  12. The effect of two ant species Lasius niger and Lasius flavus on soil properties in two contrasting habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, M.; Frouz, J. [Academy of Science Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Soil Biology

    2006-11-15

    Ants significantly change the soil environment within the nest. The aim of this study is to contribute to ecology and thus the importance of two ant species Lasius niger and Lasius flavus in a post-mining landscape near the town of Sokolov in northwest Bohemia where both species are common. Chemical (total C, N, and available P) and microbiological parameters (respiration, cellulose decomposition and direct counts of bacteria) were investigated in both ant species in two different habitats: a tertiary clay heap after brown coal mining with a weakly developed organic layer and semi natural meadows with well developed organic horizons. Total C and N in the L. flavus mound was lower than in the surrounding soil in both stands, the same was true for total N in L. niger on the heaps. L. niger nests in both sites were significantly enriched by available P. A litter bag test with cellulose indicated lower decomposition in the ant nest in comparison with the surrounding soil. Respiration seems to be limited by lower soil moisture in the nest. However, microbial respiration, even in suitable moisture conditions, did not differ between the nest and soil (on heaps) or nest respiration was significantly lower (in L. flavus nests in the meadow). In meadow soil both species had a lower bacteria count than the surrounding soil, but the L. niger nest on the heap had higher bacterial numbers. Both species significantly alter soil conditions, although the effect on selected parameters is variable. Moreover, the result with lower nest moisture and lower decomposition rate in ant mounds indicates that soil moisture should be the next important factor limiting soil processes inside ant mounds.

  13. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillito Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps represent oases of life in the deep-sea environment, but are also characterized by challenging physical and chemical conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on vent organisms in their habitat has not been well explored, in particular at a molecular level, most gene expression studies being conducted on coastal marine species. In order to better understand the response of hydrothermal organisms to different temperature regimes, differentially expressed genes (obtained by a subtractive suppression hybridization approach were identified in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus and the annelid Paralvinella pandorae irlandei to characterize the physiological processes involved when animals are subjected to long term exposure (2 days at two contrasting temperatures (10° versus 20°C, while maintained at in situ pressures. To avoid a potential effect of pressure, the experimental animals were initially thermally acclimated for 24 hours in a pressurized vessel. Results For each species, we produced two subtractive cDNA libraries (forward and reverse from sets of deep-sea mussels and annelids exposed together to a thermal challenge under pressure. RNA extracted from the gills, adductor muscle, mantle and foot tissue were used for B. thermophilus. For the annelid model, whole animals (small individuals were used. For each of the four libraries, we sequenced 200 clones, resulting in 78 and 83 unique sequences in mussels and annelids (about 20% of the sequencing effort, respectively, with only half of them corresponding to known genes. Real-time PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes identified in the corresponding libraries. Strong expression variations have been observed for some specific genes such as the intracellular hemoglobin, the nidogen protein, and Rab7 in P. pandorae, and the SPARC protein, cyclophilin, foot protein and adhesive plaque protein in B. thermophilus

  14. The differential response of photosynthesis to high temperature for a boreal and temperate Populus species relates to differences in Rubisco activation and Rubisco activase properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozain, Moh'd I; Salvucci, Michael E; Fokar, Mohamed; Holaday, A Scott

    2010-01-01

    Significant inhibition of photosynthesis occurs at temperatures only a few degrees (species adapted to contrasting thermal environments for determining the factors that constrain photosynthetic assimilation (A) under moderate heat stress in tree species. Consistent with its native range in temperate regions, Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. exhibited a significantly higher temperature optimum for A than did Populus balsamifera L., a boreal species. The higher A exhibited by P. deltoides at 33-40 degrees C compared to that for P. balsamifera was associated with a higher activation state of Rubisco and correlated with a higher ATPase activity of Rubisco activase. The temperature response of minimal chlorophyll a fluorescence for darkened leaves was similar for both species and was not consistent with a thylakoid lipid phase change contributing to the decline in A in the range of 30-40 degrees C. Taken together, these data support the idea that the differences in the temperature response of A for the two Populus species could be attributed to the differences in the response of Rubisco activation and ultimately to the thermal properties of Rubisco activase. That the primary sequence of Rubisco activase differed between the species, especially in regions associated with ATPase activity and Rubisco recognition, indicates that the genotypic differences in Rubisco activase might underlie the differences in the heat sensitivity of Rubisco activase and photosynthesis at moderately high temperatures.

  15. Enterococcus faecalis Infection and Reactive Oxygen Species Down-Regulates the miR-17-92 Cluster in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper A. B. Strickertsson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation due to bacterial overgrowth of the stomach predisposes to the development of gastric cancer and is also associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In recent years increasing attention has been drawn to microRNAs (miRNAs due to their role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including gastric cancer. Here we studied the impact of infection by the gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis on global miRNA expression as well as the effect of ROS on selected miRNAs. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MKN74 was infected with living E. faecalis for 24 h or for 5 days or with E. faecalis lysate for 5 days. The miRNA expression was examined by microarray analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays. To test the effect of ROS, MKN74 cells were treated with 100 mM tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP. Following 5 days of E. faecalis infection we found 91 differentially expressed miRNAs in response to living bacteria and 2 miRNAs responded to E. faecalis lysate. We verified the down-regulation of the miR-17-92 and miR-106-363 clusters and of other miRNAs involved in the oxidative stress-response by qRT-PCR. We conclude that only infection by living E. faecalis bacteria caused a significant global response in miRNA expression in the MKN74 cell culture. E. faecalis infection as well as ROS stimulation down-regulated the expression of the miR-17-92 cluster. We believe that these changes could reflect a general response of gastric epithelial cells to bacterial infections.

  16. Genomic and non-genomic regulation of PGC1 isoforms by estrogen to increase cerebral vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Martin F.; Stirone, Chris; Krause, Diana N.; Duckles, Sue P.; Procaccio, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that estrogen exerts a novel protective effect on mitochondria in brain vasculature. Here we demonstrate in rat cerebral blood vessels that 17β-estradiol (estrogen), both in vivo and ex vivo, affects key transcriptional coactivators responsible for mitochondrial regulation. Treatment of ovariectomized rats with estrogen in vivo lowered mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) but increased levels of the other PGC-1 isoforms: PGC-1β and PGC-1 related coactivator (PRC). In vessels ex vivo, estrogen decreased protein levels of PGC-1α via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Estrogen treatment also increased phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor, FoxO1, a known pathway for PGC-1α downregulation. In contrast to the decrease in PGC-1α, estrogen increased protein levels of nuclear respiratory factor 1, a known PGC target and mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The latter effect of estrogen was independent of PI3K, suggesting a separate mechanism consistent with increased expression of PGC-1β and PRC. We demonstrated increased mitochondrial biogenesis following estrogen treatment in vivo; cerebrovascular levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A and electron transport chain subunits as well as the mitochondrial/ nuclear DNA ratio were increased. We examined a downstream target of PGC-1β, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis. In vivo estrogen increased protein levels of both GCL subunits and total glutathione levels. Together these data show estrogen differentially regulates PGC-1 isoforms in brain vasculature, underscoring the importance of these coactivators in adapting mitochondria in specific tissues. By upregulating PGC-1β and/or PRC, estrogen appears to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis, function and reactive oxygen species protection. PMID:24275351

  17. Regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity—a single molecule technology to measure the bilayer properties experienced by an embedded protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August

    2008-01-01

    , regulate a number of structurally unrelated proteins in an apparently non-specific manner. It is well known that changes in the physical properties of a lipid bilayer (e.g., thickness or monolayer spontaneous curvature) can affect the function of an embedded protein. However, the role of such changes......-dependent sodium channels, N-type calcium channels and GABAA receptors, it has been shown that membrane protein function in living cells can be regulated by amphiphile induced changes in bilayer elasticity. Using the gramicidin channel as a molecular force transducer, a nanotechnology to measure the elastic...... properties experienced by an embedded protein has been developed. A theoretical and technological framework, to study the regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity, has been established....

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor up-regulates the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in retinal endothelial cells via reactive oxygen species, but not nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ling; WEN Liang; CHEN Yan-jiong; ZHU Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the initiation of retinal vascular leakage and nonperfusion in diabetes. The intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is the key mediator of the effect of VEGFs on retinal leukostasis. Although the VEGF is expressed in an early-stage diabetic retina, whether it directly up-regulates ICAM-1 in retinal endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown. In this study, we provided a new mechanism to explain that VEGF does up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1 in retinal ECs.Methods Bovine retinal ECs (BRECs) were isolated and cultured. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to identify BRECs. The cultured cells were divided into corresponding groups. Then, VEGF (100 ng/ml) and other inhibitors were used to treat the cells. Cell lysate and the cultured supernatant were collected, and then, the protein level of ICAM-1 and phosphorylation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were detected using Western blotting. Griess reaction was used to detect nitric oxide (NO).Results Western blotting showed that the VEGF up-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 protein and increased phosphorylation of the eNOS in retinal ECs. Neither the block of NO nor protein kinase C (PKC) altered the expression of ICAM-1 or the phosphorylation of eNOS. The result of the Western blotting also showed that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduced the expression of ICAM-1. Inhibition of PI3K also reduced phosphorylation of eNOS. Griess reaction showed that VEGF significantly increased during NO production. When eNOS was blocked by L-NAME or PI3K was blocked by LY294002, the basal level of NO production and the increment of NO caused by VEGF could be significantly decreased.Conclusion ROS-NO coupling in the retinal endothelium may be a new mechanism that could help to explain why VEGF induces ICAM-1 expression and the resulting leukostasis in diabetic retinopathy.

  19. Spatial and temporal regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the early development of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a very important crop and the goal of this work was to provide a framework of the behaviour of the key elements in the metabolism of ROS and RNS in the main organs of pepper during its development. The main seedling organs (roots, hypocotyls and green cotyledons) of pepper seedlings were analysed 7, 10 and 14 d after germination. Activity and gene expression of the main enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes), NADP-generating dehydrogenases and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase were determined. Cellular distribution of nitric oxide ((·)NO), superoxide radical (O2 (·-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolism of ROS and RNS during pepper seedling development was highly regulated and showed significant plasticity, which was co-ordinated among the main seedling organs, resulting in correct development. Catalase showed higher activity in the aerial parts of the seedling (hypocotyls and green cotyledons) whereas roots of 7-d-old seedlings contained higher activity of the enzymatic components of the ascorbate glutathione cycle, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme. There is differential regulation of the metabolism of ROS, nitric oxide and NADP dehydrogenases in the different plant organs during seedling development in pepper in the absence of stress. The metabolism of ROS and RNS seems to contribute significantly to plant development since their components are involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic pathways. Thus, specific molecules such as H2O2 and NO have implications for signalling, and their temporal and spatial regulation contributes

  20. Optimization of thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) previously treated with freezing-point regulators using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zunying; Zhao, Yuanhui; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Yang, Huicheng

    2015-08-01

    Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250-1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500-2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125-0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistically significant (P thermophysical properties were T i , - 5.086 °C; W u , 17.222 %; C app , 41.038 J/g °C and H, 155.942 J/g, respectively. Briefly, the application of freezing-point regulators depressed T i and obtained the optimum W u , C app and H, which would be obviously beneficial for the exploitation of various thermal processing and food storage.

  1. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secreting Cell Function as well as Production of Inflammatory Reactive Oxygen Species Is Differently Regulated by Glycated Serum and High Levels of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Puddu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an intestinal hormone contributing to glucose homeostasis, is synthesized by proglucagon and secreted from intestinal neuroendocrine cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1 secretion is impaired in type 2 diabetes patients. Here, we aimed at investigating whether diabetic toxic products (glycated serum (GS or high levels of glucose (HG may affect viability, function, and insulin sensitivity of the GLP-1 secreting cell line GLUTag. Cells were cultured for 5 days in presence or absence of different dilutions of GS or HG. GS and HG (alone or in combination increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and upregulated proglucagon mRNA expression as compared to control medium. Only HG increased total production and release of active GLP-1, while GS alone abrogated secretion of active GLP-1. HG-mediated effects were associated with the increased cell content of the prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, while GS alone downregulated this enzyme. HG upregulated Glucokinase (GK and downregulated SYNTHAXIN-1. GS abrogated SYNTHAXIN-1 and SNAP-25. Finally, high doses of GS alone or in combination with HG reduced insulin-mediated IRS-1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we showed that GS and HG might regulate different pathways of GLP-1 production in diabetes, directly altering the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone.

  2. The Relationship between Black Point and Fungi Species and Effects of Black Point on Seed Germination Properties in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    TOKLU, Faruk; AKGÜL, Davut Soner; BİÇİCİ, Mehmet; KARAKÖY, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between some fungi species and black point incidence and the effect of black point on seed weight, germination percentage, seedling emergence, seedling establishment, number of embryonic roots, and coleoptile length under field conditions in bread wheat. In this research, black-pointed and black point-free kernel samples of 5 bread wheat cultivars, namely Ceyhan-99, Doğankent-1, Yüreğir-89, Seyhan-95, and Adana-99 - commonly grown unde...

  3. ACCERBATIN, a small molecule at the intersection of auxin and reactive oxygen species homeostasis with herbicidal properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hu, Y.; Depaepe, T.; Smet, D.; Hoyerová, Klára; Klíma, Petr; Cuypers, J.; Cutler, S.; Buyst, D.; Morreel, K.; Boerjan, W.; Martins, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Vandenbussche, F.; Van Der Straeten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 15 (2017), s. 4185-4203 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15137 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : apical hook development * root hair development * arabidopsis-thaliana seedlings * ethylene biosynthesis * shoot gravitropism * cell elongation * abiotic stress * abscisic-acid * plant-growth * gene family * Arabidopsis * auxin homeostasis * chemical genetics * ethylene signaling * herbicide * quinoline carboxamide * reactive oxygen species * triple response Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  4. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  5. Novel lanthanide doped micro- and mesoporous solids. Characterization of ion-host-interactions, species distribution and luminescence properties using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, Andre

    2010-12-01

    In this work lanthanide-doped microporous zeolites, microporous-mesoporous hybrid materials and mesoporous silicates were investigated regarding their luminescence properties and the ion-host-interactions using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Thereby, time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) provide information in the wavelength and time domain. For the analysis of the TRES a broad set of analytic methods was applied and thus a corresponding ''toolbox'' developed. Fitting of the luminescence decays was performed with a discrete number of exponentials and supported by luminescence decay times distributions. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra (TRANES), an advancement of TRES, could be used for the determination of the number of emissive lanthanide species in porous materials for the first time. Calculation of the decay-associated spectra (DAS) allowed the correlation of spectral information with luminescence decay times and thus delivered the luminescence spectra of the different europium species. For europium(III) we could use in addition the time-dependent asymmetry ratio and spectral evolution of the 5 D 0 - 7 F 0 -transition with time to obtain further information about the distribution of the lanthanide ions in the host material. Luminescence decay times and spectra allowed conclusions on the number of OH-oscillators in and the symmetry of the first coordination sphere. For the microporous and microporous-mesoporous materials were found different lanthanide species, which were characterized by the above mentioned methods. These lanthanide species can be found on different positions in the host material. One position is located deep in the pore system. Here, lanthanide ions are hardly accessible for water and mainly coordinated by framework oxygens. This results in long luminescence decay times and distorted coordination spheres. The second position can be found near or on the outer surface or in the mesopores. Lanthanide ions located here, are

  6. Honokiol induces autophagic cell death in malignant glioma through reactive oxygen species-mediated regulation of the p53/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Ju [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ta-Liang [Anesthetics and Toxicology Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yuan-Yun [Department of Neurosurgery, Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Gong-Jhe [Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Hui [Anesthetics and Toxicology Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Wei [Brain Disease Research Center, Taipei Medical University Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ruei-Ming, E-mail: rmchen@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Anesthetics and Toxicology Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Brain Disease Research Center, Taipei Medical University Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    Honokiol, an active constituent extracted from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, possesses anticancer effects. Apoptosis is classified as type I programmed cell death, while autophagy is type II programmed cell death. We previously proved that honokiol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of U87 MG glioma cells. Subsequently in this study, we evaluated the effect of honokiol on autophagy of glioma cells and examined the molecular mechanisms. Administration of honokiol to mice with an intracranial glioma increased expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Exposure of U87 MG cells to honokiol also induced autophagy in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Results from the addition of 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, and rapamycin, an autophagy inducer confirmed that honokiol-induced autophagy contributed to cell death. Honokiol decreased protein levels of PI3K, phosphorylated (p)-Akt, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with a p53 inhibitor or transfection with p53 small interfering (si)RNA suppressed honokiol-induced autophagy by reversing downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR expressions. In addition, honokiol caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was suppressed by the antioxidant, vitamin C. Vitamin C also inhibited honokiol-induced autophagic and apoptotic cell death. Concurrently, honokiol-induced alterations in levels of p-p53, p53, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were attenuated following vitamin C administration. Taken together, our data indicated that honokiol induced ROS-mediated autophagic cell death through regulating the p53/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Exposure of mice with intracranial gliomas to honokiol induces cell apoptosis and autophagy. • Honokiol triggers autophagy of human glioma cells via the PISK/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. • P53 induces autophagy via regulating the AKT/mTOR pathway in honokiol-treated glioma cells. • ROS participates

  7. Modeling the hydrophysical soil properties as a part of self-regulated flood dams projection in gis-environment for sustainable urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Terleev, Vitaly; Badenko, Vladimir; Mirschel, Wilfried; Abakumov, Evgeny; Ginevsky, Roman; Lazarev, Viktor; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Akimov, Luka

    2017-10-01

    The problem of flood protection measures are considered in the paper. The regulation of river flow by the system of Self-Regulated Flood Dams (SRFD) is analyzed. The method of SRFD modeling in GIS environment is proposed. The question of the ecological aspect of the SRFD management is considered based on the hydrophysical properties of the soil. The improved Mualem-Van Genuchted method is proposed for the evaluation of the possible SRFD location influence on the soil of flooded territory - the temporary reservoirs. The importance and utility of the proposed complex method is stated.

  8. Molecular characterization and bio-functional property determination using SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC of protein fractions from two Nigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Alodat, Moh'd; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi A; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Almajwal, Ali; Kubow, Stan

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular and bio-functional properties of protein fractions from Nigella damascena and Nigella arvensis, including the albumin, globulin, glutein-1, glutein-2 and prolamin fractions. Protein subunits were not observed in globulin and prolamin fractions. No peaks appeared in RP-HPLC chromatograms of globulin for either species. Two predominant peaks were observed in the RP-HPLC profiles of all protein fractions. Proteins separated by RP-HPLC have potential inhibitory and antioxidant activities in all fractions. Optimum ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of proteins separated by RP-HPLC were observed in glutein-2 and albumin, respectively, for both species. For pepsin and combined pepsin-trypsin hydrolyses, the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was obtained in glutein-2 fraction of Nigella arvensis. Highest ACE-inhibitory activity of hydrolyzed protein fractions was found at 4h via pepsin hydrolysis in globulin fraction of Nigella damascena. Highest antioxidant activities of hydrolyzed protein fractions were found in glutelin-2 for both species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Radiation Shielding Properties of selected Tropical Wood Species for X-rays in the 50-150 keV Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aggrey-Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the attenuation coefficients of 20 tropical hard wood species based on their linear and mass attenuation and half value layer (HVL properties for X-rays of energy 50–150 keV using a narrow collimated beam from a Cs-137 source. The narrow collimated beam method made corrections from multiple and small-angle scatterings of photons unnecessary. The attenuation depended on the chemical composition and densities of the wood species. The linear attenuation coefficients of wood species at 50–150 keV were highest for Pterygota macrocarpa (4.53 m−1 and lowest for Antiaris africana (1.24 m−1; the mass attenuation coefficient was highest for Triplochiton scleroxylon (17.62 m2/kg and lowest for Nesogordonia papaverifera (2.27 m2/kg.The HVL was highest for Antiaris africana (0.27 m and lowest for Pterygota macrocarpa (0.149 m. Pterygota macrocarpa of about 0.36 m thickness could serve as a more affordable radiation shielding material against secondary scatter and leakage radiations in place of lead, copper or concrete for low X-ray radiations up to 150 keV.

  10. Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Radosław; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.

  11. The investigation of interspecies diversity of erythrocyte aggregation properties by two different photometric methods in four animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, F; Toth, E; Peto, K; Miko, I; Nemeth, N

    2015-12-01

    Among the haemorheological parameters, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation shows the largest interspecies diversity, and often controversial data can be found in the literature, besides the methodology-dependent issues. In this present investigation, we compared four experimental/laboratory animal species' RBC aggregation by two different photometric methods for better revealing the differences. Blood samples (K3-EDTA, 1.5 mg/ml) were taken from female animals: 16 inbred mice (Mus musculus, cardiac puncture), 15 outbred rats (Rattus norvegicus, caudal caval vein puncture), 15 beagle dogs (Canis canis, cephalic vein) and 23 juvenile pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, medial saphenous vein). Haematological parameters (microcell counter) and RBC aggregation (light transmission and syllectometry-laser backscatter methods) were determined within 2 h after sampling. Describing the first 5-10 s of the aggregation process, additional parameters were calculated out of the syllectometric raw data. Standardized difference was calculated to determine the sensitivity of the two devices. Parameters describing the extent and magnitude of red blood cell aggregation showed the lowest values in the rat and the highest in the pig and canine blood. In turn, parameters describing the kinetics of aggregation showed the lowest values in the mouse and the highest in the rat. The standardized difference values for the laser backscattering method were 2-4 times larger vs. the light transmission one. The magnitude of the differences was not consequent in the aggregation parameters. These comparative results show that the laser backscattering method can detect the RBC aggregation differences between the investigated species more sensitively than the light transmission method. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Lack of photosynthetic or stomatal regulation after 9 years of elevated [CO2] and 4 years of soil warming in two conifer species at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Kathrin; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Hagedorn, Frank; Schaub, Marcus; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Alpine treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries. Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on CO2 and H2 O gas exchange may help predict responses of treelines to global change. We measured needle gas exchange of Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata DC trees after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (575 µmol mol(-1) ) and 4 years of soil warming (+4 °C) and analysed δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of needles and tree rings. Tree needles under elevated [CO2 ] showed neither nitrogen limitation nor end-product inhibition, and no down-regulation of maximal photosynthetic rate (Amax ) was found. Both tree species showed increased net photosynthetic rates (An ) under elevated [CO2 ] (L. decidua: +39%; P. mugo: +35%). Stomatal conductance (gH2O ) was insensitive to changes in [CO2 ], thus transpiration rates remained unchanged and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) increased due to higher An . Soil warming affected neither An nor gH2O . Unresponsiveness of gH2O to [CO2 ] and warming was confirmed by δ(18) O needle and tree ring values. Consequently, under sufficient water supply, elevated [CO2 ] induced sustained enhancement in An and lead to increased C inputs into this ecosystem, while soil warming hardly affected gas exchange of L. decidua and P. mugo at the alpine treeline. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Borders of EU Competences with Regard to the International Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights: Constructing a Dam to Resist a River Bursting Its Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yole Tanghe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent negotiations on the highly anticipated Free Trade Agreements to which the EU shall be party ('e.g.' CETA and TTIP, assessing the extent to which the EU can regulate intellectual property rights in its external relations seems relevant. Two recent cases of the Court of Justice of the EU have reversed its landmark decision in Opinion 1/94, in which intellectual property regulation was almost entirely excluded from the EU’s exclusive competence in trade matters. Firstly, in the 'Daiichi Sankyo' case, the Court elaborated upon the EU’s explicit external competence in the field of intellectual property. This explicit competence is provided for by Article 207 TFEU on the common commercial policy, which allows the EU to conclude agreements concerning the ‘commercial aspects of intellectual property’. In the 'Broadcasting Rights' case, the Court founded its decision on the EU’s implied competence to conclude international agreements, as provided for by Article 3(2 TFEU. Considering the outcome of these two judgments, the Court seems to grant the EU a wide scope of action with regard to intellectual property rights. As a consequence, questions arise with regard to the post-Lisbon era role that is left for the Member States in the field of intellectual property. Therefore, the aim of this article is to outline the scope of the EU’s exclusivity in IP matters and to highlight the borders.

  14. The biosynthesis, structure and gelatinization properties of starches from wild and cultivated African rice species (Oryza barthii and Oryza glaberrima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wambugu, Peterson W; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Alex Chi; Henry, Robert J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-09-20

    The molecular structure and gelatinization properties of starches from domesticated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its wild progenitor (Oryza barthii) are determined and comparison made with Asian domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), the commonest commercial rice. This suggests possible enzymatic processes contributing to the unique traits of the African varieties. These have similar starch structures, including smaller amylose molecules, but larger amounts of amylose chains across the whole amylose chain-length distribution, and higher amylose contents, than O. sativa. They also show a higher proportion of two- and three-lamellae spanning amylopectin branch chains (degree of polymerization 34-100) than O. sativa, which contributes to their higher gelatinization temperatures. Fitting amylopectin chain-length distribution with a biosynthesis-based mathematical model suggests that the reason for this difference might be because O. glaberrima and O. barthii have more active SSIIIa and/or less active SBEIIb enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual dimorphism and oestrogen regulation of KCNE3 expression modulates the functional properties of KCNQ1 K channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    -voltage relations elicited in CHO cells transfected with KCNQ1 and KCNE3 or KCNE1 cDNA. E2 (100 nM) reduced the currents mediated by the KCNQ1:KCNE3 potassium channel and had no effect on currents via KCNQ1:KCNE1 or KCNQ1 alone. Currents mediated by the complex formed by KCNQ1 and the mutant KCNE3-S82A beta-subunit (mutation of the site for PKCdelta-promoted phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of KCNE3) showed rapid run-down and insensitivity to E2. Together, these data suggest that oestrogen regulates the expression of the KCNE1 and KCNE3 and with it the gating and pharmacological properties of the K(+) conductance required for Cl(-) secretion. The decreased association of the KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel complex promoted by oestrogen exposure underlies the molecular mechanism for the sexual dimorphism and oestrous cycle dependence of the anti-secretory actions of oestrogen in the intestine.

  16. When everything is not everywhere but species evolve: an alternative method to model adaptive properties of marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauterey, Boris; Ward, Ben A; Follows, Michael J; Bowler, Chris; Claessen, David

    2015-01-01

    The functional and taxonomic biogeography of marine microbial systems reflects the current state of an evolving system. Current models of marine microbial systems and biogeochemical cycles do not reflect this fundamental organizing principle. Here, we investigate the evolutionary adaptive potential of marine microbial systems under environmental change and introduce explicit Darwinian adaptation into an ocean modelling framework, simulating evolving phytoplankton communities in space and time. To this end, we adopt tools from adaptive dynamics theory, evaluating the fitness of invading mutants over annual timescales, replacing the resident if a fitter mutant arises. Using the evolutionary framework, we examine how community assembly, specifically the emergence of phytoplankton cell size diversity, reflects the combined effects of bottom-up and top-down controls. When compared with a species-selection approach, based on the paradigm that "Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects", we show that (i) the selected optimal trait values are similar; (ii) the patterns emerging from the adaptive model are more robust, but (iii) the two methods lead to different predictions in terms of emergent diversity. We demonstrate that explicitly evolutionary approaches to modelling marine microbial populations and functionality are feasible and practical in time-varying, space-resolving settings and provide a new tool for exploring evolutionary interactions on a range of timescales in the ocean.

  17. Is the regulation of the electronic properties of organic molecules by polynuclear superhalogens more effective than that by mononuclear superhalogens? A high-level ab initio case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao-Miao; Li, Jin-Feng; Bai, Hongcun; Sun, Yin-Yin; Li, Jian-Li; Yin, Bing

    2015-08-21

    The regulation of the electronic properties of organic molecules induced by polynuclear superhalogens is theoretically explored here for sixteen composite structures. It is clearly indicated by the higher vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) that polynuclear superhalogens are more effective in regulating the electronic properties than mononuclear structures. However, this enhanced regulation is not only determined by superhalogens themselves but also related to the distribution of the extra electron of the final composites. The composites, in which the extra electron is mainly aggregated into the superhalogen moiety, will possess higher VDE values, as reported in the case of C1', 7.12 eV at the CCSD(T) level. This is probably due to the fact that, compared with organic molecules, superhalogens possess stronger attraction towards the extra electron and thus should lead to lower energies of the extra electrons and to higher VDE values eventually. Compared with CCSD(T), the Outer Valence Green's Function (OVGF) method fails completely for composite structures containing Cl atoms, while MP2 results are generally consistent in terms of the relative order of VDEs. Actually if the extra electron distribution of the systems could be approximated by the HOMO, the results at the OVGF level will be consistent with the CCSD(T) results. Conversely, the difference in VDEs between OVGF and CCSD(T) is significantly large. Besides superhalogen properties, the structures, relative stabilities and thermodynamic stabilities with respect to various fragmentation channels were also investigated for all the composite structures.

  18. Regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity-a single molecule technology to measure the bilayer properties experienced by an embedded protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundbaek, Jens August

    2006-01-01

    Membrane protein function is generally regulated by the molecular composition of the host lipid bilayer. The underlying mechanisms have long remained enigmatic. Some cases involve specific molecular interactions, but very often lipids and other amphiphiles, which are adsorbed to lipid bilayers, regulate a number of structurally unrelated proteins in an apparently non-specific manner. It is well known that changes in the physical properties of a lipid bilayer (e.g., thickness or monolayer spontaneous curvature) can affect the function of an embedded protein. However, the role of such changes, in the general regulation of membrane protein function, is unclear. This is to a large extent due to lack of a generally accepted framework in which to understand the many observations. The present review summarizes studies which have demonstrated that the hydrophobic interactions between a membrane protein and the host lipid bilayer provide an energetic coupling, whereby protein function can be regulated by the bilayer elasticity. The feasibility of this 'hydrophobic coupling mechanism' has been demonstrated using the gramicidin channel, a model membrane protein, in planar lipid bilayers. Using voltage-dependent sodium channels, N-type calcium channels and GABA A receptors, it has been shown that membrane protein function in living cells can be regulated by amphiphile induced changes in bilayer elasticity. Using the gramicidin channel as a molecular force transducer, a nanotechnology to measure the elastic properties experienced by an embedded protein has been developed. A theoretical and technological framework, to study the regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity, has been established

  19. PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 affects reactive oxygen species metabolism, cell wall and wood properties in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślesak, Ireneusz; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Fedak, Halina; Sidoruk, Natalia; Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Witoń, Damian; Rusaczonek, Anna; Antczak, Andrzej; Drożdżek, Michał; Karpińska, Barbara; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-07-01

    The phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAD4) is involved in the regulation of plant--pathogen interactions. The role of PAD4 in woody plants is not known; therefore, we characterized its function in hybrid aspen and its role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signalling and wood development. Three independent transgenic lines with different suppression levels of poplar PAD expression were generated. All these lines displayed deregulated ROS metabolism, which was manifested by an increased H2O2 level in the leaves and shoots, and higher activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) in the leaves in comparison to the wild-type plants. However, no changes in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) between the transgenic lines and wild type were observed in the leaves. Moreover, changes in the ROS metabolism in the pad4 transgenic lines positively correlated with wood formation. A higher rate of cell division, decreased tracheid average size and numbers, and increased cell wall thickness were observed. The results presented here suggest that the Populus tremula × tremuloides PAD gene might be involved in the regulation of cellular ROS homeostasis and in the cell division--cell death balance that is associated with wood development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Microbial mat of the thermal springs Kuchiger Republic of Buryatia: species composition, biochemical properties and electrogenic activity in biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovich Yuriev, Denis; Viktorovna Zaitseva, Svetlana; Olegovna Zhdanova, Galina; Yurievich Tolstoy, Mikhail; Dondokovna Barkhutova, Darima; Feodorovna Vyatchina, Olga; Yuryevna Konovalova, Elena; Iosifovich Stom, Devard

    2018-02-01

    Electrogenic, molecular and some other properties of a microbial mat isolated from the Kuchiger hot spring (Kurumkansky District, Republic of Buryatia) were studied. Molecular analysis showed that representatives of Proteobacteria (85.5 % of the number of classified bacterial sequences) prevailed in the microbial mat of the Kuchiger springs, among which sulfur bacteria of the genus Thiothrix were the most numerous. In the microbial mat there were bacteria from the families Rhodocyclaceae, Comamonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Phylum Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Fusobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Acidobacteria, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria are also noted in the composition of the microbial mat. Under the experimental conditions using Kuchiger-mat 16 as bioagents, glucose and peptone as substrates, the power of BFC was 240 and 221 mW / m2, respectively. When replacing the substrate with sodium acetate, the efficiency of the BFC was reduced by a factor of 10 (20 mW / m2). The prospects of using a microbial mat “Kuchiger-16” as an electrogen in BFC when utilizing alkaline waste water components to generate electricity are discussed.

  1. CBX7 regulates stem cell-like properties of gastric cancer cells via p16 and AKT-NF-κB-miR-21 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Su-Jie; Zhao, Li-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Zhen-Hua; Hua, Rui-Xi; Wan, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jie-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Gan, Lu; Sun, Hua-Lin; Dimri, Goberdhan P; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2018-02-08

    Chromobox protein homolog 7 (CBX7), a member of the polycomb group (PcG) family of proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and cancer progression. PcG family members, such as BMI, Mel-18, and EZH2, are integral constituents of the polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) and have been known to regulate cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. However, the role of other PRCs' constituents such as CBX7 in the regulation of CSC phenotype remains largely elusive. This study was to investigate the role of CBX7 in regulating stem cell-like properties of gastric cancer and the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, the role of CBX7 in regulating stem cell-like properties of gastric cancer was investigated using sphere formation, Western blot, and xenograft tumor assays. Next, RNA interference and ectopic CBX7 expression were employed to determine the impact of CBX7 on the expression of CSC marker proteins and CSC characteristics. The expression of CBX7, its downstream targets, and stem cell markers were analyzed in gastric stem cell spheres, common cancer cells, and gastric cancer tissues. Finally, the pathways by which CBX7 regulates stem cell-like properties of gastric cancer were explored. We found that CBX7, a constituent of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), plays an important role in maintaining stem cell-like characteristics of gastric cancer cells via the activation of AKT pathway and the downregulation of p16. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed positive correlations among the expression of CBX7 and phospho-AKT (pAKT), stem cell markers OCT-4, and CD133 in gastric cancer tissues. In addition, CBX7 was found to upregulate microRNA-21 (miR-21) via the activation of AKT-NF-κB pathway, and miR-21 contributes to CBX7-mediated CSC characteristics. CBX7 positively regulates stem cell-like characteristics of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting p16 and activating AKT-NF-κB-miR-21 pathway.

  2. Microspectroscopic imaging of solution plasma: How do its physical properties and chemical species evolve in atmospheric-pressure water vapor bubbles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Hiroharu; Banno, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review the development of scientific instruments for obtaining information on the evolution of physical properties and chemical species of solution plasma (SP). When a pulsed high voltage is applied between electrodes immersed in an aqueous solution, SP is formed in water vapor bubbles transiently generated in the solution under atmospheric pressure. To clarify how SP emerges in water vapor bubbles and is sustained in solutions, an instrument with micrometer spatial resolution and nanosecond temporal resolution is required. To meet these requirements, a microscopic system with a custom-made optical discharge cell was newly developed, where the working distance between the SP and the microscopic objective lens was minimized. A hollow electrode equipped in the discharge cell also enabled us to control the chemical composition in water vapor bubbles. To study the spatial and temporal evolutions of chemical species in micrometer and nano- to microsecond regions, a streak camera with a spectrometer and a CCD detector with a time-gated electronic device were combined with the microscope system. The developed instrument is expected to contribute to providing a new means of developing new schemes for chemical reactions and material syntheses.

  3. Self-regulation strategy, feedback timing and hemodynamic properties modulate learning in a simulated fMRI neurofeedback environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan F Oblak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct manipulation of brain activity can be used to investigate causal brain-behavior relationships. Current noninvasive neural stimulation techniques are too coarse to manipulate behaviors that correlate with fine-grained spatial patterns recorded by fMRI. However, these activity patterns can be manipulated by having people learn to self-regulate their own recorded neural activity. This technique, known as fMRI neurofeedback, faces challenges as many participants are unable to self-regulate. The causes of this non-responder effect are not well understood due to the cost and complexity of such investigation in the MRI scanner. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response measured by fMRI as a potential cause of the non-responder effect. Learning to self-regulate the hemodynamic response involves a difficult temporal credit-assignment problem because this signal is both delayed and blurred over time. Two factors critical to this problem are the prescribed self-regulation strategy (cognitive or automatic and feedback timing (continuous or intermittent. Here, we sought to evaluate how these factors interact with the temporal dynamics of fMRI without using the MRI scanner. We first examined the role of cognitive strategies by having participants learn to regulate a simulated neurofeedback signal using a unidimensional strategy: pressing one of two buttons to rotate a visual grating that stimulates a model of visual cortex. Under these conditions, continuous feedback led to faster regulation compared to intermittent feedback. Yet, since many neurofeedback studies prescribe implicit self-regulation strategies, we created a computational model of automatic reward-based learning to examine whether this result held true for automatic processing. When feedback was delayed and blurred based on the hemodynamics of fMRI, this model learned more reliably from intermittent feedback compared to continuous feedback. These results

  4. Self-regulation strategy, feedback timing and hemodynamic properties modulate learning in a simulated fMRI neurofeedback environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Ethan F; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Sulzer, James S

    2017-07-01

    Direct manipulation of brain activity can be used to investigate causal brain-behavior relationships. Current noninvasive neural stimulation techniques are too coarse to manipulate behaviors that correlate with fine-grained spatial patterns recorded by fMRI. However, these activity patterns can be manipulated by having people learn to self-regulate their own recorded neural activity. This technique, known as fMRI neurofeedback, faces challenges as many participants are unable to self-regulate. The causes of this non-responder effect are not well understood due to the cost and complexity of such investigation in the MRI scanner. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response measured by fMRI as a potential cause of the non-responder effect. Learning to self-regulate the hemodynamic response involves a difficult temporal credit-assignment problem because this signal is both delayed and blurred over time. Two factors critical to this problem are the prescribed self-regulation strategy (cognitive or automatic) and feedback timing (continuous or intermittent). Here, we sought to evaluate how these factors interact with the temporal dynamics of fMRI without using the MRI scanner. We first examined the role of cognitive strategies by having participants learn to regulate a simulated neurofeedback signal using a unidimensional strategy: pressing one of two buttons to rotate a visual grating that stimulates a model of visual cortex. Under these conditions, continuous feedback led to faster regulation compared to intermittent feedback. Yet, since many neurofeedback studies prescribe implicit self-regulation strategies, we created a computational model of automatic reward-based learning to examine whether this result held true for automatic processing. When feedback was delayed and blurred based on the hemodynamics of fMRI, this model learned more reliably from intermittent feedback compared to continuous feedback. These results suggest that different

  5. Self-regulation strategy, feedback timing and hemodynamic properties modulate learning in a simulated fMRI neurofeedback environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Direct manipulation of brain activity can be used to investigate causal brain-behavior relationships. Current noninvasive neural stimulation techniques are too coarse to manipulate behaviors that correlate with fine-grained spatial patterns recorded by fMRI. However, these activity patterns can be manipulated by having people learn to self-regulate their own recorded neural activity. This technique, known as fMRI neurofeedback, faces challenges as many participants are unable to self-regulate. The causes of this non-responder effect are not well understood due to the cost and complexity of such investigation in the MRI scanner. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response measured by fMRI as a potential cause of the non-responder effect. Learning to self-regulate the hemodynamic response involves a difficult temporal credit-assignment problem because this signal is both delayed and blurred over time. Two factors critical to this problem are the prescribed self-regulation strategy (cognitive or automatic) and feedback timing (continuous or intermittent). Here, we sought to evaluate how these factors interact with the temporal dynamics of fMRI without using the MRI scanner. We first examined the role of cognitive strategies by having participants learn to regulate a simulated neurofeedback signal using a unidimensional strategy: pressing one of two buttons to rotate a visual grating that stimulates a model of visual cortex. Under these conditions, continuous feedback led to faster regulation compared to intermittent feedback. Yet, since many neurofeedback studies prescribe implicit self-regulation strategies, we created a computational model of automatic reward-based learning to examine whether this result held true for automatic processing. When feedback was delayed and blurred based on the hemodynamics of fMRI, this model learned more reliably from intermittent feedback compared to continuous feedback. These results suggest that different

  6. The Effects of Zoning Regulations along Fault Zone Areas on Land Development and Property Values after the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ling Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are widely recognized as unpredictable and infrequent disasters that result in serious impacts on human settlements. Land use planning is one non-structural measure used to eliminate disaster risk by steering future development away from the existing built environment and enforcing particular structural engineering measures according to the disaster risk. However, arguments have arisen about applying land use planning to earthquake risk areas, as this serves as a type of disaster risk information disclosure that might impact the willingness to develop land or property value. Therefore, this study uses the spatial autocorrelation coefficient to examine the impact of land use planning on both land use and property transactions in the Chelungpu fault zone area (15 m from each side of the fault line in Taiwan. The overall impacts with and without zoning regulation in the fault zone area are explored. The results demonstrate that parcels that changed to building use in the earlier time period (1995–2008 are located distant from those maintaining the same building use, whereas, later, building use (2008–2014 is located on or nearby the fault zone area. In addition, the most recently constructed buildings are located in or close to the fault zone area and have a relatively higher property price. The legal zoning regulation along the fault zone for building use requires lower height and less intensive building, which might help mitigate the potential impact of future earthquakes.

  7. Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Throop, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis increases the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negatively affects women's reproductive health. To investigate host-vaginal microbiota interactions and the impact on immune barrier function, we colonized 3-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cells with 2 predominant species of vaginal microbiota (Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus crispatus) or 2 prevalent bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia). Colonization of 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates with vaginal microbiota was observed with direct attachment to host cell surface with no cytotoxicity. A. vaginae infection yielded increased expression membrane-associated mucins and evoked a robust proinflammatory, immune response in 3-D vaginal epithelial cells (ie, expression of CCL20, hBD-2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α) that can negatively affect barrier function. However, P. bivia and L. crispatus did not significantly upregulate pattern-recognition receptor-signaling, mucin expression, antimicrobial peptides/defensins, or proinflammatory cytokines in 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates. Notably, L. iners induced pattern-recognition receptor-signaling activity, but no change was observed in mucin expression or secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. We identified unique species-specific immune signatures from vaginal epithelial cells elicited by colonization with commensal and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. A. vaginae elicited a signature that is consistent with significant disruption of immune barrier properties, potentially resulting in enhanced susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections during bacterial vaginosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits of a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; Barus, H.

    2010-11-01

    In a throughfall displacement experiment on Sulawesi, Indonesia, three 0.16 ha stands of a premontane perhumid rainforest were exposed to a two-year soil desiccation period that reduced the soil moisture in the upper soil layers beyond the conventional wilting point. About 25 variables, including leaf morphological and chemical traits, stem diameter growth and hydraulic properties of the xylem in the trunk and terminal twigs, were investigated in trees of the tall-growing tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae) by comparing desiccated roof plots with nearby control plots. We tested the hypotheses that this tall and productive species is particularly sensitive to drought, and the exposed upper sun canopy is more affected than the shade canopy. Hydraulic conductivity in the xylem of terminal twigs normalised to vessel lumen area was reduced by 25%, leaf area-specific conductivity by 10-33% during the desiccation treatment. Surprisingly, the leaves present at the end of the drought treatment were significantly larger, but not smaller in the roof plots, though reduced in number (about 30% less leaves per unit of twig sapwood area), which points to a drought effect on the leaf bud formation while the remaining leaves may have profited from a surplus of water. Mean vessel diameter and axial conductivity in the outermost xylem of the trunk were significantly reduced and wood density increased, while annual stem diameter increment decreased by 26%. In contradiction to our hypotheses, (i) we found no signs of major damage to the C. acuminatissima trees nor to any other drought sensitivity of tall trees, and (ii) the exposed upper canopy was not more drought susceptible than the shade canopy.

  9. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Unique properties of decidual T cells and their role in immune regulation during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburgs, T; Claas, F H J; Scherjon, S A

    2010-03-01

    Maternal lymphocytes at the fetal-maternal interface play a key role in the immune acceptance of the allogeneic fetus. Most studies focus on decidual NK cells and their interaction with fetal trophoblasts, whereas limited data are available on the mechanisms of fetus specific immune recognition and immune regulation by decidual T cells at the fetal-maternal interface. The aim of this review is to describe the phenotypic characteristics of decidual T cell subsets present at the fetal-maternal interface, their interaction with HLA-C expressed by fetal trophoblasts and their role in immune recognition and regulation at the fetal-maternal interface during human pregnancy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human elastin polypeptides improve the biomechanical properties of three-dimensional matrices through the regulation of elastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccafoschi, Francesca; Ramella, Martina; Sibillano, Teresa; De Caro, Liberato; Giannini, Cinzia; Comparelli, Roberto; Bandiera, Antonella; Cannas, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The replacement of diseased tissues with biological substitutes with suitable biomechanical properties is one of the most important goal in tissue engineering. Collagen represents a satisfactory choice for scaffolds. Unfortunately, the lack of elasticity represents a restriction to a wide use of collagen for several applications. In this work, we studied the effect of human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as hybrid collagen-elastin matrices. In particular, we studied the biomechanical properties of collagen/HELP scaffolds considering several components involved in ECM remodeling (elastin, collagen, fibrillin, lectin-like receptor, metalloproteinases) and cell phenotype (myogenin, myosin heavy chain) with particular awareness for vascular tissue engineering applications. Elastin and collagen content resulted upregulated in collagen-HELP matrices, even showing an improved structural remodeling through the involvement of proteins to a ECM remodeling activity. Moreover, the hybrid matrices enhanced the contractile activity of C2C12 cells concurring to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold. Finally, small-angle X-ray scattering analyses were performed to enable a very detailed analysis of the matrices at the nanoscale, comparing the scaffolds with native blood vessels. In conclusion, our work shows the use of recombinant HELP, as a very promising complement able to significantly improve the biomechanical properties of three-dimensional collagen matrices in terms of tensile stress and elastic modulus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. N-fertilization has different effects on the growth, carbon and nitrogen physiology, and wood properties of slow- and fast-growing Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Li, Mengchun; Luo, Jie; Cao, Xu; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Liu, Tongxian; Bai, Hua; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate how N-fertilization affects the growth, carbon and nitrogen (N) physiology, and wood properties of poplars with contrasting growth characteristics, slow-growing (Populus popularis, Pp) and fast-growing (P. alba×P. glandulosa, Pg) poplar saplings were exposed to different N levels. Above-ground biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rates (A), instantaneous photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE (i)), chlorophyll and foliar sugar concentrations were higher in Pg than in Pp. Foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activities and root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were higher in Pg than in Pp as were the N amount and NUE of new shoots. Lignin contents and calorific values of Pg wood were less than that of Pp wood. N-fertilization reduced root biomass of Pg more than of Pp, but increased leaf biomass, leaf area, A, and PNUE(i) of Pg more than of Pp. Among 13 genes involved in the transport of ammonium or nitrate or in N assimilation, transcripts showed more pronounced changes to N-fertilization in Pg than in Pp. Increases in NR activities and N contents due to N-fertilization were larger in Pg than in Pp. In both species, N-fertilization resulted in lower calorific values as well as shorter and wider vessel elements/fibres. These results suggest that growth, carbon and N physiology, and wood properties are more sensitive to increasing N availability in fast-growing poplars than in slow-growing ones, which is probably due to prioritized resource allocation to the leaves and accelerated N physiological processes in fast-growing poplars under higher N levels.

  12. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  13. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  14. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Re, Rebecca; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted with the diffusion model for semi-infinite homogenous media. Reproducibility, performed on 3 measurements at 5 minutes intervals, ranges from 1.8 to 6.9% for each of the hemoglobin species. The mean ± SD global values of HbR, HbO, HbT, StO 2 are respectively 24 ± 7 μM, 33.3 ± 9.5 μM, 57.4 ± 15.8 μM, 58 ± 4.2%. StO 2 displays the narrowest range of variability across brain regions.

  15. Activation of a Ca2+-dependent cation conductance with properties of TRPM2 by reactive oxygen species in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckeis, Susanne; Wernecke, Laura; Salchow, Daniel J; Reichhart, Nadine; Strauß, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    Ion channels are crucial for maintenance of ion homeostasis and transparency of the lens. The lens epithelium is the metabolically and electrophysiologically active cell type providing nutrients, ions and water to the lens fiber cells. Ca 2+ -dependent non-selective ion channels seem to play an important role for ion homeostasis. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize Ca 2+ - and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent non-selective cation channels in human lens epithelial cells. RT-PCR revealed gene expression of the Ca 2+ -activated non-selective cation channels TRPC3, TRPM2, TRPM4 and Ano6 in both primary lens epithelial cells and the cell line HLE-B3, whereas TRPM5 mRNA was only found in HLE-B3 cells. Using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, ionomycin evoked non-selective cation currents with linear current-voltage relationship in both cell types. The current was decreased by flufenamic acid (FFA), 2-APB, 9-phenanthrol and miconazole, but insensitive to DIDS, ruthenium red, and intracellularly applied spermine. H 2 O 2 evoked a comparable current, abolished by FFA. TRPM2 protein expression in HLE-B3 cells was confirmed by means of immunocytochemistry and western blot. In summary, we conclude that lens epithelial cells functionally express Ca 2+ - and H 2 O 2 -activated non-selective cation channels with properties of TRPM2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Intron-Mediated Alternative Splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B Regulates Cell Wall Thickening during Fiber Development in Populus Species1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation. PMID:24394777

  17. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  18. EMMPRIN promotes melanoma cells malignant properties through a HIF-2alpha mediated up-regulation of VEGF-receptor-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Bougatef

    Full Text Available EMMPRIN's expression in melanoma tissue was reported to be predictive of poor prognosis. Here we demonstrate that EMMPRIN up-regulated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 in two different primary melanoma cell lines and consequently increased migration and proliferation of these cells while inhibiting their apoptosis. SiRNA inhibition of VEGFR-2 expression abrogated these EMMPRIN effects. EMMPRIN regulation of VEGFR-2 was mediated through the over-expression of HIF-2alpha and its translocation to the nucleus where it forms heterodimers with HIF-1beta. These results were supported by an in vivo correlation between the expression of EMMPRIN with that of VEGFR-2 in human melanoma tissues as well as with the extent of HIF-2alpha localization in the nucleus. They demonstrate a novel mechanism by which EMMPRIN promotes tumor progression through HIF-2alpha/VEGFR-2 mediated mechanism, with an autocrine role in melanoma cell malignancy. The inhibition of EMMPRIN in cancer may thus simultaneously target both the VEGFR-2/VEGF system and the matrix degrading proteases to block tumor cell growth and invasion.

  19. Properties and regulation of biosynthesis of cottonseed storage proteins. Comprehensive progress report, December 1, 1976 to September 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, III, L S

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression in cotton seed embryogenesis was studied by attempting to define what gene products are likely to be highly regulated during this developmental progression. The flow of nitrogen into the free amino acids pools of the developing cotyledons, and into the principal nitrogen nutritional reserve of the seed, the storage proteins was measured. This was continued by following the flow of nitrogen from the storage proteins to the principal exported amino acid asparagine that occurs during the first several days of germination. In this fashion the rise and fall of certain enzymes of amino acid intermediary metabolism could be postulated, and in some cases, verified. The subsets of abundant mRNAs whose appearance and disappearance coincided with developmental events in cotyledon embryogenesis/germination with the short range goal of identifying proteins/enzyme activities were delineated as well as their mRNAs that represent specific developmental stages and the long range goal of using these representatives as probes for studying the mechanisms controlling the rise and fall of these mRNAs and their protein products.

  20. ALDH1A1 maintains ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. METHODS: Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780 and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70 as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. RESULTS: ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01. ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1 were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. CONCLUSION: This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

  1. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Genomics Research Intellectual Property Issues in Genetics Archive Online Bioethics Resources Privacy in Genomics Regulation of ... are not regulated, meaning that they go to market without any independent analysis to verify the claims ...

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Control Reactive Oxygen Species Release, Mitochondrial Autophagy and C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase/P38 Phosphorylation During Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Baregamian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the disruption of the protective gut barrier through various mechanisms; mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and oxidative injury may potentially be a significant source of apoptosis during necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα is thought to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and activate the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/p38 pathway. Hence, the focus of our study was to examine the effects of TNFα/ROs on mitochondrial function, ASK1-JNK/p38 cascade activation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC.

  3. Hypoxia-inducing factors as master regulators of stemness properties and altered metabolism of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating lines of experimental evidence have revealed that hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are key regulators of the adaptation of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells and their differentiated progenies to oxygen and nutrient deprivation during cancer progression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Particularly, the sustained stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), stem cell factor (SCF) receptor KIT, transforming growth factor-β receptors (TGF-βRs) and Notch and their downstream signalling elements such as phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to an enhanced activity of HIFs. Moreover, the up-regulation of HIFs in cancer cells may also occur in the hypoxic intratumoral regions formed within primary and secondary neoplasms as well as in leukaemic cells and metastatic prostate and breast cancer cells homing in the hypoxic endosteal niche of bone marrow. The activated HIFs may induce the expression of numerous gene products such as induced pluripotency-associated transcription factors (Oct-3/4, Nanog and Sox-2), glycolysis- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme-associated molecules, including CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), snail and twist, microRNAs and angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These gene products in turn can play critical roles for high self-renewal ability, survival, altered energy metabolism, invasion and metastases of cancer cells, angiogenic switch and treatment resistance. Consequently, the targeting of HIF signalling network and altered metabolic pathways represents new promising strategies to eradicate the total mass of cancer cells and improve the efficacy of current therapies against aggressive and metastatic cancers and prevent disease relapse. PMID:23301832

  4. Pig BMSCs Transfected with Human TFPI Combat Species Incompatibility and Regulate the Human TF Pathway in Vitro and in a Rodent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Ji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activation of tissue factor (TF is one of the major reasons for coagulation dysregulation after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI is the most important inhibitor of TF. Studies have demonstrated species incompatibility between pig TFPI and human TF. Methods: A pig-to-macaque heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation model was established to determine the origin of activated TF. Chimeric proteins of human and pig TFPI were constructed to assess the role of Kunitz domains in species incompatibility. Immortalised pig bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with human TFPI were tested for their ability to inhibit clotting in vitro. Results: TF from recipient was activated early after liver xenotransplantation. Pig TFPI Kunitz domain 2 bound human FXa, but Kunitz domain 1 did not effectively inhibit human TF/FVIIa. Immortalised pig bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs transfected with human TFPI showed a prolonged recalcification time in vitro and in a rodent model. Conclusion: Recipient TF is relevant to dysregulated coagulation after xenotransplantation. Kunitz domain 1 plays the most important role in species incompatibility between pig TFPI and human TF, and clotting can be inhibited by human TFPI-transfected pig BMSCs. Our study shows a possible way to resolve the incompatibility of pig TFPI.

  5. The Critical, Clinical Role of Interferon-Beta in Regulating Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Mary R; Jackson, Mark W

    2018-05-11

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) the deadliest form of this disease currently lacks a targeted therapy and is characterized by increased risk of metastasis and presence of therapeutically resistant cancer stem cells (CSC). Recent evidence has demonstrated that the presence of an interferon (IFN)/signal transducer of activated transcription 1 (STAT1) gene signature correlates with improved therapeutic response and overall survival in TNBC patients. In agreement with these clinical observations, our recent work has demonstrated, in a cell model of TNBC that CSC have intrinsically repressed IFN signaling. Administration of IFN-β represses CSC properties, inducing a less aggressive non-CSC state. Moreover, an elevated IFN-β gene signature correlated with repressed CSC-related genes and an increased presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in TNBC specimens. We therefore propose that IFN-β be considered as a potential therapeutic option in the treatment of TNBC, to repress the CSC properties responsible for therapy failure. Future studies aim to improve methods to target delivery of IFN-β to tumors, to maximize therapeutic efficacy while minimizing systemic side effects.

  6. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Mao

    Full Text Available Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  7. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  8. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  9. Genetically modified foods in China and the United States: A primer of regulation and intellectual property protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Yuen-Ting Wong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a basic and personal necessity to human. Safety of food is a prime factor to consider apart from nutrition, quality and cost. Genetically modified (GM foods first came on the market in 1994. Yet safety, transparency and traceability of GM foods are still under hot debate. Nonetheless, the market of GM foods is huge and attractive. Regulatory affairs and intellectual property (IP are two critical factors affecting the development and commercial success of a food product. This article will take a look at the GM food technology and regulatory framework for GM foods in China and the United States. This article will also discuss the unique patent issues and non-patent IP tools for safeguarding the technology in these two countries.

  10. Modification and evaluation of thermal properties of melamine-formaldehyde/n-eicosane microcapsules for thermo-regulation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaddes, F.; Islam, S.; Shanks, R.; Fergusson, M.; Wang, L.; Padhye, R.

    2014-01-01

    A modified process to enhance the latent heat of fusion of n-eicosane microcapsules in melamine-formaldehyde shells is suggested for application in textiles. Deviations in melt enthalpy and phase change temperatures were determined for produced microcapsules by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermo-regulation efficiency of eicosane-microcapsule-treated fabrics was evaluated via fitting the Newton cooling law to the experimental data, and a new constant, α, was defined as the thermal delay factor. Scanning electron microscopy images and particle size distribution analysis were consistent and the particle size was found to be between 0.5 and 2.7 μm. Melamine-formaldehyde/n-eicosane microcapsule composition was confirmed using a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. The microcapsules developed showed excellent heat storage capacities, over 162.4 J/g, over melting and crystallisation ranges compared with previous studies undertaken in this field. - Highlights: • Modified eicosane microcapsules with the highest phase change enthalpies were made. • Newton cooling law was fitted to determine thermal delay in PCM-substrates. • Fine microcapsule units with diameters less than 0.5 μm were prepared. • All pliable PCM-substrates can be thermally assessed using thermal logging method

  11. Comparative study between microvascular tone regulation and rheological properties of blood in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, N; Tsiberkin, K; Podtaev, S; Paskova, V; Velcheva, I; Chaushev, N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the changes of the skin blood flow responses to cold stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 through wavelet analysis of the peripheral skin temperature oscillations and to estimate their relationship with the blood viscosity values. The amplitudes of the skin temperature pulsations (ASTP) were monitored by "Microtest" device ("FM-Diagnostics", Russia); the whole blood viscosity and the shear stresses were measured by Contraves LS30 viscometer (Switzerland) at a steady flow in 9 healthy subjects and in 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Power law and Herschel-Bulkley (HB) equations were applied to describe the blood rheology. Both models include consistency (k) and flow index (m), and the HB also gives the yield stress (τ0). The Spearman rank correlations between these parameters and the ASTP in the frequency ranges, corresponding to the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial mechanisms of the microcirculation tone regulation were calculated. The ASTP values decreased when the blood viscosity increased. The correlation analysis revealed good ASTP-m (r > 0.5) and ASTP-k (r diabetes.

  12. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N ...

  13. Physiochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu as Affected by Growth Regulator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs, and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA3, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA3 or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.

  14. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit...

  15. Calcium and sodium as regulators of the recovery of four Daphnia species along a gradient of metal and base cations in metal contaminated lakes in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Patricia Celis-Salgado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Smelting of sulphur-rich metallic ores in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal contamination of thousands of lakes in the region. Recent reductions in smelter emissions have resulted in much ecological recovery, but the recovery of Daphnia species has been poor. To determine if Cu and Ni toxicity could explain differences in daphniid recovery among lakes, we compared results of 14 d static with renewal bioassays in waters from Blue Chalk Lake, an uncontaminated reference lake 200 km from Sudbury, and from five Sudbury lakes ranging in distance from the smelters and varying in metal and cation concentrations. We spiked Blue Chalk Lake water with Cu and Ni to levels resembling those of the Sudbury lakes and also tested the lake waters for toxicity. Survival of Daphnia pulex, D. pulicaria and D. mendotae decreased monotonically with increasing metal concentrations in the spiked Blue Chalk Lake treatments, falling from 90% in the controls to 0% at the two highest Cu and Ni levels, reflecting levels of Middle and Hannah lakes. In contrast, survival in waters collected from the actual Sudbury lakes did not monotonically track their total metal concentrations. Rather, survival fell to 0% in Clearwater Lake water, a lake with intermediate metal contamination (8.9 and 79.9 μg L–1 of Cu and Ni, respectively vs 70-100% in the other lakes. We performed an additional assay with Clearwater Lake waters increasing its Ca and Na concentrations, singly and in combination to levels that reflected the levels in Middle Lake. The survival of the four daphniid species increased from 0% up to 80-100% with added Ca and from 0% to 60-90% with added Na. Lipid-ovarian indices had a similar trend to survival for D. mendotae and D. pulicaria in Bioassay 1, varying with the cation concentrations in the lakes for the daphniids in Bioassay 2. The bioassays results imply that regional recovery patterns of daphniids in Sudbury lakes cannot be understood

  16. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The activity of H(+)-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na(+) exclusion via Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H(+)-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. The kinetics of salt-induced net H(+), Na(+) and K(+) fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (-144 ± 3·3, -138 ± 5·4 and -128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux, Na(+) efflux and K(+) retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H(+) efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H(+)-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant's ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative membrane potential values and to

  17. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  18. A crosstalk between muscarinic and CRF2 receptors regulates cellular adhesion properties of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier-Rota, M; Chartier, N T; Bonaz, B; Jacquier-Sarlin, M R

    2017-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction. Non-neuronal acetylcholine (Ach) and muscarinic receptors (mAchR) also contribute to alterations of epithelial cell functions. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which stress and Ach modulate epithelial cell adhesive properties. We show that Ach-induced activation of mAchR in HT-29 cells results in cell dissociation together with changes in cell-matrix contacts, which correlates with the acquisition of invasive potential consistent with a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mode of invasion. These processes result from mAchR subsequent stimulation of the cascade of src/Erk and FAK activation. Ach-induced secretion of laminin 332 leads to α3β1 integrin activation and RhoA-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that Ach-mediated effects on cell adhesion are blocked by astressin 2b, a CRF2 antagonist, suggesting that Ach action depends partly on CRF2 signaling. This is reinforced by the fact that Ach-mediated activation of mAchR stimulates both the synthesis and the release of CRF2 ligands in HT-29 cells (effects blocked by atropine). In summary, our data provides evidence for a novel intracellular circuit involving mAchR acting on CRF2-signaling that could mediate colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction and exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Modification of carbon fabrics by radio-frequency capacitive discharge at low pressure to regulate mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics based on it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garifullin, A R; Krasina, I V; Skidchenko, E A; Shaekhov, M F; Tikhonova, N V

    2017-01-01

    To increase the values of mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) composite materials used in sports equipment production the method of radio-frequency capacitive (RFC) low-pressure plasma treatment in air was proposed. Previously it was found that this type of modification allows to effectively regulate the surface properties of fibers of different nature. This treatment method differs from the traditional ones by efficiency and environmental friendliness as it does not require the use of aggressive, environmentally hazardous chemicals. In this paper it was established that RFC low-pressure air plasma treatment of carbon fabrics enhances the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). As a result of experimental studies of CF by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method it was proved that after radio-frequency capacitive plasma treatment at low pressure in air the oxygen-containing functional groups is grafted on the surface. These groups improve adhesion at the interface “matrix-fiber”. (paper)

  20. Tree species effects on soil properties and greenhouse gas fluxes in East-central Amazonia: comparison between monoculture and diverse forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira, Jr.; P.T. Beldini; P.B. de Camargo; M. Keller; S. Saleska

    2013-01-01

    Tropical plantations are considered a viable option to sequester carbon on abandoned agricultural lands, but implications of tree species selection for overall greenhouse gas budgets on plantations have been little studied. During three wet seasons, we investigated the influence of nine tree species on soil pH, temperature (ST), bulk density (BD), moisture content...

  1. Multiple Copies of a Simple MYB-Binding Site Confers Trans-regulation by Specific Flavonoid-Related R2R3 MYBs in Diverse Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Brendolise

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In apple, the MYB transcription factor MYB10 controls the accumulation of anthocyanins. MYB10 is able to auto-activate its expression by binding its own promoter at a specific motif, the R1 motif. In some apple accessions a natural mutation, termed R6, has more copies of this motif within the MYB10 promoter resulting in stronger auto-activation and elevated anthocyanins. Here we show that other anthocyanin-related MYBs selected from apple, pear, strawberry, petunia, kiwifruit and Arabidopsis are able to activate promoters containing the R6 motif. To examine the specificity of this motif, members of the R2R3 MYB family were screened against a promoter harboring the R6 mutation. Only MYBs from subgroups 5 and 6 activate expression by binding the R6 motif, with these MYBs sharing conserved residues in their R2R3 DNA binding domains. Insertion of the apple R6 motif into orthologous promoters of MYB10 in pear (PcMYB10 and Arabidopsis (AtMY75 elevated anthocyanin levels. Introduction of the R6 motif into the promoter region of an anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme F3′5′H of kiwifruit imparts regulation by MYB10. This results in elevated levels of delphinidin in both tobacco and kiwifruit. Finally, an R6 motif inserted into the promoter the vitamin C biosynthesis gene GDP-L-Gal phosphorylase increases vitamin C content in a MYB10-dependent manner. This motif therefore provides a tool to re-engineer novel MYB-regulated responses in plants.

  2. CbRCI35, a cold responsive peroxidase from Capsella bursa-pastoris regulates reactive oxygen species homeostasis and enhances cold tolerance in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature affects gene regulatory networks and alters cellular metabolism to inhibit plant growth. Peroxidases are widely distributed in plants and play a large role in adjusting and controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in response to abiotic stresses such as low temperature. The Rare Cold-Inducible 35 gene from Capsella bursa-pastoris (CbRCI35 belongs to the type III peroxidase family and has been reported to be a cold responsive gene in plants. Here we performed an expressional characterization of CbRCI35 under cold and ionic liquid treatments. The promoter of CbRCI35 was also cloned and its activity was examined using the GUS reporter system. CbRCI35 protein was localized in the cytoplasm according to sequence prediction and GFP fusion assay. Heterologous expression tests revealed that CbRCI35 conferred enhanced resistance to low temperature and activated endogenous cold responsive signaling in tobacco. Furthermore, in the normal condition the ROS accumulation was moderately enhanced while after chilling exposure superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased in CbRCI53 transgenic plants. The ROS metabolism related genes expression was altered accordingly. We conclude that CbRCI35 modulates ROS homeostasis and contributes to cold tolerance in plants.

  3. Sucrose-phosphate synthase in tree species: light/dark regulation involves a component of protein turnover in Prosopis juliflora (SW DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A K; Shirke, P A; Pathre, U; Sane, P V

    1997-10-01

    Light dependent modulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) was studied in a tree species, namely Prosopis juliflora. In this paper we demonstrate that cycloheximide, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, when fed to detached leaves of P. juliflora through transpiration stream in the dark or in light completely prevents in vivo light activation of Vlim and Vmax activities of SPS. In case of spinach, however, cycloheximide feeding affects only Vlim activity while Vmax activity remained unchanged. In contrast, chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in chloroplast has no effect on the light activation of SPS in Prosopis. The treatment with cycloheximide showed slight reduction in the rate of O2 evolution indicating that cycloheximide had very little effect on overall photosynthesis. These results indicate that short term protein turnover of the SPS protein and some other essential component(s) (e.g., a putative protein that modifies SPS activity) is one of the primary steps in a complex and unique regulatory cascade effecting the reversible light activation of SPS.

  4. NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C plays a role in nonhost disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pathogens by regulating chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ishiga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts are cytoplasmic organelles for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. In addition, recent studies have shown that chloroplasts have a critical role in plant innate immunity against invading pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic by-product from photosynthesis, which also functions as a signaling compound in plant innate immunity. Therefore, it is important to regulate the level of hydrogen peroxide in response to pathogens. Chloroplasts maintain components of the redox detoxification system including enzymes such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs, and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC. However, the significance of 2-Cys Prxs and NTRC in the molecular basis of nonhost disease resistance is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of Prxs and NTRC using knock-out mutants of Arabidopsis in response to nonhost Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Plants lacking functional NTRC showed localized cell death (LCD accompanied by the elevated accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in response to nonhost pathogens. Interestingly, the Arabidopsis ntrc mutant showed enhanced bacterial growth and disease susceptibility of nonhost pathogens. Furthermore, the expression profiles of the salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA-mediated signaling pathways and phytohormone analyses including SA and JA revealed that the Arabidopsis ntrc mutant shows elevated JA-mediated signaling pathways in response to nonhost pathogen. These results suggest the critical role of NTRC in plant innate immunity against nonhost P. syringae pathogens.

  5. Paclitaxel-resistant HeLa cells have up-regulated levels of reactive oxygen species and increased expression of taxol resistance gene 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wenxiang; Wang, Yuxia; Sun, Gaoying; Zhang, Xiaojin; Wei, Yongqing; Li, Lu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-01

    This study is to establish a paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line (HeLa/PTX) and to investigate its redox characteristics and the expression of taxol resistance gene 1 (Txr1). HeLa cells were treated with PTX and effects of PTX on cell proliferation were detected through cell counting and the MTT assay. Levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the ratio of GSH to GSSG were measured by the 2,7-difluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) method and the 5,5'dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) method. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined by the nitrite formation method, the molybdate colorimetric method, and the DTNB colorimetric method, respectively. The level of Txr1 mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Compared with the regular HeLa cells, HeLa/PTX cells were larger in size and had more cytoplasmic granules. The population doubling time for HeLa/PTX cells was 1.32 times of that of HeLa cells (PHeLa/PTX cells showed stronger resistance to PTX than HeLa cells with a resistance index of 122.69. HeLa/PTX cells had higher levels of ROS (PHeLa cells. HeLa/PTX cells, with higher levels of ROS and Txr1 mRNA expression, are more resistant to PTX than HeLa cells.

  6. A novel lens epithelium gene, LEP503, is highly conserved in different vertebrate species and is developmentally regulated in postnatal rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Sachs, G; Athmann, C

    2000-02-01

    The development of the lens is dependent on the proliferation of lens epithelial cells and their differentiation into fiber cells near the lens bow/equator. Identification of genes specifically expressed in the lens epithelial cells and their functions may provide insight into molecular events that regulate the processes of lens epithelial cell differentiation. In this study, a novel lens epithelium gene product, LEP503, identified from rat by a subtractive cDNA cloning strategy was investigated in the genome organization, mRNA expression and protein localization. The genomic sequences for LEP503 isolated from rat, mouse and human span 1754 bp, 1694 bp and 1895 bp regions encompassing the 5'-flanking region, two exons, one intron and 3'-flanking region. All exon-intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. Both mouse and human LEP503 genes show very high identity (93% for mouse and 79% for human) to rat LEP503 gene in the exon 1 that contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 61 amino acid residues with a leucine-rich domain. The deduced protein sequences also show high identity (91% between mouse and rat and 77% between human and rat). Western blot shows that LEP503 is present as a specific approximately 6.9 kDa band in the water-insoluble-urea-soluble fraction of lens cortex where lens epithelium is included. Immuno-staining shows that LEP503 is localized in the epithelial cells along the entire anterior surface of rat lens. Developmentally, LEP503 is expressed at a low level at newborn, and then the expression level increases by about ten-fold around postnatal day 14 and remains at this high level for about 25 days before it drops back to the low level by postnatal day 84. These data suggest that the LEP503 may be an important lens epithelial cell gene involving the processes of epithelial cell differentiation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Size-regulated group separation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles using centrifuge and their magnetic resonance contrast properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jongeun; Lee, Hyunseung; Kim, Young-Nam; Yeom, Areum; Jeong, Heejeong; Lim, Yong Taik; Hong, Kwan Soo

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) have been the subject of extensive research over recent decades. The particle size of MNPs varies widely and is known to influence their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. There are two commonly used methods for synthesizing MNPs, organometallic and aqueous solution coprecipitation. The former has the advantage of being able to control the particle size more effectively; however, the resulting particles require a hydrophilic coating in order to be rendered water soluble. The MNPs produced using the latter method are intrinsically water soluble, but they have a relatively wide particle size distribution. Size-controlled water-soluble MNPs have great potential as MRI CAs and in cell sorting and labeling applications. In the present study, we synthesized CoFe2O4 MNPs using an aqueous solution coprecipitation method. The MNPs were subsequently separated into four groups depending on size, by the use of centrifugation at different speeds. The crystal shapes and size distributions of the particles in the four groups were measured and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, the MNPs were found to have an inverse spinel structure. Four MNP groups with well-selected semi-Gaussian-like diameter distributions were obtained, with measured T2 relaxivities ( r 2) at 4.7 T and room temperature in the range of 60 to 300 mM-1s-1, depending on the particle size. This size regulation method has great promise for applications that require homogeneous-sized MNPs made by an aqueous solution coprecipitation method. Any group of the CoFe2O4 MNPs could be used as initial base cores of MRI T2 CAs, with almost unique T2 relaxivity owing to size regulation. The methodology reported here opens up many possibilities for biosensing applications and disease diagnosis.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Greek TCI-R and its clinical correlates: schizotypy and the self-regulation of affective and cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, Stella G; Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Rózsa, Sándor; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483), completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The "Borderline/Explosive temperament" (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence), "Schizotypal/Disorganized character" (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence), and "Low Ego Strength/Fragile" profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness) were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect), and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and research.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Greek TCI-R and its clinical correlates: schizotypy and the self-regulation of affective and cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella G. Giakoumaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R measures Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483, completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ. The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The “Borderline/Explosive temperament” (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence, “Schizotypal/Disorganized character” (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence, and “Low Ego Strength/Fragile” profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect, and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and

  10. Non-centered spike-triggered covariance analysis reveals neurotrophin-3 as a developmental regulator of receptive field properties of ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Cantrell

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The functional separation of ON and OFF pathways, one of the fundamental features of the visual system, starts in the retina. During postnatal development, some retinal ganglion cells (RGCs whose dendrites arborize in both ON and OFF sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer transform into RGCs with dendrites that monostratify in either the ON or OFF sublamina, acquiring final dendritic morphology in a subtype-dependent manner. Little is known about how the receptive field (RF properties of ON, OFF, and ON-OFF RGCs mature during this time because of the lack of a reliable and efficient method to classify RGCs into these subtypes. To address this deficiency, we developed an innovative variant of Spike Triggered Covariance (STC analysis, which we term Spike Triggered Covariance - Non-Centered (STC-NC analysis. Using a multi-electrode array (MEA, we recorded the responses of a large population of mouse RGCs to a Gaussian white noise stimulus. As expected, the Spike-Triggered Average (STA fails to identify responses driven by symmetric static nonlinearities such as those that underlie ON-OFF center RGC behavior. The STC-NC technique, in contrast, provides an efficient means to identify ON-OFF responses and quantify their RF center sizes accurately. Using this new tool, we find that RGCs gradually develop sensitivity to focal stimulation after eye opening, that the percentage of ON-OFF center cells decreases with age, and that RF centers of ON and ON-OFF cells become smaller. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 regulates the development of physiological properties of ON-OFF center RGCs. Overexpression of NT-3 leads to the precocious maturation of RGC responsiveness and accelerates the developmental decrease of RF center size in ON-OFF cells. In summary, our study introduces STC-NC analysis which successfully identifies subtype RGCs and demonstrates how RF development relates to a neurotrophic driver in the retina.

  11. Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kölegård, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness was determined as changes in arterial diameter and flow, respectively, during graded increments in distending pressure in the blood vessels of an arm or a leg. Pressure-induced increases in diameter and flow were smaller in the lower leg than in the arm, indicating greater stiffness in the arteries/arterioles of the leg. A 5-week period of intermittent intravascular pressure elevations in one arm reduced pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery by about 50%. Conversely, prolonged reduction of arterial/arteriolar pressure in the lower body by 5 weeks of sustained horizontal bedrest, induced threefold increases of the pressure-distension and pressure-flow responses in a tibial artery. Thus, the wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles are plastic properties that readily adapt to changes in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. The discussion concerns mechanisms underlying changes in local arterial/arteriolar stiffness as well as whether stiffness is altered by changes in myogenic tone and/or wall structure. As regards implications, regulation of local arterial/arteriolar stiffness may facilitate control of arterial pressure in erect posture and conditions of exaggerated intravascular pressure gradients. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness also supports the notion that local pressure loading may constitute a prime mover in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  12. Effect of Three Species of Mycorrhiza Inoculation on Yield and Some Physiological properties of Two Potato Cultivars under Drought Stress in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaninejad

    2017-03-01

    indicated a significant difference to drought stress for four tubers in a bush and 20% increase, but there was no significant difference among various mycorrhizal fungi for tuber numbers in a bush. Totally, Glomus fasciculatum affected the studied potato properties more positively than other species.

  13. Personal Property Traffic Management Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    most and poultry , animals and certain animal derivatives, arid htonor comics, indecent or obscene books, magazines, films and other arricles, radio...it is " butcher " type paper. j. Unicellular Polypropylene Foam. All unicellular polypropylene foam wrapping material will be new, clean, and will...Waxed or treated) All waxed paper used shall be manila wax or equivalent. Treated paper may be used if it is " Butcher " type paper. 5.4.2.9 Unicellular

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) DERS-6 & DERS-5- Revised (in an Iranian Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mina

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and reliability of the two forms of the Persian version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-6 & DERS-5-revised) in a clinical sample. The clinical sample consisted of 181 patients diagnosed with Functional GI Disorders (FGID) who referred to the digestive psychosomatic clinic in Isfahan in 2012. They were selected by census method (In a given period of time). The Persian version of the DERS, the short form of the DASS, and the TAS-20 were used to collect data. The results of the factor structure or construct validity using principal components analysis with varimax rotation recognized 7 factors for the DERS-6 (Goals, Awarness, Impalse, Non Acceptance, Strategy, Clarity, Recognition), and 6 factors for the DERS-5- revised (Non Acceptance, Goals, Impalse, Strategy, Clarity, Recognition) in the clinical sample. They showed the common variance of 59.51% and 59.15%, respectively. Also, the results showed that the concurrent validity of both forms of the DERS and most of their factors, and their reliability in terms of Cronbach-Alpha were favorable. Considering the factor structure and favorable psychometric properties of the two scales of DERS-6 & DERS-5-revised, the scales can be used in clinical samples.

  15. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Okada, S.; Isobe, T.; Yamamoto, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Irie, T.; Akiyama, C.; Kohno, Y.; Tachikawa, T.; Mishima, K., E-mail: mishima-k@dent.showa-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities.

  16. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Okada, S.; Isobe, T.; Yamamoto, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Irie, T.; Akiyama, C.; Kohno, Y.; Tachikawa, T.; Mishima, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities

  17. [Standardization and regulation of the rate of the superoxide-generating adrenaline autoxidation reaction used for evaluation of pro/antioxidant properties of various materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, T V

    2016-11-01

    The superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation is widely used for determination of the activity of superoxide dismutase and pro/antioxidant properties of various materials. There are two variants of the spectrophotometric registration of the products of this reaction. The first is based on registration of adrenochrome, as adrenaline autooxidation product at 347 nm; the second employs nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and registration of diformazan, a product of NBT reduction at 560 nm. In the present work, recommendations for the standardization of the reaction rate in both variants have been proposed. The main approach consists in the use of the pharmaceutical form of 0.1% adrenaline hydrochloride solution. Although each of two adrenaline preparations available in the Russian market has some features in kinetic behavior of its autooxidation; they are applicable in the superoxide generating system based on adrenaline autooxidation. Performing measurements at 560 nm, the reaction rate can be regulated by lowering the concentration of added adrenaline, whereas during spectrophotometric registration at 347 nm, this cannot be done. These features of adrenaline autoxidation may be due to the fact that the intrinsic multistage process of the conversion of adrenaline to adrenochrome, which is recorded at 347 nm, is coupled with the transition of electrons from adrenaline and intermediate products of its oxidation to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbonate bicarbonate ions, which is detected in the presence of added NBT.

  18. Analyzing the hydrological impact of afforestation and tree species in two catchments with contrasting soil properties using the spatially distributed model MIKE SHE SWET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Christiansen, Jesper Riis; Pang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    afforestation or forest conversion impacts the water resource at the catchment scale. We hypothesize that the groundwater formation and streamflow is increased when water consuming conifers are replaced with the less consumptive broadleaf tree species. To test this a distributed hydrological model...

  19. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  20. Exposure of Chlorpromazine to 266 nm Laser Beam Generates New Species with Antibacterial Properties: Contributions to Development of a New Process for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Danko, Balazs; Martins, Ana; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Alexandru, Tatiana; Nastasa, Viorel; Boni, Mihai; Militaru, Andra; Andrei, Ionut Relu; Staicu, Angela; Hunyadi, Attila; Fanning, Seamus; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Phenothiazines when exposed to white light or to UV radiation undergo a variety of reactions that result in degradation of parental compound and formation of new species. This process is slow and may be sped up with exposure to high energy light such as that produced by a laser. Methods Varying concentrations of Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride (CPZ) (2–20 mg/mL in distilled water) were exposed to 266 nm laser beam (time intervals: 1–24 hrs). At distinct intervals the irradiation products were evaluated by spectrophotometry between 200–1500 nm, Thin Layer Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Diode Array Detection, HPLC tandem mass spectrometry, and for activity against the CPZ sensitive test organism Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Results CPZ exposure to 266 nm laser beam of given energy levels yielded species, whose number increased with duration of exposure. Although the major species produced were Promazine (PZ), hydroxypromazine or PZ sulfoxide, and CPZ sulfoxide, over 200 compounds were generated with exposure of 20 mg/mL of CPZ for 24 hrs. Evaluation of the irradiation products indicated that the bioactivity against the test organism increased despite the total disappearance of CPZ, that is due, most probably, to one or more new species that remain yet unidentified. Conclusions Exposure of CPZ to a high energy (6.5 mJ) 266 nm laser beam yields rapidly a large number of new and stable species. For biological grade phenothiazines (in other words knowing the impurities in the samples: solvent and solute) this process may be reproducible because one can control within reasonably low experimental errors: the concentration of the parent compound, the laser beam wavelength and average energy, as well as the duration of the exposure time. Because the process is “clean” and rapid, it may offer advantages over the pyrogenically based methods for the production of derivatives. PMID:23405212

  1. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups ...

  2. Ipomoelin, a Jacalin-Related Lectin with a Compact Tetrameric Association and Versatile Carbohydrate Binding Properties Regulated by Its N Terminus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chieh; Liu, Kai-Lun; Hsu, Fang-Ciao; Jeng, Shih-Tong; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Many proteins are induced in the plant defense response to biotic stress or mechanical wounding. One group is lectins. Ipomoelin (IPO) is one of the wound-inducible proteins of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Tainung 57) and is a Jacalin-related lectin (JRL). In this study, we resolved the crystal structures of IPO in its apo form and in complex with carbohydrates such as methyl α-D-mannopyranoside (Me-Man), methyl α-D-glucopyranoside (Me-Glc), and methyl α-D-galactopyranoside (Me-Gal) in different space groups. The packing diagrams indicated that IPO might represent a compact tetrameric association in the JRL family. The protomer of IPO showed a canonical β-prism fold with 12 strands of β-sheets but with 2 additional short β-strands at the N terminus. A truncated IPO (ΔN10IPO) by removing the 2 short β-strands of the N terminus was used to reveal its role in a tetrameric association. Gel filtration chromatography confirmed IPO as a tetrameric form in solution. Isothermal titration calorimetry determined the binding constants (KA) of IPO and ΔN10IPO against various carbohydrates. IPO could bind to Me-Man, Me-Glc, and Me-Gal with similar binding constants. In contrast, ΔN10IPO showed high binding ability to Me-Man and Me-Glc but could not bind to Me-Gal. Our structural and functional analysis of IPO revealed that its compact tetrameric association and carbohydrate binding polyspecificity could be regulated by the 2 additional N-terminal β-strands. The versatile carbohydrate binding properties of IPO might play a role in plant defense. PMID:22808208

  3. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    .... 16439] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and...

  4. Area-based historical modeling of the effects of the river bank regulation on the potential abundance of eleven mosquito species in the River Danube between Hungary and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Trájer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of reservoirs and hydropower plants was accelerated in the past century due to the increasing aridity in many parts of the world. The effect of water regulations on the abundance of mosquito vectors is controversial. In this paper, the habitat preference of mosquitoes was investigated based on a 30-years long collection of the mosquito data in Hungary and military maps and satellite images. Three time phases of the analyzed section in the Danube River were analyzed in order to characterize the impact of human influence on mosquito habitats: the semi-natural phase, the post channelization phase and the post hydropower dam state. Geographical data referring to the years 1790, 1820, 1830, 1870, 1946 and 1955 were based on military maps, whereas the years 2004 and 2013 were analyzed by satellite imagery. The Amoros-like eupotamon A - plesiopotamon line represents an increasing gradient of habitat-suitability for mosquitoes. The habitat-preference of different mosquitoes to the Amoros-classified water habitats was based on a monographic collection data. This dataset contains the collecting and trapping results from the 1960s to the early 2000s in Hungary. We found that human-induced changes had prolonged impact on mosquito-suitable habitats, although the effect can be different for diverse mosquito species. The increase of the evenness of the mosquito fauna was seen since the mid-20th century, after the primary river regulation. The increasing areal extension of relatively warm and nutrient-rich water habitats had positive effects on the more rare members of the mosquito fauna, such as the potential malaria vector mosquito Anopheles algeriensis according to the model results. Summarizing, we found a strong, positive link between anthropogenic interventions and the mosquito diversity in water ecosystems.

  5. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  6. Properties of photocatalytically generated oxygen species produced by Ag2Se-graphene oxide heterojunction and its application for the visible-light degradation of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ze-Da; Zhao, Wei; Kim, Sukyoung

    2017-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by the interactions between sunlight and light-absorbing substances in aqueous environments, and these ROS are capable of destroying various organic pollutants in wastewater. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in petrochemical wastewater was investigated by solar light photocatalysis. We used graphene oxide modified Ag2Se nanoparticles to enhance the activity of photochemically generated oxygen (PGO) species. There was a catastrophic decrease in the surface area and pore volume of the Ag2Se-graphene oxide (Ag2Se-G) samples because of the deposition of Ag2Se. The generation of ROS was detected by the oxidation of 1,5- diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). It was revealed that the photocurrent density and PGO effect increased with the graphene oxide modified. The experimental results indicate that this heterogeneous catalyst achieved a degradation of 88.43% under visiblelight irradiation. The NH3 degradation product was N2 and neither NO2- nor NO3- were detected.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Semi-mechanistic partial buffer approach to modeling pH, the buffer properties, and the distribution of ionic species in complex solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Daniel P; Da Conceicao Neta, Edith Ramos; McFeeters, Roger F; Lubkin, Sharon R; Breidt, Frederick

    2006-08-09

    In many biological science and food processing applications, it is very important to control or modify pH. However, the complex, unknown composition of biological media and foods often limits the utility of purely theoretical approaches to modeling pH and calculating the distributions of ionizable species. This paper provides general formulas and efficient algorithms for predicting the pH, titration, ionic species concentrations, buffer capacity, and ionic strength of buffer solutions containing both defined and undefined components. A flexible, semi-mechanistic, partial buffering (SMPB) approach is presented that uses local polynomial regression to model the buffering influence of complex or undefined components in a solution, while identified components of known concentration are modeled using expressions based on extensions of the standard acid-base theory. The SMPB method is implemented in a freeware package, (pH)Tools, for use with Matlab. We validated the predictive accuracy of these methods by using strong acid titrations of cucumber slurries to predict the amount of a weak acid required to adjust pH to selected target values.

  8. Emotion regulation difficulties in disordered eating: Examining the psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and eating disorder severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eWolz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the study were to 1 validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and 2 explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders, including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity Methods: 134 patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years with anorexia nervosa (n = 30, bulimia nervosa (n = 54, binge eating (n = 20, or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30 and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years reported on general psychopathology, eating disorder severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1. Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (Aim 2, differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness and eating disorder severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to eating disorder pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Carbonate Species and Solid Carbonate Phases of Selected Trace Elements pertinent to Drinking Water Standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, John A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkin, Richard T. [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report contains a series of tables summarizing the thermodynamic properties of aqueous carbonate complexes and solid carbonate phases of the following elements: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) thallium (Tl), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn). Most of these elements are potentially hazardous as defined by extant primary drinking water standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remainder are not considered hazardous, but are either listed by EPA under secondary standards, or because they can adversely affect drinking water quality. Additional tables are included giving the thermodynamic properties for carbonates of the alkali metal and alkali earth elements, sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and strontium (Sr), because of their value in developing correlative models to estimate the thermodynamic properties of carbonate minerals for which no such data currently exist. The purpose in creating the tables in this report is to provide future investigators with a convenient source for selecting and tracing the sources of thermodynamic data of the above listed elements for use in modeling their geochemical behavior in “underground sources of drinking water” (USDW). The incentive for doing so lies with a heightened concern over the potential consequences of the proposed capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by fossil fuel fired power plants in deep subsurface reservoirs. If CO2 were to leak from such reservoirs, it could migrate upward and contaminate USDWs with undesirable, but undetermined, consequences to water quality. The EPA, Office of Research and Development, through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, funded the preparation of this report.

  10. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: Reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Rebecca, Re; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted ...

  11. Properties of solvated electrons, alkali anions and other species in metal solutions and kinetics of cation and electron exchange reactions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of solutions of alkali metals in amine solvents were studied by optical, ETR, NMR and electrochemical methods. Complexation of the alkali cations by crown ethers and cryptands permitted the preparation of concentrated solutions of alkali metals in amine and ether solvents. Extensive alkali metal NMR studies of the exchange of M + with crown-ethers and cryptands and of the alkali metal anion, M - , were made. The first crystalline salt of an alkali metal anion, Na + Cryptand [2.2.2]Na - was synthesized and characterized and led to the preparation of other alkali metal anion salts. This research provided the foundation for continuing studies of crystalline alkalide salts

  12. Effect of extracellular generation of the reactive oxygen species, singlet oxygen (1O2), on the electrophysiological properties of cultured cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Sinks, Louise, E.; Vionogradov, Sergej A.

    (ABM) were made from cultured rat cortical neurons to provide insight into the events following extracellular generation of 1O2. Membrane resistance (Rm), capacitance (Cm), holding current (Ihold), and firing properties were monitored throughout. The V/I relationship was investigated with 1 s duration...... current steps of 0.1 nA (-0.4 - 1 nA). The PS, dissolved in ABM (10 µM), was administered by local application directly to the neuron monitored. The intensity of the applied light at 455 nm was adjusted by neutral density filters. Phosphorescence at 700 nm proved the presence of the PS, which was absent...

  13. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  14. The electronic and solvatochromic properties of [Co(L)(bipyridine)2]+ (L = o-catecholato, o-benzenedithiolato) species: a combined experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, Giacomo; Senn, Hans M; Sproules, Stephen; Wilson, Claire; Symes, Mark D

    2016-10-04

    Complexes of Co(iii) containing mixed chelating diimine and o-quinone ligand sets are of fundamental interest on account of their fascinating magnetic and electronic properties. Whilst complexes of this type containing one diimine and two o-quinone ligands have been studied extensively, those with the reverse stoichiometry (two diimines and one o-quinone) are much rarer. Herein, we describe a ready route to the synthesis of the complex [Co III (o-catecholate) (2,2'-bipyridine) 2 ] + (1), and also report the synthesis of [Co III (o-catecholate)(5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) 2 ] + (2) and [Co III (o-benezenedithiolate)(5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) 2 ] + (3) for the first time. Spectroscopic studies show that complex 2 displays intriguing solvatochromic behaviour as a function of solvent hydrogen bond donation ability, a property of this type of complex which has hitherto not been reported. Time-dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) shows that this effect arises as a result of hydrogen bonding between the solvent and the oxygen atoms of the catecholate ligand. In contrast, the sulfur atoms in the benzenedithiolate analogue 3 are much weaker acceptors of hydrogen bonds from the solvent, meaning that complex 3 is only very weakly solvatochromic. Finally, we show that complex 2 has some potential as a molecular probe that can report on the composition of mixed solvent systems as a function of its absorbance spectrum.

  15. 75 FR 38069 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... regulations to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...

  16. Redox processes in the rhizosphere of restored peatlands - The impact of vascular plant species on electrochemical properties of dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agethen, Svenja; Wolff, Franziska; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    Restoration of cut over peatlands in Central Europe is challenging in a landscape overused for agriculture. Excess nutrient availability by excess fertilization triggers uncharacteristic vegetation that is one key driver for carbon cycling. Those nutrient rich systems are often dominated by graminoids, and were often found to emit substantial amounts of methane. Plants grown under nutrient rich conditions provide more labile carbon in rhizodeposition and litter that fuels methanogenesis. Such species often have aerenchyma that facilitates direct CH4 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore impair the climate cooling function of bogs. On the other hand, aerenchymatic tissue supplies oxygen to the rhizosphere, which may reduce methanogenesis or stimulate methane oxidation, as methanogenesis is a strictly anaerobic process. Which of the effects prevail is often unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the impact of different vegetation on rhizospheric redox conditions and methanogenesis, including aerenchymatic vascular plants that are dominant in restored cut over peatlands. As ombrotrophic peat is poor in inorganic electron acceptors (EAs) to suppress methanogenesis, we analyzed the electron acceptor (EACs) and electron donor capacities (EDCs) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere to understand the impact of vegetation on anaerobic organic matter degradation. We planted Juncus effusus, Eriophorum vaginatum, Eriophorum angustifolium, Sphagnum (mixture of S. magellanicum, S. papillosum, S. sec. acutifolia, 1/3 each) plus non-vegetated controls; six replicates per batch; in containers with untreated homogenized peat. The plants grow under constant conditions (20° C, 12h diurnal light cycles and 80% RH). Anoxic conditions were achieved by keeping the water table at +10 cm. For monitoring, the rhizosphere is equipped with suction and gas samplers. We measure dissolved CO2 and CH4 concentrations, inorganic EAs (NO3-, Fe(III), and SO42-) and

  17. Antibacterial Properties of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from a Fern Species Equisetum arvense L. Against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gitishree; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria (EB) are a rich source of secondary metabolites with medicinal importance. In this study, EB were isolated from the bottle brush herb Equisetum arvense and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Evaluation of its antibacterial potential was conducted using two common foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890. Out of 103 identified EB, three species, Streptomyces albolongus, Dermacoccus sp., and Mycobacterium sp., showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus with inhibition zones of 45.34 ± 0.15, 43.28 ± 0.19, and 22.98 ± 0.18 mm, respectively, whereas only two species, Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus (EAL196) and Paenibacillus sp. (EAS116), showed moderate antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 with inhibition zones of 9.41 ± 0.29 and 10.44 ± 0.31 mm, respectively. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extract of S. albolongus, Mycobacterium sp., and Dermacoccus sp. showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, with inhibition zones of 23.43 ± 0.21, 21.18 ± 0.22, and 19.72 ± 0.10 mm, respectively. The methanol extract of Dermacoccus sp. and Paenibacillus sp. showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7, with inhibition zones of 11.30 ± 0.17 and 10.01 ± 0.21 mm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated swollen and lysed cell membranes of pathogens treated with ethyl acetate extract. A possible reason might be, likely due to EB metabolites penetrating the bacterial cell membranes and affecting various metabolic functions resulting in lysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that EB from E. arvense can be used as a source of natural antibacterial compounds against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Structural and Nutritional Properties of Pasta from Triticum monococcum and Triticum durum Species. A Combined ¹H NMR, MRI, and Digestibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Gabriella; Greco, Fulvia; Cremonini, Mauro A; Brandolini, Andrea; Consonni, Roberto; Gussoni, Maristella

    2015-05-27

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of two different types of pasta, namely Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (cv. Saragolla) and Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cv. Monlis), under different processing conditions. MRI analysis and NMR spectroscopy (i.e., T1 and T2 NMR relaxation times and diffusion parameters) were conducted on pasta, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of the chemical compounds released by pasta samples during the cooking process was performed. In addition, starch digestibility (enzimatically determined) was also investigated. The NMR results indicated that Saragolla pasta has a more compact structure, ascribed to pasta network and in particular to different technological gluten properties, that mainly determine the lower ability of Monlis pasta in binding water. These results correlate well with the lower rate of starch hydrolysis measured for Monlis pasta compared to Saragolla when both are dried at high temperature.

  19. EFFECT OF WOOD SPECIES USED FOR CORE LAYER ON SOME PROPERTIES OF OKUME PLYWOOD PANELS BONDED WITH MELAMINE-UREA FORMALDEHYDE (MUF ADHESIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Demirkır

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; changes in some properties of the okume plywood panels when used alder and beech veneers in their core layers were investigated. Two types of melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF resins having different free formaldehyde contents were used for bonding plywood panels manufactured from 2 mm thick veneers at industrial conditions. The formaldehyde emission values of plywood panels bonded with MÜF having higher free formaldehyde content were found to be higher than those of the panels bonded with other resin type. The highest formaldehyde emission value was found for the panels manufactured from okume veneers in all layers while the lowest value was determined from the panels include beech veneers in the core layer. The shear and bending strength values of the panels consisted of beech veneers in the core layer were found to be higher than those of the panels consisted of okume and alder veneers in the core layers.

  20. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine.

  1. 41 CFR 101-1.103 - FPMR temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true FPMR temporary regulations. 101-1.103 Section 101-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101...

  2. Reactive oxygen species-generating mitochondrial DNA mutation up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha gene transcription via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt/protein kinase C/histone deacetylase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshikawa, Nobuko; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakagawara, Akira; Takenaga, Keizo

    2009-11-27

    Lewis lung carcinoma-derived high metastatic A11 cells constitutively overexpress hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha mRNA compared with low metastatic P29 cells. Because A11 cells exclusively possess a G13997A mutation in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene, we addressed here a causal relationship between the ND6 mutation and the activation of HIF-1alpha transcription, and we investigated the potential mechanism. Using trans-mitochondrial cybrids between A11 and P29 cells, we found that the ND6 mutation was directly involved in HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression. Stimulation of HIF-1alpha transcription by the ND6 mutation was mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. The up-regulation of HIF-1alpha transcription was abolished by mithramycin A, an Sp1 inhibitor, but luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sp1 was necessary but not sufficient for HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression in A11 cells. On the other hand, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, markedly suppressed HIF-1alpha transcription in A11 cells. In accordance with this, HDAC activity was high in A11 cells but low in P29 cells and in A11 cells treated with the ROS scavenger ebselene, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and the PKC inhibitor Ro31-8220. These results suggest that the ROS-generating ND6 mutation increases HIF-1alpha transcription via the PI3K-Akt/PKC/HDAC pathway, leading to HIF-1alpha protein accumulation in hypoxic tumor cells.

  3. Chemical properties and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species quenching activities of dry sugar-amino acid maillard reaction mixtures exposed to baking temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Liang, Ningjian; Kitts, David D

    2015-10-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from 10 different, dry sugar-amino acid reaction model systems were examined for changes in color index (E), sugar loss, and formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds; the changes were correlated with relative activities to quench both reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species. Reducing sugars, xylose, ribose, fructose, glucose, and non-reducing sucrose were reacted with glycine (Xyl-Gly, Rib-Gly, Fru-Gly, Glc-Gly, and Suc-Gly), or lysine (Xyl-Lys, Rib-Lys, Fru-Lys, Glc-Lys, and Suc-Lys), respectively, at temperatures of 150°C and 180°C for time periods ranging from 5 to 60min. ROS quenching capacity was negatively correlated with color index (E) (r=-0.604, P<0.001), and positively correlated with sugar loss (r=0.567, P<0.001). MRPs also exhibited activity to quench RNS as assessed by nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in differentiated Caco-2 cells that were induced with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and phorbol ester (PMA) cocktail. We also showed a correlation between RNS and color index, sugar loss, and ROS quenching activities for MR mixtures that were heated for a short time (e.g. 10min) at 150°C. MRP quenching of ROS was largely influenced by sugar type, whereas, RNS quenching was dependent more so on the interaction between reactants and reaction conditions used to generate MRPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytoconstituents and Nutritional Properties of the Fruits of Eleutherococcus divaricatus and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus: A Study of Non-European Species Cultivated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Załuski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleutherococcus fruits have been consumed in Russia and Asia throughout the centuries. Currently, there is an increasing interest in these products by the community of Western Europe. Many people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, known as malnutrition, which consequently influences body condition. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmaconutrition, proximate, mineral, and fatty acid composition, total phenolics content, and total flavonoids content of Eleutherococcus divaricatus and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus fruits cultivated in Poland. Eleutherococcus divaricatus and E. sessiliflorus contain a high amount of protein and fibres (16.70% and 12.28%; 61.41% and 45.63%, resp.. The fruits were generally high in K (21 g/kg and low in sodium (0.001 g/kg. In terms of fatty acid composition, both species had a high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (54.84–57.95% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (36.22–37.0%. Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic acid has been identified as the most abundant compound, ranging from 260 to 810 μg/100 g DE. Among flavonoids, hyperoside was found to be in the highest amount (120–780 μg/100 g DE. Considering a rich chemical composition of the fruits, a better understanding of their health benefits is important in order to increase their utility and to enrich dietary sources of health promoting compounds. Because of a high amount of protein and a low calorific value, the fruits should be considered food for vegans or vegetarians.

  5. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. THE ROLE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE REGULATION OF ELECTRICAL AND CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES OF SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS OF THE GUINEA PIG URETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kovalyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide CO, as well as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, make up the family of labile biological mediators termed gasotransmitters. We hypothesized that CO may be involved in the mechanisms of regulation electrical and contractile properties of smooth muscles.The effects of carbon monoxide donor CORM II (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II-dimer on the electrical and contractile activities of smooth muscles of the guinea pig ureter were studied by the method of the double sucrose bridge. This method allows to register simultaneously the parameters of the action potential (AP and the contraction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs, caused by an electrical stimulus.CORM II in a concentration of 10 mmol has reduced the amplitude of contractions SMCs to (86.5 ± 9.7% (n = 6, p < 0.05, the amplitude of the AP to (88.9 ± 4.2% (n = 6, p < 0.05 and the duration of the plateau of the AP to (91.7 ± 6.0% (n = 6, p < 0.05. On the background of the action of biologically active substances (phenylephrine, 10 µmol or histamine, 10 µmol, these effects of CORM II amplified. The inhibitory action of СORM II on the parameters of the contractile and electrical activities of the smooth muscles of guinea pig ureter has been decreased by blocking potassium channels in membrane of SMCs by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA оr inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase (ODQ [1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-l-one]. On the background of TEA (5 mmol, a donor of CO (10 mmol caused a reduction the amplitude of contraction SMCs to (87.0 ± 10.8% (n = 6, p < 0.05, the amplitude of the AP to (91.7 ± 6.4% (n = 6, p < 0.05 and the duration of the plateau of the AP to (93.4 ± 7.5% (n = 6, p < 0.05. After the pretreatment of ODQ (1 µmol adding CORM II (10 mmol in solution has resulted to augment of the amplitude of contraction ureteral smooth muscle strips to (90.9 ± 4.2% (n = 6, p < 0.05, the amplitude of the AP to (97.2 ± 10.3% (n = 6, p < 0.05 and the duration of the

  7. Ecotoxicological properties of ketoprofen and the S(+)-enantiomer (dexketoprofen): Bioassays in freshwater model species and biomarkers in fish PLHC-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennillo, Elvira; Arukwe, Augustine; Monni, Gianfranca; Meucci, Valentina; Intorre, Luigi; Pretti, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    The increased use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has resulted in their ubiquitous presence in the environment. The toxicological properties of these 2 widely prescribed NSAIDs, namely racemic ketoprofen and its enantiomer S(+)-ketoprofen (dexketoprofen), were evaluated, firstly, by acute and chronic toxicity tests using 3 representative model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and, secondly, by evaluating the responses of biotransformation systems and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1/MRP2) using the Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma 1 (PLHC-1) fish hepatic cell line. Toxicity data from both acute and chronic dexketoprofen exposure indicated higher sensitivity through inhibition of bioluminescence and algal growth and through increased mortality/immobilization compared to racemic ketoprofen exposure. The growth inhibition test showed that racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen exhibited different effect concentration values (240.2 and 65.6 μg/L, respectively). Furthermore, racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen did not exert cytotoxic effects in PLHC-1 cells and produced compound-, time-, and concentration-specific differential effects on cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and glutathione S-transferase levels. For CYP1A, the effects of racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen differed at the transcriptional and catalytic levels. Exposure to racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen modulated MRP1 and MRP2 mRNA levels, and these effects were also dependent on compound, exposure time, and concentration of the individual drug. The present study revealed for the first time the interactions between these NSAIDs and key detoxification systems and different sensitivity to the racemic mixture compared to its enantiomer. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:201-212. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties on Meat Homogenates of Essential Oils Obtained from Four Thymus Species Achieved from Organic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, Jose A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2017-07-28

    In the organic food industry, no chemical additives can be used to prevent microbial spoilage. As a consequence, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from organic aromatic herbs and spices are gaining interest for their potential as preservatives. The organic Thymus zygis , Thymus mastichina , Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris EOs, which are common in Spain and widely used in the meat industry, could be used as antibacterial agents in food preservation. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the antibacterial activity using, as culture medium, extracts from meat homogenates (minced beef, cooked ham or dry-cured sausage); and (ii) the antioxidant properties of organic EOs obtained from T. zygis , T. mastichina , T. capitatus and T. vulgaris . The antioxidant activity was determined using different methodologies, such as Ferrous ion-chelating ability assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation (ABTS • +) scavenging activity assay and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method; while the antibacterial activity was determined against 10 bacteria using the agar diffusion method in different meat model media. All EOs analyzed, at all concentrations, showed antioxidant activity. T. capitatus and T. zygis EOs were the most active. The IC 50 values, for DPPH, ABTS and FIC assays were 0.60, 1.41 and 4.44 mg/mL, respectively, for T. capitatus whilst for T. zygis were 0.90, 2.07 and 4.95 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, T. zygis and T. capitatus EOs, in all culture media, had the highest inhibition halos against all tested bacteria. In general terms, the antibacterial activity of all EOs assayed was higher in the medium made with minced beef than with the medium elaborated with cooked ham or dry-cured sausage.

  9. 房产税调节收入分配的机理、条件与改革方向%Mechanism,Condition and Reform Direction of the Regulation of Property Tax for Income Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄潇

    2014-01-01

    房产税在影响居民收入和财富的同时,还通过转移支付来改善中低收入群体的住房和公共服务,具有调节收入分配的功能。房产税收入用于转移支付、税制设计与住房供应体系形成良性耦合、税基宽泛、税率合适、计税依据合理以及法律保障等是房产税有效发挥调节收入分配功能的条件。调节收入分配是我国房产税改革的重要目标。虽然从沪、渝房产税试点改革实践看,房产税整体上尚不能有效调节收入分配,但不能以此否定房产税所具备的调节收入分配的功能。目前,税基过窄、计税依据不合理、房产估价等配套措施不成熟是制约我国房产税有效调节收入分配的主要因素,也是房产税进一步改革的方向。要积极推进房产税扩围改革,并尽快实现以房屋市场价值作为计税依据,不断增强房产税调节收入分配的功能。%Property tax has the function to adjust income distribution by affecting the income and wealth of Chinese residents and by using transfer payment to improve the housing and public service of the residents with middle and low income.The condition for property tax can effectively play a role in the adjustment of income distribution by applying property tax to transfer payment,by virtuously coupling between tax system design and housing supply system,by extensive tax basis,by proper tax rate,by rational taxation laws,and by legal protection and so on. The adjustment of income distribution is an important goal of China’s reform of property tax,although property tax as a whole can still not effectively regulate income distribution based on the pilot property tax reform practice in Shanghai and Chongqing,the function for property tax to regulate income distribution can not be denied.Currently, the main factors to restrict effective regulation function of income distribution by China’s property tax emanate from immature measures

  10. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  11. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  12. SESAM – a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisan, Antoine; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts...

  13. Sox2, a stemness gene, regulates tumor-initiating and drug-resistant properties in CD133-positive glioblastoma stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shin Song

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: SOX2 plays a crucial role in regulating tumorigenicity in CD133+ GBM cells. Our results not only revealed the genetic plasticity contributing to drug resistance and stemness but also demonstrated the dominant role of SOX2 in maintenance of GBM CSCs, which may provide a novel therapeutic target to overcome the conundrum of poor survival of brain cancers.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole; Sintese e avaliacao da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indolicos derivados do safrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Irineu [Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Rio do Sul, Rio do Sul, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: marchi@softhouse.com.br; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-15

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro