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Sample records for species produces net

  1. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits.

    Keller, Reuben P; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David C

    2007-01-02

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10-500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits.

  2. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  3. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  4. The net greenhouse warming forcing of methanol produced from biomass

    Ellington, R.T.; Meo, M.; El-Sayed, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent national and international actions regarding atmosphere warming mitigation, clean technology, and technology transfer have emphasized the need for a method for unambiguous greenhouse gas emissions analysis for comparing technologies, documentation of application of the method, and proof of applicability. We have developed and applied such an approach to production of methanol fuel from woody biomass. The system was defined, its emission for its entire lifetime delineated, and the atmospheric warming forcing calculated for that lifetime plus after effects. The results are presented with materials and energy balances including ancillary equipment, external energy subsidies and invested quantities. These extend the analysis considerably beyond those possible using the global warming potential (GWP). For wood input of 283 mg day -1 , 70 mg of methanol are produced. System carbon dioxide emissions are 3.18 tonne/tonne methanol produced, with another 1.37 mg emitted when that tonne methanol is burned in a vehicle. System energy usage efficiency was 41.2%, and 41.1% with inclusion of energy to construct the system. In essence, more than two Joules of carbon must be produced in wood for every Joule burned in the vehicle. (author)

  5. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  6. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    Collier, Catherine J.; Ow, Yan X.; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L.; O'Brien, Katherine R.; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri). To obtain whole plant net production...

  7. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  8. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  9. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... ochratoxin A production in coffee, rice, beverages and other foodstuffs are A. ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae and A. steynii....

  10. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  11. High tropical net diversification drives the New World latitudinal gradient in palm (Arecaceae) species richness

    Svenning, J.-C.; Borchsenius, Finn; Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe

    2008-01-01

    /temperature and water availability. These patterns therefore reflect net diversification at both deep and shallow levels in the phylogeny. Richness also increased with range in elevation, but this was only reflected in the MS/G pattern and therefore reflects recent diversification. Main conclusions The geographical......Aim Species richness exhibits striking geographical variation, but the processes that drive this variation are unresolved. We investigated the relative importance of two hypothesized evolutionary causes for the variation in palm species richness across the New World: time for diversification...

  12. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes produced by human pathogenic Vibrio species

    Shin-Ichi eMiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Vibrio produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes to obtain nutrients via digestion of various protein substrates. However, the enzymes secreted by human pathogenic species have been documented to modulate the bacterial virulence. Several species including Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus are known to produce thermolysin-like metalloproteases termed vibriolysin. The vibriolysin from V. vulnificus, a causative agent of serious systemic infection, is a major toxic factor eliciting the secondary skin damage characterized by formation of the hemorrhagic brae. The vibriolysin from intestinal pathogens may play indirect roles in pathogenicity because it can activate protein toxins and hemagglutinin by the limited proteolysis and can affect the bacterial attachment to or detachment from the intestinal surface by degradation of the mucus layer. Two species causing wound infections, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, produce another metalloproteases so-called collagenases. Although the detailed pathological roles have not been studied, the collagenase is potent to accelerate the bacterial dissemination through digestion of the protein components of the extracellular matrix. Some species produce cymotrypsin-like serine proteases, which may also affect the bacterial virulence potential. The intestinal pathogens produce sufficient amounts of the metalloprotease at the small intestinal temperature; however, the metalloprotease production by extra-intestinal pathogens is much higher around the body surface temperature. On the other hand, the serine protease is expressed only in the absence of the metalloprotease.

  13. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  14. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    Catherine J. Collier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri. To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average. This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature. The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C and H. uninervis (33°C, but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  15. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species.

    Collier, Catherine J; Ow, Yan X; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L; O'Brien, Katherine R; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species ( Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis , and Zostera muelleri ). To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum ( T opt ) for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri , which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The T opt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata , was considerably higher (35°C on average). This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature ( T opt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis , and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature). The T opt for gross photosynthesis were higher than T opt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C) and H. uninervis ( 33°C), but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata . Both estimated plant net productivity and T opt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  16. Bacteroides species produce Vibrio harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules.

    Antunes, Luis Caetano Martha; Ferreira, Lívia Queiroz; Ferreira, Eliane Oliveira; Miranda, Karla Rodrigues; Avelar, Kátia Eliane Santos; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto; Ferreira, Maria Candida de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Quorum sensing is a density-dependent gene regulation mechanism that has been described in many bacterial species in the last decades. Bacteria that use quorum sensing as part of their gene regulation circuits produce molecules called autoinducers that accumulate in the environment and activate target genes in a quorum-dependent way. Some specific clues led us to hypothesize that Bacteroides species can produce autoinducers and possess a quorum sensing system. First, Bacteroides are anaerobic bacteria that are frequently involved in polymicrobial infections. These infections often involve Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two of the best understood examples of bacteria that employ quorum sensing systems as part of their pathogenesis. Also, studies have detected the presence of a quorum sensing gene involved in the production of autoinducers in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a species closely related to the Bacteroides genus. These and other evidences prompted us to investigate if Bacteroides strains could produce autoinducer molecules that could be detected by a Vibrio harveyi reporter system. In this paper, we show that supernatants of B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis strains are able to stimulate the V. harveyi quorum sensing system 2. Also, we were able to demonstrate that the stimulation detected is due to the production of autoinducer molecules and not the growth of reporter strains after addition of supernatant. Moreover, the phenomenon observed does not seem to represent the degradation of repressors possibly present in the culture medium used. We could also amplify bands from some of the strains tested using primers designed to the luxS gene of Escherichia coli. Altogether, our results show that B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis (but possibly some other species) can produce V. harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules. However, the role of such molecules in the biology of these organisms remains unknown.

  17. Net primary production of forest-forming species in climatic gradients of Eurasia

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available When using biomass and net primary production (NPP databases compiled by the authors for 6 forest-forming species in a number of 6694 and 2192 sample plots correspondingly, a system of regression models of their NPP is designed and some species-specific regularities of NPP distribution in two climatic gradients (natural zonality and climate continentality are stated. It is found that according to a zonal gradient, aboveground and total NPP in 2-needled pine and spruce-fir forests are monotonically increasing in the direction from the northern to the southern tip of the continent, while larch and birch have the maximum in the southern moderate, and aspen and poplar – in the northern moderate zone, but oak forests do not show any significant pattern. Within a single zonal belt, the aboveground and total NPP of coniferous and deciduous are monotonically decreasing in direction from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to the continentality pole in Yakutia. The understory NPP of all the species, except oak, monotonically increase towards the subequatorial zone. For oak forests, any clear regularity is not revealed. Within a single zonal belt, when approaching continentality pole, Pinus and Quercus NPP monotonically decreases and in other species, increases. Species-specific patterns in changing the relative indices of NPP (forest stand underground NPP to aboveground one and forest understory NPP to total forest stand one in gradients of the natural zonality and climate continentality are established.

  18. A new giant species of placented worm and the mechanism by which onychophorans weave their nets (Onychophora: Peripatidae

    Bernal Morera-Brenes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Onychophorans, or velvet worms, are poorly known and rare animals. Here we report the discovery of a new species that is also the largest onychophoran found so far, a 22cm long female from the Caribbean coastal forest of Costa Rica. Specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscopy; Peripatus solorzanoi sp. nov., is diagnosed as follows: primary papillae convex and conical with rounded bases, with more than 18 scale ranks. Apical section large, spherical, with a basal diameter of at least 20 ranks. Apical piece with 6-7 scale ranks. Outer blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 vestigial accessory tooth (formula: 1/1/1; inner blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 rudimentary accessory tooth, 9 to 10 denticles (formula: 1/1/1/9-10. Accessory tooth blunt in both blades. Four pads in the fourth and fifth oncopods; 4th. pad arched. The previously unknown mechanism by which onychophorans weave their adhesive is simple: muscular action produces a swinging movement of the adhesive-spelling organs; as a result, the streams cross in mid air, weaving the net. Like all onychophorans, P. solorzanoi is a rare species: active protection of the habitat of the largest onychophoran ever described, is considered urgent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1127-1142. Epub 2010 December 01.

  19. The induction of mycotoxins by trichothecene producing Fusarium species.

    Lowe, Rohan; Jubault, Mélanie; Canning, Gail; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many Fusarium species have emerged which now threaten the productivity and safety of small grain cereal crops worldwide. During floral infection and post-harvest on stored grains the Fusarium hyphae produce various types of harmful mycotoxins which subsequently contaminate food and feed products. This article focuses specifically on the induction and production of the type B sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins. Methods are described which permit in liquid culture the small or large scale production and detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its various acetylated derivatives. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ear inoculation assay is also explained which allows the direct comparison of mycotoxin production by species, chemotypes and strains with different growth rates and/or disease-causing abilities. Each of these methods is robust and can be used for either detailed time-course studies or end-point analyses. Various analytical methods are available to quantify the levels of DON, 3A-DON and 15A-DON. Some criteria to be considered when making selections between the different analytical methods available are briefly discussed.

  20. An Analytical Time–Domain Expression for the Net Ripple Produced by Parallel Interleaved Converters

    Johnson, Brian B.; Krein, Philip T.

    2017-03-01

    We apply modular arithmetic and Fourier series to analyze the superposition of N interleaved triangular waveforms with identical amplitudes and duty-ratios. Here, interleaving refers to the condition when a collection of periodic waveforms with identical periods are each uniformly phase-shifted across one period. The main result is a time-domain expression which provides an exact representation of the summed and interleaved triangular waveforms, where the peak amplitude and parameters of the time-periodic component are all specified in closed-form. Analysis is general and can be used to study various applications in multi-converter systems. This model is unique not only in that it reveals a simple and intuitive expression for the net ripple, but its derivation via modular arithmetic and Fourier series is distinct from prior approaches. The analytical framework is experimentally validated with a system of three parallel converters under time-varying operating conditions.

  1. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...

  2. Lightning-produced Carbon Species in the Atmosphere of Saturn

    Delitsky, Mona; Baines, K. H.

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies by Baines et al (2009) indicate that thunderstorm-associated clouds on Saturn are spectrally dark from 0.7 to 4 um, darker than regular clouds. This darkening is found to be consistent with the presence of particles of elemental carbon, such as in the form of soot particles mixed in with spectrally bright condensates. This carbon is thought to be generated by lightning-induced dissociation of methane. Lightning on Saturn will input large amounts of energy to a narrow column of atmosphere and generate products at high energies such as radicals and ions. After the column cools down, the new chemical species recombine and are frozen into a new chemical equilibrium. Experimental studies in the literature of reactions of methane and other gases in plasma discharges (which simulate lightning) indicate that, even with high ratios of hydrogen/methane, the elemental carbon obtained will form solid dark particles that persist and have a very high C/H ratio. Basically, they are mostly pure carbon, in the form of soot, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon black, carbon onions, etc. Hydrogen will act as a sealant onto the particles and attach to dangling bonds on their growing surfaces. Even in experiments to form the most crystalline allotrope of carbon, that is, diamond, the presence of hydrogen does not inhibit diamond formation, even at the low pressures in the atmospheres of the Jovian planets or in the interstellar medium (Allamandola et al 1991). Therefore, some form of elemental carbon is likely produced in Saturnian storm clouds and may occur as dark particles of either amorphous carbon, PAHs or crystalline carbon in a form such as graphite. ..Refs: Baines et al., PSS 57, 1650-1658 (2009) ; Allamandola et al., Meteoritics 26, 313 (1991).

  3. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  4. Finite element simulation of HIP-process to produce 3d near net shape parts

    Zadeh, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems when producing powder metallurgy parts through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is the non homogeneous shrinkage of HIP-capsule during the process. This leads to time and cost consuming machining of the HIP parts. In order to reduce the machining to a minimum, one can try to simulate the HIP-process by means of numerical methods. Hereby, the part distortion can be predicted, and hence a new HIP-capsule can be designed in such a way to prevent the distortion partly or even completely. In the following, a finite element method is used, on one hand, to simulate part shrinkage during HIP process; on the other hand a method is integrated in this simulation to optimize the HIP-capsule geometry. For the determination of material dependent parameters, a mixture of theoretical and experimental methods is used. Results of simulation are verified for a complex 3d HIP part out of TiAl6V4

  5. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black pepper in Vietnam and promote root and shoot development of the ‘King of Spices’. Biosurfactant-producing P. fluorescens strain SS101 was also effective in controlling tomato late blight caused by P...

  6. Isolation of Acremonium species producing cephalosporine C (CPC ...

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... selective media and Acremonium sp. were isolated. The presence of CPC antibiotic in the fermentation broths of these species was ... Penicillium sp. 28%. Alternaria sp. .... On-line high performance liquid chromatography for ...

  7. Net expansion of dried demineralized dentin matrix produced by monomer/alcohol saturation and solvent evaporation.

    Agee, Kelli A; Becker, Thomas D; Joyce, Anthony P; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Borke, James L; Waller, Jennifer L; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if nonaqueous methacrylate monomer/alcohol mixtures could expand dried collapsed demineralized dentin matrix. Thin disks (ca. 200 microm) of human dentin were demineralized and placed in wells beneath contact probes of linear variable differential transformers. The probes were placed on water-saturated expanded matrices to record the shrinkage associated with drying. Monomer mixtures containing hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3 methacryloyloxy)propoxyphenyl] propane, or triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate were mixed with methanol or ethanol at alcohol/monomer mass fraction % of 90/10, 70/30, 50/50, or 30/70. They were randomly applied to the dried matrices to determine the rate and magnitude of expansion; then shrinkage was recorded during evaporation of the alcohols. The results indicated that matrix expansion was positively correlated with the Hoy's solubility parameters for hydrogen bonding forces (delta(h)) of the monomer/solvent mixtures (p methanol-containing than with ethanol-containing monomer mixtures. For the test solutions, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-containing mixtures produced the slowest rate of matrix expansion and hydroxyethyl methacrylate-containing mixtures the most rapid expansion. When the solvents were evaporated, the matrix shrank in proportion to the solvent content and the delta(h) of the monomer-solvent mixtures. The results indicate that expansion of dried, collapsed dentin matrices requires that the delta(h) of the mixtures be larger than 17 (J/cm(3))(1/2). The greater the delta(h) of the monomer solutions, the greater the rate and extent of expansion.

  8. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot

  9. Isolation of Acremonium species producing cephalosporine C (CPC ...

    Cephalosporin C (CPC) is a major precursor of cephalosporin antibiotics which is produced by a group of deuteromycets. After biosynthesis in optimized fermentation media, CPC is recovered and converted to a variety of potent cephalosporin antibiotic drugs. This study was performed to determine the mycoflora producing ...

  10. Reconciling uncertain costs and benefits in bayes nets for invasive species management

    Burgman, M.A.; Wintle, B.A.; Thompson, C.A.; Moilanen, A.; Runge, M.C.; Ben-Haim, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Bayes nets are used increasingly to characterize environmental systems and formalize probabilistic reasoning to support decision making. These networks treat probabilities as exact quantities. Sensitivity analysis can be used to evaluate the importance of assumptions and parameter estimates. Here, we outline an application of info-gap theory to Bayes nets that evaluates the sensitivity of decisions to possibly large errors in the underlying probability estimates and utilities. We apply it to an example of management and eradication of Red Imported Fire Ants in Southern Queensland, Australia and show how changes in management decisions can be justified when uncertainty is considered. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    extrolite families are reported from the subgenus with an average of 5 extrolite families per species. This is an underestimate as several pigments, volatiles and uncharacterized extrolites are not included in this average. Several reported producers are reidentified and new producers of known extrolites...... species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. In most cases these extrolites are produced consistently by all isolates examined in a species. The important antibiotic penicillin is produced by all members of series Chrysogena and P. griseofulvum. The cholesterol-lowering agent compactin is produced by P...

  12. Zooplankton species identities collected from zooplankton net casts in Indian Ocean from 17 February 1960 to 23 July 1962 (NODC Accession 9400059)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected using zooplankton net casts in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 17 February 1960 to 23 July...

  13. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  14. A new giant species of placented worm and the mechanism by which onychophorans weave their nets (Onychophora: Peripatidae

    Bernal Morera-Brenes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Onychophorans, or velvet worms, are poorly known and rare animals. Here we report the discovery of a new species that is also the largest onychophoran found so far, a 22cm long female from the Caribbean coastal forest of Costa Rica. Specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscopy; Peripatus solorzanoi sp. nov., is diagnosed as follows: primary papillae convex and conical with rounded bases, with more than 18 scale ranks. Apical section large, spherical, with a basal diameter of at least 20 ranks. Apical piece with 6-7 scale ranks. Outer blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 vestigial accessory tooth (formula: 1/1/1; inner blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 rudimentary accessory tooth, 9 to 10 denticles (formula: 1/1/1/9-10. Accessory tooth blunt in both blades. Four pads in the fourth and fifth oncopods; 4th. pad arched. The previously unknown mechanism by which onychophorans weave their adhesive is simple: muscular action produces a swinging movement of the adhesive-spelling organs; as a result, the streams cross in mid air, weaving the net. Like all onychophorans, P. solorzanoi is a rare species: active protection of the habitat of the largest onychophoran ever described, is considered urgent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1127-1142. Epub 2010 December 01.Los onicóforos o "peripatos" son animales escasos y poco conocidos. Aquí informamos el descubrimiento del onicóforo más grandes conocido, una hembra de 22cm de longitud del bosque costero caribeño de Costa Rica. Analizamos los especímenes con microscopia electrónica de barrido. La nueva especie, Peripatus solorzanoi, sp. nov. se caracteriza así: papilas primarias convexas y cónicas, con bases redondeadas y más de 18 filas de escamas de alto. Sección apical grande y esférica, con diámetro basal de al menos 20 filas. Parte apical con 6-7 filas de escamas de alto. Fórmula de lámina mandibular externa 1/1/1, lámina interna: 1/1/1/9-10. Diente accesorio romo

  15. Distance-dependent shifts in net effects by an unpalatable nettle on a palatable plant species

    Suzuki, Satoshi N.; Suzuki, Ryo O.

    2011-07-01

    We examined whether the relative importance of facilitation and competition effects by an unpalatable perennial ( Urtica thunbergiana) on a palatable annual ( Persicaria longiseta) change with the spatial distance between them in a long-term deer-grazing habitat. Survivorship, growth, size, and fecundity of Persicaria were recorded at 1-2-month intervals during growing seasons in 2 successive years and were compared among individuals located in different positions relative to the canopy of Urtica: at the centre, internal edge, external edge, and far from the canopy. Survivorship of Persicaria was significantly higher at the centre of the Urtica canopy than outside the canopy early in the growing season in both years. No significant differences in Persicaria growth were observed among the four positions in most periods, except in one when growth was significantly higher at the centre, internal, and external edges of the canopy compared to outside the canopy. We found spatial shifts in the net effects of Urtica on Persicaria fecundity, from positive effects under the canopy centre to negative effects under the external edge of the canopy in the first year, and from negative effects under the centre to positive effects under the external edge in the second year. These results demonstrate that the relative importance of positive and negative effects of Urtica on Persicaria vary temporally within and among years and spatially around a single Urtica plant. Spatiotemporal variation in plant interactions may be attributable to annual and seasonal variation in vegetation productivity and grazing pressure.

  16. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data...... and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from...... insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B-1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including...

  17. Guild of Frugivores on three fruit-producing tree species Polyscias ...

    Guild of Frugivores on three fruit-producing tree species Polyscias fulva, Syzyguim Guineensis SUBSP. Bamensdae and Pouteria Altissima ) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, a Montane Forest Ecosystem in Nigeria.

  18. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Yilmaz, Neriman; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β......Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been...... reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov...

  19. Net Primary Production and Carbon Stocks for Subarctic Mesic-Dry Tundras with Contrasting Microtopography, Altitude, and Dominant Species

    Campioli, Matteo; Michelsen, Anders; Demey, A

    2009-01-01

    Mesic-dry tundras are widespread in the Arctic but detailed assessments of net primary production (NPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) stocks are lacking. We addressed this lack of knowledge by determining the seasonal dynamics of aboveground vascular NPP, annual NPP, and whole-ecosystem C stocks in five...... mesic-dry tundras in Northern Sweden with contrasting microtopography, altitude, and dominant species. Those measurements were paralleled by the stock assessments of nitrogen (N), the limiting nutrient. The vascular production was determined by harvest or in situ growing units, whereas the nonvascular...... hermaphroditum is more productive than Cassiope tetragona vegetation. Although the large majority of the apical NPP occurred in early-mid season (85%), production of stems and evergreen leaves proceeded until about 2 weeks before senescence. Most of the vascular vegetation was belowground (80%), whereas most...

  20. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments.

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β-tubulin and RPB1, which confirm its unique nature. Talaromyces atroroseus resembles T. purpurogenus and T. albobiverticillius in producing red diffusible pigments, but differs from the latter two species by the production of glauconic acid, purpuride and ZG-1494α and by the dull to dark green, thick walled ellipsoidal conidia produced. The type strain of Talaromyces atroroseus is CBS 133442.

  1. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  2. Simultaneous reductions in emissions of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in the short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate atmosphere-only model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero with prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with recent past year 2000 levels if the emissions of only BC are reduced to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial~for the mitigation of global warming. However, both aerosol negative direct and indirect radiative effects are weakened when BC and its co-emitted species (sulfur dioxide and organic carbon) are simultaneously reduced. Relative to year 2000 levels, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 if the emissions of all these aerosols are decreased to the levels projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  3. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Emericella venezuelensis is a new species, differing from two other species with stellate ascospores, E. variecolor and E. pluriseminata, by triangular flaps on the convex sides of the ascospores, and further from E. variecolor by producing an Aspergillus anamorph only on unconventional growth......, variecoxanthone A, B, C, isoemericellin, kojic acid, varitriol, varioxiran, dihydroterrein, 7-hydroxyemodin, avariquinone and stromemycin. E. pluriseminata produces several unknown specific extrolites. E. venezuelensis is the first organism of marine origin reported to produce aflatoxin. Aflatoxin production by E....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...

  4. Improved netting

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  5. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, β-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

  6. New penicillin-producing Penicillium species and an overview of section Chrysogena

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Seifert, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments....... Each species produces a unique extrolite profile. The species share phenotypic characters, such as good growth on CYA supplemented with 5 % NaCl, ter- or quarterverticillate branched conidiophores and short, ampulliform phialides (colours, production of ascomata and ascospores, shape...

  7. Developing Inventory Projection Models Using Empirical Net Forest Growth and Growing-Stock Density Relationships Across U.S. Regions and Species Group

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of empirical net forest growth models based on forest growing-stock density relationships for three U.S. regions (North, South, and West) and two species groups (softwoods and hardwoods) at the regional aggregate level. The growth models accurately predict historical U.S. timber inventory trends when we incorporate historical timber harvests...

  8. Diddensiella caesifluorescens gen. nov., sp. nov., a riboflavin-producing yeast species of the family Trichomonascaceae

    Four strains of a novel heterothallic yeast species were isolated from rotten wood collected in or near the Pilis Mountains in Hungary. The strains produced riboflavin in liquid culture. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as well as an...

  9. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  10. Aspergillus species as mycotoxin producers in agricultural products in central Europe

    Kočube Šandor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species are able to produce a range of mycotoxins, includ­ing e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and patulin. Aflatoxins are mainly produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi, and they contaminate various agricultural products in several parts of the world. Several recent reports have indicated that aflatoxin-producing fungi and consequently aflatoxin contamination occur in agricultural commodities in a number of European countries which have not been faced with this problem before. Indeed, recent surveys have clarified that concentrations of aflatoxins in maize products and milk has been exceeding the EU limit in several regions of Central Europe including Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Northern Italy and Romania. However, aflatoxin contamination and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species have not been identified yet in maize in Hungary. We examined the presence of potential aflatoxin-producing Aspergilli in maize samples collected in southern parts of Hungary. Several A. flavus isolates were identified, and pre­liminary results indicated that some of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Con­tamination of other agricultural products with aflatoxins can also pose problems in Central Europe due to global warming. Ochratoxin contamination of grapes and grape-derived products is usually caused by black Aspergilli, especially by A. carbonarius and A. niger, although these species have been rare in Central European vineyards due to climatic fac­tors. Ochratoxin contamination of other agricultural products including spices and cereals was also observed in the region. Besides, ochratoxin producing Aspergilli are frequently isolated from imported products including coffee beans, dried fruits and spices, and ochra­toxin contamination of these samples was also observed. Fumonisins are produced mainly by Fusarium species, and by the recently identified producers Aspergillus niger and A. awamori. We examined fumonisin

  11. Gonyaulax taylorii, a new yessotoxins-producer dinoflagellate species from Chilean waters.

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Regueiro, Jorge; Blanco, Juan; Fraga, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    In summer 2009, during a survey in Bahía Mejillones, a dense bloom of a dinoflagellate from the genus Gonyaulax was detected, as well as the presence of yessotoxin. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing the presence of Gonyaulax taylorii. Morphological examination showed that the cells in the bloom fit in Gonyaulax jollifei Murray et Whitting sensu Dodge, subsequently classified as Gonyaulax taylorii by Carbonell-Moore. In this context, some inconsistencies have been found in regard to the holotype; the plate 1"' appears as two plates, 1‴ and 2‴, showing a suture that does not exist in Dodge's figure of G. jollifei, from where the holotype was drawn, nor within the samples collected. Therefore, this plate has been originally described erroneously as two plates named 1"' and 2"' instead of only one named 1‴. After this correction, this species has five instead of six postcingular plates. For this reason, the description of this species must be emended. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin and homoyessotoxin, with concentrations below 1pgcell -1 . The present study identifies, therefore, the dinoflagellate G. taylorii as a new source of yessotoxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Controls on declining carbon balance with leaf age among 10 woody species in Australian woodland: do leaves have zero daily net carbon balances when they die?

    Reich, Peter B; Falster, Daniel S; Ellsworth, David S; Wright, Ian J; Westoby, Mark; Oleksyn, Jacek; Lee, Tali D

    2009-01-01

    * Here, we evaluated how increased shading and declining net photosynthetic capacity regulate the decline in net carbon balance with increasing leaf age for 10 Australian woodland species. We also asked whether leaves at the age of their mean life-span have carbon balances that are positive, zero or negative. * The net carbon balances of 2307 leaves on 53 branches of the 10 species were estimated. We assessed three-dimensional architecture, canopy openness, photosynthetic light response functions and dark respiration rate across leaf age sequences on all branches. We used YPLANT to estimate light interception and to model carbon balance along the leaf age sequences. * As leaf age increased to the mean life-span, increasing shading and declining photosynthetic capacity each separately reduced daytime carbon gain by approximately 39% on average across species. Together, they reduced daytime carbon gain by 64% on average across species. * At the age of their mean life-span, almost all leaves had positive daytime carbon balances. These per leaf carbon surpluses were of a similar magnitude to the estimated whole-plant respiratory costs per leaf. Thus, the results suggest that a whole-plant economic framework, including respiratory costs, may be useful in assessing controls on leaf longevity.

  13. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2.

  14. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T) = IBT 6005(T) = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T) = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate...... conidiophores with echinulate thick-walled conidia and produce the extrolites asperphenamate, citreoisocoumarin, communesin A and B, asperentin and 5'-hydroxy-asperentin. Penicillium spathulatum is unique in having restricted colonies on Czapek yeast agar (CYA) with an olive grey reverse, good growth on CYA...... supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception...

  15. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B.

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [fr

  16. Aspergillus korhogoensis, a Novel Aflatoxin Producing Species from the Côte d’Ivoire

    Amaranta Carvajal-Campos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of a new aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus, A. korhogoensis, were isolated in the course of a screening study involving species from section Flavi found contaminating peanuts (Arachis hypogaea and peanut paste in the Côte d’Ivoire. Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, and preA was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distinct clade. Characterization of mating type for each strain revealed A. korhogoensis as a heterothallic species, since three isolates exhibited a singular MAT1-1 locus and one isolate exhibited a singular MAT1-2 locus. Morphological and physiological characterizations were also performed based on their growth on various types of media. Their respective extrolite profiles were characterized using LC/HRMS, and showed that this new species is capable of producing B- and G-aflatoxins, aspergillic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, aflavarins, and asparasones, as well as other metabolites. Altogether, our results confirm the monophyly of A. korhogoensis, and strengthen its position in the A. flavus clade, as the sister taxon of A. parvisclerotigenus.

  17. Reduction of time for producing and acclimatizing two bamboo species in a greenhouse

    Giovanni Aquino Gasparetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has been investing in bamboo cultivation in Brazilian lands. However, there’s a significant deficit of seedling production for civil construction and the charcoal and cellulose sectors, something which compromises a part of the forestry sector. In order to contribute so that the bamboo production chain solves this problem, this study aimed to check whether the application of indole acetic acid (IAA could promote plant growth in a shorter cultivation time. In the study, Bambusa vulgaris and B. vulgaris var. vitatta stakes underwent two treatments (0.25% and 5.0% of IAA and they were grown on washed sand in a greenhouse. Number of leaves, stem growth, rooting, and chlorophyll content were investigated. There was no difference with regard to stem growth, root length, and number of leaves for both species in the two treatments (0.25% and 5% IAA. The chlorophyll content variation between the two species may constitute a quality parameter of forest seedling when compared to other bamboo species. After 43 days, the seedlings are ready for planting in areas of full sun. For the species studied here, the average time to the seedling sale is from 4 to 6 months, with no addition of auxin. Using this simple and low cost technique, several nurserymen will produce bamboo seedlings with reduced time, costs, and manpower.

  18. Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    , rubropunctamine, and citrinin. The cross hits were then manually identified on the basis of their UV-vis and mass spectra. X-hitting was found to be a good tool in the rapid screening of crude pigment extracts. Monascus pigments were discovered in the extracts of two closely related species of Penicillium...... Penicillium extracts showed the presence of citrinin. Thus, the present study brought out two novel promising sources of yellow, orange, and purple-red Monascus-like food pigments in the species of Penicillia that do not produce citrinin and opened the door to look for several more new promising sources...... that were only distantly related to the genus Monascus. Monascorubrin, xanthomonasin A, and threonine derivatives of rubropunctatin were identified in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263, and monascorubrin was identified in the extract of Penicillium pinophilum IBT 13104. None of the tested...

  19. Study of the promissory species producers of coloring in the Amazonic trapeze

    Braham, William Klinger

    1998-01-01

    During 1995 and 1996 the Universidad Distrltal Francisco Jose de Caldas, with the economic support of the national program for the transfer of agricultural technology and the active participation of the indigenous communities seated in the Amazonic trapeze, advanced the present study guided to the search of alternative of use of products different from the wood, with the purpose of giving a bigger integrally to the use of the forest, inside a mark of sustainable development. The investigation had as objectives, to identify the species producers of coloring in the Amazonic trapeze, to determine the part of the plant used in the obtaining of these colorings, the color type taken place by each species and the yields reached in its production, to identify the autochthonous technologies used in its prosecution and the uses local to the colorings, to select species potentially important and to determine them the use possibilities in the textile and cosmetic, nutritious, handmade industries and of paintings, as well as to discover basic aspects on its propagation. They were in the area of study 29 species producers of colorings that they make part of very varied families, being the most representative in their order, rubiaceae, palmae and mimoisaceae. The parts of the plants used for the obtaining of the colorings are the leaves (48.28%) the bark (27.57%), the fruits (10.34%), the perspired (6.90%) and the seeds and roots with (3.95%) each one. The range of colors is very wide, yellow, coffee, green, red and purple they are those that stand out. Most of identified species are not used as coloring by the local communities and to the few that are given this use; they are used mainly for three (3) activities, the make-up of the body, the preparation of foods and the elaboration of crafts. The work allowed to conclude that the high number of species producers of coloring existent in the Amazonic trapeze it makes think of the possibilities of an integral use of the forest that

  20. [Comparison of antioxidant activity between two species of chamomiles produced in Xinjiang by TLC-bioautography].

    Han, Song-Lin; Li, Xin-Xia; Mian, Qiang-Hui; Lan, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the antioxidant active components from two species of chamomile-matricaria and Roman chamomile produced in Xinjiang. The TLC-bioautography was used, with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical as the experimental model. The peak areas of various antioxidant components were obtained by TLC-scanning for analyzing antioxidant active components contained in volatile oil extracts and flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles. The total peak area was taken as the indicator for comparing the antioxidant capacities of the two types of extracts, and comparing them with the total antioxidant activity of flavone extracts of the two species of chamomiles. According to the result of TLC-bioautography in volatile oil extracts from the two species of chamomiles, volatile oil extracts from chamomile showed four white antioxidant spots, including en-yne-dicycloether, and volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile showed only one white antioxidant spot. The TLC-scanning result showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of volatile oil extracts from chamomile was significantly larger than that of volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile. According to the test on the antioxidant activity of the two species of chamomiles with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, the concentration of chamomile after scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals was 0.66 g x L(-1), whereas the figure for Roman chamomile was 0.33 g x L(-1). According to the result of TLC-bioautography in flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles, flavone extracts from chamomile showed seven yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside, and flavone extracts of Roman chamomile showed eight yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside. The TLC-scanning results showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of flavone extracts from Roman chamomile was significantly larger than that of flavone extracts from chamomile. Volatile oil extracts

  1. Discerning Silk Produced by Bombyx mori from Those Produced by Wild Species Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Combined with Conventional Methods.

    You, Qiushi; Li, Qingqing; Zheng, Hailing; Hu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Bing

    2017-09-06

    Recently, much interest has been paid to the separation of silk produced by Bombyx mori from silk produced by other species and tracing the beginnings of silk cultivation from wild silk exploitation. In this paper, significant differences between silks from Bombyx mori and other species were found by microscopy and spectroscopy, such as morphology, secondary structure, and amino acid composition. For further accurate identification, a diagnostic antibody was designed by comparing the peptide sequences of silks produced by Bombyx mori and other species. The results of the noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the antibody that showed good sensitivity and high specificity can definitely discern silk produced by Bombyx mori from silk produced by wild species. Thus, the antibody-based immunoassay has the potential to be a powerful tool for tracing the beginnings of silk cultivation. In addition, combining the sensitive, specific, and convenient ELISA technology with other conventional methods can provide more in-depth and accurate information for species identification.

  2. Measuring titratable alkalinity by single versus double endpoint titration: An evaluation in two cyprinodont species and implications for characterizing net H+ flux in aquatic organisms.

    Brix, Kevin V; Wood, Chris M; Grosell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    effectively zero in both species at pH 4.5. However, significant differences between the double endpoint (no net H(+) transport at low pH) and single endpoint titrations (net H(+) uptake at low pH) remain to be explained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intracellular and extracellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate produced by Phytophthora species is important for infection.

    Lu, Shan; Chen, Linlin; Tao, Kai; Sun, Nannan; Wu, Yuren; Lu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2013-09-01

    RxLR effectors produced by Phytophthora pathogens have been proposed to bind to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) to mediate their translocation into host cells and/or to increase their stability in planta. Since the levels of PtdIns(3)P in plants are low, we examined whether Phytophthora species may produce PtdIns(3)P to promote infection. We observed that PtdIns(3)P-specific GFP biosensors could bind to P. parasitica and P. sojae hyphae during infection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently secreting the biosensors, suggesting that the hyphae exposed PtdIns(3)P on their plasma membrane and/or secreted PtdIns(3)P. Silencing of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) genes, treatment with LY294002, or expression of PtdIns(3)P-binding proteins by P. sojae reduced the virulence of the pathogen on soybean, indicating that pathogen-synthesized PtdIns(3)P was required for full virulence. Secretion of PtdIns(3)P-binding proteins or of a PI3P-5-kinase by N. benthamiana leaves significantly increased the level of resistance to infection by P. parasitica and P. capsici. Together, our results support the hypothesis that Phytophthora species produce external PtdIns(3)P to aid in infection, such as to promote entry of RxLR effectors into host cells. Our results derived from P. sojae RxLR effector Avr1b confirm that both the N-terminus and the C-terminus of this effector can bind PtdIns(3)P.

  4. A mesophilic Clostridium species that produces butanol from monosaccharides and hydrogen from polysaccharides.

    Bramono, Sandhi Eko; Lam, Yuen Sean; Ong, Say Leong; He, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    A unique mesophilic Clostridium species strain BOH3 is obtained in this study, which is capable of fermenting monosaccharides to produce butanol and hydrolyzing polysaccharides to produce hydrogen (H(2)) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). From 30 g/L of glucose and xylose each, batch culture BOH3 was able to produce 4.67 and 4.63 g/L of butanol. Enhancement treatments by increasing the inoculated cells improved butanol production to 7.05 and 7.41 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen production (2.47 and 1.93 mmol) was observed when cellulose and xylan (10 g/L each) were used, suggesting that strain BOH3 possesses xylanolytic and cellulolytic capabilities. These unique features reveal the strain's novelty as most wild-type solventogenic strains have not been reported to have such properties. Therefore, culture BOH3 is promising in generating butanol and hydrogen from renewable feedstock. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature, salinity, species identification, nutrient profiles and meteorological data collected by bottle and net in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 6/10/1975 - 8/5/1975 (NODC Accession 0000194)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, species identification, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest Pacific Ocean....

  6. Temperature, salinity, species identification, nutrient profiles and meteorological data collected by bottle, CTD, and plankton net on multiple cruises in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea from 10/15/1970 - 02/13/1987 (NODC Accession 0000088)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, species identification, and other data were collected from XIANG YANG HONG 14 and other platforms using net, bottle, and CTD casts in the Pacific Ocean...

  7. Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties.

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Rahman, M Aminur; Islam, Mohamad Tofazzal

    2017-10-17

    Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose. Cytotoxicity is the common biological property of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers. Besides cytotoxicity, triterpene glycosides also exhibit antifungal, antiviral and hemolytic activities. This review updates and summarizes our understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities. Mechanisms of action and structural-activity relationships (SARs) of sea cucumber glycosides are also discussed briefly.

  8. Analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in corn products from three main maize-producing areas in eastern China.

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Chulong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium species are common fungal contaminants of maize and a number of them can produce mycotoxin fumonisins. China is one of the largest maize producers in the world. This study investigated the contamination of maize samples from three areas in eastern China by Fusarium and fumonisin-producing fungi as well as their fumonisin-producing potential. A total of 22 Fusarium strains were isolated, 19 of which were able to produce fumonisin. Among the 19 strains, 16 belonged to F. verticillioides, two to F. subglutinans and one to F. proliferatum. The majority (17/19) of the fumonisin-forming strains were high FB(1) producers, which is a potential health risk for the population in these areas. Fusarium contamination in samples from the mideastern area was the most serious (11 Fusarium strains, with nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 24 samples), followed by the northeastern area (nine Fusarium strains, with all nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 21 samples) and the southeastern area (two Fusarium strains, with one producing fumonisin, isolated from 19 samples). Although the overall levels of FBs and contamination by fumonisin-producing fungi in corn samples were not serious, the contaminating Fusarium strains possessed fairly strong toxicogenic ability and potential risk for food safety. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Studies of the yields of 57Fe(II)-species produced after the EC-decay and of 60Co(II)-species produced in the (n, γ) reaction in cobalt(III) coordination compounds

    Sano, Hirotoshi; Harada, Masayuki; Endo, Kazutoyo

    1978-01-01

    The yields of 57 Fe(II)-species produced after EC-decay were compared with those of 60 Co(II)-species produced in the 59 Co(n, γ) 60 Co reaction for twelve cobalt(III) coordination compounds. The results indicate that the radiochemical yield of 60 Co(II)-species correlates with the yield of 57 Fe(II)-species except in the case of [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 . The anomalously low yield of 57 Fe(II)-species in [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 is ascribed to the reaction of chromate anions with ammine ligands initiated by the nuclear transformation in a solid. (author)

  10. Petri Nets

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  11. Controlling Fluences of Reactive Species Produced by Multipulse DBDs onto Wet Tissue: Frequency and Liquid Thickness

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Tissue covered by a thin liquid layer treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluences of radicals and ions onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled in part by frequency and liquid thickness. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 stationary or random streamers at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s to 2 min of afterglow. At 100 Hz, NOaq and OHaq are mixed by randomly striking streamers, although they have different rates of solvation. NOaq is nearly completely consumed by reactions with OHaq at the liquid surface. Only H2O2aq, produced through OHaq mutual reactions, survives to reach the tissue. After 100 pulses, the liquid becomes ozone-rich, in which the nitrous ion, NO2-aq, is converted to the nitric ion, NO3-aq. Reducing the pulse frequency to 10 Hz results in significant fluence of NOaq to the tissue as NOaq can escape during the interpulse period from the liquid surface where OHaq is formed. For the same reason, NO2-aq can also reach deeper into the liquid at lower frequency. Frequency and thickness of the liquid are methods to control the plasma produced aqueous species to the underlying tissue. Work supported by DOE (DE-SC0001319) and NSF (CHE-1124724).

  12. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Charles Antwi-Boasiako

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 300 Timber Firms from Ghana primarily through questionnaires using the stratified random sampling technique. Results: Continuous decline and non-availability of preferred traditional timbers and competition from imported furniture were the main challenges confronting the furniture industry. Data obtained indicated that most manufacturers (85% hardly use any LUS; 44% of these mentioned lack of information on their properties and prospective uses and 32% attributed it to non-availability on the domestic timber markets. However, 22% of these producers rely on traditionally ‘well-known’ timbers (e.g. mixed red wood, Guarea cedrata and Tectona grandis owing to their strength properties, 20% due to their strength and durability and 14% because of their strength and aesthetic properties. Many LUS (with prospects for furniture-making available in great quantities in many tropical forests could substitute the over-dependent timbers. However, information on their properties and uses are hardly available to local producers, which affects their popularity among timber suppliers and manufacturers. Conclusion: To improve on the level of utilization of secondary timbers, wood workers must be supplied with comprehensive information about their properties and economic values. This will contribute to reducing pressure on the primary timbers, ensuring consistent supply of timber and keeping the sector operational.

  13. Analyses of volatiles produced by the African fruit fly species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Faťarová, M.; Ekesi, S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 385-404 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ceratitis FAR complex * chemotaxonomy * male and female-borne volatiles * GCxGC-TOFMS * GC-EAD Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6223

  14. Monochloramine produces reactive oxygen species in liver by converting xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase.

    Sakuma, Satoru; Miyoshi, Emi; Sadatoku, Namiko; Fujita, Junko; Negoro, Miki; Arakawa, Yukio; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2009-09-15

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in rat liver in vitro. When incubated with the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, NH(2)Cl (2.5-20 microM) dose-dependently enhanced XO activity concomitant with a decrease in XD activity, implying that NH(2)Cl can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing form XO. The NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion in the rat liver cytosol was completely inhibited when added in combination with an inhibitor of NH(2)Cl methionine (25 microM). A sulfhydryl reducing agent, dithiothreitol at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 5 mM also dose-dependently reversed the NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion. These imply that NH(2)Cl itself acts on the XD/XO interconversion, and that this conversion occurs at the cysteine residues in XD. Furthermore, using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, it was found that NH(2)Cl could increase ROS generation in the cytoplasm of rat primary hepatocyte cultures, and that this increase might be reversed by an XO inhibitor, allopurinol. These results suggest that NH(2)Cl has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may induce the ROS generation in this region.

  15. Net root growth and nutrient acquisition in response to predicted climate change in two contrasting heathland species

    Arndal, M.F.; Merrild, M.P.; Michelsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate predictions of nutrient acquisition by plant roots and mycorrhizas are critical in modelling plant responses to climate change.We conducted a field experiment with the aim to investigate root nutrient uptake in a future climate and studied root production by ingrowth cores, mycorrhizal...... to elevated CO2. The species-specific response to the treatments suggests different sensitivity to global change factors, which could result in changed plant competitive interactions and belowground nutrient pool sizes in response to future climate change....

  16. Caught in the Same Net? Small-Scale Fishermen's Perceptions of Fisheries Interactions with Sea Turtles and Other Protected Species

    Aliki Panagopoulou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries are responsible for high numbers of animals caught as bycatch, such as turtles, cetaceans, and seals. Bycatch and its associated mortality is a major conservation challenge for these species and is considered undesirable by fishermen. To gain insights on the impact of bycatch on small-scale fishermen and put it in context with other financial and environmental challenges they face, we conducted questionnaire-based interviews on fishermen working on Crete, Greece. We investigated fishermen's perceptions of sea turtle and other protected species interactions, and the impacts of such interactions on their profession and livelihoods. Our results indicate a connection between declining fish stocks, related increased fishing effort, and reported increased frequency of interactions between fishermen and sea turtles. Respondents believed that their livelihoods were endangered by industrial fishing and environmental problems, but thought that combined interactions with turtles and other marine megafauna species were a larger problem. Responses suggested that extending compensation to fishermen may be a good conservation intervention. Small-scale fishermen hold a wealth of knowledge about the marine environment and its resources. This may be of help to researchers and policy makers as it could be used to achieve a better managed, sustainable fishery. Including small-scale fishermen in the process of developing regulations will both enhance those regulations and increase compliance with them.

  17. Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from Antarctic penguin faeces.

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2018-03-01

    Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39 T , isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39 T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39 T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739 T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008 T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c). Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain WV39 T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739 T , 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008 T and 25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T . The DNA G+C content of strain WV39 T was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain WV39 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumkingsejongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WV39 T (=KCTC 42908 T =CECT 9085 T ).

  18. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    in Costa Rica and produces large pink to greyish brown sclerotia. Aspergillus lacticoffeatus was found on coffee beans in Venezuela and Indonesia, and is an effective producer of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus piperis was isolated from black ground pepper and produces large yellow to pink brown sclerotia...

  19. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

    Hanaa Mohamed Fadel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR, antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes. Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2. 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158, while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]. stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]. Only one pigeon (3.1% possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3% sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%, and amoxicillin (50%. On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters

  20. Net Neutrality

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  1. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O 2 /He or N 2 /He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation. (paper)

  2. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-10-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O2/He or N2/He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation.

  3. Thermal tolerance, net CO2 exchange and growth of a tropical tree species, Ficus insipida, cultivated at elevated daytime and nighttime temperatures.

    Krause, G Heinrich; Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus; Krause, Barbara; Virgo, Aurelio

    2013-06-15

    Global warming and associated increases in the frequency and amplitude of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, may adversely affect tropical rainforest plants via significantly increased tissue temperatures. In this study, the response to two temperature regimes was assessed in seedlings of the neotropical pioneer tree species, Ficus insipida. Plants were cultivated in growth chambers at strongly elevated daytime temperature (39°C), combined with either close to natural (22°C) or elevated (32°C) nighttime temperatures. Under both growth regimes, the critical temperature for irreversible leaf damage, determined by changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence, was approximately 51°C. This is comparable to values found in F. insipida growing under natural ambient conditions and indicates a limited potential for heat tolerance acclimation of this tropical forest tree species. Yet, under high nighttime temperature, growth was strongly enhanced, accompanied by increased rates of net photosynthetic CO2 uptake and diminished temperature dependence of leaf-level dark respiration, consistent with thermal acclimation of these key physiological parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of species range evolution in Indo-Pacific reef assemblages reveal the Coral Triangle as a net source of transoceanic diversity.

    Evans, Sean M; McKenna, Caroline; Simpson, Stephen D; Tournois, Jennifer; Genner, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    The Coral Triangle in the Indo-Pacific is a region renowned for exceptional marine biodiversity. The area could have acted as a 'centre of origin' where speciation has been prolific or a 'centre of survival' by providing refuge during major environmental shifts such as sea-level changes. The region could also have acted as a 'centre of accumulation' for species with origins outside of the Coral Triangle, owing to it being at a central position between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Here, we investigated support for these hypotheses using population-level DNA sequence-based reconstructions of the range evolution of 45 species (314 populations) of Indo-Pacific reef-associated organisms. Our results show that populations undergoing the most ancient establishment were significantly more likely to be closer to the centre of the Coral Triangle than to peripheral locations. The data are consistent with the Coral Triangle being a net source of coral-reef biodiversity for the Indo-Pacific region, suggesting that the region has acted primarily as a centre of survival, a centre of origin or both. These results provide evidence of how a key location can influence the large-scale distributions of biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Pathogenicity of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Aspergillus species in section Nigri to maize ears and seedlings

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are commonly associated with maize kernels, and some strains can produce fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there is little information about the extent to which these fungi contribute to fumonisin contamination in grain, the damage they cause to maize ears, or their...

  6. Species-related exposure of phase II metabolite gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide between human and mice: A net induction of mouse P450 activity was revealed.

    Luo, Min; Dai, Manyun; Lin, Hante; Xie, Minzhu; Lin, Jiao; Liu, Aiming; Yang, Julin

    2017-12-01

    Gemfibrozil is a fibrate drug used widely for dyslipidemia associated with atherosclerosis. Clinically, both gemfibrozil and its phase II metabolite gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide (gem-glu) are involved in drug-drug interaction (DDI). But the DDI risk caused by gem-glu between human and mice has not been compared. In this study, six volunteers were recruited and took a therapeutic dose of gemfibrozil for 3 days for examination of the gemfibrozil and gem-glu level in human. Male mice were fed a gemfibrozil diet (0.75%) for 7 days, following which a cocktail-based inhibitory DDI experiment was performed. Plasma samples and liver tissues from mice were collected for determination of gemfibrozil, gem-glu concentration and cytochrome p450 enzyme (P450) induction analysis. In human, the molar ratio of gem-glu/gemfibrozil was 15% and 10% at the trough concentration and the concentration at 1.5 h after the 6th dose. In contrast, this molar ratio at steady state in mice was 91%, demonstrating a 6- to 9-fold difference compared with that in human. Interestingly, a net induction of P450 activity and in vivo inductive DDI potential in mice was revealed. The P450 activity was not inhibited although the gem-glu concentration was high. These data suggested species difference of relative gem-glu exposure between human and mice, as well as a net inductive DDI potential of gemfibrozil in mouse model. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential detection of trichothecene- and fumonisin-producing species of Fusarium in cornmeal.

    Bluhm, B H; Flaherty, J E; Cousin, M A; Woloshuk, C P

    2002-12-01

    The genus Fusarium comprises a diverse group of fungi including several species that produce mycotoxins in food commodities. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the group-specific detection of fumonisin-producing and trichothecene-producing species of Fusarium. Primers for genus-level recognition of Fusarium spp. were designed from the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of rDNA. Primers for group-specific detection were designed from the TRI6 gene involved in trichothecene biosynthesis and the FUM5 gene involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. Primer specificity was determined by testing for cross-reactivity against purified genomic DNA from 43 fungal species representing 14 genera, including 9 Aspergillus spp., 9 Fusarium spp., and 10 Penicillium spp. With purified genomic DNA as a template, genus-specific recognition was observed at 10 pg per reaction; group-specific recognition occurred at 100 pg of template per reaction for the trichothecene producer Fusarium graminearum and at 1 ng of template per reaction for the fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides. For the application of the PCR assay, a protocol was developed to isolate fungal DNA from cornmeal. The detection of F. graminearum and its differentiation from F. verticillioides were accomplished prior to visible fungal growth at cornmeal. This level of detection is comparable to those of other methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the assay described here can be used in the food industry's effort to monitor quality and safety.

  8. Petri Nets

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  9. Characterisation of inhibitory substances produced by two Pseudoalteromonas species and the cyanobacterial strain Flo1

    Rau, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the inhibitory substances of P. aurantia NCIMB 2052T and P. citrea NCIMB 1889T were investigated with respect to their substantial and functional nature, their inhibitory potential, their stability against various treatments as well as the growth phases and incubation conditions when the substances are produced. In addition, an inhibitory substance produced by strain Flo1 was examined regarding its structure, function, and inhibitory potential. Furthermore, its taxonomic ...

  10. Geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria species in New York State produce production and natural environments.

    Chapin, Travis K; Nightingale, Kendra K; Worobo, Randy W; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2014-11-01

    Listeria species have been isolated from diverse environments, often at considerable prevalence, and are known to persist in food processing facilities. The presence of Listeria spp. has been suggested to be a marker for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Therefore, a study was conducted to (i) determine the prevalence and diversity of Listeria spp. in produce production and natural environments and (ii) identify geographical and/or meteorological factors that affect the isolation of Listeria spp. in these environments. These data were also used to evaluate Listeria spp. as index organisms for L. monocytogenes in produce production environments. Environmental samples collected from produce production (n = 588) and natural (n = 734) environments in New York State were microbiologically analyzed to detect and isolate Listeria spp. The prevalence of Listeria spp. was approximately 33 and 34% for samples obtained from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Co-isolation of L. monocytogenes and at least one other species of Listeria in a given sample was recorded for 3 and 9% of samples from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Soil moisture and proximity to water and pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in produce production environments, while elevation, study site, and proximity to pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in natural environments, as determined by randomForest models. These data show that Listeria spp. were prevalent in both agricultural and nonagricultural environments and that geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria spp. were considerably different between the two environments.

  11. New penicillin-producing Penicillium species and an overview of section Chrysogena

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Seifert, K.A.; Overy, D.P.; Tuthill, D.M.; Valdez, J.G.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments and

  12. Cyberlindnera xylolytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the la...

  13. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    Frisvad, J.C.; Houbraken, J.; Popma, S.; Samson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181T = IBT 6005T = IMI 30428T) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192T = IBT 22220T) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate conidiophores with

  14. Aspergillus korhogoensis, a novel aflatoxin producing species from the Côte d’Ivoire

    Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, preA) was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distin...

  15. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  16. Non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek (Cyanobacteria) representing a main waterbloom-forming species in Chinese waters

    Xu Yao; Wu Zhongxing; Yu Boshi; Peng Xin; Yu Gongliang; Wei Zhihong; Wang Guoxiang; Li Renhui

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that several morphospecies of Microcystis, such as Microcystis aeruginosa (Kuetzing) Lemmermann and Microcystis viridis (A. Brown) Lemmermann can produce hepatotoxic microcystins. However, previous studies gave contradictory conclusions about microcystin production of Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek. In the present study, ten Microcystis morphospecies were identified in waterblooms of seven Chinese waterbodies, and Microcystis wesenbergii was shown as the dominant species in these waters. More than 250 single colonies of M. wesenbergii were chosen, under morphological identification, to examine whether M. wesenbergii produce hepatotoxic microcystin by using multiplex PCR for molecular detection of a region (mcyA) of microcystin synthesis genes, and chemical analyses of microcystin content by ELISA and HPLC for 21 isolated strains of M. wesenbergii from these waters were also performed. Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that M. wesenbergii from Chinese waters did not produce microcystin. - Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that Microcystis wesenbergii was not a microcystin producer in Chinese waters

  17. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Borum, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes....... Temperature effects on net photosynthesis (PN) and dark respiration (RD) of leaves were evaluated. Daytime low tide was characterized by high pO2 (54 kPa), pH (8.8) and temperature (38°C) in shallow pools. As PN was maximum at 33°C (9.1 and 7.2 μmol O2 m-2 s-1 in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively......), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN, whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2 m-2 s-1, respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2...

  18. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration.

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D; Borum, Jens; Zavala-Perez, Andrea; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes. Temperature effects on net photosynthesis (PN ) and dark respiration (RD ) of leaves were evaluated. Daytime low tide was characterized by high pO2 (54 kPa), pH (8.8) and temperature (38°C) in shallow pools. As PN was maximum at 33°C (9.1 and 7.2 μmol O2  m(-2) s(-1) in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN , whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2  m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2 relieved the anoxia. Shoots exposed to 40°C for 4 h showed recovery of PN and RD , whereas 45°C resulted in leaf damage. These seagrasses are 'living near the edge', tolerant of current diel O2 and temperature extremes, but if temperatures rise both species may be threatened in this habitat. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. HCN Producing Bacteria Enable Sensing Of Non-Bioavailable Hg Species by the Whole Cell Biosensor

    Horvat, M.; Rijavec, T.; Koron, N.; Lapanje, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in Hg transformation reactions. The production of cyanide (HCN) and other secondary metabolites seems to be key elements involved in these transformations. Current hypotheses link the role of HCN production to growth inhibition of nonHCN producing competitor organisms (role of an antimicrobial agent). Our past investigations showed that HCN production did not correlate with antimicrobial activity and since pK value of HCN is very high (pK = 9,21), it can be expected that most of the produced HCN is removed from the microenvironment. This way, the expected inhibitory concentrations can hardly be reached. Accordingly, we proposed a new concept, where the ability of complexation of transient metals by HCN served as a regulation process for the accessibility of micro-elements. In our study, we focused on the presence of HCN producing bacteria and carried it out in the Hg contaminated environment connected to the Idrija Mercury Mine, Slovenia. We characterised the isolates according to the presence of Hg resistance (HgR), level of HCN production and genetic similarities. In laboratory setups, using our merR whole cell based biosensor, we determined the transformation of low bioavailable Hg0 and HgS forms into bioavailable Hg by these HCN producing bacteria. We observed that HgR strains producing HCN had the highest impact on increased Hg bioavailability. In the proposed ecological strategy HgR HCN producing bacteria increase their competitive edge over non-HgR competitors through the increase of Hg toxicity. Due to their activity, Hg is made available to other organisms as well and thus enters into the ecosystem. Finally, using some of the characteristics of bacteria (e.g. Hg resistance genetic elements), we developed a fully automated sensing approach, combining biosensorics and mechatronics, to measure the bioavailability of Hg in situ.

  20. Dependence of Force Produced by Polypyrrole Based Artificial Muscles on Ionic Species Involved

    Careem, M.A.; Vidanapathirana, K.P.; Skaarup, Steen

    2004-01-01

    Artificial muscles have been fabricated in the form bilayer strips using an insulating polymer layer and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer film, and the force produced by them during redox processes have been investigated. This study reports the effects of anions in the polymerization electrol......Artificial muscles have been fabricated in the form bilayer strips using an insulating polymer layer and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer film, and the force produced by them during redox processes have been investigated. This study reports the effects of anions in the polymerization...

  1. Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Rice, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently 20-30 billion barrels of formation water are co-produced annually in the USA with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ~5,000 to >350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3 and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be relatively high. Hazardous concentrations of NORMs, including Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been reported in produced water from several states.Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to a billion barrels of water and deliver ~8% of total natural gas. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges to150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water commonly has no oil and grease and has relatively low DOC, but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has an acceptable salinity and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) is considered acceptable for surface discharge and for injection into freshwater aquifers.As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western USA. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, California. This produced water had a low salinity of ~8,000 mg/L, but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3 and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high at $0.08-$0.39/bbl for water treated for

  2. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Antwi-Boasiako, Charles; Boadu, Kwadwo Boakye

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS) that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and ...

  3. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair

    2007-01-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  4. Mitogenomes from type specimens, a genotyping tool for morphologically simple species: ten genomes of agar-producing red algae.

    Boo, Ga Hun; Hughey, Jeffery R; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2016-10-14

    DNA sequences from type specimens provide independent, objective characters that enhance the value of type specimens and permit the correct application of species names to phylogenetic clades and specimens. We provide mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from archival type specimens of ten species in agar-producing red algal genera Gelidium and Pterocladiella. The genomes contain 43-44 genes, ranging in size from 24,910 to 24,970 bp with highly conserved gene synteny. Low Ka/Ks ratios of apocytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase genes support their utility as markers. Phylogenies of mitogenomes and cox1+rbcL sequences clarified classification at the genus and species levels. Three species formerly in Gelidium and Pterocladia are transferred to Pterocladiella: P. media comb. nov., P. musciformis comb. nov., and P. luxurians comb. and stat. nov. Gelidium sinicola is merged with G. coulteri because they share identical cox1 and rbcL sequences. We describe a new species, Gelidium millariana sp. nov., previously identified as G. isabelae from Australia. We demonstrate that mitogenomes from type specimens provide a new tool for typifying species in the Gelidiales and that there is an urgent need for analyzing mitogenomes from type specimens of red algae and other morphologically simple organisms for insight into their nomenclature, taxonomy and evolution.

  5. Bioactive alkaloids produced by fungi. I. Updates on alkaloids from the species of the genera Boletus, Fusarium and psilocybe.

    Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Sualeh, Mohammad; Baig, Mirza Tasawer; Zoha, Sms

    2010-07-01

    Fungi, in particular, are able in common with the higher plants and bacteria, to produce metabolites, including alkaloids. Alkaloids, along with other metabolites are the most important fungal metabolites from pharmaceutical and industrial point of view. Based on this observation, the authors of this review article have tried to provide an information on the alkaloids produced by the species of genera: Boletus, Fusarium and Psilocybef from 1981-2009. Thus the review would be helpful and provides valuable information for the researchers of the same field.

  6. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms

    Hatew, B.; Delessa, T.; Zakin, V.; Gollop, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were

  7. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other...

  8. Food for thought: risks of non-native species transfer to Antarctica with fresh produce

    Hughes, K.A.; Lee, J.E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Imura, S.; Bergstrom, D.M.; Ware, C.; Lebouvier, M.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Frenot, Y.; Bridge, P.D.; Chown, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    To understand fully the risk of biological invasions, it is necessary to quantify propagule pressure along all introduction pathways. In the Antarctic region, importation of fresh produce is a potentially high risk, but as yet unquantified pathway. To address this knowledge gap, >11,250 fruit and

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in ASIA

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have

  10. Does increased salinity influence the competitive outcome of two producer species?

    Venâncio, C; Anselmo, E; Soares, A; Lopes, I

    2017-02-01

    Within the context of global climate changes, it is expected that low-lying coastal freshwater ecosystems will face seawater intrusion with concomitant increase in salinity levels. Increased salinity may provoke disruption of competitive relationships among freshwater species. However, species may be capable of acclimating to salinity, which, in turn, may influence the resilience of ecosystems. Accordingly, this work aimed at assessing the effects of multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity in the competitive outcome of two species of green microalgae: Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris. To attain this, three specific objectives were delineated: (1) compare the toxicity of natural seawater (SW) and NaCl (as a surrogate of SW) to the two microalgae, (2) determine the capacity of the two microalgae species to acclimate to low salinity levels, and (3) assess the influence of exposure to low salinity levels in the competitive outcome of the two microalgae. Results revealed SW to be slightly less toxic than NaCl for the two microalgae. The EC 25,72 h for growth rate was 4.63 and 10.3 mS cm -1 for R. subcapitata and 6.94 and 15.4 mS cm -1 for C. vulgaris, respectively for NaCl and SW. Both algae were capable of acclimating to low levels of salinity, but C. vulgaris seemed to acclimate faster than R. subcapitata. When exposed in competition, under control conditions, the growth rates of C. vulgaris were lower than those of R. subcapitata. However, C. vulgaris was capable of acquiring competitive advantage equaling or surpassing the growth rate of R. subcapitata with the addition of NaCl or SW, respectively. The multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity influenced the competitive outcome of the two algae both under control and salinity exposure. These results suggest that long-term exposure to low salinity stress can cause shifts in structure of algae communities and, therefore, should not be neglected since algae are at the basis

  11. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.

    2004-01-01

    the primary metabolic pathways of the poorly characterized antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Surprisingly, it was found that Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39272 predominantly metabolizes glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. This represents the first time that the ED pathway has been...... to design metabolic engineering strategies towards construction of more efficient producers of specific metabolites. In this context, methods that allow rapid and reliable mapping of the central carbon metabolism are valuable. In the present study, a C-13 labelling-based method was used to identify...... recognized as the main catabolic pathway in an actinomycete. The Nonomuraea genes encoding the key enzymes of the ED pathway were subsequently identified, sequenced and functionally described....

  12. Chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Diplodia species, fungi involved in forest plants diseases

    Masi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been initiated in order to understand what are the microorganisms involved in forest plants diseases and the role played by phytotoxins produced in the pathogenesis processes. The aim of the present thesis was to study the fungi and the phytotoxins associated with canker disease of the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) and the branch dieback of juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.) which are plant diseases with noteworthy social and economical impli...

  13. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species

    Lars ten Bosch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.

  14. Selection of a method to produce activated charcoal using four forest species

    Herrera Builes, Jhon Fredy; Morales Yepes, Wilmar Alexander; Perez Schile, Juan David

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in the coal and of forest products laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin. It was oriented towards the selection of a method to obtain activated carbon form the following forest species; pino patula (Pinus patula), chingale Jacaranda copaia) pino tecunumani (pinus tecunumani) and roble (Quercus humboldti). The wood of each was characterized determining their physical properties of density and contraction. Seven different methods were tested; chemical activation chemical-physical activation with CO 2 chemical-physical activation with CO 2 and water vapor; chemical-physical activation with water vapor; physical activation with CO 2 ; physical activation with water vapor and physical activation with CO 2 and water vapor. The variables studied were residence time and temperature. Taking as a parameter the Iodine index, the chemical-physical activation with water vapor was selected, obtaining an Iodine index of over 800 for all the species studied with the exception of roble that only attained 764 which is still acceptable for water treatment

  15. RESTful NET

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  16. The Measurement of ‘Fiscal Burden’ on GDP instead of on National Net Value Added Produced: A Chapter in Fiscal Illusion

    F. FORTE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work calls attention to a major macroeconomic fiscal illusion: that arising from the current official practice of expressing the main fiscal indicators, and particularly the tax burden, as a percentage of GDP rather than NDPF (Net Domestic Product at Factor Costs. This methodology causes a systematic undervaluation of the tax burden, by something between 25% (Sweden and Austria and 15% (Switzerland. Correctly measured, the tax burden in most European countries is above 50% and in the Nordic countries above 65%, or close to it! Thus, tax payers are deceived about the true cost and size of the public economy. GDP’s origin and widespread adoption is examined as well as the development of the notion of national income adopted to assess the tax burden.

  17. Theory of electron degradation and yields of initial molecular species produced by ionizing radiation

    Inokuti, M.; Dillon, M.A.; Kimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionizing radiations generate in matter a large number of energetic electrons, which in turn collide with molecules in matter, produce ions and excited states, and thereby degrade in energy. The description of the consequences of many collision processes to the electrons and to matter is the goal of the electron degradation theory. They summarize the current understanding of this topic, which is important as a basis of radiation chemistry and biology. In addition, they present an initial report of their new work, namely, a generalization of the Spencer-Fano theory to time-dependent cases

  18. Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov., a tannase-producing species isolated from wild mouse faeces.

    Osawa, Ro; Fujisawa, Tomohiko; Pukall, Rüdiger

    2006-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming bacterium, strain ASB1(T), able to degrade tannin, was isolated from faeces of the Japanese large wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain could be assigned as a member of the genus Lactobacillus. The nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Lactobacillus animalis DSM 20602(T) (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus murinus ASF 361 (98.9 %). Subsequent polyphasic analysis, including automated ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, confirmed that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain is 38.5 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan is of type A4alpha L-lys-D-asp. The type strain is ASB1(T) (=DSM 16634(T)=CIP 108913(T)).

  19. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE FUNGUS TRICHODERMA ON SECONDARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE SUBSTRATE

    Ida Vaskova,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is the most commonly used pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In this process wood chips are chemically delignified using sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Delignification is usually followed by mechanical fiberization and a bleaching process of the resulting wood pulp. In addition to lignin-free wood pulp, this process also produces waste that contains residues of used chemicals, lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and small amounts of other wood components. Because of the worldwide large-scale production of paper, the sludge from paper mills contributes significantly to environmental pollution. Although there have been great efforts being made to utilize this lignin-rich material, sludge is mostly disposed in landfills or incinerated in a boiler. This research project used secondary sludge as a substrate for 7 wood-decay fungi taxonomically belonging to the genus Trichoderma. The examined fungi expressed the capability of consuming sludge components as a carbon source to produce extracellular proteins. The proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis. Before and after fungi cultivation, the sludge was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  20. Study of the chemical species of fluorine 18 produced by neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate

    Jimenez-Becerril, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present work, the chemical form of fluorine-18 obtained by means of the neutron irradiated lithium aluminate was studied, in order to know its chemical behavior and to observe if it volatilizes and adheres to the walls of a tritium distillation system; for this matter paper chromatography and high voltage electrophoresis techniques were used. Lithium aluminate was synthetized, being characterized as LiAlO 2 which was irradiated with neutrons in order to produce fluorine-18. Lithium aluminate is a non-soluble solid, therefore fluorine produced may not be extracted, unless it is dissolved or extracted through the solid. So as not affect in a drastic way the chemical form, it was submitted to extraction processes, agitating the irradiated samples with different acids and basic solutions in order to analyze fluorine-18. The best extraction agent was found to be HCl, where two forms of fluorine-18 were found, one at the point of application, probably as a complex hexafluoride-aluminate and the other as a characteristic Rf of the fluorine ion. In the tritium distillation with helium as a carrier of a sample irradiated and heated up to 220-250 o C, no volatile types of fluorine-18 were found, thus it can be considered that in commercial production of tritium by means of neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate, fluorine-18 is not a damaging pollutant of the equipment pipe system. (Author)

  1. Petri Nets

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  2. Net Gain

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  3. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices.

    Harris, Grant; Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J; Butler, Matthew J; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km(2) cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions

  4. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  5. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  6. First-principles study of the formation of glycine-producing radicals from common interstellar species

    Sato, Akimasa; Kitazawa, Yuya; Ochi, Toshiro; Shoji, Mitsuo; Komatsu, Yu; Kayanuma, Megumi; Aikawa, Yuri; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2018-03-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, has been intensively searched for in molecular clouds, and the comprehensive clarification of the formation path of interstellar glycine is now imperative. Among all the possible glycine formation pathways, we focused on the radical pathways revealed by Garrod (2013). In the present study, we have precisely investigated all the chemical reaction steps related to the glycine formation processes based on state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We found that two reaction pathways require small activation barriers (ΔE‡ ≤ 7.75 kJ mol-1), which demonstrates the possibility of glycine formation even at low temperatures in interstellar space if the radical species are generated. The origin of carbon and nitrogen in the glycine backbone and their combination patterns are further discussed in relation to the formation mechanisms. According to the clarification of the atomic correspondence between glycine and its potential parental molecules, it is shown that the nitrogen and two carbons in the glycine can originate in three common interstellar molecules, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia, and that the source molecules of glycine can be described by any of their combinations. The glycine formation processes can be categorized into six patterns. Finally, we discussed two other glycine formation pathways expected from the present DFT calculation results.

  7. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  8. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  9. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  10. High prevalence of Cfr-producing Staphylococcus species in retail meat in Guangzhou, China.

    Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Wei, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jing; Lin, Da-Chuan; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2014-06-09

    The emergence and wide distribution of the transferable gene for linezolid resistance, cfr, in staphylococci of human and animal origins is of great concern as it poses a serious threat to the public health. In the present study, we investigated the emergence and presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in retail meat sourced from supermarkets and free markets of Guangzhou, China. A total of 118 pork and chicken samples, collected from Guangzhou markets, were screened by PCR for cfr. Twenty-two Staphylococcus isolates obtained from 12 pork and 10 chicken samples harbored cfr. The 22 cfr-positive staphylococci isolates, including Staphylococcus equorum (n = 8), Staphylococcus simulans (n = 7), Staphylococcus cohnii (n = 4), and Staphylococcus sciuri (n = 3), exhibited 17 major SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. In 14 isolates, cfr was located on the plasmids. Sequence analysis revealed that the genetic structures (including ΔtnpA of Tn558, IS21-558, ΔtnpB, and tnpC of Tn558, orf138, fexA) of cfr in plasmid pHNTLD18 of a S. sciuri strain and in the plasmid pHNLKJC2 (including rep, Δpre/mob, cfr, pre/mob and partial ermC) of a S. equorum strain were identical or similar to the corresponding regions of some plasmids in staphylococcal species of animal and human origins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in animal meat. A high occurrence of cfr was observed in the tested retail meat samples. Thus, it is important to monitor the presence of cfr in animal foods in China.

  11. Temperature, salinity, and zooplankton species and number profiles collected by towed net for the Barents Sea from 7/20/1963 - 8/31/1963 (NODC Accession 0000108)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, zooplantkon, and other data were collected using plankton net and bottle casts from the TANNER in the Barents Sea. Data were collected from 20...

  12. Net Locality

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  13. NET system integration

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  14. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin-producing species

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis...... that both species are able to produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and some additional compounds....

  15. CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PREMEIOTIC VERSUS POSTMEIOTIC DEFECTS PRODUCING HYBRID MALE STERILITY AMONG SIBLING SPECIES OF THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER COMPLEX.

    Kulathinal, Rob; Singh, Rama S

    1998-08-01

    In accordance with Haldane's rule, hybridizations between species of the Drosophila simulans clade produce fertile females but sterile males. In this study, a comprehensive characterization was undertaken on the six types of F 1 males that were the result of the crosses between D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. With the use of light and electron microscopy, it was shown that while each particular hybrid genotype exhibited a specific sterility phenotype, these phenotypes fell into two distinct classes. The two hybrid genotypes that possessed D. mauritiana X-chromosomes contained spermatogenic defects that caused arrests in premeiotic spermatogenic stages. The other four F 1 hybrids possessed postmeiotic spermatogenic defects. Nonsynchronous cell divisions, underdeveloped mitochondrial derivative-axonemal associations, and microtubule abnormalities were common to all of these hybrids. Each particular postmeiotically defective hybrid genotype demonstrated characteristically distinct profiles in sperm bundle number in addition to characteristic spermiogenic arrests in the furthest developed spermatids. These results in species hybrids contrast with the absence of significant differences in spermatogenic characters between species of this clade. In addition, by utilizing an attached-X cross, we investigated the influence of maternal effects and cytoplasmic factors on the sterility of D. simulans F 1 hybrids and found none. However, we discovered a strain of D. simulans (2119) that caused a large shift in sterility from postmeiotic to premeiotic when crossed to D. sechellia. This suggests that D. simulans is polymorphic for genes involving premeiotic and postmeiotic sterility and that the two types of sterilities between species may have a simple genetic basis. © 1998 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Hybrid TiO2 -Ruthenium Nano-photosensitizer Synergistically Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in both Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Black, Kvar C L; Lane, Daniel D; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-08-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat diverse diseases, but its dependence on oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) diminishes the therapeutic effect in a hypoxic environment, such as solid tumors. Herein, we developed a ROS-producing hybrid nanoparticle-based photosensitizer capable of maintaining high levels of ROS under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conjugation of a ruthenium complex (N3) to a TiO 2 nanoparticle afforded TiO 2 -N3. Upon exposure of TiO 2 -N3 to light, the N3 injected electrons into TiO 2 to produce three- and four-fold more hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, than TiO 2 at 160 mmHg. TiO 2 -N3 maintained three-fold higher hydroxyl radicals than TiO 2 under hypoxic conditions via N3-facilitated electron-hole reduction of adsorbed water molecules. The incorporation of N3 transformed TiO 2 from a dual type I and II PDT agent to a predominantly type I photosensitizer, irrespective of the oxygen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of alginate lyase and cellulase co-produced by Exiguobacterium species Alg-S5.

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R

    2017-05-01

    In an effort to screen out the alginolytic and cellulolytic bacteria from the putrefying invasive seaweed Sargassum species accumulated off Barbados' coast, a potent bacterial strain was isolated. This bacterium, which simultaneously produced alginate lyase and cellulase, was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. Alg-S5 via the phylogenetic approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase exhibited maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.5 and at 40°C and 45°C, respectively. The K m and V max values recorded as 0.91mg/mL and 21.8U/mg-protein, respectively, for alginate lyase, and 10.9mg/mL and 74.6U/mg-protein, respectively, for cellulase. First order kinetic analysis of the thermal denaturation of the co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase in the temperature range from 40°C to 55°C revealed that both the enzymes were thermodynamically efficient by displaying higher activation energy and enthalpy of denaturation. These enzymatic properties indicate the potential industrial importance of this bacterium in algal biomass conversion. This appears to be the first report on assessing the efficacy of a bacterium for the co-production of alginate lyase and cellulase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Near-net-shape 95W-3.5Ni-1.5Fe thin-walled products produced by plasma spray forming

    Wang, Y.M.; Xiong, X.; Min, X.B.; Xie, L.; Zheng, F.

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy 95W-3.5Ni-1.5Fe (in wt.%) refractory metallic thin-walled products (diameter ≤100 mm, length ≤150 mm and wall thickness ≤5 mm) were produced using plasma spray forming (PSF) covered in argon atmosphere at a pressure of 1.01 x 10 5 Pa followed by vacuum liquid phase sintering at 1465, 1485 and 1500 deg. C for 90 min, respectively. A lamellar structure consisting of vertical columnar grains and some fine particles was found in PSF deposits. Relative density of the deposits was about 87.70% with poor mechanical property. Upon vacuum liquid phase sintering, their density and property have been improved significantly. The microstructures of PSF deposits before and after vacuum sintering were found to consist with tungsten and (Ni, Fe)-rich phase. Volume fraction of (Ni, Fe)-rich phase was decreased due to vaporization that occurred in plasma spraying and vacuum liquid phase sintering. Their fracture surfaces were dominated by intergranular rupture. The lamellar structure remained in the deposits during early stages of sintering (solid state sintering and initial of liquid phase sintering). Particle rearrangement and rapid densification of the deposits did not occur until the surface of tungsten particles being modified and changed into spheroids by solution and precipitation. In the end, the PSF deposits have been transformed from lamellar structure into two phase composites with dispersed spheroidal tungsten grains embedded in a continuous network of (Ni, Fe)-rich phase.

  19. Practical use of chemical probes for reactive oxygen species produced in biological systems by {gamma}-irradiation

    Lee, Min Hee; Moon, Yu Ran; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung [Radiation Research Division for Bio-technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Soo [Crop Production and Technology Major, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Young [Bio-environmental Science Major, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Hong [Radiation Research Division for Bio-technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhongkim@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-05-15

    Application of chemical probes, for detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was tested during {gamma}-irradiation. The ethanol/{alpha}-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) were structurally stable enough to detect {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, increasingly generated by {gamma}-irradiation up to 1000 Gy. Interestingly, the production rate of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but not {sup {center_dot}}OH, during {gamma}-irradiation, was significantly different between in vitro systems of lettuce and spinach. These results suggest that 4-POBN and DAB could be utilized as a semi-quantitative probe to quantify {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, produced by {gamma}-irradiation up to 1000 Gy.

  20. Multiplex serology for impact evaluation of bed net distribution on burden of lymphatic filariasis and four species of human malaria in northern Mozambique.

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Candrinho, Baltazar; Chambe, Geraldo; Muchanga, João; Muguande, Olinda; Matsinhe, Graça; Mathe, Guidion; Rogier, Eric; Doyle, Timothy; Zulliger, Rose; Colborn, James; Saifodine, Abu; Lammie, Patrick; Priest, Jeffrey W

    2018-02-01

    Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its impact on the three other main species of human malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which share the same vectors in many co-endemic areas, is not as well characterized. The recent development of multiplex antibody detection provides the opportunity for simultaneous evaluation of the impact of control measures on the burden of multiple diseases. Two cross-sectional household surveys at baseline and one year after a LLIN distribution campaign were implemented in Mecubúri and Nacala-a-Velha Districts in Nampula Province, Mozambique. Both districts were known to be endemic for LF; both received mass drug administration (MDA) with antifilarial drugs during the evaluation period. Access to and use of LLINs was recorded, and household members were tested with P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Dried blood spots were collected and analyzed for presence of antibodies to three P. falciparum antigens, P. vivax MSP-119, P. ovale MSP-119, P. malariae MSP-119, and three LF antigens. Seroconversion rates were calculated and the association between LLIN use and post-campaign seropositivity was estimated using multivariate regression. The campaign covered 68% (95% CI: 58-77) of the population in Nacala-a-Velha and 46% (37-56) in Mecubúri. There was no statistically significant change in P. falciparum RDT positivity between the two surveys. Population seropositivity at baseline ranged from 31-81% for the P. falciparum antigens, 3-4% for P. vivax MSP-119, 41-43% for P. ovale MSP-119, 46-56% for P. malariae MSP-119, and 37-76% for the LF antigens. The seroconversion rate to the LF Bm33 antigen decreased significantly in both districts. The seroconversion rate to P. malariae MSP-119 and the LF Wb123 and Bm14 antigens each decreased significantly in one of the two districts. Community LLIN use was associated with a decreased risk

  1. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Xylanase Produced by a New Species of Bacillus in Solid State Fermentation

    Rajashri D. Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermoalkalophilic new species of Bacillus, similar to Bacillus arseniciselenatis DSM 15340, produced extracellular xylanase under solid state fermentation when wheat bran is used as carbon source. The extracellular xylanase was isolated by ammonium sulfate (80% precipitation and purified using ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of xylanase was ~29.8 ;kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 50°C and pH 8.0. The enzyme was active on birchwood xylan and little active on p-nitrophenyl xylopyranoside but not on Avicel, CMC, cellobiose, and starch, showing its absolute substrate specificity. For birchwood xylan, the enzyme gave a Km 5.26 ;mg/mL and Vmax 277.7 ;μmol/min/mg, respectively. In addition, the xylanase was also capable of producing high-quality xylo-oligosaccharides, which indicated its application potential not only in pulp biobleaching processes but also in the nutraceutical industry.

  2. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of danish marine fish

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Satomi, M.

    2005-01-01

    are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present...... unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica....

  3. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-12-01

    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  4. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    El Afifi, E.M.; Awwad, N.S.; Hilal, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 ± 2.8, 64.8 ± 4.1 and 76.4 ± 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to ∼91 ± 3.5, 87 ± 4.1 and 90 ± 6.2%, respectively

  5. Zooplankton species identities and other data from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms from NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-04-20 to 1986-12-10 (NODC Accession 9400006)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms in the NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 20...

  6. Biosurfactant-producing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. SB assists the phytoremediation of DDT-contaminated soil by two grass species.

    Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Liu, Wuxing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jinyu; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Phytoremediation together with microorganisms may confer the advantages of both phytoremediation and microbial remediation of soils containing organic contaminants. In this system biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas sp. SB may effectively help to increase the bioavailability of organic pollutants and thereby enhance their microbial degradation in soil. Plants may enhance the rhizosphere environment for microorganisms and thus promote the bioremediation of contaminants. In the present pot experiment study, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) residues underwent an apparent decline after soil bioremediation compared with the original soil. The removal efficiency of fertilizer + tall fescue, fertilizer + tall fescue + Pseudomonas, fertilizer + perennial ryegrass, and fertilizer + perennial ryegrass + Pseudomonas treatments were 59.4, 65.6, 69.0, and 65.9%, respectively, and were generally higher than that in the fertilizer control (40.3%). Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) verifies that plant species greatly affected the soil bacterial community irrespective of inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. SB. Furthermore, community composition analysis shows that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the three dominant phyla in all groups. In particular, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas for fertilizer + tall fescue + Pseudomonas (0.25%) was significantly greater than fertilizer + tall fescue and this was related to the DDT removal efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd-Fe-B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF3

    Žagar, Kristina; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd-Fe-B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd2Fe14B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (Hci), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100-150 °C since the material Hci has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF3 to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd2Fe14B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques.

  8. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd–Fe–B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF{sub 3}

    Žagar, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.zagar@ijs.si; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd–Fe–B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (H{sub ci}), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100–150 °C since the material H{sub ci} has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF{sub 3} to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques. - Highlights: • We produced high coercivity magnets with drastically reduced amounts of HRE. • Microstructural analysis was conducted of the “free” and “wheel” side of Dy-treated Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B ribbons. • Dy-diffusion mechanism into ribbons depending on processing parameters is shown.

  9. Net savings

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  10. Net savings

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  11. Master Robotic Net

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  12. Zooplankton species identities, zooplankton species number per sample, and zooplankton abundance collected using zooplankton net as part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, for 1994-03-01 (NODC Accession 9700104)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities, zooplankton species number per sample, and zooplankton abundance were collected from March 1, 1994 to March 1, 1994. Data were...

  13. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.

    Fitzpatrick, Una; Murray, Tomás E; Paxton, Robert J; Brown, Mark J F

    2007-10-01

    A World Conservation Union (IUCN) regional red list is an objective assessment of regional extinction risk and is not the same as a list of conservation priority species. Recent research reveals the widespread, but incorrect, assumption that IUCN Red List categories represent a hierarchical list of priorities for conservation action. We developed a simple eight-step priority-setting process and applied it to the conservation of bees in Ireland. Our model is based on the national red list but also considers the global significance of the national population; the conservation status at global, continental, and regional levels; key biological, economic, and societal factors; and is compatible with existing conservation agreements and legislation. Throughout Ireland, almost one-third of the bee fauna is threatened (30 of 100 species), but our methodology resulted in a reduced list of only 17 priority species. We did not use the priority species list to broadly categorize species to the conservation action required; instead, we indicated the individual action required for all threatened, near-threatened, and data-deficient species on the national red list based on the IUCN's conservation-actions template file. Priority species lists will strongly influence prioritization of conservation actions at national levels, but action should not be exclusive to listed species. In addition, all species on this list will not necessarily require immediate action. Our method is transparent, reproducible, and readily applicable to other taxa and regions.

  14. Net4Care PHMR Library

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  15. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum produced on-farm and phosphorus on growth and nutrition of native woody plant species from Brazil

    Luis Claudio Goetten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm can be used during production of woody plant seedlings to reduce costs associated with purchase of commercial inoculant and fertilization. This study aimed to test the efficiency of a mycorrhizal inoculant produced on-farm to promote growth and nutrition of woody species in combination with different levels of phosphorus. Plants were submitted to different treatments of phosphorus (0, 40 and 80 mg P/dm3 and mycorrhizal inoculation (uninoculated, and inoculation with Rhizophagus clarus [Rc] or Claroideoglomus etunicatum [Ce]. Species included were Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Garcinia gardneriana, Cedrella fissilis, and Lafoensia pacari. The inoculum was produced using the on-farm methodology. Mycorrhizal colonization of plants inoculated with Rc and Ce ranged from 44.8 to 74.8%, except forGarcinia gardneriana. Inoculation treatment increased plant height and stem diameter of Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum and Cedrella fissilis while phosphorus, inoculation and the interaction affected these parameters for G. gardneriana and Lafoensia pacari. Shoot biomass increased significantly with inoculation treatment in four species. For most species, mycorrhizal fungus inoculation and the addition of phosphorus increased the shoot phosphorus content. Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm successfully colonized tree seedlings and improved growth and/or nutrition under nursery conditions, producing seedlings useful for revegetation of degraded lands.

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  17. Learning Visual Basic NET

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  18. Gyrinops ledermannii (Thymelaeaceae), being an agarwood-producing species prompts call for further examination of taxonomic implications in the generic delimitation between Aquilaria and Gyrinops

    Compton, J.G.S.; Zich, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Field research conducted in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has recorded Gyrinops ledermannii Domke (Thymelaeaceae) as an agarwood-producing species for the first time. Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (incl. A. agallocha Roxb.; Thymelaeaceae) or agarwood (also known as aloeswood, eaglewood, gaharu, and

  19. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization

  20. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated...

  1. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  2. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

    Balkus Jennifer E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  3. Chitosan produced from Mucorales fungi using agroindustrial by-products and its efficacy to inhibit Colletotrichum species.

    Ramos Berger, Lúcia Raquel; Montenegro Stamford, Thayza Christina; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Adjane; de Lima, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Estevez Pintado, Maria Manuela; Saraiva Câmara, Marcos Paz; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41). Highest FuCS production (37.25mg/g) was achieved when C. elegans was cultivated in medium containing 9.43% CSL and 42.5% PPJ. FuCS obtained under these conditions showed a deacetylation degree of 86%, viscosity of 120cP and molecular weight of 4.08×10 4 g/mol. FuCS at 5000, 7500 and 10,000ppm inhibited the growth of all Colletotrichum species tested. FuCS also induced alterations in the morphology of C. fructicola hyphae. CSL-PPJ mixtures are suitable substrates for the cultivation of Mucorales fungi for FuCS production. Chitosan from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-PPJ medium is effective in inhibiting phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Planning of nets

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  5. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  6. First complete genome sequence of a species in the genus Microterricola, an extremophilic cold active enzyme producing bacterial strain ERGS5:02 isolated from Sikkim Himalaya.

    Himanshu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Dharam; Kumar, Rakshak

    2016-03-20

    Here, we report the first ever complete genome sequence of any species in the genus Microterricola. The bacterium Microterricola viridarii ERGS5:02 isolated from the glacial stream of Sikkim Himalaya survived at low temperature and exhibited enhanced growth upon UV treatment, in addition, it also produced cold active enzymes. The complete genome assembly of 3.7 Mb suggested for the presence of genetic elements favoring the survival of bacterium under extreme conditions of UV and low temperature besides producing amylase, lipase and protease of industrial relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STANDARD SAMPLE FOR ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF NET ENERGY FOR LACTATION IN FEEDS ON THE BASIS OF GAS PRODUCED DURING THE INCUBATION OF SAMPLES WITH RUMEN LIQUOR

    T ŽNIDARŠIČ

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the necessity of using the standard sample at the Hohenheim gas test. During a three year period, 24 runs of forage samples were incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Beside the forage samples also the standard hay sample provided by the Hohenheim University (HFT-99 was included in the experiment. Half of the runs were incubated with rumen liquor of cattle and half with the rumen liquor of sheep. Gas produced during the 24 h incubation of standard sample was measured and compared to a declared value of sample HFT-99. Beside HFT-99, 25 test samples with known digestibility coefficients determined in vivo were included in the experiment. Based on the gas production of HFT-99, it was found that donor animal (cattle or sheep did not significantly affect the activity of rumen liquor (41.4 vs. 42.2 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1. Neither differences between years (41.9, 41.2 and 42.3 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1 were significant. However, a variability of about 10% (from 38.9 to 43.7 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter was observed between runs. In the present experiment, the gas production in HFT-99 was about 6% lower than the value obtained by the Hohenheim University (41.8 vs. 44.43 ml per 200 mg dry matter. This indicates a systematic error between the laboratories. In the case of twenty-five test samples, correction on the basis of the standard sample reduced the average difference of the in vitro estimates of net energy for lactation (NEL from the in vivo determined values. It was concluded that, due to variation between runs and systematical differences in rumen liquor activity between two laboratories, the results of Hohenheim gas test have to be corrected on the basis of standard sample.

  8. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  9. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA.

    Harris, Nilangani N; Javellana, John; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H; Jameson, Paula E; Deroles, Simon C; Calcott, Kate E; Gould, Kevin S; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2012-03-12

    Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenases (DODs), and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA), was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato) and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria) or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora), and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA) was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin) in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting

  10. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  11. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  12. A Five Species Cyclically Dominant Evolutionary Game with Fixed Direction: A New Way to Produce Self-Organized Spatial Patterns

    Yibin Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyclically dominant systems are hot issues in academia, and they play an important role in explaining biodiversity in Nature. In this paper, we construct a five-strategy cyclically dominant system. Each individual in our system changes its strategy along a fixed direction. The dominant strategy can promote a change in the dominated strategy, and the dominated strategy can block a change in the dominant strategy. We use mean-field theory and cellular automaton simulation to discuss the evolving characters of the system. In the cellular automaton simulation, we find the emergence of spiral waves on spatial patterns without a migration rate, which suggests a new way to produce self-organized spatial patterns.

  13. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of Danish marine fish.

    Fonnesbech Vogel, Birte; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Satomi, Masataka; Gram, Lone

    2005-11-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens has been considered the main spoilage bacteria of low-temperature stored marine seafood. However, psychrotropic Shewanella have been reclassified during recent years, and the purpose of the present study was to determine whether any of the new Shewanella species are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present on newly caught fish. During the warm summer months the mesophilic human pathogenic S. algae dominated the H2S-producing bacterial population. After iced storage, a shift in the Shewanella species was found, and most of the H2S-producing strains were identified as S. baltica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the identification of these two major groups. Several isolates could only be identified to the genus Shewanella level and were separated into two subgroups with low (44%) and high (47%) G+C mol%. The low G+C% group was isolated during winter months, whereas the high G+C% group was isolated on fish caught during summer and only during the first few days of iced storage. Phenotypically, these strains were different from the type strains of S. putrefaciens, S. oneidensis, S. colwelliana, and S. affinis, but the high G+C% group clustered close to S. colwelliana by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The low G+C% group may constitute a new species. S. baltica, and the low G+C% group of Shewanella spp. strains grew well in cod juice at 0 degrees C, but three high G+C Shewanella spp. were unable to grow at 0 degrees C. In conclusion, the spoilage reactions of iced Danish marine fish remain unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica.

  14. SkyNet: Modular nuclear reaction network library

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-10-01

    The general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. Any list of isotopes can be evolved and SkyNet supports various different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular, permitting new or existing physics, such as nuclear reactions or equations of state, to be easily added or modified.

  15. Prevalence of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French Travelers Returning from the Caribbean: An Emerging Pathogen with International Implications

    Gray, Miranda D.; Lacher, David W.; Leonard, Susan R.; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; Lampel, Keith A.; Prothery, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Weill, François-Xavier; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins are potent cytotoxins that inhibit host cell protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Classically, these toxins are associated with intestinal infections due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and infections with these strains can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Over the past decade there is increasing recognition that Shiga toxin is produced by additional Shigella species. We recently reported the presence and expression of stx genes in Shigella flexneri 2a clinical isolates. The toxin genes were carried by a new stx-encoding bacteriophage and infection with these strains correlated with recent travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic. In this study we further explored the epidemiological link to this region by utilizing the French National Reference Center for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella collection to survey the frequency of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French travelers returning from the Caribbean. About 21% of the isolates tested were found to encode and produce Stx. These isolates included strains of S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri Y, and S. dysenteriae 4. All of the travelers whom were infected with Stx-producing Shigella had recently traveled to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or French Guiana. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing found that the toxin genes were encoded by a prophage that was highly identical to the phage we identified in our previous study. These findings demonstrate that this new stx-encoding prophage is circulating within that geographical area, has spread to other continents, and is capable of spreading to multiple Shigella serogroups. PMID:25980352

  16. Comparison of techniques of detecting immunoglobulin-binding protein reactivity to immunoglobulin produced by different avian and mammalian species.

    Justiz-Vaillant, A A; Akpaka, P E; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Smikle, M F

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of this study was to use several immunological assays to investigate the reactivity of immunoglobulin binding protein (IBP) to immunoglobulins from various avian and mammalian species. The IBP studied were Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), Streptococcal protein G (SpG), Peptostreptococcal protein L (SpL) and recombinant protein LA (SpLA). The various immunological techniques used were double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique) that tested positive high protein reactivities, direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that tested moderate and low positive protein binding capacities, respectively. In addition to sandwich ELISAs, immunoblot analyses and Ig-purification by SpA-affinity chromatography, which were sensitive tests and helpful in the screening and confirmatory tests were also used. The Ouchterlony technique showed that compared to the other proteins, SpLA had the highest range of reactivity with animal sera and purified immunoglobulins while SpL was least reactive. With the direct ELISA, SpL reacted with the raccoon sera, rabbit IgG and with IgY from bantam hens and pigeons. While with the direct ELISA, SpA reacted with sera from skunk, coyote, raccoon, mule, donkey and human. The sandwich ELISA revealed high reactivity of both SpG and SpLA with mammalian sera titres ranging from 1:32 (raccoon serum) to 1:1024 (mule and donkey sera). These results suggest that IBP can be used for the detection of immunoglobulin using various immunological assays and this is important for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animal and bird populations studied and in the purification of immunoglobulins.

  17. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Corrosion behavior of 316 L stainless steel simulated by studying the influence of the species produced in the radiolysis in tritiated aqueous solutions

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-10-01

    The corrosion of 316 L stainless steel in tritiated aqueous solutions was simulated by studying the influence of species produced or present in the radiolysis in these solutions. The species studied were nitrates, fluorides, nitrites, hydrogen peroxide and components of the steel, as well as the pH. The method used was voltammetry. The corroded or passivated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the corrosion rates were determined by measuring the electrochemical impedance. The depletion of the component elements of the stainless steel at the surface was observed by X-ray fluorescence. From our results we propose methods to limit the corrosion in an industrial tritiated water installation by controlling the pH, the oxidation-reduction potential of the water and the voltage of the installation [fr

  19. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  20. Quantum net dynamics

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  1. Programming NET Web Services

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  2. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  3. High Prevalence of CTX-M-15-Type ESBL-Producing E. coli from Migratory Avian Species in Pakistan.

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Raza, Shahbaz; Schaufler, Katharina; Roschanski, Nicole; Sarwar, Fatima; Semmler, Torsten; Schierack, Peter; Guenther, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The increased presence of clinically relevant multidrug resistant bacteria in natural environments is an emerging challenge for global health care. Little is known regarding the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL- E. coli ) from environmental sentinels in Pakistan. The goal of the current study was to gain insights into the prevalence and phylogenetic relationships of ESBL- E. coli recovered from wild birds in Pakistan during winter migration. After initial screening of fecal samples on selective chromogenic agar, ESBL- E.coli were analyzed phenotypically using the Vitek-2 automated system. Genotypic characterization was performed using whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by an in-depth in silico analysis. Of 150 birds screened, 26 (17.3%) were fecal carriers of ESBL- E. coli . Of these, 88.4% isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (CTX-CAZ-AM-DC-TE-SXT) represented the most common pattern of MDR (76.9%). WGS data analysis found bla CTX-M-15 as the predominant ESBL genotype (92.3%). Other genes encoding resistance to sulfonamides ( sul1/sul2/sul3 ), aminoglycosides ( strA, strB, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aac(3)-IId-like, aac(3)-IVa-like and aph(4)-Ia) , trimethoprim (dfrA14 or dfrA17) , tetracyclines [ tet(A)/tet(B) ], and fluoroquinolones ( qnr S1) were detected commonly, often encoded on IncF-type plasmids (76.9%). ESBL- E. coli were assigned to 17 different sequence types (STs) of which ST10 and ST7097 (4 isolates each) were the most abundant followed by ST4720, ST93, and ST1139 (2 isolates each). Core-genome phylogeny of the isolates found low numbers (0-29) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in isolates belonged to ST7097 originated from two different locations (Chashma barrage and Rasul barrage). Similar trends were found among isolates belong to ST1139. In addition, WGS

  4. Secondary Structural Models (16S rRNA of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soil: Phylogenetics and Chemical Analysis

    Swati Mohapatra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs producing bacterial isolates are gaining more importance over the world due to the synthesis of a biodegradable polymer which is extremely desirable to substitute synthetic plastics. PHAs are produced by various microorganisms under certain stress conditions. In this study, sixteen bacterial isolates characterized previously by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing (NCBI Accession No. KF626466 to KF626481 were again stained by Nile red after three years of preservation in order to confirm their ability to accumulate PHAs. Also, phylogenetic analysis carried out in the present investigation evidenced that the bacterial species belonging to genus Bacillus are the dominant flora of the rhizospheric region, with a potentiality of biodegradable polymer (PHAs production. Again, RNA secondary structure prediction hypothesized that there is no direct correlation between RNA folding pattern stability with a rate of PHAs production among the selected isolates of genus Bacillus.

  5. Effective utilization period of long-lasting insecticide treated nets ...

    The study was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) (PermaNet®2.0) over time and the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes around Bahir Dar. The space spray collection method was used to determine the species composition of indoor resting Anopheles ...

  6. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  8. Net zero water

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  9. Construction of monophase nets

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  10. Fusion through the NET

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  11. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  12. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of metallo β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in burns and surgical wards in a tertiary care hospital

    Simit H Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The production of Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs is one of the resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. There is not much Indian data on the prevalence of MBLs in burns and surgical wards. Materials and Methods: A total of 145 non-duplicate isolates of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, isolated from pus/wound swabs and endotracheal secretions from burns and surgical wards, were tested for MBL production by modified ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA disc synergy and double disc synergy tests. Results: Prevalence of MBLs was 26.9% by both the above tests. All MBL-positive isolates were multidrug resistant. Only 6.06% (2/33 P.aeruginosa and 16.67% (1/06 Acinetobacter species were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and netilmycin, respectively. These patients had multiple risk factors like >8 days hospital stay, catheterization, IV lines, previous antibiotic use, mechanical ventilation, etc. Graft application and surgical intervention were significant risk factors in MBL-positive patients. Overall mortality in MBL-positive patients was 34.21%. Conclusion: Emergence of MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in this hospital is alarming, which reflect excessive use of carbapenems and at the same time, pose a therapeutic challenge to clinicians as well as to microbiologists. Therefore, a strict antibiotic policy and implementation of proper infection control practices will go a long way to prevent further spread of MBLs. Detection of MBLs should also become mandatory in all hospitals.

  14. La misura della pressione fiscale in rapporto al prodotto interno lordo in luogo del prodotto interno netto:un capitolo dell'illusione fiscale (The Measurement of ‘Fiscal Burden’ on GDP instead of on National Net Value Added Produced: ...

    Francesco Forte

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Measurement of ‘Fiscal Burden’ on GDP instead of on National Net Value Added Produced: A Chapter in Fiscal Illusion The work calls attention to a major macroeconomic fiscal illusion: that arising from the current official practice of expressing the main fiscal indicators, and particularly the tax burden, as a percentage of GDP rather than NDPF (Net Domestic Product at Factor Costs. This methodology causes a systematic undervaluation of the tax burden, by something between 25% (Sweden and Austria and 15% (Switzerland. Correctly measured, the tax burden in most European countries is above 50% and in the Nordic countries above 65%, or close to it! Thus, tax payers are deceived about the true cost and size of the public economy. GDP’s origin and widespread adoption is examined as well as the development of the notion of national income adopted to assess the tax burden.  JEL Codes: H20, H21 

  15. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  16. Getting to Net Zero

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  17. Pro NET Best Practices

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  18. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks Using PhyloNet.

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Zhu, Jiafan; Nakhleh, Luay

    2018-07-01

    PhyloNet was released in 2008 as a software package for representing and analyzing phylogenetic networks. At the time of its release, the main functionalities in PhyloNet consisted of measures for comparing network topologies and a single heuristic for reconciling gene trees with a species tree. Since then, PhyloNet has grown significantly. The software package now includes a wide array of methods for inferring phylogenetic networks from data sets of unlinked loci while accounting for both reticulation (e.g., hybridization) and incomplete lineage sorting. In particular, PhyloNet now allows for maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference of phylogenetic networks from gene tree estimates. Furthermore, Bayesian inference directly from sequence data (sequence alignments or biallelic markers) is implemented. Maximum parsimony is based on an extension of the "minimizing deep coalescences" criterion to phylogenetic networks, whereas maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference are based on the multispecies network coalescent. All methods allow for multiple individuals per species. As computing the likelihood of a phylogenetic network is computationally hard, PhyloNet allows for evaluation and inference of networks using a pseudolikelihood measure. PhyloNet summarizes the results of the various analyzes and generates phylogenetic networks in the extended Newick format that is readily viewable by existing visualization software.

  19. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail.

    Gu, Weidong; Novak, Robert J

    2009-11-16

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) and malaria incidence. There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of mosquitoes and treated nets at the individual level

  20. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  1. PhysioNet

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  2. NetSig

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  3. Blanket testing in NET

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  4. Programming NET 35

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  5. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  6. Primordial Germ Cell-Mediated Chimera Technology Produces Viable Pure-Line Houbara Bustard Offspring: Potential for Repopulating an Endangered Species

    Wernery, Ulrich; Liu, Chunhai; Baskar, Vijay; Guerineche, Zhor; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Jörg; Wernery, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Background The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation

  7. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Ulrich Wernery

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring.Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16 gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster.This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian

  8. Properties of photocatalytically generated oxygen species produced by Ag2Se-graphene oxide heterojunction and its application for the visible-light degradation of ammonia

    Meng, Ze-Da; Zhao, Wei; Kim, Sukyoung

    2017-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by the interactions between sunlight and light-absorbing substances in aqueous environments, and these ROS are capable of destroying various organic pollutants in wastewater. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in petrochemical wastewater was investigated by solar light photocatalysis. We used graphene oxide modified Ag2Se nanoparticles to enhance the activity of photochemically generated oxygen (PGO) species. There was a catastrophic decrease in the surface area and pore volume of the Ag2Se-graphene oxide (Ag2Se-G) samples because of the deposition of Ag2Se. The generation of ROS was detected by the oxidation of 1,5- diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). It was revealed that the photocurrent density and PGO effect increased with the graphene oxide modified. The experimental results indicate that this heterogeneous catalyst achieved a degradation of 88.43% under visiblelight irradiation. The NH3 degradation product was N2 and neither NO2- nor NO3- were detected.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Microscopic and infrared spectroscopic comparison of the underwater adhesives produced by germlings of the brown seaweed species Durvillaea antarctica and Hormosira banksii.

    Dimartino, Simone; Savory, David M; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Gordon, Keith C; McQuillan, A James

    2016-04-01

    Adhesives from marine organisms are often the source of inspiration for the development of glues able to create durable bonds in wet environments. In this work, we investigated the adhesive secretions produced by germlings of two large seaweed species from the South Pacific, Durvillaea antarctica, also named 'the strongest kelp in the word', and its close relative Hormosira banksii The comparative analysis was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy imaging as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). For both species, the egg surface presents peripheral vesicles which are released soon after fertilization to discharge a primary adhesive. This is characterized by peaks representative of carbohydrate molecules. A secondary protein-based adhesive is then secreted in the early developmental stages of the germlings. Energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR and PCA indicate that D. antarctica secretions also contain sulfated moieties, and become cross-linked with time, both conferring strong adhesive and cohesive properties. On the other hand, H. banksii secretions are complemented by the putative adhesive phlorotannins, and are characterized by a simple mechanism in which all constituents are released with the same rate and with no apparent cross-linking. It is also noted that the release of adhesive materials appears to be faster and more copious in D. antarctica than in H. banksii Overall, this study highlights that both quantity and quality of the adhesives matter in explaining the superior attachment ability of D. antarctica. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. NET model coil test possibilities

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  11. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  12. Expert system for the optimisation of melt extruded net structures

    Rawal, A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Net structures were produced by replacing the static die (spinneret) with two concentric dies (consisting of slots) rotating in opposite directions in a melt extrusion process. A series of net structures and filaments were produced from a square die...

  13. An innovative apparatus provided with a cutting auger for producing short logs for biomass energy from fast-growing tree species

    Colorio, G.; Tomasone, R.; Cedrola, C.; Pagano, M.; Pochi, D.; Fanigliulo, R.; Sperandio, G. [Council for Research in Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering Research Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a new cutting mechanism that cuts fresh wood into small pieces instead of wood chips in order to avoid the problem of fermentation that occurs in storage. The prototype cutting device performs a gradual and oblique cut. It consists of a large auger in which a knife is inserted on the outer edge of the helicoid. Tree trunks up to 20 cm in diameter are fed perpendicularly into the machine and are pushed along the axis where slices are cut off against a fixed sharp-edged counter blade. The cylinder enclosing the auger is the main frame of the machine, and is closed at one end, where a heavy flywheel delivers the energy coming from the tractor's power take-off (PTO). The wood pieces ranging in length from 4 to 19 cm exit through the opposite end. The auger is 700 mm in diameter with a 300 mm pitch spacing. The logs are pushed into the machine by counter-rotating rollers placed in the feed funnel. Tests were conducted to determine the operative performance and power requirements of the machine. The cutting method requires less power compared to wood chipping machines. Work capacity is greater when producing slices instead of chips and the system produces less noise and fewer vibrations. The auger reaches a constant velocity of 200 RPM and can easily cut fresh wood of different species.

  14. Energy balance of algal biomass production in a 1-ha “Green Wall Panel” plant: How to produce algal biomass in a closed reactor achieving a high Net Energy Ratio

    Tredici, M.R.; Bassi, N.; Prussi, M.; Biondi, N.; Rodolfi, L.; Chini Zittelli, G.; Sampietro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetraselmis suecica production in a 1-ha GWP plant in Tuscany (Italy) has a NER < 1. • Major energy costs are embodied energy of GWP and mixing. • In a suitable location (North Africa) the NER increases by 40%. • Integration of photovoltaic in the GWP allows to achieve a NER of 1.7. • T. suecica cultivated in a GWP plant can yield up to 30 t of protein ha −1 year −1 . - Abstract: The annual productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a 1-ha Green Wall Panel-II (GWP-II) plant in Tuscany (Italy) is 36 t (dry weight) ha −1 year −1 , which corresponds to an energy output of 799 GJ ha −1 year −1 . The energy inputs necessary to attain that productivity amount to 1362 GJ ha −1 year −1 , mainly given by the embodied energy of the reactor (about 30%), mixing (about 40%), fertilizers (11%) and harvesting (10%). The Net Energy Ratio (NER) of T. suecica production is thus 0.6. In a more suitable location (North Africa) productivity nearly doubles, reaching 66 t ha −1 year −1 , but the NER increases only by 40% and the gain (difference between output and inputs) remains negative. In a GWP-II integrated with photovoltaics (PV), the NER becomes 1.7 and the gain surpasses 600 GJ ha −1 year −1 . Marine microalgae cultivation in a GWP plant, in a suitable location, can attain high biomass productivities and protein yields 30 times higher than those achievable with traditional crops (soya). When the GWP reactor is integrated with PV, the process attains a positive energy balance, which substantially enhances its sustainability

  15. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  16. Biological Petri Nets

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  17. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  18. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  19. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  2. Neuronal nets in robotics

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  3. Net4Care platform

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  5. Game Theory .net.

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  6. BacillusRegNet

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  8. Clarifying the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Reported Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Cells - Clarifying the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Producing the Reported Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Cells

    Willey, Neil J. [Centre for Research In Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Chronic low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to cells, such as those that occur in contaminated environments, are widely reported to produce a variety of effects, from adverse effects to no effects to positive effects. In addition, bystander effects have been reported in some studies. For only relatively few of these effects have mechanistic explanations been reported but in many of those for which they have, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or the anti-oxidants that help to control their effects, have often been suggested to have a role. In general, it is assumed that either radiolysis of water or stress due to IR cause an increase in ROS and/or anti-oxidant activity, and hence the observed effects. The role of ROS in producing the effects reported at chronic low doses of radiation has infrequently been tested at either a theoretical or experimental level. Here we use a dynamic model of anti-oxidant capacity in cells to test the theoretical underpinnings of the ROS hypothesis together with genomic and proteomic experiments using Arabidopsis thaliana to test the molecular effects of IR in cells. The published model we have constructed for testing the interaction of IR and anti-oxidant systems (Smith et al, 2012) first calculates the amount of ROS produced by IR. Overall, at the dose rates that occur in contaminated environments the amount of ROS produced by IR is extremely small, certainly much smaller than is routinely produced in a cell during many metabolic processes. ROS from respiration leak out of mitochondria at significant rates and in plant cells ROS also leak out of photo-synthesizing chloroplasts. Although there is a variety of anti-oxidants in many cells, the nexus of their capacity is glutathione (GSH) which ultimately derives its reducing power from NADPH. We thus modeled the anti-oxidative capacity of a cell from the activity GSH and used predicted concentrations of ROS from IR to calculate the oxidative stress that they would cause via the

  9. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified...

  10. SolNet

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  11. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  12. Turkey's net energy consumption

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  13. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  14. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a producer...

  15. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  16. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  17. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  18. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  19. The Net Advance of Physics

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  20. Gamma-irradiation produces active chlorine species (ACS) in physiological solutions: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) scavenges ACS - A novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection.

    Mishra, Om P; Popov, Anatoliy V; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-09-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF). Dopamine, an SDG structural analog, was used for proton (1)H NMR studies to trap primary ACS radicals. Taurine N-chlorination was determined to demonstrate radiation-induced generation of hypochlorite, a secondary ACS. DNA protection was assessed by determining the extent of DNA fragmentation and plasmid DNA relaxation following exposure to ClO(-) and radiation. Purine base chlorination by ClO(-) and γ-radiation was determined by using 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of 6-aminopurine. Chloride anions (Cl(-)) consumed >90% of hydroxyl radicals in physiological solutions produced by γ-radiation resulting in ACS formation, which was detected by (1)H NMR. Importantly, SDG scavenged hypochlorite- and γ-radiation-induced ACS. In addition, SDG blunted ACS-induced fragmentation of calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA relaxation. SDG treatment before or after ACS exposure decreased the ClO(-) or γ-radiation-induced chlorination of 2-AP. Exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increased taurine chlorination, indicative of ClO(-) generation. NMR studies revealed formation of primary ACS radicals (chlorine atoms (Cl) and dichloro radical anions (Cl2¯)), which were trapped by SDG and its structural analog dopamine. We demonstrate that γ-radiation induces the generation of ACS in physiological solutions. SDG treatment scavenged

  1. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this STTR is to determine the capability of Net Shape LENS processing with Nano-coated powders. The unique composites produced using regualr...

  2. Bats from Fazenda Intervales, Southeastern Brazil: species account and comparison between different sampling methods

    Christine V. Portfors

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.

  3. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FishNet: an online database of zebrafish anatomy

    Gibson Abigail J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. Results To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet http://www.fishnet.org.au, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. Conclusion FishNet contains more than 36 000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1 500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.

  5. Shielding calculations for NET

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  7. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  8. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  9. Differences in the incidence of apoptosis between in vivo and in vitro produced blastocysts of farm animal species: a comparative study

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Teerds, K.J.; Kidson, A.; Colenbrander, B.; Tharasanit, T.; Aguilar, B.; Roelen, B.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of pregnancies and births after embryo transfer (ET) of in vivo produced embryos is generally more successful compared to that of embryos produced in vitro. This difference in ET success has been observed when embryos of morphological equal (high) quality were used. The incidence of

  10. Carbapenem MICs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Critical Care Patients from 2001 to 2009.

    Johnson, J Kristie; Robinson, Gwen L; Pineles, Lisa L; Ajao, Adebola O; Zhao, LiCheng; Albrecht, Jennifer S; Harris, Anthony D; Thom, Kerri A; Furuno, Jon P

    2017-04-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Carbapenem antibiotics are used as a first line of therapy against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae We examined a cohort of critical care patients for gastrointestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing strains (CR-ESBL strains). We cultured samples from this cohort of patients for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli and then tested the first isolate from each patient for susceptibility to imipenem, doripenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on isolates that produced an ESBL and that were carbapenem resistant. Among all patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 4% were positive for an ESBL-producing isolate and 0.64% were positive for a CR-ESBL strain on surveillance culture. Among the first ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella isolates from the patients' surveillance cultures, 11.2% were carbapenem resistant. Sequence type 14 (ST14), ST15, ST42, and ST258 were the dominant sequence types detected in this cohort of patients, with ST15 and ST258 steadily increasing in prevalence from 2006 to 2009. Patients colonized by a CR-ESBL strain were significantly more likely to receive antipseudomonal and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) therapy prior to ICU admission than patients colonized by carbapenem-susceptible ESBL-producing strains. They were also significantly more likely to have received a cephalosporin or a carbapenem antibiotic than patients colonized by carbapenem-susceptible ESBL-producing strains. In conclusion, in a cohort of patients residing in intensive care units within the United States, we found that 10% of the isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem antibiotic. The continued emergence of carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing strains is of significant concern, as infections due to these organisms are notoriously difficult to

  11. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  12. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  13. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    2010-07-01

    ... financial condition, and business history. (6) The economic outlook for the person's industry and the market... do not produce income for the business being valued or are not used in the business. (c) Factors for... to sell, or offer to purchase or sell the business of the person made on or about the net worth...

  14. Art/Net/Work

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  15. Net4Care

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  16. Without a Safety Net

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Gørlich, Anne; Grytnes, Regine

    2017-01-01

    ‘Precarisation’ is one of the concepts that has become important in efforts to explain how neoliberal politics and changed economic conditions produce new forms of marginalization and increased insecurity. The aim of this article is to examine how subjectivity is produced among young Danish emplo...

  17. Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

    Débora Nunes Mario

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen. RESULTS: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species. CONCLUSIONS: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.

  18. High-level Petri Nets

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  19. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  1. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  2. NetView technical research

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  3. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  4. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  5. Discards of Danish set nets fisheries in the Kattegat

    Savina, Esther; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke

    to the food web. These ecological interactions can be of importance for the surrounding ecosystem, especially regarding small-scale fisheries which take place in relatively shallow waters. Previous studies on gill- or trammel nets discards mostly focus either on commercially valuable fish, or on incidentally...... caught rare or protected species. Data collected by observers aboard commercial fishing vessels gives a first insight into the discards of non-commercial fish and invertebrates in the Danish small-scale set nets fisheries...

  6. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...

  7. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  8. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2013-01-01

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin...

  9. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  10. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  11. Colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in long-term care facility residents.

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Han, Jennifer; Santana, Evelyn; Tolomeo, Pam; Bilker, Warren B; Maslow, Joel

    2012-03-01

    We describe the prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EB) in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting. Colonization prevalence differed significantly across the 3 LTCFs evaluated in the study, with recent use of levofloxacin and fecal incontinence demonstrating borderline significant associations with ESBL-EB colonization.

  12. Identification of molecular species of polyol oils produced from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa e03-12 nrrl b-59991

    The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...

  13. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  14. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  15. Properties of porous netted materials

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  16. NET remote workstation

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Diversity Profile and Dynamics of Peptaibols Produced by Green Mould Trichoderma Species in Interactions with Their Hosts Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Marik, Tamás; Urbán, Péter; Tyagi, Chetna; Szekeres, András; Leitgeb, Balázs; Vágvölgyi, Máté; Manczinger, László; Druzhinina, Irina S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2017-06-01

    Certain Trichoderma species are causing serious losses in mushroom production worldwide. Trichoderma aggressivum and Trichoderma pleuroti are among the major causal agents of the green mould diseases affecting Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. The genus Trichoderma is well-known for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols, which are short, linear peptides containing unusual amino acid residues and being synthesised via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The aim of this study was to get more insight into the peptaibol production of T. aggressivum and T. pleuroti. HPLC/MS-based methods revealed the production of peptaibols closely related to hypomurocins B by T. aggressivum, while tripleurins representing a new group of 18-residue peptaibols were identified in T. pleuroti. Putative NRPS genes enabling the biosynthesis of the detected peptaibols could be found in the genomes of both Trichoderma species. In vitro experiments revealed that peptaibols are potential growth inhibitors of mushroom mycelia, and that the host mushrooms may have an influence on the peptaibol profiles of green mould agents. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Methods for producing diterpenes

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  19. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Bing Mao

    Full Text Available Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  20. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  1. Growing Azolla to produce sustainable protein feed: the effect of differing species and CO2 concentrations on biomass productivity and chemical composition.

    Brouwer, Paul; Schluepmann, Henriette; Nierop, Klaas Gj; Elderson, Janneke; Bijl, Peter K; van der Meer, Ingrid; de Visser, Willem; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Smeekens, Sjef; van der Werf, Adrie

    2018-03-24

    Since available arable land is limited and nitrogen fertilizers pollute the environment, cropping systems ought to be developed that do not rely on them. Here we investigate the rapidly growing, N 2 -fixing Azolla/Nostoc symbiosis for its potential productivity and chemical composition to determine its potential as protein feed. In a small production system, cultures of Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides were continuously harvested for over 100 days, yielding an average productivity of 90.0-97.2 kg dry weight (DW) ha -1  d -1 . Under ambient CO 2 levels, N 2 fixation by the fern's cyanobacterial symbionts accounted for all nitrogen in the biomass. Proteins made up 176-208 g kg -1 DW (4.9 × total nitrogen), depending on species and CO 2 treatment, and contained more essential amino acids than protein from soybean. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (800 ppm) significantly boosted biomass production by 36-47%, without decreasing protein content. Choice of species and CO 2 concentrations further affected the biomass content of lipids (79-100 g kg -1 DW) and (poly)phenols (21-69 g kg -1 DW). By continuous harvesting, high protein yields can be obtained from Azolla cultures, without the need for nitrogen fertilization. High levels of (poly)phenols likely contribute to limitations in the inclusion rate of Azolla in animal diets and need further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  3. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  4. Salting of dry-cured meat – A potential cause of contamination with the ochratoxin A-producing species Penicillium nordicum

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as the possible source of P. nordicum. In the present study contamination of meat products, air in the meat-processing plant and sea salt used for salting were analysed. When 50 g of salt sample from a sealed package was dissolved in sterile water and filtered, 12 colonies of P. nordicum were obtained on solid......Penicillium nordicum is a known contaminant of protein-rich foods and is primarily found on dry-cured meat products. It is an important producer of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, which has nephrotoxic and cancerogenic activities. Recently a high number of P. nordicum strains was isolated from...... medium incubated at 15 °C, while a salt sample from an open vessel in the meat-processing area developed high, uncountable number of colonies. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses of P. nordicum isolates from different sources showed that contamination of meat products via salt was possible...

  5. Cancer cells growing on perfused 3D collagen model produced higher reactive oxygen species level and were more resistant to cisplatin compared to the 2D model.

    Liu, Qingxi; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Yupeng; Cui, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Tongcun; Li, Zhaohui; Ma, Wenjian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold models, due to their ability to mimic the tissue and organ structure in vivo, have received increasing interest in drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. In this study, we developed a perfused 3D model and studied cellular response to cytotoxic drugs in comparison with traditional 2D cell cultures as evaluated by cancer drug cisplatin. Cancer cells grown in perfused 3D environments showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the 2D culture. As determined by growth analysis, cells in the 3D culture, after forming a spheroid, were more resistant to the cancer drug cisplatin compared to that of the 2D cell culture. In addition, 3D culturing cells showed elevated level of ROS, indicating a physiological change or the formation of a microenvironment that resembles tumor cells in vivo. These data revealed that cellular response to drugs for cells growing in 3D environments are dramatically different from that of 2D cultured cells. Thus, the perfused 3D collagen scaffold model we report here might be a potentially very useful tool for drug analysis.

  6. Net energy from nuclear power

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  7. KM3NeT

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  8. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  9. PolicyNet Publication System

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  10. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  11. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  12. NetBeans GUI Builder

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  13. Fusarium species and fumonisins associated with maize kernels produced in Rio Grande do Sul State for the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons

    R. Stumpf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. are among the main fungal diseases that contribute to poor quality and the contamination of maize grains with mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the visual incidence of fungal-damaged kernels (FDKs, the incidence of two main Gibberella (a teleomorph of Fusarium complexes (G. fujikuroi and G. zeae associated with maize using a seed health blotter test, and the fumonisin levels, using high performance liquid chromatography, in samples of maize grains grown across 23 municipalities during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons. Additionally, 104 strains that were representative of all of the analysed samples were identified to species using PCR assays. The mean FDK was seven per cent, and only six of the samples had levels greater than six per cent. Fusarium spp. of the G. fujikuroi complex were present in 96% of the samples, and G. zeae was present in 18% of the samples (5/27. The mean incidence of G. fujikuroi was 58%, and the incidence of G. zeae varied from 2 to 6%. FB1 was found in 58.6%, FB2 in 37.9%, and both toxins in 37.9% of the samples. The FB1 and FB2 levels were below the quantification limits for 41.3% of the samples, and the mean FB1 levels (0.66 µg/g were higher than the mean FB2 levels (0.42 µg/g. The PCR identification separated the 104 isolates into three of the G. fujikuroi complex: F. verticillioides (76%, F. subglutinans (4% and F. proliferatum (2%; and G. zeae (anamorph = F. graminearum (18%. Our results confirmed the dominance of F. verticillioides, similar to other regions of Brazil, but they differed due to the relatively higher incidence of F. graminearum. Total fumonisin levels were below the maximum limit determined by current Brazilian regulations.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of low power argon microwave-induced plasma with gaseous species produced from ethanol-water solutions in continuous hydride generation process

    Wlodarczyk, Magdalena; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw E-mail: zyrnicki@ichn.ch.pwr.wroc.pl

    2003-03-31

    Low power microwave-induced argon plasma generated by resonant TE{sub 101} rectangular cavity was investigated upon introduction of volatile species formed in the reaction with sodium tetraborohydrate(III) in hydrochloric acid-ethanol solution. The molecular emission bands of OH and CH were used for rotational temperature (T{sub rot}) determination, while the atomic emission lines of Ar, H and Sb were applied for excitation temperature (T{sub exc}) measurement. Assuming a Boltzmann distribution, the temperatures were calculated with the aid of the least squares method. Electron number density (n{sub e}) derived from Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line was found to be between 2.5x10{sup 15} and 0.57x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The detection limits (DL) were determined for Hg and Sb. The influence of ethanol concentration in analyte solution and microwave power on measured parameters, was investigated. The results showed that T{sub rot}(OH) increased from 2970 to 3820 K while T{sub rot}(CH) decreased from 6100 to 4540 K with ethanol concentration in the solution, ranging from 10 to 90%. Under the same experimental conditions the excitation temperature for Ar, H and Sb varied in the following ranges: 5670-4800, 6190-3950 and 10500-7390 K, respectively. It was observed that element DL were significantly influenced by the presence of ethanol in the sample solution. The DL values for Hg and Sb were, as follows: 0.5-11 and 5.3-35 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively.

  15. Multiflavor string-net models

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  16. Fair market value vs. net investment

    Lagassa, G.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that among the 300 some hydro electric power stations coming up for relicensing in the 1990s, some of them will certainly be taken over by the federal government or by competing license applications. Under prevailing interpretations of net investment value contained in the Federal Power Act, it is entirely likely that companies who lose a hydro station this way will go substantially uncompensated. Professional appraisal techniques for determining fair market value of property could produce substantially higher payments for lost hydro stations and may be a more appropriate standard for such applications

  17. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Comparison of the Net Work Output between Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

    Rui F. Costa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare Stirling and Ericsson cycles to determine which engine produces greater net work output for various situations. Both cycles are for external heat engines that utilize regenerators, where the difference is the nature of the regeneration process, which is constant volume for Stirling and constant pressure for Ericsson. This difference alters the performance characteristics of the two engines drastically, and our comparison reveals which one produces greater net work output based on the thermodynamic parameters. The net work output equations are derived and analysed for three different scenarios: (i equal mass and temperature limits; (ii equal mass and pressure or volume; and (iii equal temperature and pressure or volume limits. The comparison is performed by calculating when both cycles produce equal net work output and then analysing which one produces greater net work output based on how the parameters are varied. In general, the results demonstrate that Stirling engines produce more net work output at higher pressures and lower volumes, and Ericsson engines produce more net work output at lower pressures and higher volumes. For certain scenarios, threshold values are calculated to illustrate precisely when one cycle produces more net work output than the other. This paper can be used to inform the design of the engines and to determine when a Stirling or Ericsson engine should be selected for a particular application.

  19. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  20. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  1. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  2. Light spectrum on the quality of fruits of physalis species in subtropical area

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of colored-shade nets on the physicochemical characteristics of physalis in subtropical area. The experimental design was the randomized blocks with a 4 × 5 factorial, being four species of physalis (Physalis peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa and four net colors (white, blue, red and black, besides the control under full sun. Titratable acidity (TA, pH, vitamin C, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. It was observed that P. peruviana and P. pubescens have more acid fruits, and P. minima shows vitamin C content higher than the other species. In general, fruits of P. peruviana and P. pubescens have better quality when grown in white, blue or black shade net; fruits of P. minima are physicochemically superior when produced under full sun or under white or blue shade net; finally, fruits of P. ixocarpa have low quality when produced under black net.

  3. The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study

    Hoefsloot, W.; Ingen, J. van; Andrejak, C.; Angeby, K.; Bauriaud, R.; Bemer, P.; Beylis, N.; Boeree, M.J.; Cacho, J.; Chihota, V.; Chimara, E.; Churchyard, G.; Cias, R.; Daza, R.; Daley, C.L.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Domingo, D.; Drobniewski, F.; Esteban, J. De; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Folkvardsen, D.B.; Gibbons, N.; Gomez-Mampaso, E.; Gonzalez, R.; Hoffmann, H.; Hsueh, P.R.; Indra, A.; Jagielski, T.; Jamieson, F.; Jankovic, M.; Jong, E. de; Keane, J.; Koh, W.J.; Lange, B. de; Leao, S.; Macedo, R.; Mannsaker, T.; Marras, T.K.; Maugein, J.; Milburn, H.J.; Mlinko, T.; Morcillo, N.; Morimoto, K.; Papaventsis, D.; Palenque, E.; Paez-Pena, M.; Piersimoni, C.; Polanova, M.; Rastogi, N.; Richter, E.; Ruiz-Serrano, M.J.; Silva, A.; Silva, M.P. da; Simsek, H.; Soolingen, D. van; Szabo, N.; Thomson, R.; Fernandez, T. Tortola; Tortoli, E.; Totten, S.E.; Tyrrell, G.; Vasankari, T.; Villar, M.; Walkiewicz, R.; Winthrop, K.L.; Wagner, D.; Trials, G. Nontuberculous

    2013-01-01

    A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the

  4. D.NET case study

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  5. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  6. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  7. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  8. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  9. Communicating with the Net Generation

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  10. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  11. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  12. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  13. - Hydroxylated Anthraquinones Produced by Geosmithia species

    Stodůlková, Eva; Kolařík, Miroslav; Křesinová, Zdena; Kuzma, Marek; Šulc, Miroslav; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Landa, Přemysl; Olšovská, Jana; Chudíčková, Milada; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Černý, J.; Bella, J.; Flieger, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 179-187 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk LC07017; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 205/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydroxylated anthraquinones * staphylococcus aureus * mammalian cell lines Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  14. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Tony J Popic

    Full Text Available Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2 area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  15. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M

    2013-01-01

    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  16. .net

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  17. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  18. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  19. WE-NET Hydrogen Energy Symposium proceedings; WE-NET suiso energy symposium koen yokoshu

    NONE

    1999-02-24

    The research and development of WE-NET (World Energy Network) was started in 1993 as a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) project in the New Sunshine Program of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and aims to contribute to the improvement of global environment and to ease the difficult energy supply/demand situation. The ultimate goal of WE-NET is the construction of a global-scale clean energy network in which hydrogen will be produced from renewable energies such as water and sunshine for distribution to energy consuming locations. Experts are invited to the Symposium from the United States, Germany, and Canada. Information is collected from the participants on hydrogen energy technology development in the three countries, the result of the Phase I program of WE-NET is presented to hydrogen energy scientists in Japan, and views and opinions on the project are collected from them. Accommodated in the above-named publication are 30 essays and three special lectures delivered at the Symposium. (NEDO)

  20. Les dispositifs du Net art

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  1. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  2. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  3. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  4. Near net shape of powder metallurgy rhenium parts

    Leonhardt, T.; Downs, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a description of the stages of processing necessary to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium component through the use of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to form a complex shape will be explained. This method was primarily developed for the production of the 440 N and 490 N liquid apogee engine combustion chambers used in satellite positioning systems. The CIP to NNS process has been used in the manufacture and production of other rhenium aerospace components as well. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to a near net shape utilizing a one or two-part mandrel greatly reduces the quantity of rhenium required to produce the component, and also significantly reduces the number of secondary machining operations necessary to complete the manufacturing process. Further, the developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium manufacturing techniques have generated significant savings in the area of both time and budget. Overall, cost declined by as much as 35 % for the quantity of rhenium chambers, and manufacturing time was decreased by 30-40 %. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber was reduced by approximately 70 %, with a subsequent reduction of nearly 50 % in secondary machining operation schedules. Thus, it is apparent that the overall savings provided by the production of near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium components will be more than merely another aspect of any project involving high temperature applications, it will constitute significant benefit. (author)

  5. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  6. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  7. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  8. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  9. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  10. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  11. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  12. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  13. The K-NET - A year after

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  14. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  15. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  16. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  17. The production of Physalis spp. seedlings grown under different-colored shade nets

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of seedlings of Physalis L. species under different-colored shade nets. Four shade nets individually stained white, blue, red and black, all with 50% shading, were used in this study, and an additional  treatment (control was used in which seedlings were grown in full sun. The study examined four species of Physalis, namely, P. peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three blocks and 25 seeds per plot. The species were sown in styrofoam trays. Germination was monitored daily to calculate the Emergency Velocity Index (EVI and stabilize the overall percentage of emergence. Height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area index and dry mass of seedlings were assessed at 50 days after sowing. The study found that these species react differently to changes in the light spectrum. Seedlings of P. peruviana should be grown under a white or red shade net; of P. pubescens under a white or black shade net; of P. minima under a white, red or black shade net; and of P. ixocarpa under a white shade net. For all species, 50% shade should be used.

  18. Management of invasive species

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...... and mitigation are beneficial policy actions. However, the total and average net benefits under mitigation are larger than the benefits under prevention, implying that the former policy action is more beneficial. Despite this result, we conclude that prevention, not mitigation, shall be used because...

  19. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  20. Comparison of copepod collection efficiencies by three commonly used plankton nets: A case study in Bohai Sea, China

    Chen, Hongju; Yu, Hao; Liu, Guangxing

    2016-12-01

    Selection of net with a suitable mesh size is a key concern in the quantitative assessment of zooplankton, which is crucial to understand pelagic ecosystem processes. This study compared the copepod collecting efficiency of three commonly used plankton nets, namely, the China standard coarse net (505 μm mesh), the China standard fine net (77 μm), and the WP-2 net (200 μm). The experiment was performed at six stations in the Bohai Sea during the autumn of 2012. The coarse net substantially under-sampled small individuals (body widths copepod species but failed to collect rare species. The WP-2 net appeared to be a compromise of the two other nets, collecting both small copepods and rare species. The abundance of copepods collected by the coarse net (126.4 ± 86.5 ind m-3) was one to two orders of magnitude lower than that by the WP-2 net (5802.4 ± 2595.4 ind m-3), and the value of the fine net (11117.0 ± 4563.41 ind m-3) was nearly twice that of the WP-2 net. The abundance of large copepods ( i.e., adult Calanus sinicus) in the three nets showed no significant differences, but the abundance of small copepods declined with decreasing mesh size. The difference in abundance resulted from the under-sampling of small copepods with body widths < 672 μm and < 266 μm by the coarse and WP-2 nets, respectively.

  1. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  2. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite des especes de recul dans le ferrocyanure de potassium irradie aux neutrons thermiques

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [French] On a separe et identifie les differentes especes chimiques produites par irradiation neutronique de ferrocyanure de potassium. L'etude de leur comportement au cours du recuit thermique a permis l'application de differentes cinetiques et l'etablissement d'un schema de reaction. On a deterrmine la valeur des energies d'activation dans differentes conditions de recuit ainsi que l'influence de la dose de radiations, de l'oxygene et de l'eau de cristallisation sur ces energies. Une serie de mesures de resonance paramagnetique electronique a complete cette etude. (auteurs)

  4. 'Streptomyces caelicus', an antibiotic-producing species of the genus Streptomyces, and Streptomyces canchipurensis Li et al. 2015 are later heterotypic synonyms of Streptomyces muensis Ningthoujam et al. 2014.

    Wink, Joachim; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Westermann, Martin; Martin, Karin; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    'Streptomyces caelicus' DSM 40835 was first reported as the producer of the antibiotic griselimycin by some coworkers of Rhone Poulenc in 1971. The project on isolation of the antibiotic compound was stopped because of the bad solubility and selectivity of the compound towards Mycobacteria. At Sanofi-Aventis, Germany, the project was re-evaluated in 2007 and the gene cluster of griselimycin could be identified, characterized and was patented in 2013. At this time, 'S. caelicus' was an invalid name. During the strain characterization work, it was found that 'S. caelicus' belongs to the group of species of the genus Streptomyces which show an unusual heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Streptomyces muensis JCM 17576T and Streptomyces canchipurensis JCM 17575T were obvious. Here, we present a comparative description of 'Streptomyces caelicus' DS 9461 (=DSM 40835=NCCB 100592) with S. muensis and S. canchipurensis by use of a polyphasic taxonomy approach and additional comparison of some housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). An emended description of Streptomyces muensis is provided as a result of this work.

  5. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  6. Novel gelforming process for near net shape ceramic component production

    Franks, G.V.; Johnson, S.B.; Dunstan, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    A novel gelforming process for producing near-net shape ceramic components has been developed. A low viscosity, high volume fraction, ceramic suspension containing a small amount of bio-polymer is poured or injected into a mould. The suspension is gelled within the mould by a temperature activated crosslinking mechanism. The rheological behaviour of the body within the mould is changed from liquid-like to solid-like in a short period of time. The wet mechanical strength of the gelled bodies is sufficient to allow the body to be demoulded and handled without damaging the component. Near net shapes of complex geometry are formed in this way. The wet green body is then dried and densified using traditional methods. Potentially this process can be used to produce inexpensive reliable high strength ceramic components quickly and safely. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  7. Near-Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Thruster

    Leonhardt, Todd; Hamister, Mark; Carlen, Jan C.; Biaglow, James; Reed, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium combustion chamber of the size 445 N (100 lbf) used in a high performance liquid apogee engine. These engines are used in low earth Orbit and geostationary orbit for satellite positioning systems. The developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium combustion chambers reported in this paper will reduce manufacturing cost of the rhenium chambers by 25 percent, and reduce the manufacturing time by 30 to 40 percent. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber is reduced by approximately 70 percent and the subsequent reduction in machining schedule and costs is nearly 50 percent.

  8. PROFIT-PC: a program for estimating maximum net revenue from multiproduct harvests in Appalachian hardwoods

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; R. Bryan Selbe

    1989-01-01

    PROFIT-PC is a menu driven, interactive PC (personal computer) program that estimates optimum product mix and maximum net harvesting revenue based on projected product yields and stump-to-mill timber harvesting costs. Required inputs include the number of trees/acre by species and 2 inches diameter at breast-height class, delivered product prices by species and product...

  9. Bound states in string nets

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  10. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  11. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  12. Insecticide mixtures for mosquito net impregnation against malaria vectors

    Corbel V.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides belonging to the pyrethroid family are the only compounds currently available for the treatment of mosquito nets. Unfortunately, some malaria vector species have developed resistance to pyrethroids and the lack of alternative chemical categories is a great concern. One strategy for resistance management would be to treat mosquito nets with a mixture associating two insecticides having different modes of action. This study presents the results obtained with insecticide mixtures containing several proportions of bifenthrin (a pyrethroid insecticide and carbosulfan (a carbamate insecticide. The mixtures were sprayed on mosquito net samples and their efficacy were tested against a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa. A significant synergism was observed with a mixture containing 25 mg/m2 of bifenthrin (half the recommended dosage for treated nets and 6.25 mg/m2 of carbosulfan (about 2 % of the recommended dosage. The observed mortality was significantly more than expected in the absence of any interaction (80 % vs 41 % and the knock-down effect was maintained, providing an effective barrier against susceptible mosquitoes.

  13. Global Distribution of Net Electron Acceptance in Subseafloor Sediment

    Fulfer, V. M.; Pockalny, R. A.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We quantified the global distribution of net electron acceptance rates (e-/m2/year) in subseafloor sediment (>1.5 meters below seafloor [mbsf]) using (i) a modified version of the chemical-reaction-rate algorithm by Wang et al. (2008), (ii) physical properties and dissolved oxygen and sulfate data from interstitial waters of sediment cores collected by the Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, International Ocean Discovery Program, and U.S. coring expeditions, and (iii) correlation of net electron acceptance rates to global oceanographic properties. Calculated net rates vary from 4.8 x 1019 e-/m2/year for slowly accumulating abyssal clay to 1.2 x 1023 e-/m2/year for regions of high sedimentation rate. Net electron acceptance rate correlates strongly with mean sedimentation rate. Where sedimentation rate is very low (e.g., 1 m/Myr), dissolved oxygen penetrates more than 70 mbsf and is the primary terminal electron acceptor. Where sedimentation rate is moderate (e.g., 3 to 60 m/Myr), dissolved sulfate penetrates as far as 700 mbsf and is the principal terminal electron acceptor. Where sedimentation rate is high (e.g., > 60 m/Myr), dissolved sulfate penetrates only meters, but is the principal terminal electron acceptor in subseafloor sediment to the depth of sulfate penetration. Because microbial metabolism continues at greater depths than the depth of sulfate penetration in fast-accumulating sediment, complete quantification of subseafloor metabolic rates will require consideration of other chemical species.

  14. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  15.  NET and NETosis – new phenomenon in immunology

    Natalia Matoszka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Neutrophils are one of the first cells of the immune system recruited to the site of infection, representing the host’s most effective and numerous front-line defenders. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been described: upon activation, they release DNA and a subset of their granule content, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These extracellular, chromatin structures, which contain histones and neutrophil granule proteins, can trap and kill a broad spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of the pathogens, which are trapped and exposed to high local concentrations of antimicrobial compounds, employ strategies against NET binding, including surface modification and/or degradation of NET by DNases. It has been suggested that NETs are formed during active cell death, recently named NETosis. New data indicate that this novel mechanism of cell death requires interaction between three processes – reactive oxygen species generation, histone citrullination and autophagy – and significantly differs from previously known types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the release of nuclear chromatin was also described for other types of cells – mast cells and eosinophils. Mast cells, like neutrophils, under certain conditions release nuclear chromatin and may undergo a similar active cell death program, while eosinophils release only mitochondrial chromatin, and its release does not lead to the death of these cells.

  16. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  17. Producing cement

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  18. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  19. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  20. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  1. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  2. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  3. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve

    2005-01-01

    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  4. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  5. Development and Application of High-Content Biological Screening for Modulators of NET Production

    Ilaria J. Chicca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are DNA-based antimicrobial web-like structures whose release is predominantly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS; their purpose is to combat infections. However, unbalanced NET production and clearance is involved in tissue injury, circulation of auto-antibodies and development of several chronic diseases. Currently, there is lack of agreement regarding the high-throughput methods available for NET investigation. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and optimize a high-content analysis (HCA approach, which can be applied for the assay of NET production and for the screening of compounds involved in the modulation of NET release. A suitable paraformaldehyde fixation protocol was established to enable HCA of neutrophils and NETs. Bespoke and in-built bioinformatics algorithms were validated by comparison with standard low-throughput approaches for application in HCA of NETs. Subsequently, the optimized protocol was applied to high-content screening (HCS of a pharmaceutically derived compound library to identify modulators of NETosis. Of 56 compounds assessed, 8 were identified from HCS for further characterization of their effects on NET formation as being either inducers, inhibitors or biphasic modulators. The effects of these compounds on naïve neutrophils were evaluated by using specific assays for the induction of ROS and NET production, while their modulatory activity was validated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Results indicated the involvement of glutathione reductase, Src family kinases, molecular-target-of-Rapamycin, and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase pathways in NET release. The compounds and pathways identified may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches for treating NET-associated pathologies.

  6. Price smarter on the Net.

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  7. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  8. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs

  9. NET in-vessel vehicle system

    Jones, H.

    1991-02-01

    The CFFTP/Spar In-vessel Vehicle System concept for in-vessel remote maintenance of the NET/ITER machine is described. It comprises a curved deployable boom, a vehicle which can travel on the boom and an end effector or work unit mounted on the vehicle. The stowed boom, vehicle, and work unit are inserted via the equatorial access port of the torus. Following insertion the boom is deployed and locked in place. The vehicle may then travel along the boom to transport the work unit to any desired location. A novel feature of the concept is the deployable boom. When fully deployed, it closely resembles a conventional curved truss structure in configuration and characteristics. However, the joints of the truss structure are hinged so that it can fold into a compact package, of less than 20% of deployed volume for storage, transportation and insertion into the torus. A full-scale 2-metre long section of this boom was produced for demonstration purposes. As part of the concept definition the work unit for divertor handling was studied to demonstrate that large payloads could be manipulated within the confines of the torus using the in-vessel vehicle system. Principal advantages of the IVVS are its high load capacity and rigidity, low weight and stowed volume, simplicity of control and operation, and its relatively high speed of transportation

  10. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed

  12. Development and short-term dynamics of macrofouling assemblages on fish-cage nettings in a tropical estuary

    Madin, John; Chong, V. C.; Basri, Badrulnizam

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted at a fish culture farm in the Jaha River estuary, Malaysia, to examine the structure and development of macrofouling assemblages on floating net-cages. The study was conducted during the dry (August-October 2001) and wet (December-February 2002) seasons. Biofouling on 1.6 cm mesh net panels (size 0.2 m × 2 m) suspended inside (P, T) and outside (O) experimental net-cages was monitored every week until net openings were completely occluded by macrofouling organisms (8 wk and 12 wk for dry and wet seasons respectively). Seven species (6 phyla) of sessile organisms and 23 species (3 phyla) of non-sessile associates were recorded. Macro-colonization of net panels began with the hydroid Plumularia sp. irrespective of season and treatment (P, T, and O), while other species only appeared after 1 or 2 weeks of immersion. Inside net-cages where water flow was slow (mean macroalgae ( Polysiphonia sp.), anthozoans (unidentified anemone), barnacles ( Balanus amphitrite), amphipods ( Gammaropsis sp. & Photis sp.), and tanaids ( Leptognathia sp.) were dominant on the net panels during the dry season. In the wet season, hydroid ( Plumularia sp.), mussel ( Xenostrobus mangle), and nematode abundance were however significant. With stronger water flow (mean ≈ 20 cm s -1) as occurring outside the net-cages, macrofouling assemblages for both seasons comprised mainly Plumularia sp. and Gammaropsis sp. The macrofouling assemblage showed a clear succession of species that occupied different layers of the net panels. The study shows that while organic enrichment and retarded water flow together enhance the development of macrofouling assemblages, salinity, depth, substrate (net) area and species competition specifically influence community structure, colonization, and depth distribution of the macrofouling organisms.

  13. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  14. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  15. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  16. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  18. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  19. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  20. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  1. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  2. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  3. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  4. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  5. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...

  6. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  7. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  8. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  9. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  10. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  11. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  12. PENGEMBANGAN TARGET NET SEBAGAI ALAT PEMBELAJARAN PUKULAN BULUTANGKIS DI SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA

    Afif Khoirul Hidayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan dan menghasilkan alat target net untuk memudahkan peserta didik SMP memelajari dan meningkatkan kemampuan teknik dasar pukulan net, smash, drive, dan short serve. Dalam penelitian pengembangan ini, langkah-langkah yang harus ditempuh meliputi: (1 potensi dan masalah, (2 pengumpulan data, (3 desain produk, (4 validasi desain dan instrument, (5 revisi desain, (6 uji coba produk, (7 revisi, dan (8 produksi/implementasi produk. Uji coba penelitian dilakukan terhadap 168 peserta didik dari SMP se-Kecamatan Piyungan, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Teknik analisis data terdiri dari teknik analisis data deskriptif kuantitatif dan teknik analisis data deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil akhir dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah produk alat pembelajaran target net dan buku manual target net yang memiliki kualitas yang sangat baik. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan diperolehnya rerata persentase skor penilaian kualitas produk alat pembelajaran dan buku manual target net sebesar 98,66%.   DEVELOP TARGET NET AS A TOOL FOR SHOT LEARNING IN BADMINTON AT JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL   Abstract This research aims to produce and develop target net tools in facilitating JHS students to improve the basic techniques of net shots, smashes, drives, dan short serves. This research and development study follows the steps of: (1 the potential and problems identification, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 the design and validation of the instrumen, (5 revision of the design, (6 product trials, (7 revision, and (8 production/implementation of the product. The trials were conducted to 168 students from JSH in Piyungan districts, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The technique of data analysis is descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative descriptive analysis. The result of this research is a learning tool of target net product and manual book of the target product, that have a very good quality.  Which is proved by the average percentage quality assessment

  13. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  14. New - Nucleus - NucNet. The ENS triple communication system

    Feuz, Peter [ENS and NucNet (Belgium); Holt, Peter [Nuclear Europe Worldscan and Nucleus (Belgium)

    1993-07-01

    important aspect of the network is its constant flow of positive information, which is factual and objective - NOT PROPAGANDA. Still, as an incident reporting system, NucNet is in most cases faster than the IAEA's INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) Information System, with which NucNet exchanges information. With NucNet the world nuclear community has for the first time joined ranks to inform the public openly and with one voice. This is an absolutely unique achievement. The first issue of WINFO was produced within just two weeks, at the insistence of WIN chairwoman, who wanted to herald to the nuclear world the organisation 'Women In Nuclear' even before its formal constitution here in Karlovy Vary yesterday.

  15. New - Nucleus - NucNet. The ENS triple communication system

    Feuz, Peter; Holt, Peter

    1993-01-01

    important aspect of the network is its constant flow of positive information, which is factual and objective - NOT PROPAGANDA. Still, as an incident reporting system, NucNet is in most cases faster than the IAEA's INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) Information System, with which NucNet exchanges information. With NucNet the world nuclear community has for the first time joined ranks to inform the public openly and with one voice. This is an absolutely unique achievement. The first issue of WINFO was produced within just two weeks, at the insistence of WIN chairwoman, who wanted to herald to the nuclear world the organisation 'Women In Nuclear' even before its formal constitution here in Karlovy Vary yesterday

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls contents, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Martin Moreno, C.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first 'b' chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than 'a' chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observations after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Net photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% have got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. (author)

  17. Digital optical modules for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Kalekin, Oleg [Universitaet Erlangen, ECAP (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is multi-cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. In the currently running Phase 1 of the project, almost 30 detection units - 700 m tall vertical structures holding 18 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) each - will be produced and deployed. A KM3NeT DOM consists of a pressure resistant glass sphere encapsulating 31 photomultiplier tubes of 80 mm diameter, readout electronics and additional instrumentation for calibration and monitoring. The Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics is one of the DOM integration sites of the project. This contribution describes the design, functionality and integration procedure of the KM3NeT DOM.

  18. Endangered Species

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  19. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  20. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  1. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  2. Do evergreen and deciduous trees have different effects on net N mineralization in soil?

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Reich, Peter B; Eissenstat, David M

    2012-06-01

    Evergreen and deciduous plants are widely expected to have different impacts on soil nitrogen (N) availability because of differences in leaf litter chemistry and ensuing effects on net N mineralization (N(min)). We evaluated this hypothesis by compiling published data on net N(min) rates beneath co-occurring stands of evergreen and deciduous trees. The compiled data included 35 sets of co-occurring stands in temperate and boreal forests. Evergreen and deciduous stands did not have consistently divergent effects on net N(min) rates; net N(min) beneath deciduous trees was higher when comparing natural stands (19 contrasts), but equivalent to evergreens in plantations (16 contrasts). We also compared net N(min) rates beneath pairs of co-occurring genera. Most pairs of genera did not differ consistently, i.e., tree species from one genus had higher net N(min) at some sites and lower net N(min) at other sites. Moreover, several common deciduous genera (Acer, Betula, Populus) and deciduous Quercus spp. did not typically have higher net N(min) rates than common evergreen genera (Pinus, Picea). There are several reasons why tree effects on net N(min) are poorly predicted by leaf habit and phylogeny. For example, the amount of N mineralized from decomposing leaves might be less than the amount of N mineralized from organic matter pools that are less affected by leaf litter traits, such as dead roots and soil organic matter. Also, effects of plant traits and plant groups on net N(min) probably depend on site-specific factors such as stand age and soil type.

  3. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  4. Symmetric Cryptosystem Based on Petri Net

    Hussein ‎ A. Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this wok, a novel approach based on ordinary Petri net is used to generate private key . The reachability marking  of petri net is used as encryption/decryption key to provide more complex key . The same ordinary Petri Nets models  are used for the sender(encryption and  the receiver(decryption.The plaintext has been permutated  using  look-up table ,and XOR-ed with key to generate cipher text

  5. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...... four notions of bisimulation, viz., weak and weak step bisimulation and their maximal versions. We characterize such congruences via universal contexts and via games, providing in such a way an understanding of their discerning powers....

  6. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  7. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  8. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  9. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  10. The net effects of the Project NetWork return-to-work case management experiment on participant earnings, benefit receipt, and other outcomes.

    Kornfeld, R; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    random assignment. This statistically significant impact, an approximate 11-percent increase in earnings, is based on administrative data on earnings. For about 70 percent of sample members, a third year of followup data was available. For this limited sample, the estimated effect of Project NetWork on annual earnings declined to roughly zero in the third followup year. The findings suggest that the increase in earnings may have been short-lived and may have disappeared by the time Project NetWork services ended. Project NetWork did not reduce reliance on SSI or DI benefits by statistically significant amounts over the 30-42 month followup period. The services provided by Project NetWork thus did not reduce overall SSI and DI caseloads or benefits by substantial amounts, especially given that only about 5 percent of the eligible caseload volunteered to participate in Project NetWork. Project NetWork produced modest net benefits to persons with disabilities and net costs to taxpayers. Persons with disabilities gained mainly because the increases in their earnings easily outweighed the small (if any) reduction in average SSI and DI benefits. For SSA and the federal government as a whole, the costs of Project NetWork were not sufficiently offset by increases in tax receipts resulting from increased earnings or reductions in average SSI and DI benefits. The modest net benefits of Project NetWork to persons with disabilities are encouraging. How such benefits of an experimental intervention should be weighed against costs of taxpayers depends on value judgments of policymakers. Because different case management projects involve different kinds of services, these results cannot be directly generalized to other case management interventions. They are nevertheless instructive for planning new initiatives. Combining case and referral management services with various other interventions, such as longer term financial support for work or altered provider incentives, could produc

  11. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  12. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  13. The Petri Net Markup Language : concepts, technology, and tools

    Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a

  14. Neutrophil NETs in reproduction: from infertility to preeclampsia and the possibility of fetal loss

    Sinuhe eHahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this review is to provide an overview of the potential role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in mammalian reproduction. Neutrophil NETs appear to be involved in various stages of the reproductive cycle, starting with fertility and possibly ending with fetal loss. The first suggestion that NETs may play a role in pregnancy-related disorders was in preeclampsia, where vast numbers were detected in the intervillous space of affected placentae. The induction of NETosis involved an auto-inflammatory component, mediated by the increased release of placental micro-debris in preeclampsia. This report was the first indicating that NETs may be associated with a human pathology not involving infection.Subsequently, NETs have since then been implicated in bovine or equine infertility, in that semen may become entrapped in the female reproductive during their passage to the oocyte. In this instance interesting species-specific differences are apparent, in that equine sperm evade entrapment via expression of a DNAse-like molecule, whereas highly motile bovine sperm, once free from seminal plasma that promotes interaction with neutrophils, appear impervious to NETs entrapment.Although still in the realm of speculation it is plausible that NETs may be involved in recurrent fetal loss mediated by anti-phospholipid antibodies, or perhaps even in fetal abortion triggered by infections with microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes or B. abortus.

  15. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  16. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  17. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  18. Versatile Wireless Data Net, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R many will be MEMS devices. The net enables coordinated, efficient transmission of measurement signals; self test metrics, and environmental metrics to...

  19. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    ...) and registered with Internet Information Server (IIS), and can be applied in numerous fashions This project uses the NET capabilities to create a distributed discovery service (called as UNWSDS...

  20. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  1. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  2. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  3. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  4. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  5. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net the...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  6. Control of Petri Nets by finite automata

    Burkhard, H D

    1983-01-01

    Petri Nets are considered where the firings are controlled by finite automata. The control may be distributed to various automata working over disjoint sets of transitions. To avoid deadlocks and conflicts for the whole system the distribution of control must be organised in an appropriate manner. The existence of deadlocks and conflicts is shown to be undecidable in general, but conflict resolving and deadlock free controls can be constructed for given nets. 10 references.

  7. Purification of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.

    Saavedra, Lucila; Castellano, Patricia; Sesma, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial substances of a proteinaceous nature that are produced by different bacterial species. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce biologically active peptides or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action almost exclusively toward Gram-positive bacteria and particularly toward closely related species. Generally they are active against food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. There is an increased tendency to use natural occurring metabolites to prevent the growth of undesirable flora in foodstuffs. These metabolites could replace the use of chemical additives such as sorbic acid, sulfur dioxide, nitrite, nitrate, and others. For instance, bacteriocins produced by LAB may be promising for use as bio-preservaties. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria are typically cationic, hydrophobic peptides and differ widely in many characteristics including molecular weight, presence of particular groups of amino acids, pI, net positive charge, and post-translational modifications of certain amino acids. This heterogeneity within the LAB bacteriocins may explain the different procedures for isolation and purification developed so far. The methods most frequently used for isolation, concentration, and purification involve salt precipitation of bacteriocins from culture supernatants, followed by various combinations of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In this chapter, a protocol is described that combines several methods used in our laboratory for the purification of two cationic bacteriocins, Lactocin 705AL and Enterocin CRL10, produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL705 and Enterococcus mundtii CRL10, respectively.

  8. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  9. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  10. Relevance of NET first wall concept for DEMO DN

    Kiltie, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Design studies for the Next European Torus (NET) have produced a design concept for the first wall. This concept features poloidal water cooling, double contained in a welded steel structure which is protected by radiatively cooled tiles. In this appendix the relevance of this concept to a DEMO is examined with particular emphasis given to the ability of the cooling tube arrangement to remove the heat. A suggested modification to the arrangement of coolant tubes is suggested so that the design can operate at the higher loadings of a DEMO. (author)

  11. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  12. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  13. A case study: The economic cost of net metering in Maryland: Who bears the economic burden?

    Cook, C.; Cross, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Maryland legislature approved net-metering legislation for residential consumer generators with photovoltaic systems during 1997. Before the legislation passed, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) examined its potential economic impact on both the affected utilities and consumer ratepayers--with and without net-metered PV systems. The MEA discovered that the impact on the affected utility is minimal when the net-metered PV capacity is limited to a small percentage of utility peak load. The analysis also determined that the cost burden on other customers under a net-metered scenario is likewise limited. For Maryland's largest investor-owned utility, the maximum amount of any cross-subsidy (or cost) on a per customer basis is 46 cents annually. Furthermore, their analysis showed that when distribution system savings and environmental externalities are incorporated, net-metered customers may actually subsidize other utility customers. The MEA analysis also determined that about 50% of the value of the energy produced is lost if net metering is not available to those customers with grid tied PV systems. Over the long term, most if not all of any potential cost is borne by other residential customers, not utility shareholders. Finally, the additional cost burden to the utility under net metering--compensating the consumer at the retail rate versus the avoided cost rate--is less than expected when one considers the administrative costs associated with a dual-metered billing approach

  14. Pro ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010

    MacDonald, Matthew; Freeman, Adam; Szpuszta, Mario; Agarwal, Vidya Vrat

    2010-01-01

    ASP.NET 4 is the latest version of Microsoft's revolutionary ASP.NET technology. It is the principal standard for creating dynamic web pages on the Windows platform. Pro ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010 raises the bar for high-quality, practical advice on learning and deploying Microsoft's dynamic web solution. This new edition is updated with everything you need to come to grips with the latest version of ASP.NET, including coverage of ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET AJAX 4, ASP.NET Dynamic Data, and Silverlight 3. Seasoned .NET professionals Matthew MacDonald and Mario Szpuszta explain how you can get the most fro

  15. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid ...

    , Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Pseudomonas flourescence, P. aeruginosa, Serratia species and Pediococcus acidilactici. Of the 42 antimicrobial producing isolates characterized, 16, 12, 6 and 8 were identified ...

  16. Net costs of health worker rural incentive packages: an example from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Keuffel, Eric; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Paphassarang, Chanthakhath; Tulenko, Kate

    2013-11-01

    Many developing countries are examining whether to institute incentive packages that increase the share of health workers who opt to locate in rural settings; however, uncertainty exists with respect to the expected net cost (or benefit) from these packages. We utilize the findings from the discrete choice experiment surveys applied to students training to be health professionals and costing analyses in Lao People's Democratic Republic to model the anticipated effect of incentive packages on new worker location decisions and direct costs. Incorporating evidence on health worker density and health outcomes, we then estimate the expected 5-year net cost (or benefit) of each incentive packages for 3 health worker cadres--physicians, nurses/midwives, and medical assistants. Under base case assumptions, the optimal incentive package for each cadre produced a 5-year net benefit (maximum net benefit for physicians: US$ 44,000; nurses/midwives: US$ 5.6 million; medical assistants: US$ 485,000). After accounting for health effects, the expected net cost of select incentive packages would be substantially less than the original estimate of direct costs. In the case of Lao People's Democratic Republic, incentive packages that do not invest in capital-intensive components generally should produce larger net benefits. Combining discrete choice experiment surveys, costing surveys and cost-benefit analysis methods may be replicated by other developing countries to calculate whether health worker incentive packages are viable policy options.

  17. Comparing the catch composition, profitability and discard survival from different trammel net designs targeting common spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) in a Mediterranean fishery.

    Catanese, Gaetano; Hinz, Hilmar; Gil, Maria Del Mar; Palmer, Miquel; Breen, Michael; Mira, Antoni; Pastor, Elena; Grau, Amalia; Campos-Candela, Andrea; Koleva, Elka; Grau, Antoni Maria; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF) and the use of a guarding net or greca , a mesh piece intended to reduce discards. Catches were surveyed by an on-board observer from 1,550 netting walls corresponding to 70 nets. The number of marketable species captured indicated that the lobster trammel net fishery has multiple targets, which contribute significantly to the total revenue. The discarded species ranged from habitat-forming species to elasmobranches, but the magnitude of gear-habitat interactions on the long term dynamics of benthos remains unclear. No relevant differences in revenue and weight of discards were detected after Bayesian analyses. However, the species composition of discards was different when using greca . Interestingly, high immediate survival was found for discarded undersized lobsters, while a seven day survival assessment, using captive observation, gave an asymptotic estimate of survival probability as 0.64 (95% CI [0.54-0.76]). Therefore, it is recommended that it would be beneficial for this stock if an exemption from the EU landing obligation regulation was sought for undersized lobsters in the Balearic trammel net fishery.

  18. Comparing the catch composition, profitability and discard survival from different trammel net designs targeting common spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas in a Mediterranean fishery

    Gaetano Catanese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF and the use of a guarding net or greca, a mesh piece intended to reduce discards. Catches were surveyed by an on-board observer from 1,550 netting walls corresponding to 70 nets. The number of marketable species captured indicated that the lobster trammel net fishery has multiple targets, which contribute significantly to the total revenue. The discarded species ranged from habitat-forming species to elasmobranches, but the magnitude of gear-habitat interactions on the long term dynamics of benthos remains unclear. No relevant differences in revenue and weight of discards were detected after Bayesian analyses. However, the species composition of discards was different when using greca. Interestingly, high immediate survival was found for discarded undersized lobsters, while a seven day survival assessment, using captive observation, gave an asymptotic estimate of survival probability as 0.64 (95% CI [0.54–0.76]. Therefore, it is recommended that it would be beneficial for this stock if an exemption from the EU landing obligation regulation was sought for undersized lobsters in the Balearic trammel net fishery.

  19. Convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency contributes to the shade tolerance of palms (Arecaceae)

    Ma, Ren Yi; Zhang, Jiao Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, J.S.; Cao, Kun Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn),

  20. Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal ...

    The fish species and size selectivity of gillnets design with monofilament nylon polyethylene netting materials were investigated in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria between September and December 2005. The gillnets floats and sinkers were improvised from rubber slippers and lead metallic objects which were attached at intervals ...

  1. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata; Diversidade de policetideos produzidos por especies de penicillium isolados de Melia azedarach e Murraya paniculata

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao

    2007-07-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  2. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  3. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  4. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  5. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  6. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO 3 over SrTiO 3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  7. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut processing plant

    Biofilm forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been ...

  8. MetNet - In situ observational Network and Orbital platform to investigate the Martian environment

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Leinonen, Jussi; Merikallio, Sini; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni

    2007-09-01

    MetNet Mars Mission is an in situ observational network and orbital platform mission to investigate the Martian environment and it has been proposed to European Space Agency in response to Call for proposals for the first planning cycle of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 D/SCI/DJS/SV/val/21851. The MetNet Mars Mission is to be implemented in collaboration with ESA, FMI, LA, IKI and the payload providing science teams. The scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy 16 MetNet Landers (MNLs) on the Martian surface by using inflatable descent system structures accompanied by an atmospheric sounder and data relay onboard the MetNet Orbiter (MNO), which is based on ESA Mars Express satellite platform. The MNLs are attached on the three sides of the satellite and most of the MNLs are deployed to Mars separately a few weeks prior to the arrival to Mars. The MetNet Orbiter will perform continuous atmospheric soundings thus complementing the accurate in situ observations at the Martian ground produced by the MetNet observation network, as well as the orbiter will serve as the primary data relay between the MetNet Landers and the Earth. The MNLs are equipped with a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterisation of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatological cycles, as well as interior investigations, require simultaneous in situ meteorological, seismic and magnetic measurements from networks of stations on the Martian surface. MetNet Mars Mission will also provide a crucial support for the safety of large landing missions in general and manned Mars missions in particular. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric conditions and weather data is essential to guarantee safe landings of the forthcoming Mars mission elements.

  9. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. .net core application lifecycle on Openshift

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    # .net core application lifecycle on Openshift I will show an example of a lifecycle of an OpenShift application with an emphasis on the continuous integration and deployment. The application compatible with [.net Standard](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/net-standard) can be easily deployed on OpenShift using [Source2Image](https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/builds_and_image_streams.html#source-build) functionality, which doesn't require developers to maintain docker images of the application. I will also present how to efficiently integrate this feature into GitLab pipelines with an automated deployment of the "review" environment, as one its parts.

  11. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service......-oriented pervasive computing systems through the runtime interpretation of colored Petri nets. The current work focuses on the change management and component control layers....

  12. Implementation of CLP4NET in Bulgaria

    Naydenova, I.; Pironkov, L.; Filipov, A.; Petrova, T.; Tsochev, G.; Ganev, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Networking solutions (networks of excellence, communities of practice, knowledge portals, etc.) are recognized as effective tools for nuclear training and education services, transfer of good practices, knowledge and programmes, and knowledge management. In addition, the e-learning is recommended as a state of the art and cost effective approach for supplementing the traditional face to face training and education programmes. Thus, the Cyber Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training (CLP4NET) was implemented into the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) Training System. Based on the experience of KNPP, the CLP4NET was implemented also at the College of Energy and Electronics (CEE), Technical University of Sofia (TU-Sofia), providing an appropriate tool for further establishment of a National Nuclear Network of Competency. The current study is focused mainly on specific issues and lessons learned during the installation of CLP4NET at the CEE, TU-Sofia. (author

  13. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

    Bruno de Almeida Souza; Luís Carlos Marchini; Melissa Oda-Souza; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning ...

  14. Relationships between net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentrations in a loblobby pine forest ecosystem grown in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Springer, C. J.; Thomas, R. B.; Delucia, E. H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on the relationship between light-saturated net photosynthesis and area-based foliar nitrogen concentration in the canopy of a loblobby pine forest at the Duke Forest FACE experiment was examined. Two overstory and four understory tree species were examined at their growth carbon dioxide concentrations during the early summer and late summer of 1999, 2001 and 2002. Light-saturated net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen relationship were compared to determine if the stimulatory effects of elevated carbon dioxide on net photosynthesis had declined. Results at all three sample times showed no difference in either the slopes, or in the y-intercepts of the net photosynthesis-foliar nitrogen relationship when measured at common carbon dioxide concentrations. Net photosynthesis was also unaffected by growth in elevated carbon dioxide, indicating that these overstory and understory trees continued to show strong stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide. 46 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents....... Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  16. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    it possible to condense the usually infinite state space of a timed Petri net into a finite condensed state space without loosing analysis power. The second method supports on-the-fly verification of certain safety properties of timed systems. We discuss the application of the two methods in a number......We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...

  17. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    2008-03-01

    dimensions of 2.8 x 0.7 x 4.6 inches make for a very good tool for TwiddleNet missions. Its Lithium -ion battery with 1200 mAh energy gives approximately...Wireless Connectivity IrDA, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11b Battery Lithium ion Approximate Dimensions (in) 2.8 x 0.7 x 4.6 Weight (oz) 6.2 ROM 128 MB...designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well

  18. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  19. The Schmehausen cable net cooling tower

    Schlaich, J.; Mayr, G.; Weber, P.; Jasch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype of a large cable net shell as a natural-draught cooling tower for the THTR-300 is presented. Results of wind tunnel tests and calculations are given, and the capacity is discussed. Design features of the main components are presented in illustrations and are described with regard to the construction process of the cooling tower. Finally, it is shown that the cable net cooling tower is a suitable construction for large dimensions and caving-in or seismic areas. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Pro ASP.NET 4 CMS

    Harris, Alan

    2010-01-01

    To be a successful ASP.NET 4 developer, you need to know how to apply the vast array of new functionality available in the latest release of the .NET 4 Framework and Visual Studio 2010. This book will immerse you in a variety of advanced topics, including architecting different application data tiers, memory caching paradigms, data mining, and search engine optimization. Working through step-by-step exercises using P/LINQ, DLR, MEF, MVC, IronPython, Axum, and Ajax, you will learn a variety of approaches to building each of the key application tiers common to all web solutions. Using a proven t

  1. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  2. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  3. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Elston Timothy C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  4. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  5. CM Net heterogeneous local network of microcomputers

    Gutche, R.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Realization of the CM Net heterogeneous local network for the PDP-11 type computers with the RT-11 operational system control is described. The main advantage of the network is the realization of virtual disks in general form including a system unit. the network can be used everywhere, where the problem on computer connection by simple interfaces is stated. 6 refs

  6. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  7. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    2012-12-05

    ... avoid double taxation of net investment income and the taxation of amounts distributed to charities. The.... The proposed regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts. This document also contains a notice... calculated correctly. The likely respondents are individuals, estates, and trusts. Estimated total annual...

  8. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    2013-12-02

    ... of Article 23 (Relief from Double Taxation) of the 2006 United States Model Income Tax Convention... taxation of ANSTs at the lowest individual tax rate. Furthermore, section 646 treats all distributions, to... of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet...

  9. Teaching Petri Nets Using P3

    Gasevic, Dragan; Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Petri net software tool P3 that is developed for training purposes of the Architecture and organization of computers (AOC) course. The P3 has the following features: graphical modeling interface, interactive simulation by single and parallel (with previous conflict resolution) transition firing, two well-known Petri net…

  10. Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1990-01-01

    The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...

  11. Analysis of Squid Net Fisheries Business Production

    Herna Octivia Damayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Squid net is one of alternatives to replace trawl net in Pati regency. The purposes of the research are 1 to determine the influence factors, 2 to analyze the return to scale, 3 to analyze cost and return.The research location in Juwana Subdistrict particularly Bakaran Kulon, Dukutalit, Bajomulyo and Bendar Villages. The research conducted on October 2015 to June 2016. The number of final samples was 36, while the formulation of management strategies used 15 samples by snowball sampling. Data analysis techniques used 1 Cobb Douglas production function, 2 revenue-cost ratio analysis. The results of the research are 1 significant inputs for production factor are long trip, Solar fuel, the number of crew and lights. 2 the return to scale of squid net bussiness in Juwana subdistrict Pati regency is -0.231 means decreasing to scale. 3 the R/C ratio of scenario II more profitable for squid net crews than  scenario I.

  12. Distributed S-Net: design and implementation

    Grelck, C.; Julku, J.; Penczek, F.; Morazan, M.

    2009-01-01

    S-Net is a declarative coordination language and component technology aimed at modern multi-core/many-core architectures and systems-on-chip. It builds on the concept of stream processing to structure networks of communicating asynchronous components, which can be implemented using a conventional

  13. Distributed evaluation of stochastic Petri nets

    Bell, A.; Buchholz, Peter; Lehnert, Ralf; Pioro, Micha

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present on the distributed performance evaluation and model checking of systems specified by stochastic Petri nets. The approaches discussed rely on an explicit state-space generation and target at the usage of clusters of workstations. We present results for systems with several

  14. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    of interesting theoretical properties distinguishing them from other time extensions of Petri nets. We shall give an overview of the recent theory developed in the verification of TAPN extended with features like read/transport arcs, timed inhibitor arcs and age invariants. We will examine in detail...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment § 1926.105...

  16. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  17. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  18. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming techniques remains limited. In order to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe, the thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 20...

  19. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  20. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502... consistent with professional accounting pronouncements, excluding management fees. [74 FR 36932, July 27...

  1. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  2. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section 5.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for Distilled...

  3. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  4. Conceptual design of an electricity generating tritium breeding blanket sector for INTOR/NET

    Bond, A.

    1984-01-01

    A study is made of a fusion reactor power blanket and its associated equipment with the objective of producing a conceptual design for a blanket sector of INTOR, or one of its national variants (e.g. NET), from which electricity could be generated simultaneously with the breeding of tritium. (author)

  5. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  6. Changes in the Abundance of Grassland Species in Monocultures versus Mixtures and Their Relation to Biodiversity Effects

    Marquard, Elisabeth; Schmid, Bernhard; Roscher, Christiane; De Luca, Enrica; Nadrowski, Karin; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported positive effects of species richness on plant community productivity. Such biodiversity effects are usually quantified by comparing the performance of plant mixtures with reference monocultures. However, several mechanisms, such as the lack of resource complementarity and facilitation or the accumulation of detrimental agents, suggest that monocultures are more likely than mixtures to deteriorate over time. Increasing biodiversity effects over time could therefore result from declining monocultures instead of reflecting increases in the functioning of mixtures. Commonly, the latter is assumed when positive trends in biodiversity effects occur. Here, we analysed the performance of 60 grassland species growing in monocultures and mixtures over 9 years in a biodiversity experiment to clarify whether their temporal biomass dynamics differed and whether a potential decline of monocultures contributed significantly to the positive net biodiversity effect observed. Surprisingly, individual species’ populations produced, on average, significantly more biomass per unit area when growing in monoculture than when growing in mixture. Over time, productivity of species decreased at a rate that was, on average, slightly more negative in monocultures than in mixtures. The mean net biodiversity effect across all mixtures was continuously positive and ranged between 64–217 g per m2. Short-term increases in the mean net biodiversity effect were only partly due to deteriorating monocultures and were strongly affected by particular species gaining dominance in mixtures in the respective years. We conclude that our species performed, on average, comparably in monocultures and mixtures; monoculture populations being slightly more productive than mixture populations but this trend decreased over time. This suggested that negative feedbacks had not yet affected monocultures strongly but could potentially become more evident in the future. Positive

  7. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  8. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  9. Efficacy of PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire

    Koffi Alphonsine A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. Methods The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. Results Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P 0.05 except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P Conclusions This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN. The increased efficacy with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 over PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN was also demonstrated by higher KD and mortality rates (KD > 95% and mortality rate > 80% in cone bioassays performed with wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s

  10. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  11. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, Pcash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (PHigh bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  12. Modelling of current loads on aquaculture net cages

    Kristiansen, Trygve; Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we propose and discuss a screen type of force model for the viscous hydrodynamic load on nets. The screen model assumes that the net is divided into a number of flat net panels, or screens. It may thus be applied to any kind of net geometry. In this paper we focus on circular net cages for fish farms. The net structure itself is modelled by an existing truss model. The net shape is solved for in a time-stepping procedure that involves solving a linear system of equations for the unknown tensions at each time step. We present comparisons to experiments with circular net cages in steady current, and discuss the sensitivity of the numerical results to a set of chosen parameters. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and numerical prediction of drag and lift as function of the solidity ratio of the net and the current velocity is documented.

  13. Expected Net Present Value, Expected Net Future Value, and the Ramsey Rule

    Gollier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Weitzman (1998) showed that when future interest rates are uncertain, using the expected net present value implies a term structure of discount rates that is decreasing to the smallest possible interest rate. On the contrary, using the expected net future value criteria implies an increasing term structure of discount rates up to the largest possible interest rate. We reconcile the two approaches by introducing risk aversion and utility maximization. We show that if the aggregate consumption ...

  14. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  15. SELECCIÓN DE UN MÉTODO PARA PRODUCIR CARBÓN ACTIVADO UTILIZANDO CUATRO ESPECIES FORESTALES SELECTION OF A METHOD TO PRODUCE ACTIVATED CHARCOAL USING FOUR FOREST SPECIES

    Jhon Fredy Herrera Builes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en los laboratorios de Carbones y de Productos Forestales, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. Ésta se orientó hacia la selección de un método para obtener carbón activado a partir de las especies forestales pino pátula (Pinus patula, chingalé (Jacaranda copaia, pino tecunumani (Pinus tecunumanii y roble (Quercus humboldtii. Cada una de las maderas se caracterizó, determinando sus propiedades físicas de densidades y contracciones. Se experimentaron siete métodos; activación química, activación químico - física con CO2, activación químico - física con CO2 y vapor de agua, activación químico - física con vapor de agua, activación física con CO2, activación físico con vapor de agua y activación física con CO2 y vapor de agua. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron el tiempo de residencia y la temperatura. Tomando como parámetro el índice de yodo se seleccionó el método de activación químico - física con vapor de agua, obteniéndose índices de yodo, por encima de 800 para todas las especies estudiadas, a excepción del roble que solo alcanzó 764, que aun es aceptable para el tratamiento de aguas.This investigation was conducted in the Coal and of Forest Products Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Sede Medellín. It was oriented towards the selection of a method to obtain activated carbon form the following forest species; pino pátula (Pinus patula, chingalé (Jacaranda copaia, pino tecunumani (Pinus tecunumanii and roble (Quercus humboldtii. The wood of each was characterized determining their physical properties of density and contraction. Seven different methods were tested; chemical activation, chemical-physical activation with CO2, chemical-physical activation with CO2 and water vapor; chemical-physical activation with water vapor; physical activation with CO2; physical activation with water vapor, and physical activation with CO2

  16. Effects of Climate Change and Shifts in Forest Composition on Forest Net Primary Production

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Louts R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Forests are dynamic in both structure and species composition, and these dynamics are strongly Influenced by climate.However, the net effects of future tree species composition on net primary production (NPP) are not well understood. The objective of this work was to model the potential range shifts of tree species (DISTRIB Model) and predict their impacts on NPP (PnET-Ⅱ Model) that will be associated with alterations in species composition. We selected four 200 × 200 km areas In Wisconsin, Maine, Arkansas, and the Ohio-West Virginia area, representing focal areas of potential species range shifts. PnET-Ⅱ model simulations were carried out assuming that all forests achieved steady state, of which the species compositions were predicted by DISTRIB model with no migration limitation. The total NPP under the current climate ranged from 552 to 908 g C/m2 per year. The effects of potential species redistributions on NPP were moderate (-12% to +8%) compared with the influence of future climatic changes (-60% to +25%). The direction and magnitude of climate change effects on NPP were largely dependent on the degree of warming and water balance. Thus, the magnitude of future climate change can affect the feedback system between the atmosphere and biosphere.

  17. Association between the Presence of Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes and In Vitro Activity of Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, and Plazomicin against Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase- and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacter Species.

    Haidar, Ghady; Alkroud, Ammar; Cheng, Shaoji; Churilla, Travis M; Churilla, Bryce M; Shields, Ryan K; Doi, Yohei; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2016-09-01

    We compared the in vitro activities of gentamicin (GEN), tobramycin (TOB), amikacin (AMK), and plazomicin (PLZ) against 13 Enterobacter isolates possessing both Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (KPC+/ESBL+) with activity against 8 KPC+/ESBL-, 6 KPC-/ESBL+, and 38 KPC-/ESBL- isolates. The rates of resistance to GEN and TOB were higher for KPC+/ESBL+ (100% for both) than for KPC+/ESBL- (25% and 38%, respectively), KPC-/ESBL+ (50% and 17%, respectively), and KPC-/ESBL- (0% and 3%, respectively) isolates. KPC+/ESBL+ isolates were more likely than others to possess an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) (100% versus 38%, 67%, and 5%; P = 0.007, 0.06, and 1 AME than with ≤1 AME. The presence of at least 2/3 of KPC, SHV, and TEM predicted the presence of AMEs. PLZ MICs against all isolates were ≤4 μg/ml, regardless of KPC/ESBL pattern or the presence of AMEs. In conclusion, GEN and TOB are limited as treatment options against KPC+ and ESBL+ Enterobacter PLZ may represent a valuable addition to the antimicrobial armamentarium. A full understanding of AMEs and other aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms will allow clinicians to incorporate PLZ rationally into treatment regimens. The development of molecular assays that accurately and rapidly predict antimicrobial responses among KPC- and ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. should be a top research priority. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. NET test blanket design and remote maintenance

    Holloway, C.; Hubert, P.

    1991-01-01

    The NET machine has three horizontal ports reserved for testing tritium breeding blanket designs during the physics phase and possibly five during the technology phase. The design of the ports and test blankets are modular to accept a range of blanket options, provide radiation shielding and allow routine replacement. Radiation levels during replacement or maintenance require that all operations must be carried out remotely. The paper describes the problems overcome in providing a port design which includes attachment to the vacuum vessel with double vacuum seals, an integrated cooled first wall and support guides for the test blanket module. The method selected to remotely replace the test module whilst controlling the spread of contamination is also adressed. The paper concludes that the provisions of a test blanket facility based on the NET machine design is feasible. (orig.)

  19. Fuzzy net present value for engineering analysis

    Ali Nazeri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow analysis is one of the most popular methods for investigating the outcome of an economical project. The costs and benefits of a construction project are often involved with uncertainty and it is not possible to find a precise value for a particular project. In this paper, we present a simple method to calculate the net present value of a cash flow when both costs and benefits are given as triangular numbers. The proposed model of this paper uses Delphi method to figure out the fair values of all costs and revenues and then using fizzy programming techniques, it calculates the fuzzy net present value. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated using a simple example.

  20. AstroNet-II International Final Conference

    Masdemont, Josep

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "AstroNet-II International Final Conference". This conference was one of the last milestones of the Marie-Curie Research Training Network on Astrodynamics "AstroNet-II", that has been funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The aim of the conference, and thus this book, is to communicate work on astrodynamics problems to an international and specialised audience. The results are presented by both members of the network and invited specialists. The topics include: trajectory design and control, attitude control, structural flexibility of spacecraft and formation flying. The book addresses a readership across the traditional boundaries between mathematics, engineering and industry by offering an interdisciplinary and multisectorial overview of the field.