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Sample records for speciation methods applied

  1. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearing, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.nearing@rmc.ca; Koch, Iris, E-mail: koch-i@rmc.ca; Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  2. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  3. AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF SELENIUM IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential microelement, sometimes redoubtable, through its beneficial role - risk depending on its concentration in the food chain, at low dose is an important nutrient in the life of humans and animals, contrary at high doses, it becomes toxic. Selenium may be find itself in the environment (soil, sediment, water in many forms (oxidized, reduced, organometallic which determine their mobility and toxicity. Determination of chemical speciation (identification of different chemical forms provides much more complete information for a better understanding of the behavior and the potential impact on the environment. In this work we present the results of methodological research on the extraction of sequential forms of selenium in the soil and the coupling of analytical methods capable of identifying very small amounts of selenium in soils An efficient scheme of sequential extractions forms of selenium (SES consisting in atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation (HGAAS has been developed into five experimental steps, detailed in the paper. This operational scheme has been applied to the analysis of chemical speciation in the following areas: the Bărăgan Plain and Central Dobrogea of Romania.

  4. Transport methods as complementary tools for speciation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Sladkov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Transport methods, and especially capillary electrophoresis, are shown to bring with a high simplicity and efficiently useful complementary data to solve some speciation problems. Their application in this aim is particularly interesting in the case of actinides or solutions resulting from the radioactive waste management. In the present article, three examples are proposed to illustrate this point. In the first one, the open-end capillary method is applied to point out the hydrolyzed species of Pa(V) over a wide pH range. The difficulties overcome in this case are related to the very low concentration and specific properties of the element under consideration. The second illustration concerns the complexation of uranyl by the anionic forms of some long-lived fission products (MO x n- , with M=I and Se). For the study of these systems, capillary electrophoresis appears to be a method particularly simple and efficient. The last example deals with the quantification of selenate and selenite ions in the presence of nitrate. Capillary electrophoresis is found to be especially appropriate to the simultaneous determination of these two anionic species in such media. (orig.)

  5. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  6. Metal speciation: survey of environmental methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, M.H.; Nott, B.; Scott, J.W.; Maddalone, R.F.; Whiddon, N.T. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States). Chemistry Technology Dept.

    1996-07-01

    As part of a recent task under the EPRI Analytical Methods Qualification Program (RP 1851), TRW has surveyed the methods available for monitoring metal species in typical utility aqueous discharge streams. Methods for determining the individual species of these metals can become important in a regulatory sense as the EPA transitions to assessment of environmental risk based on bioavailability. For example, EPA considers methyl mercury and Cr(VI) much more toxic to the aquatic environment than inorganic mercury or Cr(III). The species of a given element can also differ in their transport and bioaccumulation. Methods for speciation generally include a selective separation step followed by standard metals analysis. Speciation, therefore, is mainly derived from the separation step and not from the method of final quantisation. Examples of separation/analysis include: selective extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption or ICP-MS; separation by GC followed by metals detection; chelation and/or direct separation by LC followed by UV measurement or metals detection; and ion chromatography with conductivity, UV, or metals detection. There are a number of sampling issues associated with metal species such as stabilization (maintaining oxidation state), absorption, and filtration that need to be addressed in order to obtain and maintain a representative sample for analysis. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Evaluation of mercury speciation by EPA (Draft) Method 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Nott, B. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with mercury emissions. Also, the law requires a separate assessment of health risks posed by the emission of 189 tract chemicals (including mercury) for electric utility steam-generating units. In order to conduct a meaningful assessment of health and environmental effects, we must have, among other things, a reliable and accurate method to measure mercury emissions. In addition, the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend upon the type of mercury emitted (i.e., whether it is in the oxidized or elemental form). It has been speculated that EPA (Draft) Method 29 can speciate mercury by selective absorption; however, this claim has yet to be proven. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at University of North Dakota to evaluate EPA (Draft) Method 29 at the pilot-scale level. The objective of the work is to determine whether EPA (Draft) Method 29 can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers.

  8. Field Deployable Method for Arsenic Speciation in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice, Thomas C; Flores Del Pino, Lisveth V; Havezov, Ivan; Long, David T

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies by arsenic is a world-wide problem. Total arsenic measurements are commonly used to investigate and regulate arsenic in water, but it is well understood that arsenic occurs in several chemical forms, and these exhibit different toxicities. It is problematic to use laboratory-based speciation techniques to assess exposure as it has been suggested that the distribution of species is not stable during transport in some types of samples. A method was developed in this study for the on-site speciation of the most toxic dissolved arsenic species: As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA). Development criteria included ease of use under field conditions, applicable at levels of concern for drinking water, and analytical performance.The approach is based on selective retention of arsenic species on specific ion-exchange chromatography cartridges followed by selective elution and quantification using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples can be delivered to a set of three cartridges using either syringes or peristaltic pumps. Species distribution is stable at this point, and the cartridges can be transported to the laboratory for elution and quantitative analysis. A set of ten replicate spiked samples of each compound, having concentrations between 1 and 60 µg/L, were analyzed. Arsenic recoveries ranged from 78-112 % and relative standard deviations were generally below 10%. Resolution between species was shown to be outstanding, with the only limitation being that the capacity for As (V) was limited to approximately 50 µg/L. This could be easily remedied by changes in either cartridge design, or the extraction procedure. Recoveries were similar for two spiked hard groundwater samples indicating that dissolved minerals are not likely to be problematic. These results suggest that this methodology can be use for analysis of the four primary arsenic species of concern in

  9. Chromium speciation in environmental samples using a solid phase spectrophotometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S.; Kassem, Mohammed A.

    2012-10-01

    A solid phase extraction technique is proposed for preconcentration and speciation of chromium in natural waters using spectrophotometric analysis. The procedure is based on sorption of chromium(III) as 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol complex on dextran-type anion-exchange gel (Sephadex DEAE A-25). After reduction of Cr(VI) by 0.5 ml of 96% concentrated H2SO4 and ethanol, the system was applied to the total chromium. The concentration of Cr(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and the Cr(III) content. The influences of some analytical parameters such as: pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol (BTABD), and sample volumes were investigated. The absorbance of the gel, at 628 and 750 nm, packed in a 1.0 mm cell, is measured directly. The molar absorptivities were found to be 2.11 × 107 and 3.90 × 107 L mol-1 cm-1 for 500 and 1000 ml, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.05-1.45 μg L-1 with RSD of <1.85% (n = 8.0). Using 35 mg exchanger, the detection and quantification limits were 13 and 44 ng L-1 for 500 ml sample, whereas for 1000 ml sample were 8.0 and 27 ng L-1, respectively. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. No considerable interferences have been observed from other investigated anions and cations on the chromium speciation. The proposed method was applied to the speciation of chromium in natural waters and total chromium preconcentration in microwave digested tobacco, coffee, tea, and soil samples. The results were simultaneously compared with those obtained using an ET AAS method, whereby the validity of the method has been tested.

  10. Application of the Rietveld method to assess chromium(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    The Rietveld method allows the quantification of crystalline phases and amorphous material identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and other diffraction methods. The method assists in determining the speciation of contaminants in solid matrices both qualitatively and quantitatively in a statistically defensible approach, as it does not focus on a microscale. Rietveld was applied to chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a cementitious waste containing hexavalent chromium. Calcium aluminum chromium oxide hydrates (CACs) were the crystalline phases identified by XRPD that bind Cr 6+ in COPR according to their chemical formula. Rietveld quantification, combined with mass balances on Cr 6+ , showed that CACs may bind Cr 6+ in variable percentages, ranging from 25% to 85%. Analysis of duplicate samples showed that material variability is the predominant factor of uncertainty in evaluating the role of CACs in Cr 6+ speciation, provided that a consistent quantification strategy is pursued. The choice of strategy was performed on the basis of the pertinent literature, preliminary analyses of the equipment and the software settings, and mass balances. The correlation between the average CAC-bound Cr 6+ concentration and the total Cr 6+ for five samples (R 2 = 0.94), extracted from different zones and soil borings, suggests that CACs are a primary sink for Cr 6+ in COPR

  11. Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Congdon, P

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...

  12. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  13. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    ) and Fe (III) was investigated using different organic complexing ligands, EDTA and o-phenanthroline. For the Fe redox system, a limit of detection of 10 -8 mol.L -1 was calculated. An improvement for the recovery values of the analytes was achieved by lowering the surface tension of the make up electrolyte. To determine the performance of the method a comparison of the speciation results with other methods like UV/vis, solvent extraction and thermodynamical calculations was done. The reproducibility of the method was examined and the linearity of the calibration in trace concentration levels was determined. To identify the redox species in different samples the electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated. Additional experiments to determine the redox species distribution of uranium and iron were done by hyphenating an ion chromatography column to a quadrupol inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q - ICP - MS). This method was applied to determine the redox species distribution of dissolved uranium in a fertilizer solution. With the data derived from iron experiments with CE - ICP - MS and IC - ICP - MS the characteristic values of both methods like separation times and detection limits were compared. The comparison of the performance of both methods was done by contrasting the linearity of calibration, analytical precision and recoveries.

  14. Determining uranium speciation in Fernald soils by molecular spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Crisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-07-01

    This progress report describes new experimental results and interpretations for data collected from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993, as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. X-ray absorption, optical luminescence, and Raman vibrational spectroscopies were used to determine uranium speciation in contaminated soils from the US DOE's former uranium production facility at Fernald, Ohio. These analyses were carried out both before and after application of one of the various decontamination technologies being developed within the Integrated Demonstration. This year the program focused on characterization of the uranium speciation remaining in the soils after decontamination treatment. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopic data were collected for approximately 40 Fernald soil samples, which were treated by one or more of the decontamination technologies

  15. Mercury speciation comparison. BrooksApplied Laboratories and Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team. These samples were analyzed for seven species including: total mercury, dissolved mercury, inorganic mercury ((Hg(I) and Hg(II)), elemental mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury, with an eighth species, particulate mercury, calculated from the difference between total and dissolved mercury after subtracting the elemental mercury. The species fraction of total mercury measured has ranged broadly from a low of 32% to a high of 146%, though the vast majority of samples have been <100%. This can be expected since one is summing multiple values that each have at least a ± 20% measurement uncertainty. Two liquid waste tanks particularly important to understanding the distribution of mercury species in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm were selected for a round robin analysis by Eurofins FGS and BrooksApplied Laboratories (BAL). The analyses conducted by BAL on the Tank 22 and 38 samples and their agreement with those obtained from Eurofins FGS for total mercury, dissolved mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury provide a strong degree of confidence in these species measurements

  16. Mercury speciation comparison. BrooksApplied Laboratories and Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team. These samples were analyzed for seven species including: total mercury, dissolved mercury, inorganic mercury ((Hg(I) and Hg(II)), elemental mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury, with an eighth species, particulate mercury, calculated from the difference between total and dissolved mercury after subtracting the elemental mercury. The species fraction of total mercury measured has ranged broadly from a low of 32% to a high of 146%, though the vast majority of samples have been <100%. This can be expected since one is summing multiple values that each have at least a ± 20% measurement uncertainty. Two liquid waste tanks particularly important to understanding the distribution of mercury species in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm were selected for a round robin analysis by Eurofins FGS and BrooksApplied Laboratories (BAL). The analyses conducted by BAL on the Tank 22 and 38 samples and their agreement with those obtained from Eurofins FGS for total mercury, dissolved mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury provide a strong degree of confidence in these species measurements

  17. Carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC) method for the separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium using an isatin derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, Volkan Numan; Ozdes, Duygu; Bekircan, Olcay; Gundogdu, Ali; Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr

    2009-01-19

    A new, simple, rapid and sensitive separation, preconcentration and speciation procedure for chromium in environmental liquid and solid samples has been established. The present speciation procedure for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) is based on combination of carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC) and flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. In this method a newly synthesized organic coprecipitant, 5-chloro-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylimino]indolin-2-one (CFMEPI), was used without adding any carrier element for coprecipitation of chromium(III). After reduction of chromium(VI) by concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ethanol, the procedure was applied for the determination of total chromium. Chromium(VI) was calculated as the difference between the amount of total chromium and chromium(III). The optimum conditions for coprecipitation and speciation processes were investigated on several commonly tested experimental parameters, such as pH of the solution, amount of coprecipitant, sample volume, etc. No considerable interference was observed from the other investigated anions and cations, which may be found in natural water samples. The preconcentration factor was found to be 40. The detection limit for chromium(III) corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank (N = 10) was found 0.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The present procedure was successfully applied for speciation of chromium in several liquid and solid environmental samples. In order to support the accuracy of the method, the certified reference materials (CRM-TMDW-500 Drinking Water and CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C) were analyzed, and standard APDC-MIBK liquid-liquid extraction method was performed. The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values.

  18. Carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC) method for the separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium using an isatin derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, Volkan Numan; Ozdes, Duygu; Bekircan, Olcay; Gundogdu, Ali; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A new, simple, rapid and sensitive separation, preconcentration and speciation procedure for chromium in environmental liquid and solid samples has been established. The present speciation procedure for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) is based on combination of carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC) and flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. In this method a newly synthesized organic coprecipitant, 5-chloro-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylimino]indolin-2-one (CFMEPI), was used without adding any carrier element for coprecipitation of chromium(III). After reduction of chromium(VI) by concentrated H 2 SO 4 and ethanol, the procedure was applied for the determination of total chromium. Chromium(VI) was calculated as the difference between the amount of total chromium and chromium(III). The optimum conditions for coprecipitation and speciation processes were investigated on several commonly tested experimental parameters, such as pH of the solution, amount of coprecipitant, sample volume, etc. No considerable interference was observed from the other investigated anions and cations, which may be found in natural water samples. The preconcentration factor was found to be 40. The detection limit for chromium(III) corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank (N = 10) was found 0.7 μg L -1 . The present procedure was successfully applied for speciation of chromium in several liquid and solid environmental samples. In order to support the accuracy of the method, the certified reference materials (CRM-TMDW-500 Drinking Water and CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C) were analyzed, and standard APDC-MIBK liquid-liquid extraction method was performed. The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values

  19. Comparison of three molecular methods for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Ric N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. is essential for the rational treatment of malaria. Despite its many disadvantages, microscopic examination of blood smears remains the current "gold standard" for malaria detection and speciation. PCR assays offer an alternative to microscopy which has been shown to have superior sensitivity and specificity. Unfortunately few comparative studies have been done on the various molecular based speciation methods. Methods The sensitivity, specificity and cost effectiveness of three molecular techniques were compared for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from dried blood spots collected from 136 patients in western Thailand. The results from the three molecular speciation techniques (nested PCR, multiplex PCR, and real-time PCR were used to develop a molecular consensus (two or more identical PCR results as an alternative gold standard. Results According to the molecular consensus, 9.6% (13/136 of microscopic diagnoses yielded false negative results. Multiplex PCR failed to detect P. vivax in three mixed isolates, and the nested PCR gave a false positive P. falciparum result in one case. Although the real-time PCR melting curve analysis was the most expensive method, it was 100% sensitive and specific and least time consuming of the three molecular techniques investigated. Conclusion Although microscopy remains the most appropriate method for clinical diagnosis in a field setting, its use as a gold standard may result in apparent false positive results by superior techniques. Future studies should consider using more than one established molecular methods as a new gold standard to assess novel malaria diagnostic kits and PCR assays.

  20. Speciative determination of phosphorus in environmental water by the isotope exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Yoshikawa, M.; Murakami, S.; Kunika, J.

    1988-01-01

    An isotope exchage method for the speciative determination of phosphorus (PO 4 3- ,PO 3 3- and total P) in natural water samples is proposed by using the exchange system of molybdophosphate in the aqueous phase and tetraphenylarsonium molybdophosphate in the organic phase. In this exchange system, only PO 4 3- exchanges and is determined. When the sample water is treated with Br 2 water in advance, the amount of PO 4 3- +PO 3 3- can be obtained. When the sample is treated with H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , the amount of total P can be determined. (author) 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  1. Field and laboratory arsenic speciation methods and their application to natural-water analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    The toxic and carcinogenic properties of inorganic and organic arsenic species make their determination in natural water vitally important. Determination of individual inorganic and organic arsenic species is critical because the toxicology, mobility, and adsorptivity vary substantially. Several methods for the speciation of arsenic in groundwater, surface-water, and acid mine drainage sample matrices using field and laboratory techniques are presented. The methods provide quantitative determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and roxarsone in 2-8min at detection limits of less than 1??g arsenic per liter (??g AsL-1). All the methods use anion exchange chromatography to separate the arsenic species and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an arsenic-specific detector. Different methods were needed because some sample matrices did not have all arsenic species present or were incompatible with particular high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phases. The bias and variability of the methods were evaluated using total arsenic, As(III), As(V), DMA, and MMA results from more than 100 surface-water, groundwater, and acid mine drainage samples, and reference materials. Concentrations in test samples were as much as 13,000??g AsL-1 for As(III) and 3700??g AsL-1 for As(V). Methylated arsenic species were less than 100??g AsL-1 and were found only in certain surface-water samples, and roxarsone was not detected in any of the water samples tested. The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in the test samples ranged from 0% to 90% As(III). Laboratory-speciation method variability for As(III), As(V), MMA, and DMA in reagent water at 0.5??g AsL-1 was 8-13% (n=7). Field-speciation method variability for As(III) and As(V) at 1??g AsL-1 in reagent water was 3-4% (n=3). ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....

  3. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    Information technology is changing the way elections are organized. Technology renders the electoral process more efficient, but things could also go wrong: Voting software is complex, it consists of over thousands of lines of code, which makes it error-prone. Technical problems may cause delays...... bounded model-checking and satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can be used to check these criteria. Voter Experience: Technology profoundly affects the voter experience. These effects need to be measured and the data should be used to make decisions regarding the implementation of the electoral...... at polling stations, or even delay the announcement of the final result. This thesis describes a set of methods to be used, for example, by system developers, administrators, or decision makers to examine election technologies, social choice algorithms and voter experience. Technology: Verifiability refers...

  4. Development and application of an ultratrace method for speciation of organotin compounds in cryogenically archived and homogenized biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Point, David; Davis, W.C.; Christopher, Steven J.; Ellisor, Michael B.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Becker, Paul R. [Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); Donard, Olivier F.X. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique BioInorganique et Environnement UMR 5034 du CNRS, Pau (France); Porter, Barbara J.; Wise, Stephen A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2007-04-15

    An accurate, ultra-sensitive and robust method for speciation of mono, di, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) by speciated isotope-dilution gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SID-GC-ICPMS) has been developed for quantification of butyltin concentrations in cryogenic biological materials maintained in an uninterrupted cryo-chain from storage conditions through homogenization and bottling. The method significantly reduces the detection limits, to the low pg g{sup -1} level (as Sn), and was validated by using the European reference material (ERM) CE477, mussel tissue, produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. It was applied to three different cryogenic biological materials - a fresh-frozen mussel tissue (SRM 1974b) together with complex materials, a protein-rich material (whale liver control material, QC03LH03), and a lipid-rich material (whale blubber, SRM 1945) containing up to 72% lipids. The commutability between frozen and freeze-dried materials with regard to spike equilibration/interaction, extraction efficiency, and the absence of detectable transformations was carefully investigated by applying complementary methods and by varying extraction conditions and spiking strategies. The inter-method results enabled assignment of reference concentrations of butyltins in cryogenic SRMs and control materials for the first time. The reference concentrations of MBT, DBT, and TBT in SRM 1974b were 0.92 {+-} 0.06, 2.7 {+-} 0.4, and 6.58 {+-} 0.19 ng g{sup -1} as Sn (wet-mass), respectively; in SRM 1945 they were 0.38 {+-} 0.06, 1.19 {+-} 0.26, and 3.55 {+-} 0.44 ng g{sup -1}, respectively, as Sn (wet-mass). In QC03LH03, DBT and TBT concentrations were 30.0 {+-} 2.7 and 2.26 {+-} 0.38 ng g{sup -1} as Sn (wet-mass). The concentration range of butyltins in these materials is one to three orders of magnitude lower than in ERM CE477. This study demonstrated that cryogenically processed and stored biological materials are

  5. Speciation and detection of arsenic in aqueous samples: A review of recent progress in non-atomic spectrometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Sengupta, Mrinal K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Thermo Fisher Scientific, Dionex Products, 445 Lakeside Drive, Sunnyvale, CA, 94085 (United States); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Compilation of principal official documents and major review articles, including the toxicology and chemistry of As. • Review of non-atomic spectrometric methods for speciation and detection of arsenic in aqueous samples (2005–2013) of the performance of field-usable methods. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (As) displays extreme toxicity and is a class A human carcinogen. It is of interest to both analytical chemists and environmental scientists. Facile and sensitive determination of As and knowledge of the speciation of forms of As in aqueous samples are vitally important. Nearly every nation has relevant official regulations on permissible limits of drinking water As content. The size of the literature on As is therefore formidable. The heart of this review consists of two tables: one is a compilation of principal official documents and major review articles, including the toxicology and chemistry of As. This includes comprehensive official compendia on As speciation, sample treatment, recommended procedures for the determination of As in specific sample matrices with specific analytical instrument(s), procedures for multi-element (including As) speciation and analysis, and prior comprehensive reviews on arsenic analysis. The second table focuses on the recent literature (2005–2013, the coverage for 2013 is incomplete) on As measurement in aqueous matrices. Recent As speciation and analysis methods based on spectrometric and electrochemical methods, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and biosensors are summarized. We have deliberately excluded atomic optical spectrometric techniques (atomic absorption, atomic fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) not because they are not important (in fact the majority of arsenic determinations are possibly carried out by one of these techniques) but because these methods are sufficiently mature and little meaningful innovation has been

  6. Speciation and detection of arsenic in aqueous samples: A review of recent progress in non-atomic spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jian; Sengupta, Mrinal K.; Yuan, Dongxing; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Compilation of principal official documents and major review articles, including the toxicology and chemistry of As. • Review of non-atomic spectrometric methods for speciation and detection of arsenic in aqueous samples (2005–2013) of the performance of field-usable methods. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (As) displays extreme toxicity and is a class A human carcinogen. It is of interest to both analytical chemists and environmental scientists. Facile and sensitive determination of As and knowledge of the speciation of forms of As in aqueous samples are vitally important. Nearly every nation has relevant official regulations on permissible limits of drinking water As content. The size of the literature on As is therefore formidable. The heart of this review consists of two tables: one is a compilation of principal official documents and major review articles, including the toxicology and chemistry of As. This includes comprehensive official compendia on As speciation, sample treatment, recommended procedures for the determination of As in specific sample matrices with specific analytical instrument(s), procedures for multi-element (including As) speciation and analysis, and prior comprehensive reviews on arsenic analysis. The second table focuses on the recent literature (2005–2013, the coverage for 2013 is incomplete) on As measurement in aqueous matrices. Recent As speciation and analysis methods based on spectrometric and electrochemical methods, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and biosensors are summarized. We have deliberately excluded atomic optical spectrometric techniques (atomic absorption, atomic fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) not because they are not important (in fact the majority of arsenic determinations are possibly carried out by one of these techniques) but because these methods are sufficiently mature and little meaningful innovation has been

  7. Separation/Preconcentration and Speciation Analysis of Trace Amounts of Arsenate and Arsenite in Water Samples Using Modified Magnetite Nanoparticles and Molybdenum Blue Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and fast method for the separation/preconcentration and speciation analysis of arsenate and arsenite ions using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide immobilized on alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticles (CTAB@ACMNPs followed by molybdenum blue method is proposed. The method is based on the adsorption of arsenate on CTAB@ACMNPs. Total arsenic in different samples was determined as As(V after oxidation of As(III to As(V using potassium permanganate. The arsenic concentration has been determined by UV-Visible spectrometric technique based on molybdenum blue method and amount of As(III was calculated by subtracting the concentration of As(V from total arsenic concentration. MNPs and ACMNPs were characterized by VSM, XRD, SEM, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the preconcentration factor, detection limit, linear range, and relative standard deviation (RSD of arsenate were 175 (for 350 mL of sample solution, 0.028 μg mL−1, 0.090–4.0 μg mL−1, and 2.8% (for 2.0 μg mL−1, n=7, respectively. This method avoided the time-consuming column-passing process of loading large volume samples in traditional SPE through the rapid isolation of CTAB@ACMNPs with an adscititious magnet. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination and speciation of arsenic in different water samples and suitable recoveries were obtained.

  8. Speciative determination of total V and dissolved inorganic vanadium species in environmental waters by catalytic–kinetic spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Gürkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic determination of V(V as a catalyst was spectrophotometrically performed by using the indicator reaction of Gallamine blue (GB+ and bromate at pH 2.0. The reaction was followed by measuring absorbance change for a fixed-time of 3 min at 537 nm. The variables such as reagent concentration, pH, buffer concentration, ionic strength and temperature were optimized to improve the selectivity and sensitivity. Under the optimized conditions, the determination of V(V was performed in the range 1–100 μg L−1 with limits of detection and quantification of 0.31 and 0.94 μg L−1. The developed kinetic method is sufficiently sensitive, selective and simple. It was successfully applied to the speciative determination of total V and inorganic dissolved vanadium species, V(V and V(IV in environmental water samples. The oxidizing property of permanganate is used to differentiate between V(IV and V(V species. The V(IV content was found by subtracting the V(V content from those of total V. The recovery is above 95% for V(V spiked samples. Additionally, the accuracy was validated by analysis of a certified water sample, CRM TMDA-53.3, and the results were in good agreement with the certified value.

  9. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.

  11. Methods for Investigating Mercury Speciation, Transport, Methylation, and Bioaccumulation in Watersheds Affected by Historical Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Fleck, J.; Ackerman, J. T.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Stewart, A. R.; Windham-Myers, L.

    2016-12-01

    Many watersheds in the western U.S. have mercury (Hg) contamination from historical mining of Hg and precious metals (gold and silver), which were concentrated using Hg amalgamation (mid 1800's to early 1900's). Today, specialized sampling and analytical protocols for characterizing Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) in water, sediment, and biota generate high-quality data to inform management of land, water, and biological resources. Collection of vertically and horizontally integrated water samples in flowing streams and use of a Teflon churn splitter or cone splitter ensure that samples and subsamples are representative. Both dissolved and particulate components of Hg species in water are quantified because each responds to different hydrobiogeochemical processes. Suspended particles trapped on pre-combusted (Hg-free) glass- or quartz-fiber filters are analyzed for total mercury (THg), MeHg, and reactive divalent mercury. Filtrates are analyzed for THg and MeHg to approximate the dissolved fraction. The sum of concentrations in particulate and filtrate fractions represents whole water, equivalent to an unfiltered sample. This approach improves upon analysis of filtered and unfiltered samples and computation of particulate concentration by difference; volume filtered is adjusted based on suspended-sediment concentration to minimize particulate non-detects. Information from bed-sediment sampling is enhanced by sieving into multiple size fractions and determining detailed grain-size distribution. Wet sieving ensures particle disaggregation; sieve water is retained and fines are recovered by centrifugation. Speciation analysis by sequential extraction and examination of heavy mineral concentrates by scanning electron microscopy provide additional information regarding Hg mineralogy and geochemistry. Biomagnification of MeHg in food webs is tracked using phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic and emergent vegetation, invertebrates, fish, and birds. Analysis of zooplankton in

  12. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  13. A new measurement method for quantification and speciation of technetium-99 in sample at environmental concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, L.M.; Aubert, C.; Cossonnet, C.; Fattahi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Technetium-99 is a pure β- emitter and important long half-lived multi-valent radionuclide to be considered in radiation protection of the environment and the public. It a fission product of both 235 U and 239 Pu with approximately a 6% yield. The most stable and very mobile form of Tc is the pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ). Therefore, environmental monitoring requires the knowledge of the redox and chemical properties of this element in order to predict its behaviour and transfer in the environment. Given the extremely low concentration of 99 Tc in the environment (10 -10 M to 10 -12 M), its determination currently necessitates an enrichment and separation from the sample matrix prior to instrumental measurement. To this end, the development of a suitable analytical technique is required. The advantages of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) as a powerful separation technique can be combined with the atomic specificity, multi-elemental character and extremely high sensitivity of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for trace metal-speciation studies in different fields of interest. However, the coupling of both commercially available instruments deserves particular attention if separative resolution, high analyte transport efficiency and sensitive detection are to be achieved. In, that technical vein, the interface itself may be considered as the 'key to success'. Several attempts to develop interfaces for CE-ICP-MS have been described over the last few years. However, the 99 Tc quantification by ICP-MS can be disturbed by isobaric overlaps 99 Ru and interferences induced by the matrix, including those associated with hydride formation ( 98 Mo 1 H (23.8%), 98 Ru 1 H (1.9%)). The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and efficient method for the determination of 99 Tc in environmental samples by CE-ICP-MS without preliminary classical radiochemical separation to eliminate the interfering elements. In this paper, we describe the development

  14. A new measurement method for quantification and speciation of technetium-99 in sample at environmental concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzak, L.M. [IRSN/DEI/STEME/LMRE, ORSAY, F-91400 (France); SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Universit Nantes, F-44307 (France); Aubert, C.; Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/DEI/STEME/LMRE, ORSAY, F-91400 (France); Fattahi, M. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Universit Nantes, F-44307 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Technetium-99 is a pure {beta}- emitter and important long half-lived multi-valent radionuclide to be considered in radiation protection of the environment and the public. It a fission product of both {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu with approximately a 6% yield. The most stable and very mobile form of Tc is the pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Therefore, environmental monitoring requires the knowledge of the redox and chemical properties of this element in order to predict its behaviour and transfer in the environment. Given the extremely low concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the environment (10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -12} M), its determination currently necessitates an enrichment and separation from the sample matrix prior to instrumental measurement. To this end, the development of a suitable analytical technique is required. The advantages of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) as a powerful separation technique can be combined with the atomic specificity, multi-elemental character and extremely high sensitivity of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for trace metal-speciation studies in different fields of interest. However, the coupling of both commercially available instruments deserves particular attention if separative resolution, high analyte transport efficiency and sensitive detection are to be achieved. In, that technical vein, the interface itself may be considered as the 'key to success'. Several attempts to develop interfaces for CE-ICP-MS have been described over the last few years. However, the {sup 99}Tc quantification by ICP-MS can be disturbed by isobaric overlaps {sup 99}Ru and interferences induced by the matrix, including those associated with hydride formation ({sup 98}Mo{sup 1}H (23.8%), {sup 98}Ru{sup 1}H (1.9%)). The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and efficient method for the determination of {sup 99}Tc in environmental samples by CE-ICP-MS without preliminary classical radiochemical separation to

  15. Applied mathematical methods in nuclear thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Trapp, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Applied mathematical methods are used extensively in modeling of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic behavior. This application has required significant extension to the state-of-the-art. The problems encountered in modeling of two-phase fluid transients and the development of associated numerical solution methods are reviewed and quantified using results from a numerical study of an analogous linear system of differential equations. In particular, some possible approaches for formulating a well-posed numerical problem for an ill-posed differential model are investigated and discussed. The need for closer attention to numerical fidelity is indicated

  16. Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)

  17. Analytical methods applied to water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of different methods applied to water analysis is given. The discussion is limited to the problems presented by inorganic elements, accessible to nuclear activation analysis methods. The following methods were compared: activation analysis: with gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry, emission spectrometry, colorimetry or spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry, voltametry, polarography or other electrochemical methods, activation analysis-beta measurements. Drinking-water, irrigation waters, sea waters, industrial wastes and very pure waters are the subjects of the investigations. The comparative evaluation is made on the basis of storage of samples, in situ analysis, treatment and concentration, specificity and interference, monoelement or multielement analysis, analysis time and accuracy. The significance of the neutron analysis is shown. (T.G.)

  18. Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masujima, Michio

    2005-04-01

    All there is to know about functional analysis, integral equations and calculus of variations in a single volume. This advanced textbook is divided into two parts: The first on integral equations and the second on the calculus of variations. It begins with a short introduction to functional analysis, including a short review of complex analysis, before continuing a systematic discussion of different types of equations, such as Volterra integral equations, singular integral equations of Cauchy type, integral equations of the Fredholm type, with a special emphasis on Wiener-Hopf integral equations and Wiener-Hopf sum equations. After a few remarks on the historical development, the second part starts with an introduction to the calculus of variations and the relationship between integral equations and applications of the calculus of variations. It further covers applications of the calculus of variations developed in the second half of the 20th century in the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Throughout the book, the author presents over 150 problems and exercises -- many from such branches of physics as quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory -- together with outlines of the solutions in each case. Detailed solutions are given, supplementing the materials discussed in the main text, allowing problems to be solved making direct use of the method illustrated. The original references are given for difficult problems. The result is complete coverage of the mathematical tools and techniques used by physicists and applied mathematicians Intended for senior undergraduates and first-year graduates in science and engineering, this is equally useful as a reference and self-study guide.

  19. Voltammetric methods for determination and speciation of inorganic arsenic in the environment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Douglas E. [Centre for Clean Water and Sustainable Technologies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 20120 (United States); Hussam, Abul, E-mail: ahussam@gmu.edu [Centre for Clean Water and Sustainable Technologies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 20120 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    The measurement of inorganic arsenic in the environment has received considerable attention over the past 40+ years due to its toxicity and prevalence in drinking water. This paper provides an overview of voltammetric techniques used since 2001. More than fifty papers from refereed analytical chemistry journals on the speciation and measurement of inorganic arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) in practical and environmental samples are included. The present review shows that stripping voltammetry is a sensitive and inexpensive technique. The new approaches include development of novel measurement protocols through media variation, development and use of new boron doped diamond electrodes modified with metals, nano Au-modified electrodes on carbon or carbon nano-tubes, novel rotating disc and vibrating electrodes to enhance mass transfer, and modified Hg(l) and thin film Bi on carbon for cathodic stripping voltammetry are discussed. Although, majority of the papers were of exploratory in nature, the trend towards developing a commercial standalone instrument for field use is still in progress.

  20. Mercury speciation analysis in seafood by species-specific isotope dilution: method validation and occurrence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Stephanie; Guerin, Thierry [Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de l' Alimentation, Laboratoire de Securite des Aliments de Maisons-Alfort, Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort (France); Monperrus, Mathilde; Donard, Olivier F.X.; Amouroux, David [IPREM UMR 5254 CNRS - Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-chimie pour l' Environnement et les Materiaux, Pau Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) in seafood were determined using species-specific isotope dilution analysis and gas chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sample preparation methods (extraction and derivation step) were evaluated on certified reference materials using isotopically enriched Hg species. Solid-liquid extraction, derivation by propylation and automated agitation gave excellent accuracy and precision results. Satisfactory figures of merit for the selected method were obtained in terms of limit of quantification (1.2 {mu}g Hg kg{sup -1} for MeHg and 1.4 {mu}g Hg kg{sup -1} for THg), repeatability (1.3-1.7%), intermediate precision reproducibility (1.5% for MeHg and 2.2% for THg) and trueness (bias error less than 7%). By means of a recent strategy based on accuracy profiles ({beta}-expectation tolerance intervals), the selected method was successfully validated in the range of approximately 0.15-5.1 mg kg{sup -1} for MeHg and 0.27-5.2 mg kg{sup -1} for THg. Probability {beta} was set to 95% and the acceptability limits to {+-}15%. The method was then applied to 62 seafood samples representative of consumption in the French population. The MeHg concentrations were generally low (1.9-588 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and the percentage of MeHg varied from 28% to 98% in shellfish and from 84% to 97% in fish. For all real samples tested, methylation and demethylation reactions were not significant, except in one oyster sample. The method presented here could be used for monitoring food contamination by MeHg and inorganic Hg in the future to more accurately assess human exposure. (orig.)

  1. Method development for speciation analysis of nanoparticle and ionic forms of gold in biological samples by high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malejko, Julita; Świerżewska, Natalia; Bajguz, Andrzej; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2018-04-01

    A new method based on coupling high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) has been developed for the speciation analysis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and dissolved gold species (Au(III)) in biological samples. The column type, the composition and the flow rate of the mobile phase were carefully investigated in order to optimize the separation conditions. The usefulness of two polymeric reversed phase columns (PLRP-S with 100 nm and 400 nm pore size) to separate gold species were investigated for the first time. Under the optimal conditions (PLRP-S400 column, 10 mmol L-1 SDS and 5% methanol as the mobile phase, 0.5 mL min-1 flow rate), detection limits of 2.2 ng L-1 for Au(III), 2.8 ng L-1 for 10 nm AuNPs and 3.7 ng L-1 for 40 nm AuNPs were achieved. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference material RM 8011 (NIST) of gold nanoparticles of nominal diameter of 10 nm. The HPLC-ICP MS method has been successfully applied to the detection and size characterization of gold species in lysates of green algae Acutodesmus obliquus, typical representative of phytoplankton flora, incubated with 10 nm AuNPs or Au(III).

  2. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  3. Applying scrum methods to ITS projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of new technology generally brings new challenges and new methods to help with deployments. Agile methodologies have been introduced in the information technology industry to potentially speed up development. The Federal Highway Admi...

  4. Applying Fuzzy Possibilistic Methods on Critical Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Choros, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Providing a flexible environment to process data objects is a desirable goal of machine learning algorithms. In fuzzy and possibilistic methods, the relevance of data objects is evaluated and a membership degree is assigned. However, some critical objects objects have the potential ability to affect...... the performance of the clustering algorithms if they remain in a specific cluster or they are moved into another. In this paper we analyze and compare how critical objects affect the behaviour of fuzzy possibilistic methods in several data sets. The comparison is based on the accuracy and ability of learning...... methods to provide a proper searching space for data objects. The membership functions used by each method when dealing with critical objects is also evaluated. Our results show that relaxing the conditions of participation for data objects in as many partitions as they can, is beneficial....

  5. Quality assurance and applied statistics. Method 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This German-Industry-Standards-paperback contains the International Standards from the Series ISO 9000 (or, as the case may be, the European Standards from the Series EN 29000) concerning quality assurance and including the already completed supplementary guidelines with ISO 9000- and ISO 9004-section numbers, which have been adopted as German Industry Standards and which are observed and applied world-wide to a great extent. It also includes the German-Industry-Standards ISO 10011 parts 1, 2 and 3 concerning the auditing of quality-assurance systems and the German-Industry-Standard ISO 10012 part 1 concerning quality-assurance demands (confirmation system) for measuring devices. The standards also include English and French versions. They are applicable independent of the user's line of industry and thus constitute basic standards. (orig.) [de

  6. Lavine method applied to three body problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourre, Eric.

    1975-09-01

    The methods presently proposed for the three body problem in quantum mechanics, using the Faddeev approach for proving the asymptotic completeness, come up against the presence of new singularities when the potentials considered v(α)(x(α)) for two-particle interactions decay less rapidly than /x(α)/ -2 ; and also when trials are made for solving the problem with a representation space whose dimension for a particle is lower than three. A method is given that allows the mathematical approach to be extended to three body problem, in spite of singularities. Applications are given [fr

  7. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  8. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  9. [The diagnostic methods applied in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Alicja; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The systemic fungal invasions are recognized with increasing frequency and constitute a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis improves prognosis, but remains a problem because there is lack of sensitive tests to aid in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses on the one hand, and on the other the patients only present unspecific signs and symptoms, thus delaying early diagnosis. The diagnosis depends upon a combination of clinical observation and laboratory investigation. The successful laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection depends in major part on the collection of appropriate clinical specimens for investigations and on the selection of appropriate microbiological test procedures. So these problems (collection of specimens, direct techniques, staining methods, cultures on different media and non-culture-based methods) are presented in article.

  10. Monte Carlo method applied to medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C.; Teixeira, N.; Matos, B.; Goncalves, I.C.; Ramalho, A.; Salgado, J.

    2000-01-01

    The main application of the Monte Carlo method to medical physics is dose calculation. This paper shows some results of two dose calculation studies and two other different applications: optimisation of neutron field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and optimization of a filter for a beam tube for several purposes. The time necessary for Monte Carlo calculations - the highest boundary for its intensive utilisation - is being over-passed with faster and cheaper computers. (author)

  11. Proteomics methods applied to malaria: Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta Astroz, Yesid; Segura Latorre, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease that has a high impact on public health in developing countries. The sequencing of the plasmodium falciparum genome and the development of proteomics have enabled a breakthrough in understanding the biology of the parasite. Proteomics have allowed to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the parasite s expression of proteins and has provided information on protein expression under conditions of stress induced by antimalarial. Given the complexity of their life cycle, this takes place in the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. It has proven difficult to characterize the protein expression during each stage throughout the infection process in order to determine the proteome that mediates several metabolic, physiological and energetic processes. Two dimensional electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been useful to assess the effects of antimalarial on parasite protein expression and to characterize the proteomic profile of different p. falciparum stages and organelles. The purpose of this review is to present state of the art tools and advances in proteomics applied to the study of malaria, and to present different experimental strategies used to study the parasite's proteome in order to show the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

  12. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  13. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  14. Quantitative HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of antimony redox speciation in complex sample matrices: new insights into the Sb-chemistry causing poor chromatographic recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus; Schmidt, Bjørn; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2011-01-01

    In solution antimony exists either in the pentavalent or trivalent oxidation state. As Sb(III) is more toxic than Sb(V), it is important to be able to perform a quantitative speciation analysis of Sb’s oxidation state. The most commonly applied chromatographic methods used for this redox speciation...

  15. Speciation needs in relation with environmental and biological purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Ansoborlo, E.; Bion, L.; Doizi, D.; Moulin, C.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.; Van Der Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides can occur in the environment either through chronic releases of nuclear facilities, or due to incidents or accidents. In order to study their behaviour in the environment (migration, retention, transfer, and in human organisms (metabolism, retention, excretion), it is of prime importance to know their solution chemistry, and more particularly thermodynamic constants, which will allow to determine their speciation. In fact, speciation governs the migration, the bioavailability and the toxicity of elements. Moreover, this knowledge is also of great interest for decorporation or decontamination purposes. In this framework, a CEA working group on speciation has been created in order to share data both on thermodynamic constants and on speciation analytical methods, interesting chemists, environmentalists and biologists. It has been focused, in a first time, on actinides, namely Th, U, Pu, Am, Np, taking into account their most important oxidation states occurring in environmental or biological environments: Th(IV), U(IV, VI), Pu(III, IV, VI), Am(III), Np(IV, V). A particular attention was devoted to the choice of ligands (inorganic and organic) for being the most representative of environmental and biological media. The thermodynamic database used is BASSIST for Base Applied to Speciation in Solution and at Interfaces and Solubility (developed by CEA), in interaction with the code JCHESS. Different examples will be then presented on the selection of data (thermodynamic constants, ligands of interest) through benchmark exercises (case of U(VI), Am(III), Pu(IV)) which will show the lacks or weakness of knowledge. Speciation diagrams will support these discussions. Moreover, analytical methods to determine thermodynamic constants or direct speciation will also be presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  17. Applying the Socratic Method to Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Ed

    2005-04-01

    We have restructured University Physics I and II in accordance with methods that PER has shown to be effective, including a more interactive discussion- and activity-based curriculum based on the premise that developing understanding requires an interactive process in which students have the opportunity to talk through and think through ideas with both other students and the teacher. Studies have shown that in classes implementing this approach to teaching as compared to classes using a traditional approach, students have significantly higher gains on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This has been true in UPI. However, UPI FCI results seem to suggest that there is a significant conceptual hole in students' understanding of Newton's Second Law. Two labs in UPI which teach Newton's Second Law will be redesigned replacing more activity with students as a group talking through, thinking through, and answering conceptual questions asked by the TA. The results will be measured by comparing FCI results to those from previous semesters, coupled with interviews. The results will be analyzed, and we will attempt to understand why gains were or were not made.

  18. Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlicek, Niko

    2013-08-01

    Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.

  19. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    , a novel high-throughput micro digestion method was developed, enabling the analysis of total element concentrations in small tissue fractions, such as the embryo of cereal grains. The method is based on small closed bombs that are microwaved and was validated for sample amounts between 1-20 mg using...

  20. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  1. Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations

  2. Comparison of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with sulfur-chemiluminescence detector to standard methods for speciation of sulfur-containing compounds in middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerrero, Rosario; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Thiébaut, Didier; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Espinat, Didier

    2006-10-01

    The monitoring of total sulfur content and speciation of individual sulfur-containing compounds in middle distillates is required for efficient catalyst selection and for a better understanding of the kinetics of the reactions involved in hydrotreament processes. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) hyphenated to sulfur chemiluminescence detection (SCD) has recently evolved as a powerful tool for improving characterization and identification of sulfur compounds. The aim of this paper is to compare quantitatively GCxGC-SCD and various other methods commonly employed in the petroleum industry, such as X-ray fluorescence, conventional GC-SCD, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, for total sulfur content determination and speciation analysis. Different samples of middle distillates have been analyzed to demonstrate the high potential and important advantages of GCxGC-SCD for innovative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing compounds. More accurate and detailed results for benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes are presented, showing that GCxGC-SCD should become, in the future, an essential tool for sulfur speciation analysis.

  3. Speciation Analysis of Radionuclides in the Environment - NSK-B SPECIATION project report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    . Speciation of radionuclides in soils and sediments includes: Sequential extraction of radionuclides in sediments and of trace elements in soil samples. Sequential extraction of radionuclides in aerosols and particles has also been performed. Further-more, sorption experiments have been performed......, sediments, particles); and (3) Intercomparison excise for speciation analysis of radionu-clides in soil and sediment. This report summarizes the work completed in the project partners’ laboratories, Method developments include: Development of an rapid and in-suit separation method for the speciation...... analysis of 129I in seawater samples; Development of a simple method for the speciation analysis of 129I in fresh water and seawater samples; Development of an on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for the direct speciation analysis of 127I in water and leachate samples; Speciation of radionuclides in water includes...

  4. Development of a definitive method for iodine speciation in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenhaeuser, C.; Heumann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A definitive method of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was developed to determine four different iodine species in aquatic systems (iodide, iodate and two organoiodine compounds: one of the organic species is chromatographically elutable from a column filled with an anion exchanger resin, the other one is not). The iodine species were analysed after the isotope dilution step with an enriched 129 I spike and after their chromatographic separation. The total iodine concentration was measured after decomposition of organic compounds in the aquatic system by UV irradiation. Different types of natural water samples (river water, water of a pond, moorland lake water) were analysed and important water parameters like pH-value, redox potential, oxygen content and dissolved organic carbon were measured for each of these samples. The total iodine concentration in the different samples differed only slightly in the range of 2-7 μg/l. In most of the moorland lake water samples only the two organoiodine species could be detected. In these samples the concentration of iodide and iodate was less than the detection limit of 0.5 μg/l and 0.1 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, all four iodine species could be determined in most of the river water samples. Positive correlations were found for the oxygen content of the water samples and the iodate concentration as well as for the redox potential and the anionic organoiodine compound. (orig.)

  5. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry; Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-12-18

    . The separation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) was investigated using different organic complexing ligands, EDTA and o-phenanthroline. For the Fe redox system, a limit of detection of 10{sup -8} mol.L{sup -1} was calculated. An improvement for the recovery values of the analytes was achieved by lowering the surface tension of the make up electrolyte. To determine the performance of the method a comparison of the speciation results with other methods like UV/vis, solvent extraction and thermodynamical calculations was done. The reproducibility of the method was examined and the linearity of the calibration in trace concentration levels was determined. To identify the redox species in different samples the electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated. Additional experiments to determine the redox species distribution of uranium and iron were done by hyphenating an ion chromatography column to a quadrupol inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q - ICP - MS). This method was applied to determine the redox species distribution of dissolved uranium in a fertilizer solution. With the data derived from iron experiments with CE - ICP - MS and IC - ICP - MS the characteristic values of both methods like separation times and detection limits were compared. The comparison of the performance of both methods was done by contrasting the linearity of calibration, analytical precision and recoveries.

  6. Uranium theoretical speciation for drinking water from private drilled wells in Sweden – Implications for choice of removal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine; Löv, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutral charge uranium complexes dominated in the pH range 6.7–7.8. • The Ca concentration influence which calcium-UO 2 carbonate complexes was formed. • In the acidic pH range several different U complexes can comprise a large fraction of total complexes. • It is crucial to include all relevant chemical compounds in the model. • Before removal method is selected, some crucial parameters should be measured. - Abstract: Elevated concentrations of uranium (U) from natural sources have been measured in drinking water from private drilled wells in Sweden and many other countries world-wide. Although U is a radioactive element, radioactivity is not the main concern, but rather chemical toxicity, e.g. kidney damage. Uranium chemistry is complex and U in water has a very high tendency to form complexes with other compounds. Since speciation is crucial for the properties of U, and therefore the removal efficiency, this study determined theoretical U species in drinking water from private drilled wells using the geochemical model Visual MINTEQ. The drinking water samples used in modelling were from two datasets: (1) 76 water samples selected from a previous survey of 722 wells; and (2) samples of drinking water from 21 private wells sampled in May 2013. The results showed that neutrally charged U complexes dominated in the pH range 6.7–7.8, which is common in private drilled wells. This has important implications for removal method, since charge is an important factor for U removal efficiency. In the alkaline pH range, one of two calcium-UO 2 carbonate complexes dominated and calcium (Ca) concentration proved to be a key factor determining the Ca-UO 2 carbonate complex formed: the neutral Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 0 (aq) or the negative CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2− . Complexes with organic carbon (C) varied greatly in the acidic range, indicating that it is crucial to measure organic C content in the water since it is critical for the dissolved organic matter

  7. Speciation analysis of radionuclides in the environment. NKS-B speciation project report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolin Hou (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aldahan, A. (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Science, Uppsala (Sweden)); Possnert, G. (Uppsala Univ., Tandem Lab., Uppsala (Sweden)); Lujaniene, G. (Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)); Lehto, J. (Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Chemistry, Helsinki (Finland)); Salbu, B. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences (UMB), AAs (Norway))

    2008-07-15

    This report describes the work carried out under the NUK-B project SPECIATION 2007. In 2007, the project partners had two meeting in April and November, organized a NUK seminar on speciation and hot particles. SPECIATION 2007 t mainly focused on two issues on speciation (1) further development of speciation methods for radionuclides, and (2) investigation of speciation of radionuclides in environment. The report summarized the work done in partners labs, which includes: (1) Further development on the speciation of 129I and 127I in water samples; (2) Speciation method for 129I and 127I in air; (3) Dynamic system for fractionation of Pu and Am in soil and sediment; (4) Investigation on Re-absorption of Pu during the fractionation of Pu in soil and sediment; (5) Speciation of 129I in North Sea surface water; (6) Partition of 137Cs and 129I in the Nordic lake sediment, pore-water and lake water; (7) Sequential extraction of Pu in soil, sediment and concrete samples, (8) Pu sorption to Mn and Fe oxides in the geological materials, (10) Investigation of the adsorbed species of lanthanides and actinides on clays surfaces. In addition, two review articles on the speciation of plutonium and iodine in environmental are planned to be submitted to an international journal for publication. (au)

  8. Speciation analysis of radionuclides in the environment. NKS-B speciation project report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Lujaniene, G.; Lehto, J.; Salbu, B.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes the work carried out under the NUK-B project SPECIATION 2007. In 2007, the project partners had two meeting in April and November, organized a NUK seminar on speciation and hot particles. SPECIATION 2007 t mainly focused on two issues on speciation (1) further development of speciation methods for radionuclides, and (2) investigation of speciation of radionuclides in environment. The report summarized the work done in partners labs, which includes: (1) Further development on the speciation of 129I and 127I in water samples; (2) Speciation method for 129I and 127I in air; (3) Dynamic system for fractionation of Pu and Am in soil and sediment; (4) Investigation on Re-absorption of Pu during the fractionation of Pu in soil and sediment; (5) Speciation of 129I in North Sea surface water; (6) Partition of 137Cs and 129I in the Nordic lake sediment, pore-water and lake water; (7) Sequential extraction of Pu in soil, sediment and concrete samples, (8) Pu sorption to Mn and Fe oxides in the geological materials, (10) Investigation of the adsorbed species of lanthanides and actinides on clays surfaces. In addition, two review articles on the speciation of plutonium and iodine in environmental are planned to be submitted to an international journal for publication. (au)

  9. Printing method and printer used for applying this method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The invention pertains to a method for transferring ink to a receiving material using an inkjet printer having an ink chamber (10) with a nozzle (8) and an electromechanical transducer (16) in cooperative connection with the ink chamber, comprising actuating the transducer to generate a pressure

  10. Comparison of two experimental speciation methods with a theoretical approach to monitor free and labile Cd fractions in soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parat, C.; Cornu, J.-Y.; Schneider, A.; Authier, L.; Sapin-Didier, V.; Denaix, L.; Potin-Gautier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work focused on the suitability of two techniques to monitor cadmium speciation in soil solutions collected during a 7-day incubation of a contaminated soil. Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and ion exchange were performed on soil solutions collected daily and results were compared with calculations obtained with the speciation software Visual MINTEQ. The electrochemically labile Cd fraction was greater than the exchange-estimated free Cd fraction during the first 6 days, after which it decreased sharply during the last 2 days to reach values close to the exchange-estimated free Cd fraction. Further investigations showed that the increase in pH was mainly responsible for the reduction. However, calculations performed with Visual MINTEQ software clearly demonstrated that a change in the nature of organic matter and/or its complexing capacity also needed to be taken into consideration.

  11. Determining uranium speciation in contaminated soils by molecular spectroscopic methods: Examples from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's former uranium production facility located at Fernald, OH (18 mi NW of Cincinnati) is the host site for an Integrated Demonstration for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. A wide variety of source terms for uranium contamination have been identified reflecting the diversity of operations at the facility. Most of the uranium contamination is contained in the top ∼1/2 m of soil, but uranium has been found in perched waters indicating substantial migration. In support of the development of remediation technologies and risk assessment, we are conducting uranium speciation studies on untreated and treated soils using molecular spectroscopies. Untreated soils from five discrete sites have been analyzed. We have found that ∼80--90% of the uranium exists as hexavalent UO 2 2+ species even though many source terms consisted of tetravalent uranium species such as UO 2 . Much of the uranium exists as microcrystalline precipitates (secondary minerals). There is also clear evidence for variations in uranium species from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale. However, similarities in speciation at sites having different source terms suggest that soil and groundwater chemistry may be as important as source term in defining the uranium speciation in these soils. Characterization of treated soils has focused on materials from two sites that have undergone leaching using conventional extractants (e.g., carbonate, citrate) or novel chelators such as Tiron. Redox reagents have also been used to facilitate the leaching process. Three different classes of treated soils have been identified based on the speciation of uranium remaining in the soils. In general, the effective treatments decrease the total uranium while increasing the ratio of U(IV) to U(VI) species

  12. Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, B.R.

    1979-05-25

    Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

  13. Speciation analysis of radionuclides in the environment - NSK-B SPECIATION project report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Lujaniene, G.; Lehto, J.; Skipperud, L.; Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B.

    2009-10-01

    The second stage of the NKS-B project SPECIATION was complemented in 2008-2009, which mainly focus on three aspects: (1) Further improvement and development of methods for speciation analysis of radionuclides; (2) Investigation of speciation of some radionuclides in the environment (water, sediments, particles); and (3) Intercomparison excise for speciation analysis of radionuclides in soil and sediment. This report summarizes the work completed in the project partners' laboratories. Method developments include: Development of an rapid and in-suit separation method for the speciation analysis of 129I in seawater samples; Development of a simple method for the speciation analysis of 129I in fresh water and seawater samples; Development of an on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for the direct speciation analysis of 127I in water and leachate samples; Speciation of radionuclides in water includes: Speciation of 129I and 127I in time-series precipitation samples collected in Denmark 2001-2006 and its application for the investigation of geochemistry and atmospheric chemistry of iodine, Speciation of radionuclides in Ob and Yenisey Rivers, and Speciation of 129I and 127I in Lake Heimdalen water. Speciation of radionuclides in soils and sediments includes: Sequential extraction of radionuclides in sediments and of trace elements in soil samples. Sequential extraction of radionuclides in aerosols and particles has also been performed. Furthermore, sorption experiments have been performed to investigate the association of Pu, Am and Cs with different geological materials. The intercomparison exercises included sequential extraction of Pu, 137Cs, U, Th, and 129I in one soil and one sediment standard reference materials (NIST-4354, IAEA-375) and Pu in sediment collected from the Lake Heimdalen, Norway. (author)

  14. Speciation analysis of radionuclides in the environment - NSK-B SPECIATION project report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aldahan, A. (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Science (Sweden)); Possnert, G. (Uppsala Univ., Tandem Lab. (Sweden)); Lujaniene, G. (Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Lehto, J. (Institute of Physics (Lithuania)); Skipperud, L.; Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Isotope Lab., AAs (Norway))

    2009-10-15

    The second stage of the NKS-B project SPECIATION was complemented in 2008-2009, which mainly focus on three aspects: (1) Further improvement and development of methods for speciation analysis of radionuclides; (2) Investigation of speciation of some radionuclides in the environment (water, sediments, particles); and (3) Intercomparison excise for speciation analysis of radionuclides in soil and sediment. This report summarizes the work completed in the project partners' laboratories. Method developments include: Development of an rapid and in-suit separation method for the speciation analysis of 129I in seawater samples; Development of a simple method for the speciation analysis of 129I in fresh water and seawater samples; Development of an on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for the direct speciation analysis of 127I in water and leachate samples; Speciation of radionuclides in water includes: Speciation of 129I and 127I in time-series precipitation samples collected in Denmark 2001-2006 and its application for the investigation of geochemistry and atmospheric chemistry of iodine, Speciation of radionuclides in Ob and Yenisey Rivers, and Speciation of 129I and 127I in Lake Heimdalen water. Speciation of radionuclides in soils and sediments includes: Sequential extraction of radionuclides in sediments and of trace elements in soil samples. Sequential extraction of radionuclides in aerosols and particles has also been performed. Furthermore, sorption experiments have been performed to investigate the association of Pu, Am and Cs with different geological materials. The intercomparison exercises included sequential extraction of Pu, 137Cs, U, Th, and 129I in one soil and one sediment standard reference materials (NIST-4354, IAEA-375) and Pu in sediment collected from the Lake Heimdalen, Norway. (author)

  15. Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Jin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)

  16. Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…

  17. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  18. Development of off-line layer chromatographic and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods for arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Moricz, Agnes M. [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Szikora, Szilvia [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Parra, Lue Meru Marco [Universidad Centro-occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Departamento de Quimica y Suelos Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Apartado Postal 4076, Cabudare 3023 (Venezuela); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: zaray@ludens.elte.hu

    2006-11-15

    Rapid and low cost off-line thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods have been developed for separation of 25 ng of each As(III), As(V), monomethyl arsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid applying a PEI cellulose stationary phase on plastic sheets and a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water = 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as eluent system. The type of eluent systems, the amounts (25-1000 ng) of As species applied to PEI cellulose plates, injection volume, development distance, and flow rate (in case of overpressured thin layer chromatography) were taken into consideration for the development of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, a microdigestion method employing nitric acid for the As spots containing PEI cellulose scratched from the developed plates divided into segments was developed for the subsequent total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The method was applied for analysis of root extracts of cucumber plants grown in As(III) containing modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Both As(III) and As(V) were detected by applying the proposed thin layer chromatography/overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods.

  19. Development of off-line layer chromatographic and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods for arsenic speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Moricz, Agnes M.; Kroepfl, Krisztina; Szikora, Szilvia; Tatar, Eniko; Parra, Lue Meru Marco; Zaray, Gyula

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and low cost off-line thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods have been developed for separation of 25 ng of each As(III), As(V), monomethyl arsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid applying a PEI cellulose stationary phase on plastic sheets and a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water = 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as eluent system. The type of eluent systems, the amounts (25-1000 ng) of As species applied to PEI cellulose plates, injection volume, development distance, and flow rate (in case of overpressured thin layer chromatography) were taken into consideration for the development of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, a microdigestion method employing nitric acid for the As spots containing PEI cellulose scratched from the developed plates divided into segments was developed for the subsequent total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The method was applied for analysis of root extracts of cucumber plants grown in As(III) containing modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Both As(III) and As(V) were detected by applying the proposed thin layer chromatography/overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods

  20. Quantitative EEG Applying the Statistical Recognition Pattern Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Knut; Snaedal, Jon; Hoegh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the discriminatory power of quantitative EEG (qEEG) applying the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method to separate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from elderly individuals without dementia and from other dementia patients. METHODS...

  1. Electronic-projecting Moire method applying CBR-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Lapteva, U. V.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Electronic-projecting method based on Moire effect for examining surface topology is suggested. Conditions of forming Moire fringes and their parameters’ dependence on reference parameters of object and virtual grids are analyzed. Control system structure and decision-making subsystem are elaborated. Subsystem execution includes CBR-technology, based on applying case base. The approach related to analysing and forming decision for each separate local area with consequent formation of common topology map is applied.

  2. A Lagrangian meshfree method applied to linear and nonlinear elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade A

    2017-01-01

    The repeated replacement method (RRM) is a Lagrangian meshfree method which we have previously applied to the Euler equations for compressible fluid flow. In this paper we present new enhancements to RRM, and we apply the enhanced method to both linear and nonlinear elasticity. We compare the results of ten test problems to those of analytic solvers, to demonstrate that RRM can successfully simulate these elastic systems without many of the requirements of traditional numerical methods such as numerical derivatives, equation system solvers, or Riemann solvers. We also show the relationship between error and computational effort for RRM on these systems, and compare RRM to other methods to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. And to further explain the two elastic equations used in the paper, we demonstrate the mathematical procedure used to create Riemann and Sedov-Taylor solvers for them, and detail the numerical techniques needed to embody those solvers in code.

  3. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Po.Box: 484, ... nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the ... of BSA/ethanol and organic solvent adding rate. ... Sodium aside and all other chemicals were purchased from.

  4. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included

  5. Speciation of actinides in aqueous solution by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takaumi; Kato, Yoshiharu; Meinrath, G.; Yoshida, Zenko; Choppin, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) as a sensitive and selective method has been applied to the speciation of actinides in aqueous solution. Studies on hydrolysis and carbonate complexation of U(VI) and on determination of hydration number of Cm(III) are reported. (author)

  6. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  7. Magnetic stirring welding method applied to nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kenji; Watando, Masayuki; Morishige, Norio; Enoo, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Yuuji

    2002-01-01

    In construction of a new nuclear power plant, carbon steel and stainless steel are used as base materials for the bottom linear plate of Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) to achieve maintenance-free requirement, securing sufficient strength of structure. However, welding such different metals is difficult by ordinary method. To overcome the difficulty, the automated Magnetic Stirring Welding (MSW) method that can demonstrate good welding performance was studied for practical use, and weldability tests showed the good results. Based on the study, a new welding device for the MSW method was developed to apply it weld joints of different materials, and it practically used in part of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  8. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  9. Methods of applied mathematics with a software overview

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, now in its second edition, provides students with a firm grasp of the fundamental notions and techniques of applied mathematics as well as the software skills to implement them. The text emphasizes the computational aspects of problem solving as well as the limitations and implicit assumptions inherent in the formal methods. Readers are also given a sense of the wide variety of problems in which the presented techniques are useful. Broadly organized around the theme of applied Fourier analysis, the treatment covers classical applications in partial differential equations and boundary value problems, and a substantial number of topics associated with Laplace, Fourier, and discrete transform theories. Some advanced topics are explored in the final chapters such as short-time Fourier analysis and geometrically based transforms applicable to boundary value problems. The topics covered are useful in a variety of applied fields such as continuum mechanics, mathematical physics, control theory, and si...

  10. A new turn-on fluorimetric method for the rapid speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) species in tea samples with rhodamine-based fluorescent reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyol, Esra; Saçmacı, Şerife; Saçmacı, Mustafa; Ülgen, Ahmet

    2018-02-01

    A new fluorimetric method with rhodamine-based fluorescent agent was developed for the rapid speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) in tea, soil and water samples. The system, which utilizes a fluorescent reagent, was used for the first time after synthesis/characterization of 3‧,6‧-bis(diethylamino)-2-{[(1E)-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene] amino}spiro[isoindole-1,9‧-xanthen]-3(2H)-one (BDAS). The reagent responds instantaneously at room temperature in a 1:1 stoichiometric manner to the amount of Cr(III). The selectivity of this system for Cr(III) over other metal ions is remarkably high, and its sensitivity is below 0.01 mg L- 1 in aqueous solutions which enables a simplification without any pretreatment of the real sample. The method has a wide linear range of 0.1-10 mg L- 1 and a detection limit of 0.15 μg L- 1 for Cr(III) while the relative standard deviation was 0.1% for 0.1 mg L- 1 Cr(III) concentration. The results of detection and recovery experiments for Cr(III) in tea, soil and water were satisfactory, indicating that the method has better feasibility and application potential in the routine determination and speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI). The results of analysis of the certified reference material (INCT-TL-1 tea sample and CWW-TM-D waste water) are in good agreement with the certified value.

  11. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Mohammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Khan, Sumaira

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As(3+) and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As(3+) was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As(3+) and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As(3+) and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  12. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  13. Which DTW Method Applied to Marine Univariate Time Series Imputation

    OpenAIRE

    Phan , Thi-Thu-Hong; Caillault , Émilie; Lefebvre , Alain; Bigand , André

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Missing data are ubiquitous in any domains of applied sciences. Processing datasets containing missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to build a framework for filling missing values in univariate time series and to perform a comparison of different similarity metrics used for the imputation task. This allows to suggest the most suitable methods for the imp...

  14. Applying Qualitative Research Methods to Narrative Knowledge Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian; Riedl, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We propose a methodology for knowledge engineering for narrative intelligence systems, based on techniques used to elicit themes in qualitative methods research. Our methodology uses coding techniques to identify actions in natural language corpora, and uses these actions to create planning operators and procedural knowledge, such as scripts. In an iterative process, coders create a taxonomy of codes relevant to the corpus, and apply those codes to each element of that corpus. These codes can...

  15. APPLYING SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS ON ANALYSES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinić, Julijan; Kunić, Marija; Ciganj, Zlatko

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents results of measuring the content of heavy and other metals in waste samples from the hazardous waste disposal site of Sovjak near Rijeka. The preliminary design elaboration and the choice of the waste disposal sanification technology were preceded by the sampling and physico-chemical analyses of disposed waste, enabling its categorization. The following spectroscopic methods were applied on metal content analysis: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and plas...

  16. A new method of AHP applied to personal credit evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-hui; XIONG Qi; CAO Jing

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new negative judgment matrix that combines the advantages of the reciprocal judgment matrix and the fuzzy complementary judgment matrix, and then puts forth the properties of this new matrix. In view of these properties, this paper derives a clear sequencing formula for the new negative judgment matrix, which improves the sequencing principle of AHP. Finally, this new method is applied to personal credit evaluation to show its advantages of conciseness and swiftness.

  17. Novel biodosimetry methods applied to victims of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Langlois, R.G.; Lucas, J.; Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Ramalho, A.T.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two biodosimetric methods under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were applied to five persons accidentally exposed to a 137Cs source in Goiania, Brazil. The methods used were somatic null mutations at the glycophorin A locus detected as missing proteins on the surface of blood erythrocytes and chromosome translocations in blood lymphocytes detected using fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Biodosimetric results obtained approximately 1 y after the accident using these new and largely unvalidated methods are in general agreement with results obtained immediately after the accident using dicentric chromosome aberrations. Additional follow-up of Goiania accident victims will (1) help provide the information needed to validate these new methods for use in biodosimetry and (2) provide independent estimates of dose

  18. Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step

  19. GPS surveying method applied to terminal area navigation flight experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M; Shingu, H; Satsushima, K; Tsuji, T; Ishikawa, K; Miyazawa, Y; Uchida, T [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    With an objective of evaluating accuracy of new landing and navigation systems such as microwave landing guidance system and global positioning satellite (GPS) system, flight experiments are being carried out using experimental aircraft. This aircraft mounts a GPS and evaluates its accuracy by comparing the standard orbits spotted by a Kalman filter from the laser tracing data on the aircraft with the navigation results. The GPS outputs position and speed information from an earth-centered-earth-fixed system called the World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS84). However, in order to compare the navigation results with output from a reference orbit sensor or other navigation sensor, it is necessary to structure a high-precision reference coordinates system based on the WGS84. A method that applies the GPS phase interference measurement for this problem was proposed, and used actually in analyzing a flight experiment data. As referred to a case of the method having been applied to evaluating an independent navigation accuracy, the method was verified sufficiently effective and reliable not only in navigation method analysis, but also in the aspect of navigational operations. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using highly sensitive and advanced laser-based spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been applied for the chemical speciation of actinide in aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. Development of TRLFS technology for the chemical speciation of actinides, Development of laser-induced photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) system, Application of LIBD technology to investigate dynamic behaviors of actinides dissolution reactions, Development of nanoparticle analysis technology in groundwater using LIBD, Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, Spectroscopic speciation of uranium-ligand complexes in aqueous solution, Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces

  1. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  2. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  3. The Lattice Boltzmann Method applied to neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erasmus, B.; Van Heerden, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method to neutron transport is investigated. One of the main features of the Lattice Boltzmann method is the simultaneous discretization of the phase space of the problem, whereby particles are restricted to move on a lattice. An iterative solution of the operator form of the neutron transport equation is presented here, with the first collision source as the starting point of the iteration scheme. A full description of the discretization scheme is given, along with the quadrature set used for the angular discretization. An angular refinement scheme is introduced to increase the angular coverage of the problem phase space and to mitigate lattice ray effects. The method is applied to a model problem to investigate its applicability to neutron transport and the results are compared to a reference solution calculated, using MCNP. (authors)

  4. Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.

  5. Radionuclide speciation in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Moulin, C.

    2001-01-01

    Speciation determination is of prime importance to explain and evaluate the mobility, the toxicity and the risk resulting from the presence of trace elements in natural systems, in particular in the case of radionuclides, in the framework of environment and waste management purposes. The present paper will then focus more specifically on the physico-chemical speciation of radionuclides, and more particularly of actinides, in the environment, with emphasis on the behavior in solution: from a chemical point of view (with important ligands including colloidal phases) using experimental data and speciation calculations, as well as from a more technical point of view (with analytical methods for in situ speciation determination and thermodynamic data determination). A review of recent papers (mainly from CEA) is presented. (orig.)

  6. Coupling pervaporation to AAS for inorganic and organic mercury determination. A new approach to speciation of Hg in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rivas, C; Muñoz-Olivas, R; Camara, C

    2001-12-01

    The design and development of a new approach for Hg speciation in environmental samples is described in detail. This method, consisting of the coupling of pervaporation and atomic absorption spectrometry, is based on a membrane phenomenon that combines the evaporation of volatile analytes and their diffusion through a polymeric membrane. It is proposed here as an alternative to gas chromatography for speciation of inorganic and organic Hg compounds, as the latter compounds are volatile and can be separated by applying the principles mentioned above. The interest of this method lies in its easy handling, low cost, and rapidity for the analysis of liquid and solid samples. This method has been applied to Hg speciation in a compost sample provided by a waste water treatment plant.

  7. Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hloušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.

  8. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  9. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO 2 that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO 2 samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO 2 samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of the

  10. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  11. Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L

    1976-01-01

    In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.

  12. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  13. Thermally stimulated current method applied to highly irradiated silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Pintilie, I; Pintilie, I; Moll, Michael; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    We propose an improved method for the analysis of Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) measured on highly irradiated silicon diodes. The proposed TSC formula for the evaluation of a set of TSC spectra obtained with different reverse biases leads not only to the concentration of electron and hole traps visible in the spectra but also gives an estimation for the concentration of defects which not give rise to a peak in the 30-220 K TSC temperature range (very shallow or very deep levels). The method is applied to a diode irradiated with a neutron fluence of phi sub n =1.82x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2.

  14. Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)

  15. A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31

  16. Arsenic speciation results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting results of synchrotron data to determine arsenic speciation in soil samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  17. Chemical Speciation - General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes general information about the Chemical Speciation Network that is not covered on the main page. Commonly visited documents, including calendars, site lists, and historical files for the program are listed here

  18. Searching for speciation genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Benjamin George; Côté, Isabelle M; Emerson, Brent C

    2011-01-01

    Closely related species that show clear phenotypic divergence, but without obvious geographic barriers, can provide opportunities to study how diversification can occur when opportunities for allopatric speciation are limited. We examined genetic divergence in the coral reef fish genus Hypoplectrus...

  19. ISSEBETS 2009. 7. International Symposium on Speciation of Elements in Biological, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The 7th ISSEBETS was held in August 2009 in city of Eger, Hungary. The main topics were: speciation of essential and toxic elements in food, in traditional drugs, designing functional foods through applied speciation, metallomics and metalloproteomics, metal species in health and disease, cycling of elemental species in the environment, speciation related regulations and legislation, metal environmental, bioremediation, quality assurance of speciation analysis. (S.I.)

  20. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  1. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  2. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.

  3. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.

  4. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René

    2009-05-01

    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  5. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail: kellyfisica@gmail.co, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: flmigliorini@hotmail.co, E-mail: lucsc@hotmail.co, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of

  6. Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M

    2018-04-16

    As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future

  7. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  8. Development of anion-exchange/reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods for the speciation of bio-available iodine and bromine from edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2012-05-04

    Anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry has been novelly applied to assess inorganic (iodide and iodate) and organic (3-iodotyrosine - MIT, and 3,5-diiodotyrosine - DIT) iodine species in a single chromatographic run. The optimized operating conditions (Dionex IonPac AS7, gradient elution with 175 mM ammonium nitrate plus 15% (v/v) methanol, pH 3.8, as a mobile phase and flow rates within the 0.5-1.5 mL min(-1) range) have also been used to perform inorganic bromine speciation analysis (bromide and bromate). The developed method has been applied for determining the bio-available contents of iodine and bromine species in dialyzates from edible seaweed. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8, gradient elution with 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid, and 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid in methanol, as mobile phases, and a constant flow rate of 0.75 mL min(-1)) also hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of organic iodine species (MIT and DIT) in the dialyzates. The verification of the presence of iodinated amino acids (MIT and DIT) in the extracts was also performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap). The developed methods have provided good repeatability (RSD values lower than 10% for both anion exchange and reverse phase separations) and analytical recoveries within the 90-105% range for all cases. The in vitro bio-availability method consisted of a simulated gastric and an intestinal digestion/dialysis (10 kDa molecular weight cut-off - MWCO) two-stage procedure. Iodide and MIT were the main bio-available species quantified, whereas bromide was the major bromine species found in the extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of analytical techniques coupled to the knowledge of the uranium speciation in natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.

    2009-06-01

    To understand the transport mechanisms and the radionuclides behaviour in the bio-geosphere is necessary to evaluate healthy and environmental risks of nuclear industry. These mechanisms are monitored by radioelements speciation, namely the distribution between their different physico-chemical forms in the environment. From this perspective, this PhD thesis deals with uranium speciation in a natural background. A detailed summary of uranium biogeochemistry has been written, which enables to restrict the PhD issue to uranium complexation with oxalic acid, a hydrophilic organic acid with good binding properties, ubiquitous in soil waters. Analytical conditions have been established by means of speciation diagrams. The speciation diagrams building by means of literature stability constants has allowed to define the analytical conditions of complex formation. The chosen analytical technique is the hyphenation of a separative technique (liquid chromatography LC or capillary electrophoresis CE) with mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The studied complexes presence in the synthetic samples has been confirmed with UV/visible spectrophotometry. LC-ICPMS analyses have proved the lability of the uranyl-organic acid complexes, namely their tendency to dissociate during analysis, which prevents from studying uranium speciation. CE-ICPMS study of labile complexes from a metal-ligand system has been made possible by employing affinity capillary electrophoresis, which enables to determine stability constants and electrophoretic mobilities. This PhD thesis has allowed to compare the different mathematical treatments of binding isotherm and to take into account ionic strength and real ligand concentration. Affinity CE has been applied successfully to lanthanum-oxalate (model system) and uranium-oxalate systems. The obtained results have been applied to a real system (situated in Le Bouchet). This shows the contribution of the developed method to the modelling of uranium speciation. (author)

  10. Flood Hazard Mapping by Applying Fuzzy TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Keum, H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    There are lots of technical methods to integrate various factors for flood hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to suggest the methodology of integrated flood hazard mapping using MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making). MCDM problems involve a set of alternatives that are evaluated on the basis of conflicting and incommensurate criteria. In this study, to apply MCDM to assessing flood risk, maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time are considered as criterion, and each applied elements are considered as alternatives. The scheme to find the efficient alternative closest to a ideal value is appropriate way to assess flood risk of a lot of element units(alternatives) based on various flood indices. Therefore, TOPSIS which is most commonly used MCDM scheme is adopted to create flood hazard map. The indices for flood hazard mapping(maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time) have uncertainty concerning simulation results due to various values according to flood scenario and topographical condition. These kind of ambiguity of indices can cause uncertainty of flood hazard map. To consider ambiguity and uncertainty of criterion, fuzzy logic is introduced which is able to handle ambiguous expression. In this paper, we made Flood Hazard Map according to levee breach overflow using the Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique. We confirmed the areas where the highest grade of hazard was recorded through the drawn-up integrated flood hazard map, and then produced flood hazard map can be compared them with those indicated in the existing flood risk maps. Also, we expect that if we can apply the flood hazard map methodology suggested in this paper even to manufacturing the current flood risk maps, we will be able to make a new flood hazard map to even consider the priorities for hazard areas, including more varied and important information than ever before. Keywords : Flood hazard map; levee break analysis; 2D analysis; MCDM; Fuzzy TOPSIS

  11. Speciation from photon to ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, C.

    2001-01-01

    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. Among them, several laser-based analytical techniques present several advantages (non intrusive). Hence, Thermal Lensing (TL)/Photoacoustic (LIPAS), Time Resolved selective, sensitive Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) have been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices, Laser Ablation-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (LA-OES or LIBS) for direct studies on solids, liquids,... where in situ measurements (elemental or isotopic) are mandatory. In complementary to these photon-based methods, new ion detection methods such as ElectroSpray-Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained and trends for these different methods will be presented. (author)

  12. Applying sociodramatic methods in teaching transition to palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, Walter F; Walters, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    We introduce the technique of sociodrama, describe its key components, and illustrate how this simulation method was applied in a workshop format to address the challenge of discussing transition to palliative care. We describe how warm-up exercises prepared 15 learners who provide direct clinical care to patients with cancer for a dramatic portrayal of this dilemma. We then show how small-group brainstorming led to the creation of a challenging scenario wherein highly optimistic family members of a 20-year-old young man with terminal acute lymphocytic leukemia responded to information about the lack of further anticancer treatment with anger and blame toward the staff. We illustrate how the facilitators, using sociodramatic techniques of doubling and role reversal, helped learners to understand and articulate the hidden feelings of fear and loss behind the family's emotional reactions. By modeling effective communication skills, the facilitators demonstrated how key communication skills, such as empathic responses to anger and blame and using "wish" statements, could transform the conversation from one of conflict to one of problem solving with the family. We also describe how we set up practice dyads to give the learners an opportunity to try out new skills with each other. An evaluation of the workshop and similar workshops we conducted is presented. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, David Rhodri

    Computational models yield inaccurate results if the underlying numerical grid fails to provide the necessary resolution to capture a simulation's important features. For the large-scale problems regularly encountered in geodynamics, inadequate grid resolution is a major concern. The majority of models involve multi-scale dynamics, being characterized by fine-scale upwelling and downwelling activity in a more passive, large-scale background flow. Such configurations, when coupled to the complex geometries involved, present a serious challenge for computational methods. Current techniques are unable to resolve localized features and, hence, such models cannot be solved efficiently. This thesis demonstrates, through a series of papers and closely-coupled appendices, how multi-resolution finite-element methods from the forefront of computational engineering can provide a means to address these issues. The problems examined achieve multi-resolution through one of two methods. In two-dimensions (2-D), automatic, unstructured mesh refinement procedures are utilized. Such methods improve the solution quality of convection dominated problems by adapting the grid automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. Thermal and thermo-chemical validation tests illustrate that the technique is robust and highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. These points are reinforced when the technique is applied to geophysical simulations of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone magmatism. To date, successful goal-orientated/error-guided grid adaptation techniques have not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. The work included herein is therefore the first geodynamical application of such methods. In view of the existing three-dimensional (3-D) spherical mantle dynamics codes, which are built upon a quasi-uniform discretization of the sphere and closely coupled

  14. Analytic methods in applied probability in memory of Fridrikh Karpelevich

    CERN Document Server

    Suhov, Yu M

    2002-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to F. I. Karpelevich, an outstanding Russian mathematician who made important contributions to applied probability theory. The book contains original papers focusing on several areas of applied probability and its uses in modern industrial processes, telecommunications, computing, mathematical economics, and finance. It opens with a review of Karpelevich's contributions to applied probability theory and includes a bibliography of his works. Other articles discuss queueing network theory, in particular, in heavy traffic approximation (fluid models). The book is suitable

  15. Reactor calculation in coarse mesh by finite element method applied to matrix response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1982-01-01

    The finite element method is applied to the solution of the modified formulation of the matrix-response method aiming to do reactor calculations in coarse mesh. Good results are obtained with a short running time. The method is applicable to problems where the heterogeneity is predominant and to problems of evolution in coarse meshes where the burnup is variable in one same coarse mesh, making the cross section vary spatially with the evolution. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Solid phase microextraction method using a novel polystyrene oleic acid imidazole polymer in micropipette tip of syringe system for speciation and determination of antimony in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Tuzen, Mustafa; Hazer, Baki; Kazi, Tasneem Gul

    2018-07-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive solid phase microextraction method was used for the speciation of inorganic antimony (Sb) by using a novel synthesized polymeric material in micropipette tip of syringe system. In present methodology, the specie of Sb (III) made hydrophobic complex with diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC) at pH 5.5 and subsequently adsorbed on polystyrene oleic acid imidazole polymer (POIP), whereas Sb(V) did not made complex and adsorbed on the polymer, remained in aqueous solutions. The strategy of multivariate was carried out to screen out the different variables and assessed the optimum values of their experimental values for the extraction efficiency of analyte. Then the analyte was sorbed on the polymer in micropipette tip of syringe system was quantitatively eluted by different types of acids at different levels for 2-6 aspirating/dispensing cycles. The extracted Sb(III) ions with modifiers were directed into the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and preconcentration factor (PF) for Sb(III) was found to be 6 ng L -1 , 20 ng L -1 and 100. The RSD value was found to be 4.2%. The standard addition method and certified reference materials were checked for accuracy and validity of method. The developed method was effectively applied for the determination of total and inorganic species of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different types of water samples, whereas only total Sb was determined in acid digested soil, Tuna fish, rice, spinach, black tea, mixed fruit juice and ice tea samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CONCAWE effluent speciation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonards, P.; Comber, M.; Forbes, S.; Whale, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2010-09-15

    In preparation for the implementation of the EU REACH regulation, a project was undertaken to transfer the high-resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to a laboratory external to the petroleum industry (Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the VU University of Amsterdam). The method was validated and used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. The report describes the technology transfer and the approaches used to demonstrate the successful transfer and application of the GCxGC methodology from analysing petroleum products to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon blocks in refinery effluents. The report describes all the methods used for all the determinations on the effluent samples along with an overview of the results obtained which are presented in summary tables and graphs. These data have significantly improved CONCAWE's knowledge of what refineries emit in their effluents. A total of 111 Effluent Discharge Samples from 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe were obtained in the period June 2008 to March 2009. These effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including COD, BOD), oil in water, BTEX and volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbon speciation determinations and other hydrocarbon analyses are also reported. The individual refinery analytical results are included into this report, coded as per the CONCAWE system. These data will be, individually, communicated to companies and refineries. The report demonstrates that it is feasible to conduct a research programme to investigate the fate and effects of hydrocarbon blocks present in discharged refinery effluents.

  18. Ultrafiltration technique in conjunction with competing ligand exchange method for Ni–humics speciation in aquatic environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Boissel, M.; Reuillon, A.; Babu, P.V.R.; Parthiban, G.

    The combination of ultrafiltration technique with competing ligand exchange method provides a better understanding of interactions between Ni and different molecular weight fractions of humic acid (HA) at varying pH in aquatic environment...

  19. Application of synchrotron microprobe methods to solid-phase speciation of metals and metalloids in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S R; Jamieson, H E; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-10-01

    Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 μm spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.

  20. Development and validation of a simple and robust method for arsenic speciation in human urine using HPLC/ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indranil; Zou, Wei; Alvaran, Josephine; Nguyen, Linda; Gajek, Ryszard; She, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    In order to better distinguish the different toxic inorganic and organic forms of arsenic (As) exposure in individuals, we have developed and validated a simple and robust analytical method for determining the following six As species in human urine: arsenous (III) acid (As-III), As (V) acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine. In this method, human urine is diluted using a pH 5.8 buffer, separation is performed using an anion exchange column with isocratic HPLC, and detection is achieved using inductively coupled plasma-MS. The method uses a single mobile phase consisting of low concentrations of both phosphate buffer (5 mM) and ammonium nitrate salt (5 mM) at pH 9.0; this minimizes the column equilibration time and overcomes challenges with separation between AsB and As-III. In addition, As-III oxidation is prevented by degassing the sample preparation buffer at pH 5.8, degassing the mobile phase online at pH 9.0, and by the use of low temperature (-70 °C) and flip-cap airtight tubes for long term storage of samples. The method was validated using externally provided reference samples. Results were in agreement with target values at varying concentrations and successfully passed external performance test criteria. Internal QC samples were prepared and repeatedly analyzed to assess the method's long-term precision, and further analyses were completed on anonymous donor urine to assess the quality of the method's baseline separation. Results from analyses of external reference samples agreed with target values at varying concentrations, and results from precision studies yielded absolute CV values of 3-14% and recovery from 82 to 115% for the six As species. Analysis of anonymous donor urine confirmed the well-resolved baseline separation capabilities of the method for real participant samples.

  1. Detecting Hidden Diversification Shifts in Models of Trait-Dependent Speciation and Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of diversity can vary considerably from clade to clade. Attempts to understand these patterns often employ state-dependent speciation and extinction models to determine whether the evolution of a particular novel trait has increased speciation rates and/or decreased extinction rates. It is still unclear, however, whether these models are uncovering important drivers of diversification, or whether they are simply pointing to more complex patterns involving many unmeasured and co-distributed factors. Here we describe an extension to the popular state-dependent speciation and extinction models that specifically accounts for the presence of unmeasured factors that could impact diversification rates estimated for the states of any observed trait, addressing at least one major criticism of BiSSE (Binary State Speciation and Extinction) methods. Specifically, our model, which we refer to as HiSSE (Hidden State Speciation and Extinction), assumes that related to each observed state in the model are "hidden" states that exhibit potentially distinct diversification dynamics and transition rates than the observed states in isolation. We also demonstrate how our model can be used as character-independent diversification models that allow for a complex diversification process that is independent of the evolution of a character. Under rigorous simulation tests and when applied to empirical data, we find that HiSSE performs reasonably well, and can at least detect net diversification rate differences between observed and hidden states and detect when diversification rate differences do not correlate with the observed states. We discuss the remaining issues with state-dependent speciation and extinction models in general, and the important ways in which HiSSE provides a more nuanced understanding of trait-dependent diversification. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved

  2. Valuing national effects of digital health investments: an applied method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer; Frazer, Cassandra; Gheorghiu, Bobby; Leaver, Chad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach which has been applied to value national outcomes of investments by federal, provincial and territorial governments, clinicians and healthcare organizations in digital health. Hypotheses are used to develop a model, which is revised and populated based upon the available evidence. Quantitative national estimates and qualitative findings are produced and validated through structured peer review processes. This methodology has applied in four studies since 2008.

  3. Dose rate reduction method for NMCA applied BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Varela, Juan; Caine, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    BRAC (BWR Radiation Assessment and Control) dose rate is used as an indicator of the incorporation of activated corrosion by products into BWR recirculation piping, which is known to be a significant contributor to dose rate received by workers during refueling outages. In order to reduce radiation exposure of the workers during the outage, it is desirable to keep BRAC dose rates as low as possible. After HWC was adopted to reduce IGSCC, a BRAC dose rate increase was observed in many plants. As a countermeasure to these rapid dose rate increases under HWC conditions, Zn injection was widely adopted in United States and Europe resulting in a reduction of BRAC dose rates. However, BRAC dose rates in several plants remain high, prompting the industry to continue to investigate methods to achieve further reductions. In recent years a large portion of the BWR fleet has adopted NMCA (NobleChem TM ) to enhance the hydrogen injection effect to suppress SCC. After NMCA, especially OLNC (On-Line NobleChem TM ), BRAC dose rates were observed to decrease. In some OLNC applied BWR plants this reduction was observed year after year to reach a new reduced equilibrium level. This dose rate reduction trends suggest the potential dose reduction might be obtained by the combination of Pt and Zn injection. So, laboratory experiments and in-plant tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of Pt and Zn on Co-60 deposition behaviour. Firstly, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of noble metal deposition on Co deposition on stainless steel surfaces. Polished type 316 stainless steel coupons were prepared and some of them were OLNC treated in the test loop before the Co deposition test. Water chemistry conditions to simulate HWC were as follows: Dissolved oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide were below 5 ppb, 100 ppb and 0 ppb (no addition), respectively. Zn was injected to target a concentration of 5 ppb. The test was conducted up to 1500 hours at 553 K. Test

  4. A novel method for the quantification, characterisation and speciation of silver nanoparticles in earthworms exposed in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makama, S.I.; Peters, R.J.B.; Undas, A.K.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, metal engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in tissues are generally quantified based on total concentrations after acid digestion of samples. Electron microscopy has also been used for non-quantitative characterisation of NPs in situ, and can be enhanced with tissue-processing methods that can

  5. Rapid allopatric speciation in logperch darters (Percidae: Percina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Benard, Michael F

    2004-12-01

    Theory predicts that clades diversifying via sympatric speciation will exhibit high diversification rates. However, the expected rate of diversification in clades characterized by allopatric speciation is less clear. Previous studies have documented significantly higher speciation rates in freshwater fish clades diversifying via sympatric versus allopatric modes, leading to suggestions that the geographic pattern of speciation can be inferred solely from knowledge of the diversification rate. We tested this prediction using an example from darters, a clade of approximately 200 species of freshwater fishes endemic to eastern North America. A resolved phylogeny was generated using mitochondrial DNA gene sequences for logperches, a monophyletic group of darters composed of 10 recognized species. Divergence times among logperch species were estimated using a fossil calibrated molecular clock in centrarchid fishes, and diversification rates in logperches were estimated using several methods. Speciation events in logperches are recent, extending from 4.20 +/- 1.06 million years ago (mya) to 0.42 +/- 0.22 mya, with most speciation events occurring in the Pleistocene. Diversification rates are high in logperches, at some nodes exceeding rates reported for well-studied adaptive radiations such as Hawaiian silverswords. The geographic pattern of speciation in logperches was investigated by examining the relationship between degree of sympatry and the absolute age of the contrast, with the result that diversification in logperches appears allopatric. The very high diversification rate observed in the logperch phylogeny is more similar to freshwater fish clades thought to represent examples of sympatric speciation than to clades representing allopatric speciation. These results demonstrate that the geographic mode of speciation for a clade cannot be inferred from the diversification rate. The empirical observation of high diversification rates in logperches demonstrates that

  6. Sample preparation method for the speciation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated and hydroxylated analogues in diverse environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Qian; Qu, Guangbo; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-01-15

    A reliable analytical method was developed here for the simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of ten polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), nine methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and ten hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) in various environmental matrices, including water, soil, sediment, plant, mollusk and fish. PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were measured by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization (negative)-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS) for the separation and determination of OH-PBDEs without prior derivatization. After preliminary sample cleaning using acid silica gel, water-impregnated silica column separation of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs was proved to be rapid, simple, and efficient. For phenolic analytes, the method detection limits (MDLs) were 3.2-11.6pg/L in water sample and 2.8-18.4pg/g dry weight in solid samples. For neutral compounds, MDLs were 48.8-150.3pg/L in water sample and 46.5-170.8pg/g dry weight in solid samples. The method was validated using six kinds of environmental samples spiked with all analytes at three concentration levels (0.3ng, 2ng and 5ng, respectively) for recovery (71-113%) and repeatability determination (4-12%RSD). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of chemical speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Santana, J.L.; Lima, L.; De La Rosa, D.; Melchor, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of many metals species on the environmental, its bioaccumulation, quantification and its effect in human body has been studied by a wide researchers groups in the last two decades. The development of speciation analysis has an vertiginous advance close to the developing of novel analytical techniques. Separation and quantification at low level is a problem that's has been afford by a coupling of high resolution chromatographic techniques like HPLC and HRGC with a specific method of detection (ICP-MS or CV-AAS). This methodological approach make possible the success in chemical speciation nowadays

  8. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its ... in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and ... technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by ...

  9. Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.

  10. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The method was c...

  11. Classical and modular methods applied to Diophantine equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahmen, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Deep methods from the theory of elliptic curves and modular forms have been used to prove Fermat's last theorem and solve other Diophantine equations. These so-called modular methods can often benefit from information obtained by other, classical, methods from number theory; and vice versa. In our

  12. Gas chromatographic sulphur speciation in heavy crude oil using a modified standard D5623 method and microfluidic Deans switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshka, Nicole E; Choy, Joanne M; Chen, Jinwen

    2017-12-29

    A modification to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method D5623 is proposed to enable successful and repeatable analysis of heavy crude oil samples. A two-dimensional gas chromatography configuration was implemented, with separation of sulphur compounds occurring on two columns. A Deans switch is used to enable heart-cutting of volatile sulphur compounds onto a DB-Sulfur stationary phase, and separation occurs concurrently with the backflushing of the primary column. The use of a sulphur-selective detector increases selectivity, and 22 volatile sulphur species are quantified in less than 15min, which is almost half the time of the original ASTM method. Samples ranging from light distillation cuts to whole crudes (boiling from 100°C to >750°C) were analyzed with minimal sample preparation. The calculated limit of detection was 0.7mg/kg, repeatability was 3% relative standard deviation (RSD), and a linear range of 1-250mg/kg was obtained, with an R 2 value of 0.994 or better, depending on the compound. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The pseudo-harmonics method applied to depletion calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Amaral, J.A.C.; Thome, Z.D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performing depletion calculations, based on the use of the Pseudo-Harmonics perturbation method, was developed. The fuel burnup was considered as a global perturbation and the multigroup difusion equations were rewriten in such a way as to treat the soluble boron concentration as the eigenvalue. By doing this, the critical boron concentration can be obtained by a perturbation method. A test of the new method was performed for a H 2 O-colled, D 2 O-moderated reactor. Comparison with direct calculation showed that this method is very accurate and efficient. (author) [pt

  14. Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs

  15. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  16. nuclear and atomic methods applied in the determination of some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAA is a quantitative and qualitative method for the precise determination of a number of major, minor and trace elements in different types of geological, environmental and biological samples. It is based on nuclear reaction between neutron and target nuclei of a sample material. It is a useful method for the simultaneous.

  17. Instructions for applying inverse method for reactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1988-11-01

    This report is a brief description of the completed method for reactivity measurement. It contains description of the experimental procedure needed instrumentation and computer code IM for determining reactivity. The objective of this instructions manual is to enable experiments and reactivity measurement on any critical system according to the methods adopted at the RB reactor

  18. The spectral volume method as applied to transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClarren, Ryan G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization for transport problems: the spectral volume method. This method, rst developed by Wang for computational fluid dynamics, divides each computational cell into several sub-cells and enforces particle balance on each of these sub-cells. Also, these sub-cells are used to build a polynomial reconstruction in the cell. The idea of dividing cells into many cells is a generalization of the simple corner balance and other similar schemes. The spectral volume method preserves particle conservation and preserves the asymptotic diffusion limit. We present results from the method on two transport problems in slab geometry using discrete ordinates and second through sixth order spectral volume schemes. The numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and preservation of the diffusion limit of the spectral volume method. Future work will explore possible bene ts of the scheme for high-performance computing and for resolving diffusive boundary layers. (author)

  19. Literature Review of Applying Visual Method to Understand Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new method to understand mathematics, visualization offers a new way of understanding mathematical principles and phenomena via image thinking and geometric explanation. It aims to deepen the understanding of the nature of concepts or phenomena and enhance the cognitive ability of learners. This paper collates and summarizes the application of this visual method in the understanding of mathematics. It also makes a literature review of the existing research, especially with a visual demonstration of Euler’s formula, introduces the application of this method in solving relevant mathematical problems, and points out the differences and similarities between the visualization method and the numerical-graphic combination method, as well as matters needing attention for its application.

  20. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.

  1. Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods

    OpenAIRE

    Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...

  2. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  3. The integral equation method applied to eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddlecombe, C.S.; Collie, C.J.; Simkin, J.; Trowbridge, C.W.

    1976-04-01

    An algorithm for the numerical solution of eddy current problems is described, based on the direct solution of the integral equation for the potentials. In this method only the conducting and iron regions need to be divided into elements, and there are no boundary conditions. Results from two computer programs using this method for iron free problems for various two-dimensional geometries are presented and compared with analytic solutions. (author)

  4. Apply of torque method at rationalization of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandurová Miriam

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to analyse consumption of time for profession - cylinder grinder, by torque method.Method of torque following is used for detection of sorts and size of time slope, on detection of portion of individual sorts of time consumption and cause of time slope. By this way it is possible to find out coefficient of employment and recovery of workers in organizational unit. Advantage of torque survey is low costs on informations acquirement, non-fastidiousness per worker and observer, which is easy trained. It is mentally acceptable method for objects of survey.Finding and detection of reserves in activity of cylinders grinder result of torque was surveys. Loss of time presents till 8% of working time. In 5 - shift service and average occupiying of shift by 4,4 grinder ( from statistic information of service , loss at grinder of cylinders are for whole centre 1,48 worker.According presented information it was recommended to cancel one job place - grinder of cylinders - and reduce state about one grinder. Next job place isn't possible cancel, because grindery of cylinders must to adapt to the grind line by number of polished cylinders in shift and semi - finishing of polished cylinders can not be high for often changes in area of grinding and sortiment changes.By this contribution we confirmed convenience of exploitation of torque method as one of the methods using during the job rationalization.

  5. Thermoluminescence as a dating method applied to the Morocco Neolithic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ousmoi, M.

    1989-09-01

    Thermoluminescence is an absolute dating method which is well adapted to the study of burnt clays and so of the prehistoric ceramics belonging to the Neolithic period. The purpose of this study is to establish a first absolute chronology of the septentrional morocco Neolithic between 3000 and 7000 years before us and some improvements of the TL dating. The first part of the thesis contains some hypothesis about the morocco Neolithic and some problems to solve. Then we study the TL dating method along with new process to ameliorate the quality of the results like the shift of quartz TL peaks or the crushing of samples. The methods which were employed using 24 samples belonging to various civilisations are: the quartz inclusion method and the fine grain technique. For the dosimetry, several methods were used: determination of the K 2 O contents, alpha counting, site dosimetry using TL dosimeters and a scintillation counter. The results which were found bring some interesting answers to the archeologic question and ameliorate the chronologic schema of the Northern morocco Neolithic: development of the old cardial Neolithic in the North, and perhaps in the center of Morocco (the region of Rabat), between 5500 and 7000 before us. Development of the recent middle Neolithic around 4000-5000 before us, with a protocampaniforme (Skhirat), little older than the campaniforme recognized in the south of Spain. Development of the bronze age around 2000-4000 before us [fr

  6. Modal method for crack identification applied to reactor recirculation pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Brook, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have been operating and producing useful electricity for many years. Within the last few years, several plants have found cracks in the reactor coolant pump shaft near the thermal barrier. The modal method and results described herein show the analytical results of using a Modal Analysis test method to determine the presence, size, and location of a shaft crack. The authors have previously demonstrated that the test method can analytically and experimentally identify shaft cracks as small as five percent (5%) of the shaft diameter. Due to small differences in material property distribution, the attempt to identify cracks smaller than 3% of the shaft diameter has been shown to be impractical. The rotor dynamics model includes a detailed motor rotor, external weights and inertias, and realistic total support stiffness. Results of the rotor dynamics model have been verified through a comparison with on-site vibration test data

  7. Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.

    1986-01-01

    The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Nonstandard Finite Difference Method Applied to a Linear Pharmacokinetics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Egbelowo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We extend the nonstandard finite difference method of solution to the study of pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models. Pharmacokinetic (PK models are commonly used to predict drug concentrations that drive controlled intravenous (I.V. transfers (or infusion and oral transfers while pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD interaction models are used to provide predictions of drug concentrations affecting the response of these clinical drugs. We structure a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD scheme for the relevant system of equations which models this pharamcokinetic process. We compare the results obtained to standard methods. The scheme is dynamically consistent and reliable in replicating complex dynamic properties of the relevant continuous models for varying step sizes. This study provides assistance in understanding the long-term behavior of the drug in the system, and validation of the efficiency of the nonstandard finite difference scheme as the method of choice.

  9. Applying Nyquist's method for stability determination to solar wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, Michael L.

    2017-10-01

    The role instabilities play in governing the evolution of solar and astrophysical plasmas is a matter of considerable scientific interest. The large number of sources of free energy accessible to such nearly collisionless plasmas makes general modeling of unstable behavior, accounting for the temperatures, densities, anisotropies, and relative drifts of a large number of populations, analytically difficult. We therefore seek a general method of stability determination that may be automated for future analysis of solar wind observations. This work describes an efficient application of the Nyquist instability method to the Vlasov dispersion relation appropriate for hot, collisionless, magnetized plasmas, including the solar wind. The algorithm recovers the familiar proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, as well as instabilities that had been previously identified using fits extracted from in situ observations in Gary et al. (2016). Future proposed applications of this method are discussed.

  10. Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth

    of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared....... The basis set method is used to study the electronic effects for the contiguous range of clusters up to several hundred atoms. The s-electrons hybridize to form electronic shells consistent with the jellium model, leading to electronic magic numbers for clusters with full shells. Large electronic gaps...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...

  11. Variance reduction methods applied to deep-penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    All deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations require variance reduction methods. Before beginning with a detailed approach to these methods, several general comments concerning deep-penetration calculations by Monte Carlo, the associated variance reduction, and the similarities and differences of these with regard to non-deep-penetration problems will be addressed. The experienced practitioner of Monte Carlo methods will easily find exceptions to any of these generalities, but it is felt that these comments will aid the novice in understanding some of the basic ideas and nomenclature. Also, from a practical point of view, the discussions and developments presented are oriented toward use of the computer codes which are presented in segments of this Monte Carlo course

  12. Non-perturbative methods applied to multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-09-01

    The use of non-perturbative methods in the treatment of atomic ionization is discussed. Particular attention is given to schemes of the type proposed by Keldysh where multiphoton ionization and tunnel auto-ionization occur for high intensity fields. These methods are shown to correspond to a certain type of expansion of the T-matrix in the intra-atomic potential; in this manner a criterium concerning the range of application of these non-perturbative schemes is suggested. A brief comparison between the ionization rate of atoms in the presence of linearly and circularly polarized light is presented. (Author) [pt

  13. On second quantization methods applied to classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of expressing statistical classical results in terms of mathematical entities usually associated to quantum field theoretical treatment of many particle systems (Fock space, commutators, field operators, state vector) is discussed. It is developed a linear response theory using the 'second quantized' Liouville equation introduced by Schonberg. The relationship of this method to that of Prigogine et al. is briefly analyzed. The chain of equations and the spectral representations for the new classical Green's functions are presented. Generalized operators defined on Fock space are discussed. It is shown that the correlation functions can be obtained from Green's functions defined with generalized operators. (Author) [pt

  14. Review of PCMS and heat transfer enhancement methods applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most available PCMs have low thermal conductivity making heat transfer enhancement necessary for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially - available PCMs are suitable in the ...

  15. E-LEARNING METHOD APPLIED TO TECHNICAL GRAPHICS SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANTA Adrian Mihai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the author’s endeavors in creating video courses for the students from the Faculty of Engineering in Braila related to subjects involving technical graphics . There are also mentioned the steps taken in completing the method and how to achieve a feedback on the rate of access to these types of courses by the students.

  16. Method optimization and quality assurance in speciation analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Achievement of optimum selectivity, sensitivity and robustness in speciation analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection requires that each instrumental component is selected and optimized with a view to the ideal....... The optimized anion and cation exchange HPLC-ICP-MS systems were used for arsenic speciation in contaminated ground water and in an in-house shrimp reference sample. For the purpose of verification, HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization was additionally used for arsenic...... a mass balance of the analytes in each fraction of the extraction procedure, by recovery of spikes and by employing and comparing independent techniques. The urgent need for reference materials certified for elemental species is stressed....

  17. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  18. Probabilist methods applied to electric source problems in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.; Llory, M.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear Safety has frequently been asked to quantify safety margins and evaluate the hazard. In order to do so, the probabilist methods have proved to be the most promising. Without completely replacing determinist safety, they are now commonly used at the reliability or availability stages of systems as well as for determining the likely accidental sequences. In this paper an application linked to the problem of electric sources is described, whilst at the same time indicating the methods used. This is the calculation of the probable loss of all the electric sources of a pressurized water nuclear power station, the evaluation of the reliability of diesels by event trees of failures and the determination of accidental sequences which could be brought about by the 'total electric source loss' initiator and affect the installation or the environment [fr

  19. Theoretical and applied aerodynamics and related numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattot, J J

    2015-01-01

    This book covers classical and modern aerodynamics, theories and related numerical methods, for senior and first-year graduate engineering students, including: -The classical potential (incompressible) flow theories for low speed aerodynamics of thin airfoils and high and low aspect ratio wings. - The linearized theories for compressible subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics. - The nonlinear transonic small disturbance potential flow theory, including supercritical wing sections, the extended transonic area rule with lift effect, transonic lifting line and swept or oblique wings to minimize wave drag. Unsteady flow is also briefly discussed. Numerical simulations based on relaxation mixed-finite difference methods are presented and explained. - Boundary layer theory for all Mach number regimes and viscous/inviscid interaction procedures used in practical aerodynamics calculations. There are also four chapters covering special topics, including wind turbines and propellers, airplane design, flow analogies and h...

  20. Applying probabilistic methods for assessments and calculations for accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The guidelines for the prevention of accidents require plant design-specific and radioecological calculations to be made in order to show that maximum acceptable expsoure values will not be exceeded in case of an accident. For this purpose, main parameters affecting the accident scenario have to be determined by probabilistic methods. This offers the advantage that parameters can be quantified on the basis of unambigious and realistic criteria, and final results can be defined in terms of conservativity. (DG) [de

  1. Applying flow chemistry: methods, materials, and multistep synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2013-07-05

    The synthesis of complex molecules requires control over both chemical reactivity and reaction conditions. While reactivity drives the majority of chemical discovery, advances in reaction condition control have accelerated method development/discovery. Recent tools include automated synthesizers and flow reactors. In this Synopsis, we describe how flow reactors have enabled chemical advances in our groups in the areas of single-stage reactions, materials synthesis, and multistep reactions. In each section, we detail the lessons learned and propose future directions.

  2. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  3. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Amadé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  4. Comparison Study of Subspace Identification Methods Applied to Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghani, M.; Verhaegen, M.; Van Overschee, P.; De Moor, B.

    1998-09-01

    In the past few years, various time domain methods for identifying dynamic models of mechanical structures from modal experimental data have appeared. Much attention has been given recently to so-called subspace methods for identifying state space models. This paper presents a detailed comparison study of these subspace identification methods: the eigensystem realisation algorithm with observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters computed from input/output data (ERA/OM), the robust version of the numerical algorithm for subspace system identification (N4SID), and a refined version of the past outputs scheme of the multiple-output error state space (MOESP) family of algorithms. The comparison is performed by simulating experimental data using the five mode reduced model of the NASA Mini-Mast structure. The general conclusion is that for the case of white noise excitations as well as coloured noise excitations, the N4SID/MOESP algorithms perform equally well but give better results (improved transfer function estimates, improved estimates of the output) compared to the ERA/OM algorithm. The key computational step in the three algorithms is the approximation of the extended observability matrix of the system to be identified, for N4SID/MOESP, or of the observer for the system to be identified, for the ERA/OM. Furthermore, the three algorithms only require the specification of one dimensioning parameter.

  5. Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Promann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.

  6. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  7. A simple method using on-line continuous leaching and ion exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2012-03-02

    A simple method for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic (As) in rice was developed using a continuous on-line leaching method to release the bio-accessible fraction. The continuous on-line leaching method has several advantages over commonly used batch methods including quicker and easier sample preparation, reduced risk of contamination and access to real time leaching data. The bio-accessibility of As in the samples was monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from a certified reference material as well as cooked and uncooked white rice showed that the majority of As was leached by saliva. Results obtained using the continuous on-line leaching method were comparable to those obtained using a batch method. Speciation analysis of the saliva leachate was performed using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic forms of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)) were clearly separated within 5 min in a single chromatographic run. Over 92% of bio-accessible As in the certified reference material and uncooked white rice sample was in the form of DMA and As(V), whereas it was present as DMA and As(III) in the cooked white rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The lumped heat capacity method applied to target heating

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, J.

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of metal samples was measured while they were bombarded by the beam from the a particle accelerator. The evolution of the temperature with time can be explained using the lumped heat capacity method of heat transfer. A strong dependence on the type of mounting was found. Se midió la temperatura de muestras metálicas al ser bombardeadas por el haz de iones del Acelerador Pelletron del Instituto de Física. La evolución de la temperatura con el tiempo se puede explicar usando ...

  9. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  10. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  11. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  12. Artificial Intelligence Methods Applied to Parameter Detection of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arotaritei, D.; Rotariu, C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to develop an atrial fibrillation (AF) based on statistical descriptors and hybrid neuro-fuzzy and crisp system. The inference of system produce rules of type if-then-else that care extracted to construct a binary decision system: normal of atrial fibrillation. We use TPR (Turning Point Ratio), SE (Shannon Entropy) and RMSSD (Root Mean Square of Successive Differences) along with a new descriptor, Teager- Kaiser energy, in order to improve the accuracy of detection. The descriptors are calculated over a sliding window that produce very large number of vectors (massive dataset) used by classifier. The length of window is a crisp descriptor meanwhile the rest of descriptors are interval-valued type. The parameters of hybrid system are adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm with fitness single objective target: highest values for sensibility and sensitivity. The rules are extracted and they are part of the decision system. The proposed method was tested using the Physionet MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database and the experimental results revealed a good accuracy of AF detection in terms of sensitivity and specificity (above 90%).

  13. Frequency domain methods applied to forecasting electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, Juan R.; Pedregal, Diego J.

    2009-01-01

    The changes taking place in electricity markets during the last two decades have produced an increased interest in the problem of forecasting, either load demand or prices. Many forecasting methodologies are available in the literature nowadays with mixed conclusions about which method is most convenient. This paper focuses on the modeling of electricity market time series sampled hourly in order to produce short-term (1 to 24 h ahead) forecasts. The main features of the system are that (1) models are of an Unobserved Component class that allow for signal extraction of trend, diurnal, weekly and irregular components; (2) its application is automatic, in the sense that there is no need for human intervention via any sort of identification stage; (3) the models are estimated in the frequency domain; and (4) the robustness of the method makes possible its direct use on both load demand and price time series. The approach is thoroughly tested on the PJM interconnection market and the results improve on classical ARIMA models. (author)

  14. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  15. Arsenic Speciation in Groundwater: Role of Thioanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior of arsenic in groundwater environments is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Understanding arsenic speciation is important because chemical speciation impacts reactivity, bioavailability, toxicity, and transport and fate processes. In aerobic environments arsen...

  16. Applying Simulation Method in Formulation of Gluten-Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time priority direction in the development of new food products its developing of technology products for special purposes. These types of products are gluten-free confectionery products, intended for people with celiac disease. Gluten-free products are in demand among consumers, it needs to expand assortment, and improvement of quality indicators. At this article results of studies on the development of pastry products based on amaranth flour does not contain gluten. Study based on method of simulation recipes gluten-free confectionery functional orientation to optimize their chemical composition. The resulting products will allow to diversify and supplement the necessary nutrients diet for people with gluten intolerance, as well as for those who follow a gluten-free diet.

  17. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  18. Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis Methods for Fire Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkina Julia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove the application of multi-criteria analysis methods for optimisation of fire risk identification and assessment process. The object of this research is fire risk and risk assessment. The subject of the research is studying the application of analytic hierarchy process for modelling and influence assessment of various fire risk factors. Results of research conducted by the authors can be used by insurance companies to perform the detailed assessment of fire risks on the object and to calculate a risk extra charge to an insurance premium; by the state supervisory institutions to determine the compliance of a condition of object with requirements of regulations; by real state owners and investors to carry out actions for decrease in degree of fire risks and minimisation of possible losses.

  19. Applied statistical methods in agriculture, health and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lawal, Bayo

    2014-01-01

    This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.

  20. A new deconvolution method applied to ultrasonic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents the development of a new method for restoration of ultrasonic signals. Our goal is to remove the perturbations induced by the ultrasonic probe and to help to characterize the defects due to a strong local discontinuity of the acoustic impedance. The point of view adopted consists in taking into account the physical properties in the signal processing to develop an algorithm which gives good results even on experimental data. The received ultrasonic signal is modeled as a convolution between a function that represents the waveform emitted by the transducer and a function that is abusively called the 'defect impulse response'. It is established that, in numerous cases, the ultrasonic signal can be expressed as a sum of weighted, phase-shifted replicas of a reference signal. Deconvolution is an ill-posed problem. A priori information must be taken into account to solve the problem. The a priori information translates the physical properties of the ultrasonic signals. The defect impulse response is modeled as a Double-Bernoulli-Gaussian sequence. Deconvolution becomes the problem of detection of the optimal Bernoulli sequence and estimation of the associated complex amplitudes. Optimal parameters of the sequence are those which maximize a likelihood function. We develop a new estimation procedure based on an optimization process. An adapted initialization procedure and an iterative algorithm enables to quickly process a huge number of data. Many experimental ultrasonic data that reflect usual control configurations have been processed and the results demonstrate the robustness of the method. Our algorithm enables not only to remove the waveform emitted by the transducer but also to estimate the phase. This parameter is useful for defect characterization. At last the algorithm makes easier data interpretation by concentrating information. So automatic characterization should be possible in the future. (author)

  1. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  2. Applying the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM) to portfolio selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Santos, Joost; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2004-06-01

    The analysis of risk-return tradeoffs and their practical applications to portfolio analysis paved the way for Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT), which won Harry Markowitz a 1992 Nobel Prize in Economics. A typical approach in measuring a portfolio's expected return is based on the historical returns of the assets included in a portfolio. On the other hand, portfolio risk is usually measured using volatility, which is derived from the historical variance-covariance relationships among the portfolio assets. This article focuses on assessing portfolio risk, with emphasis on extreme risks. To date, volatility is a major measure of risk owing to its simplicity and validity for relatively small asset price fluctuations. Volatility is a justified measure for stable market performance, but it is weak in addressing portfolio risk under aberrant market fluctuations. Extreme market crashes such as that on October 19, 1987 ("Black Monday") and catastrophic events such as the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 that led to a four-day suspension of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) are a few examples where measuring risk via volatility can lead to inaccurate predictions. Thus, there is a need for a more robust metric of risk. By invoking the principles of the extreme-risk-analysis method through the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM), this article contributes to the modeling of extreme risks in portfolio performance. A measure of an extreme portfolio risk, denoted by f(4), is defined as the conditional expectation for a lower-tail region of the distribution of the possible portfolio returns. This article presents a multiobjective problem formulation consisting of optimizing expected return and f(4), whose solution is determined using Evolver-a software that implements a genetic algorithm. Under business-as-usual market scenarios, the results of the proposed PMRM portfolio selection model are found to be compatible with those of the volatility-based model

  3. Simplified Methods Applied to Nonlinear Motion of Spar Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslum, Herbjoern Alf

    2000-07-01

    Simplified methods for prediction of motion response of spar platforms are presented. The methods are based on first and second order potential theory. Nonlinear drag loads and the effect of the pumping motion in a moon-pool are also considered. Large amplitude pitch motions coupled to extreme amplitude heave motions may arise when spar platforms are exposed to long period swell. The phenomenon is investigated theoretically and explained as a Mathieu instability. It is caused by nonlinear coupling effects between heave, surge, and pitch. It is shown that for a critical wave period, the envelope of the heave motion makes the pitch motion unstable. For the same wave period, a higher order pitch/heave coupling excites resonant heave response. This mutual interaction largely amplifies both the pitch and the heave response. As a result, the pitch/heave instability revealed in this work is more critical than the previously well known Mathieu's instability in pitch which occurs if the wave period (or the natural heave period) is half the natural pitch period. The Mathieu instability is demonstrated both by numerical simulations with a newly developed calculation tool and in model experiments. In order to learn more about the conditions for this instability to occur and also how it may be controlled, different damping configurations (heave damping disks and pitch/surge damping fins) are evaluated both in model experiments and by numerical simulations. With increased drag damping, larger wave amplitudes and more time are needed to trigger the instability. The pitch/heave instability is a low probability of occurrence phenomenon. Extreme wave periods are needed for the instability to be triggered, about 20 seconds for a typical 200m draft spar. However, it may be important to consider the phenomenon in design since the pitch/heave instability is very critical. It is also seen that when classical spar platforms (constant cylindrical cross section and about 200m draft

  4. Variational methods applied to problems of diffusion and reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Strieder, William

    1973-01-01

    This monograph is an account of some problems involving diffusion or diffusion with simultaneous reaction that can be illuminated by the use of variational principles. It was written during a period that included sabbatical leaves of one of us (W. S. ) at the University of Minnesota and the other (R. A. ) at the University of Cambridge and we are grateful to the Petroleum Research Fund for helping to support the former and the Guggenheim Foundation for making possible the latter. We would also like to thank Stephen Prager for getting us together in the first place and for showing how interesting and useful these methods can be. We have also benefitted from correspondence with Dr. A. M. Arthurs of the University of York and from the counsel of Dr. B. D. Coleman the general editor of this series. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction and Preliminaries . 1. 1. General Survey 1 1. 2. Phenomenological Descriptions of Diffusion and Reaction 2 1. 3. Correlation Functions for Random Suspensions 4 1. 4. Mean Free ...

  5. Nondestructive methods of analysis applied to oriental swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various neutron techniques were employed at the Budapest Nuclear Centre in an attempt to find the most useful method for analysing the high-carbon steels found in Oriental arms and armour, such as those in the Wallace Collection, London. Neutron diffraction was found to be the most useful in terms of identifying such steels and also indicating the presence of hidden patternEn el Centro Nuclear de Budapest se han empleado varias técnicas neutrónicas con el fin de encontrar un método adecuado para analizar las armas y armaduras orientales con un alto contenido en carbono, como algunas de las que se encuentran en la Colección Wallace de Londres. El empleo de la difracción de neutrones resultó ser la técnica más útil de cara a identificar ese tipo de aceros y también para encontrar patrones escondidos.

  6. Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-11-15

    Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.

  7. Complexity methods applied to turbulence in plasma astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this review many of the well known tools for the analysis of Complex systems are used in order to study the global coupling of the turbulent convection zone with the solar atmosphere where the magnetic energy is dissipated explosively. Several well documented observations are not easy to interpret with the use of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or Kinetic numerical codes. Such observations are: (1) The size distribution of the Active Regions (AR) on the solar surface, (2) The fractal and multi fractal characteristics of the observed magnetograms, (3) The Self-Organised characteristics of the explosive magnetic energy release and (4) the very efficient acceleration of particles during the flaring periods in the solar corona. We review briefly the work published the last twenty five years on the above issues and propose solutions by using methods borrowed from the analysis of complex systems. The scenario which emerged is as follows: (a) The fully developed turbulence in the convection zone generates and transports magnetic flux tubes to the solar surface. Using probabilistic percolation models we were able to reproduce the size distribution and the fractal properties of the emerged and randomly moving magnetic flux tubes. (b) Using a Non Linear Force Free (NLFF) magnetic extrapolation numerical code we can explore how the emerged magnetic flux tubes interact nonlinearly and form thin and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS) inside the coronal part of the AR. (c) The fragmentation of the UCS and the redistribution of the magnetic field locally, when the local current exceeds a Critical threshold, is a key process which drives avalanches and forms coherent structures. This local reorganization of the magnetic field enhances the energy dissipation and influences the global evolution of the complex magnetic topology. Using a Cellular Automaton and following the simple rules of Self Organized Criticality (SOC), we were able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the

  8. Speciation of long-lived radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolin Hou

    2008-11-15

    This project started in November 2005 and ended in November 2008, the work and research approaches are summarized in this report. This project studied the speciation of radionuclides in environment. A number of speciation analytical methods are developed for determination of species of 129I, 99Tc, isotopes of Pu, and 237Np in seawater, fresh water, soil, sediment, vegetations, and concrete. The developed methods are used for the investigation of the chemical speciation of these radionuclides as well as their environmental behaviours, especially in Danish environment. In addition the speciation of Pu isotopes in waste samples from the decommissioning of Danish nuclear facilities is also investigated. The report summarizes these works completed in this project. Through this research project, a number of research papers have been published in the scientific journals, the research results has also been presented in the Nordic and international conference/meeting and communicated to international colleagues. Some publications are also enclosed to this report. (au)

  9. Chemical speciation of long-lived radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin Hou

    2008-11-01

    This project started in November 2005 and ended in November 2008, the work and research approaches are summarized in this report. This project studied the speciation of radionuclides in environment. A number of speciation analytical methods are developed for determination of species of 129 I, 99 Tc, isotopes of Pu, and 237 Np in seawater, fresh water, soil, sediment, vegetations, and concrete. The developed methods are used for the investigation of the chemical speciation of these radionuclides as well as their environmental behaviours, especially in Danish environment. In addition the speciation of Pu isotopes in waste samples from the decommissioning of Danish nuclear facilities is also investigated. The report summarizes these works completed in this project. Through this research project, a number of research papers have been published in the scientific journals, the research results has also been presented in the Nordic and international conference/meeting and communicated to international colleagues. Some publications are also enclosed to this report. (au)

  10. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  11. Hitchhiking to speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daven C Presgraves

    Full Text Available The modern evolutionary synthesis codified the idea that species exist as distinct entities because intrinsic reproductive barriers prevent them from merging together. Understanding the origin of species therefore requires understanding the evolution and genetics of reproductive barriers between species. In most cases, speciation is an accident that happens as different populations adapt to different environments and, incidentally, come to differ in ways that render them reproductively incompatible. As with other reproductive barriers, the evolution and genetics of interspecific hybrid sterility and lethality were once also thought to evolve as pleiotripic side effects of adaptation. Recent work on the molecular genetics of speciation has raised an altogether different possibility-the genes that cause hybrid sterility and lethality often come to differ between species not because of adaptation to the external ecological environment but because of internal evolutionary arms races between selfish genetic elements and the genes of the host genome. Arguably one of the best examples supporting a role of ecological adaptation comes from a population of yellow monkey flowers, Mimulus guttatus, in Copperopolis, California, which recently evolved tolerance to soil contaminants from copper mines and simultaneously, as an incidental by-product, hybrid lethality in crosses with some off-mine populations. However, in new work, Wright and colleagues show that hybrid lethality is not a pleiotropic consequence of copper tolerance. Rather, the genetic factor causing hybrid lethality is tightly linked to copper tolerance and spread to fixation in Copperopolis by genetic hitchhiking.

  12. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  13. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  14. Use of imidazole 4,5-dicarboxylic acid in vanadium speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Mondal, B.C.; Das, D.; Das, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    A new resin has been synthesized by fictionalization of polystyrene-divinylbenzene (8 %) with imidazole 4,5-dicarboxylic acid through -N=N- bonding. The resulting resin has been characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen ion capacity and metal ion capacity. The speciation study of vanadium has been studied by using this resin and the maximum exchange capacity was found to be 0.45 mmol g -1 for V 4+ and that for V 5+ was 1.57 mmol g -1 at pH 3 for both. The eluents malonic acid and sodium hydroxide have been used for the selective separation of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) species respectively. The effects of diverse ions on the sorption and recovery of each species have been studied. Finally, the developed method has been applied for the speciation and determination of these two species in natural water samples. (author)

  15. Trace element speciation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The production of methylated heavy metal species in the ocean was reviewed and shown to be correlated with biological parameters demonstrating them to be of biogenic origin. Methods for the determination of the species were discussed. The potential for the use of isotopic spiking either in 'species specific' or 'non-species specific' formats was identified as a valuable tool in the struggle for accuracy, specificity and precision in speciation analysis. The value of using a size exclusion chromatographic method in conjunction with non-species specific spiking IDMS was highlighted with an example illustrating the molecular mass fractions associated with halogenated species from a humic sample. Additional recommendations that the Agency might wish to consider when evaluating its potential role as a service to Member States engaged in speciation activities are also given

  16. Speciation of arsenic and mercury in feed: why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms of biological activities and biotransformation of trace elements such as arsenic and mercury has improved during recent years with the help of chemical speciation studies. However, the most important practical application of elemental speciation is in the area ...... in feed as well as initiatives for the establishment of standardized methods for determination of inorganic arsenic and methylmercury are presented.......The understanding of the mechanisms of biological activities and biotransformation of trace elements such as arsenic and mercury has improved during recent years with the help of chemical speciation studies. However, the most important practical application of elemental speciation is in the area...... of toxicology. Toxicological knowledge on the individual trace element species can lead to more specific legislation of hazardous substances found in feed. Examples here are arsenic, where the inorganic forms are the most toxic, and mercury, where the organic form methylmercury is more toxic than inorganic...

  17. Speciation and internal dosimetry: from chemical species to dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.; Frelon, S.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation studies refer to the distribution of species in a particular sample or matrix. These studies are necessary to improve the description, understanding and prediction of trace element kinetics and toxicity. In case of internal contamination with radionuclides, speciation studies could help to improve both the biokinetic and dosimetric models for radionuclides. There are different methods to approach the speciation of radionuclide in a biological system, depending on the degree of accuracy needed and the level of uncertainties accepted. Among them, computer modelling and experimental determination are complementary approaches. This paper describes what is known about speciation of actinides in blood, GI-tract, liver and skeleton and of their consequences in terms of internal dosimetry. The conclusion is that such studies provide very valuable data and should be targeted in the future on some specific tissues and biomolecules. (authors)

  18. The contribution of chemical speciation to internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.; Frelon, S.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.

    2003-01-01

    Speciation studies refer to the distribution of species in a particular sample or matrix. These studies are necessary to improve the description, understanding and prediction of trace element kinetics and toxicity. In the case of internal contamination with radionuclides, speciation studies could help to improve both the biokinetic and dosimetric models for radionuclides. There are different methods to approach the speciation of radionuclides in a biological system, depending on the degree of accuracy needed and the level of uncertainties accepted. Among them, computer modelling and experimental determination are complementary approaches. This paper describes what is known about speciation of actinides in blood, GI tract, liver and skeleton and of their consequences in terms of internal dosimetry. The conclusion is that such studies provide very valuable data and should be targeted in the future on some specific tissues and biomolecules. (author)

  19. Self-consistent approach for neutral community models with speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2010-03-01

    Hubbell’s neutral model provides a rich theoretical framework to study ecological communities. By incorporating both ecological and evolutionary time scales, it allows us to investigate how communities are shaped by speciation processes. The speciation model in the basic neutral model is particularly simple, describing speciation as a point-mutation event in a birth of a single individual. The stationary species abundance distribution of the basic model, which can be solved exactly, fits empirical data of distributions of species’ abundances surprisingly well. More realistic speciation models have been proposed such as the random-fission model in which new species appear by splitting up existing species. However, no analytical solution is available for these models, impeding quantitative comparison with data. Here, we present a self-consistent approximation method for neutral community models with various speciation modes, including random fission. We derive explicit formulas for the stationary species abundance distribution, which agree very well with simulations. We expect that our approximation method will be useful to study other speciation processes in neutral community models as well.

  20. Overview of receptor-based source apportionment studies for speciated atmospheric mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I.; Xu, X.; Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor-based source apportionment studies of speciated atmospheric mercury are not only concerned with source contributions but also with the influence of transport, transformation, and deposition processes on speciated atmospheric mercury concentrations at receptor locations. Previous studies applied multivariate receptor models including principal components analysis and positive matrix factorization, and back trajectory receptor models including potential source contri...

  1. Speciation analysis of 129I and its applications in environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    129I, a long-lived radionuclide, is important in view of geological repository of nuclear waste, and environmental tracing applications related to diverse natural processes of iodine. The environmental behaviors and bioavailability of 129I are highly related to its species. A number of methods have...... been reported for speciation analysis of 129I in a variety of environmental samples. These methods have been applied in many researches, including conversion processes of iodine species in marine and terrestrial systems, migration and retention of iodine in soil and sediment, geochemical cycling...

  2. Microimaging and tomography with chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, C. E-mail: rau@esrf.fr; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A

    2003-01-01

    Materials science deals with the study of the morphology of samples, their chemical composition and the relation between both. One general problem is the preservation of the sample throughout the different analyses, like it is often the case for classical chemical analysis. Destruction-free chemical speciation in three dimensions with micrometer resolution can be achieved by combining X-ray spectroscopy and imaging techniques. Highly brilliant radiation is needed for this purpose available at 3rd generation synchrotrons such as the ESRF. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) is a non-destructive well-known and established technique in chemistry. By scanning the X-ray energy in the vicinity (50-100 eV) of the absorption edge of an element, information can be obtained about the oxidation state of the probed atoms. The (conventional) technique mainly employed until now applies to homogeneous, specifically prepared flat samples where the measured signal can be considered as the average over the whole irradiated volume. This restriction for samples is partially released when the XANES method is combined with imaging techniques. 2D resolved data is acquired using area detectors or by scanning with a focussed beam. X-ray absorption tomography is a method of choice for investigating the 3D structure of objects and its dual energy version is used for getting information about the 3D distribution of a given element within the sample. Although the combination of XANES and tomography seems to be a natural extension of dual-energy tomography, in practice several experimental problems have to be overcome in order to obtain useable data. In the following we describe the results of XANES imaging and tomography obtained measuring a phantom sample of pure molybdenum compounds using a FreLoN 2000 camera system at the ESRF undulator beamline ID22. This system allowed making volume resolved distinctions between different oxidation states with spatial resolution in the

  3. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  4. The importance of element speciation in water analysis - a plea for further investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimmel, F.H.; Gremm, T.

    1994-01-01

    Water analysis is dominated by parameters given in laws and recommendations concerning water quality. Speciation has been broadly neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in defining speciation and in determining species at low concentrations. This paper addresses the physical, chemical and biological approaches to speciation and gives examples for methods which are suited for species determination in aquatic systems. Metals and non-metallic elements are covered as well. It is obvious that speciation is a key for understanding the function of aquatic ecosystems and their technical utilization. (orig.)

  5. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING FATIGUE PROPERTIES APPLIED TO STAINLESS STEELS AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mac Intyer Fonseca Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate seven estimation methods of fatigue properties applied to stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Experimental strain-life curves are compared to the estimations obtained by each method. After applying seven different estimation methods at 14 material conditions, it was found that fatigue life can be estimated with good accuracy only by the Bäumel-Seeger method for the martensitic stainless steel tempered between 300°C and 500°C. The differences between mechanical behavior during monotonic and cyclic loading are probably the reason for the absence of a reliable method for estimation of fatigue behavior from monotonic properties for a group of materials.

  6. Applying the Mixed Methods Instrument Development and Construct Validation Process: the Transformative Experience Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…

  7. An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamso, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

  8. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  9. Development of a chromatographic separation method hyphenated to electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): application to the lanthanides speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuvier, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of a chromatographic separation method coupled to both ESI-MS and ICP-MS in order to achieve the comprehensive speciation analysis of lanthanides in aqueous phase representative of back-extraction phases of advanced spent nuclear fuel treatment processes. This analytical method allowed the separation, the characterization and the quantitation of lanthanides complexes holding poly-aminocarboxylic ligands, such as DTPA and EDTA, used as complexing agents in these processes. A HILIC separation method of lanthanides complexes has been developed with an amide bonded stationary phase. A screening of a wide range of mobile phase compositions demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was predominant. This screening allowed also obtaining optimized separation conditions. Faster analysis conditions with shorter amide column packed with sub 2 μm particles reduced analysis time by 2.5 and 25% solvent consumption. Isotopic and structural characterization by HILIC ESI-MS was performed as well as the development of external calibration quantitation method. Analytical performances of quantitation method were determined. Finally, the development of the HILIC coupling to ESI-MS and ICP-MS was achieved. A simultaneous quantitation method by ESI-MS and ICP-MS was performed to determine the species quantitative distribution in solution. Analytical performances of quantitation method were also determined. (author) [fr

  10. X exceptionalism in Caenorhabditis speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Asher D

    2017-11-13

    Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to "rules" of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial interfertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis. Studies to date implicate improper chromatin regulation of the X-chromosome by small RNA pathways as integral to hybrid male dysfunction. Sexual transitions in reproductive mode to self-fertilizing hermaphroditism inject distinctive molecular evolutionary features into the speciation process for some species. Caenorhabditis also provides unique opportunities for analysis in a system with XO sex determination that lacks a Y-chromosome, sex chromosome-dependent sperm competition differences and mechanisms of gametic isolation, exceptional accessibility to the development process and rapid experimental evolution. As genetic analysis of reproductive isolation matures with investigation of multiple pairs of Caenorhabditis species and new species discovery, nematodes will provide a powerful complement to more established study organisms for deciphering the genetic basis of and rules to speciation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)

  12. What is the method in applying formal methods to PLC applications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Engel, S.; Wupper, Hanno; Kowalewski, S.; Zaytoon, J.

    2000-01-01

    The question we investigate is how to obtain PLC applications with confidence in their proper functioning. Especially, we are interested in the contribution that formal methods can provide for their development. Our maxim is that the place of a particular formal method in the total picture of system

  13. Cancer: beyond speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    A good account of the nature of cancer should provide not only a description of its consistent features, but also how they arise, how they are maintained, why conventional chemotherapy succeeds, and fails, and where to look for better targets. Cancer was once regarded as enigmatic and inexplicable; more recently, the "mutation theory," based on random alterations in a relatively small set of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, has enjoyed widespread acceptance. The "mutation theory," however, is noticeable for its failure to explain the basis of differential chemosensitivity, for providing a paucity of targets, especially druggable ones, and for justifying the development of targeted therapies with, in general, disappointingly abbreviated clinical benefit. Furthermore, this theory has mistakenly predicted a widespread commonality of consistent genetic abnormalities across the range of cancers, whereas the opposite, that is, roiling macrogenomic instability, is generally the rule. In contrast, concerning what actually is consistent, that is, the suite of metabolic derangements common to virtually all, especially aggressive, cancers, the "Mutation Theory" has nothing to say. Other hypotheses merit serious consideration "aneuploidy theories" posit whole-genome instability and imbalance as causally responsible for the propagation of the tumor. Another approach, that is, "derepression atavism," suggests cancer results from the release of an ancient survival program, characterized by the emergence of remarkably primitive features such as unicellularity, fermentation, and immortality; existential goals are served by heuristic genomic instability coupled with host-to-tumor biomass interconversion, mediated by the Warburg effect, a major component of the program. Carcinogenesis is here seen as a process of de-speciation; however, genomic nonrestabilization raises issues as to where on the tree of life cancers belong, as a genuinely alternative modus vivendi

  14. Speciated Elemental and Isotopic Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols - Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M.; Majestic, B.; Schauer, J.

    2007-12-01

    Detailed elemental, isotopic, and chemical speciation analysis of aerosol particulate matter (PM) can provide valuable information on PM sources, atmospheric processing, and climate forcing. Certain PM sources may best be resolved using trace metal signatures, and elemental and isotopic fingerprints can supplement and enhance molecular maker analysis of PM for source apportionment modeling. In the search for toxicologically relevant components of PM, health studies are increasingly demanding more comprehensive characterization schemes. It is also clear that total metal analysis is at best a poor surrogate for the bioavailable component, and analytical techniques that address the labile component or specific chemical species are needed. Recent sampling and analytical developments advanced by the project team have facilitated comprehensive characterization of even very small masses of atmospheric PM. Historically; this level of detail was rarely achieved due to limitations in analytical sensitivity and a lack of awareness concerning the potential for contamination. These advances have enabled the coupling of advanced chemical characterization to vital field sampling approaches that typically supply only very limited PM mass; e.g. (1) particle size-resolved sampling; (2) personal sampler collections; and (3) fine temporal scale sampling. The analytical tools that our research group is applying include: (1) sector field (high-resolution-HR) ICP-MS, (2) liquid waveguide long-path spectrophotometry (LWG-LPS), and (3) synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). When coupled with an efficient and validated solubilization method, the HR-ICP-MS can provide quantitative elemental information on over 50 elements in microgram quantities of PM. The high mass resolution and enhanced signal-to-noise of HR-ICP-MS significantly advance data quality and quantity over that possible with traditional quadrupole ICP-MS. The LWG-LPS system enables an assessment of the soluble

  15. Passive Dosing to Determine the Speciation of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals in Aqueous Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Gouliarmou, V.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2010-01-01

    A new analytical approach to determine the speciation of hydrophobic organic analytes is presented. The freely dissolved concentration in a sample is controlled by passive dosing from silicone (poly(dimethylsiloxane)), and the total sample concentration at equilibrium is measured. The free fraction...... is determined as the ratio between measured concentrations in pure water and sample. C-14-labeled fluoranthene served as model analyte, and total sample concentrations were easily measured by liquid scintillation counting. The method was applied to surface water, stormwater runoff, and wastewater...... (SPME). This analytical approach combines simplicity with high precision, and it does not require any phase separation steps....

  16. Speciation analysis of 129I in seawater using coprecipitation and accelerator mass spectrometry and its applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Shan; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2017-01-01

    Speciation analysis of long-lived 129I in seawater can provide useful information on the source of water masses. This paper presents an improved method for speciation analysis of 129I based on coprecipitation of iodide as AgI with Ag2SO3 and AgCl. By adding a small amount of 127I carrier...

  17. Formal methods applied to industrial complex systems implementation of the B method

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents real-world examples of formal techniques in an industrial context. It covers formal methods such as SCADE and/or the B Method, in various fields such as railways, aeronautics, and the automotive industry. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of experience on the use of "formal methods" (based on formal techniques such as proof, abstract interpretation and model-checking) in industrial examples of complex systems, based on the experience of people currently involved in the creation and assessment of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from

  18. Sympatric Speciation in Threespine Stickleback: Why Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Bolnick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical models suggest that sympatric speciation is possible when frequency-dependent interactions such as intraspecific competition drive disruptive selection on a trait that is also subject to assortative mating. Here, I review recent evidence that both conditions are met in lake populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. Nonetheless, sympatric speciation appears to be rare or absent in stickleback. If stickleback qualitatively fit the theoretical requirements for sympatric speciation, why do they not undergo sympatric speciation? I present simulations showing that disruptive selection and assortative mating in stickleback, though present, are too weak to drive speciation. Furthermore, I summarize empirical evidence that disruptive selection in stickleback drives other forms of evolutionary diversification (plasticity, increased trait variance, and sexual dimorphism instead of speciation. In conclusion, core assumptions of sympatric speciation theory seem to be qualitatively reasonable for stickleback, but speciation may nevertheless fail because of (i quantitative mismatches with theory and (ii alternative evolutionary outcomes.

  19. A new clamp method for firing bricks | Obeng | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new clamp method for firing bricks. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... To overcome this operational deficiencies, a new method of firing bricks that uses brick clamp technique that incorporates a clamp wall of 60 cm thickness, a six tier approach of sealing the top of the clamp (by combination of green bricks) ...

  20. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  1. Determination methods for plutonium as applied in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The papers presented report on Pu-determination methods, which are routinely applied in process control, and also on new developments which could supercede current methods either because they are more accurate or because they are simpler and faster. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling head method (FHM and constant head method (CHM are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing through porous media. The testing results suggest that the water permeability of permeable concrete should be reported with the applied pressure and the associated testing method.

  3. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  4. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers’ datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  5. Antimony speciation analysis in sediment reference materials using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potin-Gautier, M.; Pannier, F.; Quiroz, W.; Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the development of suitable methodologies for determination of the speciation of antimony in sediment reference samples. Liquid chromatography with a post-column photo-oxidation step and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system is applied to the separation and determination of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony species. Post-column decomposition and hydride generation steps were studied for sensitive detection with the AFS detector. This method was applied to investigate the conditions under which speciation analysis of antimony in sediment samples can be carried out. Stability studies of Sb species during the extraction processes of solid matrices, using different reagents solutions, were performed. Results demonstrate that for the extraction yield and the stability of Sb species in different marine sediment extracts, citric acid in ascorbic acid medium was the best extracting solution for antimony speciation analysis in this matrix (between 55% and 65% of total Sb was recovered from CRMs, Sb(III) being the predominant species). The developed method allows the separation of the three compounds within 6 min with detection limits of 30 ng g -1 for Sb(III) and TMSbCl2 and 40 ng g -1 for Sb(V) in sediment samples

  6. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  7. Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes

    2005-01-01

    In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)

  8. Proposal and Evaluation of Management Method for College Mechatronics Education Applying the Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto

    In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.

  9. Perspective for applying traditional and inovative teaching and learning methods to nurses continuing education

    OpenAIRE

    Bendinskaitė, Irmina

    2015-01-01

    Bendinskaitė I. Perspective for applying traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods to nurse’s continuing education, magister thesis / supervisor Assoc. Prof. O. Riklikienė; Departament of Nursing and Care, Faculty of Nursing, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. – Kaunas, 2015, – p. 92 The purpose of this study was to investigate traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods perspective to nurse’s continuing education. Material and methods. In a period fro...

  10. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.

  11. Apparatus and method for applying an end plug to a fuel rod tube end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieben, S.L.; Wylie, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube, comprising: support means mounted for reciprocal movement between remote and adjacent positions relative to a nuclear fuel rod tube end to which an end plug is to be applied; guide means supported on the support means for movement; and drive means coupled to the support means and being actuatable for movement between retracted and extended positions for reciprocally moving the support means between its respective remote and adjacent positions. A method for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube is also described

  12. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  13. Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation

  14. Local regression type methods applied to the study of geophysics and high frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M. C.; Basu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this work we applied locally weighted scatterplot smoothing techniques (Lowess/Loess) to Geophysical and high frequency financial data. We first analyze and apply this technique to the California earthquake geological data. A spatial analysis was performed to show that the estimation of the earthquake magnitude at a fixed location is very accurate up to the relative error of 0.01%. We also applied the same method to a high frequency data set arising in the financial sector and obtained similar satisfactory results. The application of this approach to the two different data sets demonstrates that the overall method is accurate and efficient, and the Lowess approach is much more desirable than the Loess method. The previous works studied the time series analysis; in this paper our local regression models perform a spatial analysis for the geophysics data providing different information. For the high frequency data, our models estimate the curve of best fit where data are dependent on time.

  15. Method to detect substances in a body and device to apply the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, H.

    1978-01-01

    The method and the measuring disposition serve to localize pellets doped with Gd 2 O 3 , lying between UO 2 pellets within a reactor fuel rod. The fuel rod is penetrating a homogeneous magnetic field generated between two pole shoes. The magnetic stray field caused by the doping substances is then measured by means of Hall probes (e.g. InAs) for quantitative discrimination from UO 2 . The position of the Gd 2 O 3 -doped pellets is determined by moving the fuel rod through the magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the homogeneous field. The measuring signal is caused by the different susceptibility of Gd 2 O 3 with respect to UO 2 . (DG) [de

  16. Neutral Models with Generalised Speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.

    Hubbell's neutral theory claims that ecological patterns such as species abundance distributions can be explained by a stochastic model based on simple assumptions. One of these assumptions, the point mutation assumption, states that every individual has the same probability to speciate. Etienne et

  17. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological...

  18. The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.

    2000-01-01

    health and hygiene. The network covers a number of important issues including organotin compounds, chromium and nickel species, chemical characterisation of environmental and industrial particulate samples, risk assessment, selenium and a series of other essential and toxic elements in food, as well......The EC-funded thematic network 'Speciation 21' links scientists in analytical chemistry working in method development for the chemical speciation of trace elements, and potential users from industry and representatives of legislative agencies, in the field of environment, food and occupational...

  19. Speciation of Long-Lived Radionuclides in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    , isotopes of Pu, and 237Np in seawater, fresh water, soil, sediment, vegetations, and concrete. The developed methods are used for the investigation of the chemical speciation of these radionuclides as well as their environmental behaviours, especially in Danish environment. In addition the speciation of Pu...... isotopes in waste samples from the decommissioning of Danish nuclear facilities is also investigated. The report summarizes these works completed in this project. Through this research project, a number of research papers have been published in the scientific journals, the research results has also been...

  20. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Andre Miguel Barge Pontes Torres

    2005-01-01

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  1. Applying electric field to charged and polar particles between metallic plates: extension of the Ewald method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2013-09-28

    We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.

  2. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2014-05-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.

  3. Speciation of Co(II) and Ni(II) in anaerobic bioreactors measured by competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Steffen, F.; Threels, W.F.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive stripping voltammetry is applied to speciation analysis of dissolved Ni(II) and Co(II) in an anaerobic bioreactor and similar batch media. Co and Ni speciation in these media can be measured down to concentration levels of ca. 1 nM. Sulfide interference is

  4. Applying terminological methods and description logic for creating and implementing and ontology on inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2009-01-01

    By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form...

  5. Method of applying single higher order polynomial basis function over multiple domains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been devised where one set of higher order polynomial-based basis functions can be applied over several wire segments, thus permitting to decouple the number of unknowns from the number of segments, and so from the geometrical...

  6. Applied probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of applied reliability and risk analysis methods in nuclear safety and the present role of both in Germany, are discussed. First, some comments on the status and applications of reliability analysis are given. Second, some conclusions that can be drawn from previous work on the German Risk Study are summarized. (orig.)

  7. 21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  8. Splendor and misery of the distorted wave method applied to heavy ions transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The success and failure of the Distorted Wave Method (DWM) applied to heavy ion transfer reactions are illustrated by few examples: one and multi-nucleon transfer reactions induced by 15 N and 18 O on 28 Si target nucleus performed on the vicinity of Coulomb barrier respectively at 44 and 56 MeV incident energy

  9. A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)

  10. Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihong, Gao; Lichun, Li; Jun, Lu

    2001-01-01

    Examines and compares current trends in applied linguistics (AL) research methods in China and the West. Reviews AL articles in four Chinese journals, from 1978-1997, and four English journals from 1985 to 1997. Articles are categorized and subcategorized. Results show that in China, AL research is heading from non-empirical toward empirical, with…

  11. Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales

    1986-01-01

    The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...

  12. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  13. Relative Bioavailability and Bioaccessability and Speciation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Assessment of soil arsenic (As) bioavailability may profoundly affect the extent of remediation required at contaminated sites by improving human exposure estimates. Because small adjustments in soil As bioavailability estimates can significantly alter risk assessments and remediation goals, convenient, rapid, reliable, and inexpensive tools are needed to determine soil As bioavailability. Objectives: We evaluated inexpensive methods for assessing As bioavailability in soil as a means to improve human exposure estimates and potentially reduce remediation costs. Methods: Nine soils from residential sites affected by mining or smelting activity and two National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials were evaluated for As bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and speciation. Arsenic bioavailability was determined using an in vivo mouse model, and As bioaccessibility was determined using the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium in vitro assay. Arsenic speciation in soil and selected soil physicochemical properties were also evaluated to determine whether these parameters could be used as predictors of As bio¬availability and bioaccessibility. Results: In the mouse assay, we compared bioavailabilities of As in soils with that for sodium arsenate. Relative bioavailabilities (RBAs) of soil As ranged from 11% to 53% (mean, 33%). In vitro soil As bioaccessibility values were strongly correlated with soil As RBAs (R

  14. Resolving uncertainty in chemical speciation determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. Scott; Adams, Nicholas W. H.; Kramer, James R.

    1999-10-01

    Speciation determinations involve uncertainty in system definition and experimentation. Identification of appropriate metals and ligands from basic chemical principles, analytical window considerations, types of species and checking for consistency in equilibrium calculations are considered in system definition uncertainty. A systematic approach to system definition limits uncertainty in speciation investigations. Experimental uncertainty is discussed with an example of proton interactions with Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). A Monte Carlo approach was used to estimate uncertainty in experimental data, resulting from the propagation of uncertainties in electrode calibration parameters and experimental data points. Monte Carlo simulations revealed large uncertainties present at high (>9-10) and low (monoprotic ligands. Least-squares fit the data with 21 sites, whereas linear programming fit the data equally well with 9 sites. Multiresponse fitting, involving simultaneous fluorescence and pH measurements, improved model discrimination. Deconvolution of the excitation versus emission fluorescence surface for SRFA establishes a minimum of five sites. Diprotic sites are also required for the five fluorescent sites, and one non-fluorescent monoprotic site was added to accommodate the pH data. Consistent with greater complexity, the multiresponse method had broader confidence limits than the uniresponse methods, but corresponded better with the accepted total carboxylic content for SRFA. Overall there was a 40% standard deviation in total carboxylic content for the multiresponse fitting, versus 10% and 1% for least-squares and linear programming, respectively.

  15. Fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation ...

  16. Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems. ... method has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 ... is of no consequential effect because in its normal state, the [OH-] of the lake water is ...

  17. Speciation and migration of 129I in soil profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for speciation analysis of ultra low level 129I in soil using sequential extraction combined with coprecipitation for separation of carrier free iodine and AMS measurement of 129I. Two loess profiles collected from northwest China were analyzed for species of 129I...

  18. Chemical speciation analysis and environmental behaviour of 127I and 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-10-01

    the released 129 I. This means that geochemical models based on stable iodine behavior may not necessarily be able to predict the present behavior of I-129. Concentrations of 129 I and 127 I in archived Fucus Vesiculosus samples collected between 2002 - 2010 at Romoe (German Bight), Klint (Kattegat) and Bornholm were analysed. Since previous investigations have shown that iodine speciation differ between the sites a comparison between 129 I/ 127 I ratios in seaweed relative to water at the three sites were done in order to evaluate if uptake was independent on speciation. The 129 I/ 127 I (seaweed) relative 129 I/ 127 (seawater) were found to be 0.5 for the North Sea (2005), 0.7 (2006) for Southern Kattegat and 0.97 (2007) for Bornholm. In spite of the very different iodine speciation at the three sites the concentration ratio seaweed to water is more or less the same indicating that Fucus Vesiculosus can be used as a bio-indicator for iodine-129 in the marine environment. The results shows however that iodide is somewhat more efficient accumulate than iodate in Fucus. A rapid on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for direct speciation analysis of 127 I (as iodide and iodate) in water samples was developed. The method was further used for the speciation analysis of 127 I in freshwater and seawater (following dilution). The results demonstrate that the on-line HPLC - ICP - MS method developed in this study is reliable and efficient for accurate assay for speciation analysis of stable iodine in water samples. Due to the low concentrations of 129 I in the environment the HPLC-ICPMS method cannot be applied for speciation analysis of this isotope in environmental samples but can be applied for water samples highly contaminated with 129 I. (Author)

  19. A new effective Monte Carlo Midway coupling method in MCNP applied to a well logging problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, I.V.; John, T.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E

    1998-12-01

    The background of the Midway forward-adjoint coupling method including the black absorber technique for efficient Monte Carlo determination of radiation detector responses is described. The method is implemented in the general purpose MCNP Monte Carlo code. The utilization of the method is fairly straightforward and does not require any substantial extra expertise. The method was applied to a standard neutron well logging porosity tool problem. The results exhibit reliability and high efficiency of the Midway method. For the studied problem the efficiency gain is considerably higher than for a normal forward calculation, which is already strongly optimized by weight-windows. No additional effort is required to adjust the Midway model if the position of the detector or the porosity of the formation is changed. Additionally, the Midway method can be used with other variance reduction techniques if extra gain in efficiency is desired.

  20. Determination of activity of I-125 applying sum-peak methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelo Penna, Y.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Serra Aguila, R.; Moreno Leon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of activity of I-125 in radioactive solutions, applying sum-peak methods, by using an n-type HPGe detector of extended range is described. Two procedures were used for obtaining I-125 specific activity in solutions: a) an absolute method, which is independent of nuclear parameters and detector efficiency, and b) an option which consider constant the efficiency in the region of interest and involves calculations using nuclear parameters. The measurement geometries studied are specifically solid point sources. The relative deviations between specific activities, obtained by these different procedures are not higher than 1 %. Moreover, the activity of the radioactive solution was obtained by measuring it in NIST ampoule using a CAPINTEC CRC 35R dose calibrator. The consistency of obtained results, confirm the feasibility of applying direct methods of measurement for I-125 activity determinations, which allow us to achieve lower uncertainties in comparison with the relative methods of measurement. The establishment of these methods is aimed to be applied for the calibration of equipment and radionuclide dose calibrators used currently in clinical RIA/IRMA assays and Nuclear medicine practice respectively. (Author)

  1. An applied study using systems engineering methods to prioritize green systems options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sonya M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    For many years, there have been questions about the effectiveness of applying different green solutions. If you're building a home and wish to use green technologies, where do you start? While all technologies sound promising, which will perform the best over time? All this has to be considered within the cost and schedule of the project. The amount of information available on the topic can be overwhelming. We seek to examine if Systems Engineering methods can be used to help people choose and prioritize technologies that fit within their project and budget. Several methods are used to gain perspective into how to select the green technologies, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Kepner-Tregoe. In our study, subjects applied these methods to analyze cost, schedule, and trade-offs. Results will document whether the experimental approach is applicable to defining system priorities for green technologies.

  2. Economic consequences assessment for scenarios and actual accidents do the same methods apply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic consequences of major technological accidents, and their corresponding computer codes, are briefly presented with emphasis on the basic choices. When applied to hypothetic scenarios, those methods give results that are of interest for risk managers with a decision aiding perspective. Simultaneously the various costs, and the procedures for their estimation are reviewed for some actual accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl,..). These costs are used in a perspective of litigation and compensation. The comparison of the methods used and cost estimates obtained for scenarios and actual accidents shows the points of convergence and discrepancies that are discussed

  3. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  4. Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Nascimento, T.S.; Yamazaki, I.M.; Dias, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35 S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ► 35 S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ► Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. ► Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35 S activity in the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system

  5. Power System Oscillation Modes Identifications: Guidelines for Applying TLS-ESPRIT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Gopal R.; Soman, Shreevardhan

    2013-05-01

    Fast measurements of power system quantities available through wide-area measurement systems enables direct observations for power system electromechanical oscillations. But the raw observations data need to be processed to obtain the quantitative measures required to make any inference regarding the power system state. A detailed discussion is presented for the theory behind the general problem of oscillatory mode indentification. This paper presents some results on oscillation mode identification applied to a wide-area frequency measurements system. Guidelines for selection of parametes for obtaining most reliable results from the applied method are provided. Finally, some results on real measurements are presented with our inference on them.

  6. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  7. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  8. The speciation of dissolved elements in aquatic solution. Radium and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.

    1994-01-01

    In the publication, the chemistry and speciation of radium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, lutonium, americium and curium in ground-water environment is reviewed. Special attention is given to the transuranium elements, which have a central role in the repository of nuclear wastes. The most important methods used in the speciation of these elements is presented. The laser-induced methods, developed in the 1980's, are especially discussed. These have made it possible, e.g., to speciate the transuranium elements in their very low, actual repository ground-water concentrations (10-100 ng/l). (54 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.)

  9. Aspects of speciation in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crews, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    Food is the primary source of trace elements for humans and it is now generally accepted that the bioavailability of a given element and its behaviour in the body depends upon its chemical form. This point was illustrated with the example of arsenic speciation in fish in which bioaccumulation takes place in the marine food chain, however, the species of arsenic ingested by man when the fish is consumed are not toxic. It was pointed out that species information will be vital in deciding upon realistic average dietary requirements for trace elements, particularly because both deficiency or excess of an element can have detrimental consequences on an individual's health. Two examples of speciation studies with food (Cd and Se) were presented and the importance of the use of label technology which will allow studies of target analytes at physiological levels, was stressed

  10. Optimization of an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric method for the speciation analysis of oxyanion-forming metals and metalloids in leachates from cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Mesay; Wibetoe, Grethe; Engelsen, Christian J; Lund, Walter

    2010-10-01

    A method was developed for the speciation analysis of the oxyanions of As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), Sb(III), Sb(V), Se(IV), Se(VI) and V(V) in leachates from cement-based materials, based on anion-exchange HPLC coupled with ICP-MS. The method was optimized in a two-step multivariate approach: the effect of sample pH and mobile phase composition on resolution, peak symmetry and analysis time was studied. Optimum conditions were then identified for the significant experimental factors by studying their interdependence. A mobile phase composition of 20 mM ammonium nitrate, 50 mM ammonium tartrate and pH 9.5 was found to be a compromise optimum for the separation of the target analytes using isocratic elution. The optimum condition provided separation of the analytes in less than 6 min, at a mobile phase flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The signal intensities of the analytes were improved by adding 1% methanol to the mobile phase. The limit of detection of the method was in the range 0.2-2.2 μg/L for the various species. The effect of sample constituents was studied using spiked concrete leachates. The method was used to determine the target oxyanionic species in leachates generated from a concrete material in the pH range 3.5-12.4; CrO(4)(2-), MoO(4)(2-) and VO(4)(3-) were detected in most of the leachates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.

  12. Least Square NUFFT Methods Applied to 2D and 3D Radially Encoded MR Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiayu; Liu, Qing H.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Radially encoded MR imaging (MRI) has gained increasing attention in applications such as hyperpolarized gas imaging, contrast-enhanced MR angiography, and dynamic imaging, due to its motion insensitivity and improved artifact properties. However, since the technique collects k-space samples nonuniformly, multidimensional (especially 3D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The balance between reconstruction accuracy and speed becomes critical when a large data set is processed. Kaiser-Bessel gridding reconstruction has been widely used for non-Cartesian reconstruction. The objective of this work is to provide an alternative reconstruction option in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernels calculation. The work develops general multi-dimensional least square nonuniform fast Fourier transform (LS-NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space simulation and image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct the radially encoded k-space, although the method addresses general nonuniformity and is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance assessments are made by comparing the LS-NUFFT based method with the conventional Kaiser-Bessel gridding method for 2D and 3D radially encoded computer simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the LS-NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-speed efficiency than the Kaiser-Bessel gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. The accuracy of the LS-NUFFT method depends on the choice of scaling factor, and it is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as scaling factor and utilizing it into the LS-NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. When a cosine scaling factor is used, in particular, the LS-NUFFT method is faster than Kaiser-Bessel gridding method because of a quasi closed-form solution. The method is successfully applied to 2D and

  13. MODELING MONOMETHYLMERCURY AND TRIBUTYLTIN SPECIATION WITH EPA'S GEOCHEMICAL SPECIATION MODEL MINTEQA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the complexity of the various, simultaneous (and competing) equilibrium reactions governing the speciation of ionic species in aquatic systems, EPA has developed and distributed the geochemical speciation model MINTEQA2 (Brown and Allison, 1987, Allison et al., 1991; Hydrog...

  14. Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.

  15. Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestelle, L.C.; Mobrand, L.E.; Lichatowich, J.A.; Vogel, T.S.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual

  16. An Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method to Estimate Applied Biaxial Loads (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    VALIDATION A fatigue test was performed with an array of six surface-bonded PZT transducers on a 6061 aluminum plate as shown in Figure 4. The specimen...direct paths of propagation are oriented at different angles. This method is applied to experimental sparse array data recorded during a fatigue test...and the additional complication of the resulting fatigue cracks interfering with some of the direct arrivals is addressed via proper selection of

  17. Accuracy of the Adomian decomposition method applied to the Lorenz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.; Noorani, M.S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Bakar, S.A.; Ismail, E.S.; Zakaria, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to the famous Lorenz system. The ADM yields an analytical solution in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms. Comparisons between the decomposition solutions and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions are made for various time steps. In particular we look at the accuracy of the ADM as the Lorenz system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one

  18. Applying the Delphi method to assess impacts of forest management on biodiversity and habitat preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    This study applied a structured expert elicitation technique, the Delphi method, to identify the impacts of five forest management alternatives and several forest characteristics on the preservation of biodiversity and habitats in the boreal zone of the Nordic countries. The panel of experts...... as a valuable addition to on-going empirical and modeling efforts. The findings could assist forest managers in developing forest management strategies that generate benefits from timber production while taking into account the trade-offs with biodiversity goals....

  19. Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitanov Nikolay K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.

  20. Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.

    2018-03-01

    We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.

  1. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.

  2. The LTSN method used in transport equation, applied in nuclear engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tulio de

    2002-01-01

    The LTS N method solves analytically the S N equations, applying the Laplace transform in the spatial variable. This methodology is used in determination of scalar flux for neutrons and photons, absorbed dose rate, buildup factors and power for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads to the solution of a transcendental equations for effective multiplication, critical thickness and the atomic density. In this work numerical results are reported, considering multigroup problem in heterogeneous slab. (author)

  3. Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.

  4. Translation Methods Applied in Translating Quotations in “the Secret” by Rhonda

    OpenAIRE

    FEBRIANTI, VICKY

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Translation Methods, The Secret, Quotations.Translation helps human to get information written in any language evenwhen it is written in foreign languages. Therefore translation happens in printed media. Books have been popular printed media. The Secret written by Rhonda Byrne is a popular self-help book which has been translated into 50 languages including Indonesian (“The Secret”, n.d., para.5-6).This study is meant to find out the translation methods applied in The Secret. The wr...

  5. Development of a tracking method for augmented reality applied to nuclear plant maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Maeshima, Masayuki; Nakai, Toshinori; Bian, Zhiqiang; Ishii, Hirotake; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a plant maintenance support method is described, which employs the state-of-the-art information technology, Augmented Reality (AR), in order to improve efficiency of NPP maintenance work and to prevent from human error. Although AR has a great possibility to support various works in real world, it is difficult to apply it to actual work support because the tracking method is the bottleneck for the practical use. In this study, a bar code marker tracking method is proposed to apply AR system for a maintenance work support in NPP field. The proposed method calculates the users position and orientation in real time by two long markers, which are captured by the user-mounted camera. The markers can be easily pasted on the pipes in plant field, and they can be easily recognized in long distance in order to reduce the number of pasted markers in the work field. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory and plant field to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that (1) fast and stable tracking can be realized, (2) position error in camera view is less than 1%, which is almost perfect under the limitation of camera resolution, and (3) it is relatively difficult to catch two markers in one camera view especially in short distance

  6. Speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xun [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Gannan Teachers College, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Jia Jing [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang Zhenghao [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: zhwang@bnu.edu.cn

    2006-02-23

    A simple procedure was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS), without pre-reduction of As(V). Glassy carbon was selected as cathode material in the flow cell. An optimum catholyte concentration for simultaneous generation of arsine from As(III) and As(V) was 0.06 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Under the optimized conditions, adequate sensitivity and difference in ratio of slopes of the calibration curves for As(III) and As(V) can be achieved at the electrolytic currents of 0.6 and 1 A. The speciation of inorganic arsenic can be performed by controlling the electrolytic currents, and the concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the sample can be calculated according to the equations of absorbance additivity obtained at two selected electrolytic currents. The calibration curves were linear up to 50 ng ml{sup -1} for both As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 and 1 A. The detection limits of the method were 0.2 and 0.5 ng ml{sup -1} for As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 A, respectively. The relative standard deviations were of 2.1% for 20 ng ml{sup -1} As(III) and 2.5% for 20 ng ml{sup -1} As(V). The method was validated by the analysis of human hair certified reference material and successfully applied to speciation of soluble inorganic arsenic in Chinese medicine.

  7. Speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Jia Jing; Wang Zhenghao

    2006-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS), without pre-reduction of As(V). Glassy carbon was selected as cathode material in the flow cell. An optimum catholyte concentration for simultaneous generation of arsine from As(III) and As(V) was 0.06 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 . Under the optimized conditions, adequate sensitivity and difference in ratio of slopes of the calibration curves for As(III) and As(V) can be achieved at the electrolytic currents of 0.6 and 1 A. The speciation of inorganic arsenic can be performed by controlling the electrolytic currents, and the concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the sample can be calculated according to the equations of absorbance additivity obtained at two selected electrolytic currents. The calibration curves were linear up to 50 ng ml -1 for both As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 and 1 A. The detection limits of the method were 0.2 and 0.5 ng ml -1 for As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 A, respectively. The relative standard deviations were of 2.1% for 20 ng ml -1 As(III) and 2.5% for 20 ng ml -1 As(V). The method was validated by the analysis of human hair certified reference material and successfully applied to speciation of soluble inorganic arsenic in Chinese medicine

  8. Speciation analysis of cobalt in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio; Koyama, Motoko

    1994-01-01

    A combined method by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, as a separation method) with neutron activation analysis (as a detection method) have been applied to the speciation analysis of cobalt in daily foods (e.g. egg, fish and milk). Cobalt species including free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were separated with a preparative HPLC and a centrifuge. Subsequently, the determination of cobalt in the separated species was made by neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the content of the total cobalt in the foods was found to lie in the range 0.4-11ng/g(0.4-11ppb) based on wet weight. The compositions of free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were ranged 16-43%, 55-73%, 2.3-17%, respectively. These experimental evidences suggest that the combination of HPLC and neutron activation analysis is expected to be a useful tool for speciation analysis of trace elements in biological as well as environmental materials. (author)

  9. Applying the response matrix method for solving coupled neutron diffusion and transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibiya, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The numerical determination of the flux and power distribution in the design of large power reactors is quite a time-consuming procedure if the space under consideration is to be subdivided into very fine weshes. Many computing methods applied in reactor physics (such as the finite-difference method) require considerable computing time. In this thesis it is shown that the response matrix method can be successfully used as an alternative approach to solving the two-dimension diffusion equation. Furthermore it is shown that sufficient accuracy of the method is achieved by assuming a linear space dependence of the neutron currents on the boundaries of the geometries defined for the given space. (orig.) [de

  10. Method to integrate clinical guidelines into the electronic health record (EHR) by applying the archetypes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Diego; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral; Cicogna, Paulo Eduardo; Carvalho, Deborah Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Clinical guidelines are documents that assist healthcare professionals, facilitating and standardizing diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas. Computerized guidelines as decision support systems (DSS) attempt to increase the performance of tasks and facilitate the use of guidelines. Most DSS are not integrated into the electronic health record (EHR), ordering some degree of rework especially related to data collection. This study's objective was to present a method for integrating clinical guidelines into the EHR. The study developed first a way to identify data and rules contained in the guidelines, and then incorporate rules into an archetype-based EHR. The proposed method tested was anemia treatment in the Chronic Kidney Disease Guideline. The phases of the method are: data and rules identification; archetypes elaboration; rules definition and inclusion in inference engine; and DSS-EHR integration and validation. The main feature of the proposed method is that it is generic and can be applied toany type of guideline.

  11. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  12. Purex process modelling - do we really need speciation data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.J.; May, I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of reprocessing flowsheets has become a complex process requiring sophisticated simulation models, containing both chemical and engineering features. Probably the most basic chemical data needed is the distribution of process species between solvent and aqueous phases at equilibrium, which is described by mathematical algorithms. These algorithms have been constructed from experimentally determined distribution coefficients over a wide range of conditions. Distribution algorithms can either be empirical fits of the data or semi-empirical equations, which describe extraction as functions of process variables such as temperature, activity coefficients, uranium loading, etc. Speciation data is not strictly needed in the accumulation of distribution coefficients, which are simple ratios of analyte concentration in the solvent phase to that in the aqueous phase. However, as we construct process models of increasing complexity, speciation data becomes much more important both to raise confidence in the model and to understand the process chemistry at a more fundamental level. UV/vis/NIR spectrophotometry has been our most commonly used speciation method since it is a well-established method for the analysis of actinide ion oxidation states in solution at typical process concentrations. However, with the increasing availability to actinide science of more sophisticated techniques (e.g. NMR; EXAFS) complementary structural information can often be obtained. This paper will, through examples, show how we have used spectrophotometry as a primary tool in distribution and kinetic experiments to obtain data for process models, which are then validated through counter-current flowsheet trials. It will also discuss how spectrophotometry and other speciation methods are allowing us to study the link between molecular structure and extraction behaviour, showing how speciation data really is important in PUREX process modelling. (authors)

  13. Speciation of trace elements in the environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Elements present at trace levels, often referred as trace elements, play an important role in the environment and in the functioning of life on our planet. Trace elements in environment present as free metal ions or incorporated into colloids or attached to particulate matter or exist in different physical and chemical forms. It is well established that some elements are highly toxic and some are essential, but can become toxic at higher doses. It is also now known that the forms of elements (speciation) and their amounts are more important than the chemical dose of the elements as their interaction depends on different species. For example, Cr(VI) ions are considered far more toxic than Cr(III), whereas As(III) is more toxic than As(V). Similarly, in the case of mercury, both methylmercury and inorganic mercury are toxic but they show different levels of toxicity. Thus the adverse effects depend on the nature of species of the elements and therefore speciation studies are of paramount importance in many areas like toxicology, environmental chemistry and geochemisty. In view of this, speciation studies is a challenge to analytical chemists as the measurement methodologies have to be carefully developed, validated and applied. The grand challenge is to obtain quality data ensuring traceability, as the data obtained will be used in modeling for predicting the environmental impacts. In this talk importance of speciation and challenges to environmental analytical chemists will be discussed along with the following three speciation studies on Cr, U and Hg which were carried out in our laboratories

  14. Applying some methods to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanov, M.K.; Abdinov, O.B.; Belashev, B.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The methods of a posterior increasing the resolution of the spectral lines are offered to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions. The methods have applied to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions at high energies. They give possibilities to get more detail information on a structure of the spectra of particles emitted in the nuclear reactions. The nuclear reactions are main source of the information on the structure and physics of the atomic nuclei. Usually the spectrums of the fragments of the reactions are complex ones. Apparently it is not simple to extract the necessary for investigation information. In the talk we discuss the methods of a posterior increasing the resolution of the spectral lines. The methods could be useful to process the complex data coming from the nuclear reactions. We consider the Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The complex structures were identified by the method. One can see that at lest two selected points are indicated by the method. Recent we presented a talk where we shown that the results of the analyzing the structure of the pseudorapidity spectra of charged relativistic particles with ≥ 0.7 measured in Au+Em and Pb+Em at AGS and SPS energies using the Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The dependences of these spectra on the number of fast target protons were studied. These distribution shown visually some plateau and shoulder that was at least three selected points on the distributions. The plateaus become wider in PbEm reactions. The existing of plateau is necessary for the parton models. The maximum entropy method could confirm the existing of the plateau and the shoulder on the distributions. The figure shows the results of applying the maximum entropy method. One can see that the method indicates several clean selected points. Some of them same with observed visually ones. We would like to note that the Fourier transformation method could not

  15. Intestinal colic in newborn babies: incidence and methods of proceeding applied by parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal colic is one of the more frequent complaints that a general practitioner and paediatrician deal with in their work. 10-40% of babies formula fed and 10-20% breast fed are stricken by this complaint. A colic attack appears suddenly and very quickly causes energetic, squeaky cry or even scream. Colic attacks last for a few minutes and appear every 2-3 hours usually in the evenings. Specialist literature provides numerous definitions of intestinal colic. The concept was introduced for the first time to paediatric textbooks over 250 years ago. One of the most accurate definitions describe colic as recurring attacks of intensive cry and anxiety lasting for more than 3 hours a day, 3 days a week within 3 weeks. Care of a baby suffering from an intestinal colic causes numerous problems and anxiety among parents, therefore knowledge of effective methods to combat this complaint is a challenge for contemporary neonatology and paediatrics. The aim of the study is to estimate the incidence of intestinal colic in newborn babies formula and breast fed as well as to assess methods of proceeding applied by parents and analyze their effectiveness. Material and methods: The research involved 100 newborn babies breast fed and 100 formula fed, and their parents. The research method applied in the study was a diagnostic survey conducted by use of a questionnaire method. Results: Among examined newborn babies that were breast fed, 43% have experienced intestinal colic, while among those formula fed 30% have suffered from it. The study involved 44% new born female babies and 56% male babies. 52% of mothers were 30-34 years old, 30% 35-59 years old, and 17% 25-59 years old. When it comes to families, the most numerous was a group in good financial situation (60%. The second numerous group was that in average financial situation (40%. All the respondents claimed that they had the knowledge on intestinal colic and the main source of knowledge

  16. Should methods of correction for multiple comparisons be applied in pharmacovigilance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Scotti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In pharmacovigilance, spontaneous reporting databases are devoted to the early detection of adverse event ‘signals’ of marketed drugs. A common limitation of these systems is the wide number of concurrently investigated associations, implying a high probability of generating positive signals simply by chance. However it is not clear if the application of methods aimed to adjust for the multiple testing problems are needed when at least some of the drug-outcome relationship under study are known. To this aim we applied a robust estimation method for the FDR (rFDR particularly suitable in the pharmacovigilance context. Methods. We exploited the data available for the SAFEGUARD project to apply the rFDR estimation methods to detect potential false positive signals of adverse reactions attributable to the use of non-insulin blood glucose lowering drugs. Specifically, the number of signals generated from the conventional disproportionality measures and after the application of the rFDR adjustment method was compared. Results. Among the 311 evaluable pairs (i.e., drug-event pairs with at least one adverse event report, 106 (34% signals were considered as significant from the conventional analysis. Among them 1 resulted in false positive signals according to rFDR method. Conclusions. The results of this study seem to suggest that when a restricted number of drug-outcome pairs is considered and warnings about some of them are known, multiple comparisons methods for recognizing false positive signals are not so useful as suggested by theoretical considerations.

  17. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  18. Power secant method applied to natural frequency extraction of Timoshenko beam structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.N. Dias

    Full Text Available This work deals with an improved plane frame formulation whose exact dynamic stiffness matrix (DSM presents, uniquely, null determinant for the natural frequencies. In comparison with the classical DSM, the formulation herein presented has some major advantages: local mode shapes are preserved in the formulation so that, for any positive frequency, the DSM will never be ill-conditioned; in the absence of poles, it is possible to employ the secant method in order to have a more computationally efficient eigenvalue extraction procedure. Applying the procedure to the more general case of Timoshenko beams, we introduce a new technique, named "power deflation", that makes the secant method suitable for the transcendental nonlinear eigenvalue problems based on the improved DSM. In order to avoid overflow occurrences that can hinder the secant method iterations, limiting frequencies are formulated, with scaling also applied to the eigenvalue problem. Comparisons with results available in the literature demonstrate the strength of the proposed method. Computational efficiency is compared with solutions obtained both by FEM and by the Wittrick-Williams algorithm.

  19. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  20. A methodological framework applied to the choice of the best method in replacement of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2009-01-01

    The economic equipment replacement problem is a central question in Nuclear Engineering. On the one hand, new equipment are more attractive given their best performance, better reliability, lower maintenance cost etc. New equipment, however, require a higher initial investment. On the other hand, old equipment represent the other way around, with lower performance, lower reliability and specially higher maintenance costs, but in contrast having lower financial and insurance costs. The weighting of all these costs can be made with deterministic and probabilistic methods applied to the study of equipment replacement. Two types of distinct problems will be examined, substitution imposed by the wearing and substitution imposed by the failures. In order to solve the problem of nuclear system substitution imposed by wearing, deterministic methods are discussed. In order to solve the problem of nuclear system substitution imposed by failures, probabilistic methods are discussed. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework to the choice of the most useful method applied in the problem of nuclear system substitution.(author)

  1. Speciation and solubility of neptunium in underground environments by paper electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, S.; Tanaka, Satoru; Takahashi, Yoichi

    1988-01-01

    Speciation and solubility of neptunium were studied using paper electrophoresis, ion exchange and ultrafiltration. Among these methods, the paper electrophoresis was found to be suitable for measuring speciation and solubility of neptunium of low concentration, if chemical species had opposite charge to each other or dissolved species had a charge. Using paper electrophoresis, hydrolysis constants of NpO 2 OH 0 and NpO 2 - (OH) 2 - and solubility product of NpO 2 were obtained and ionic-strength dependence of speciation was observed. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)

  3. Artificial intelligence methods applied for quantitative analysis of natural radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Basic description of artificial neural networks. ► Natural gamma ray sources and problem of detections. ► Application of neural network for peak detection and activity determination. - Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) represents one of artificial intelligence methods in the field of modeling and uncertainty in different applications. The objective of the proposed work was focused to apply ANN to identify isotopes and to predict uncertainties of their activities of some natural radioactive sources. The method was tested for analyzing gamma-ray spectra emitted from natural radionuclides in soil samples detected by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe (high purity germanium). The principle of the suggested method is described, including, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. It is clear that there is satisfactory agreement between obtained and predicted results using neural network.

  4. Scalable Methods for Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulation Applied to Compressible Multiphase Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, David; Hackl, Jason; Balachandar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Multiphase flows can be found in countless areas of physics and engineering. Many of these flows can be classified as dispersed two-phase flows, meaning that there are solid particles dispersed in a continuous fluid phase. A common technique for simulating such flow is the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. While useful, this method can suffer from scaling issues on larger problem sizes that are typical of many realistic geometries. Here we present scalable techniques for Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations and apply it to the simulation of a particle bed subjected to expansion waves in a shock tube. The results show that the methods presented here are viable for simulation of larger problems on modern supercomputers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  5. Relativistic convergent close-coupling method applied to electron scattering from mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor

    2010-01-01

    We report on the extension of the recently formulated relativistic convergent close-coupling (RCCC) method to accommodate two-electron and quasi-two-electron targets. We apply the theory to electron scattering from mercury and obtain differential and integrated cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. We compared with previous nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations and for a number of transitions obtained significantly better agreement with the experiment. The RCCC method is able to resolve structure in the integrated cross sections for the energy regime in the vicinity of the excitation thresholds for the (6s6p) 3 P 0,1,2 states. These cross sections are associated with the formation of negative ion (Hg - ) resonances that could not be resolved with the nonrelativistic CCC method. The RCCC results are compared with the experiment and other relativistic theories.

  6. A reflective lens: applying critical systems thinking and visual methods to ecohealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Deborah; Wyborn, Carina

    2010-12-01

    Critical systems methodology has been advocated as an effective and ethical way to engage with the uncertainty and conflicting values common to ecohealth problems. We use two contrasting case studies, coral reef management in the Philippines and national park management in Australia, to illustrate the value of critical systems approaches in exploring how people respond to environmental threats to their physical and spiritual well-being. In both cases, we used visual methods--participatory modeling and rich picturing, respectively. The critical systems methodology, with its emphasis on reflection, guided an appraisal of the research process. A discussion of these two case studies suggests that visual methods can be usefully applied within a critical systems framework to offer new insights into ecohealth issues across a diverse range of socio-political contexts. With this article, we hope to open up a conversation with other practitioners to expand the use of visual methods in integrated research.

  7. Numerical consideration for multiscale statistical process control method applied to nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Masato; Asou, Ryoji; Usuda, Shigekazu

    2006-01-01

    The multiscale statistical process control (MSSPC) method is applied to clarify the elements of material unaccounted for (MUF) in large scale reprocessing plants using numerical calculations. Continuous wavelet functions are used to decompose the process data, which simulate batch operation superimposed by various types of disturbance, and the disturbance components included in the data are divided into time and frequency spaces. The diagnosis of MSSPC is applied to distinguish abnormal events from the process data and shows how to detect abrupt and protracted diversions using principle component analysis. Quantitative performance of MSSPC for the time series data is shown with average run lengths given by Monte-Carlo simulation to compare to the non-detection probability β. Recent discussion about bias corrections in material balances is introduced and another approach is presented to evaluate MUF without assuming the measurement error model. (author)

  8. The reduction method of statistic scale applied to study of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal Suarez, Nestor Ricardo; Molina Lizcano, Alicia; Martinez Collantes, Jorge; Pabon Jose Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In climate change studies the global circulation models of the atmosphere (GCMAs) enable one to simulate the global climate, with the field variables being represented on a grid points 300 km apart. One particular interest concerns the simulation of possible changes in rainfall and surface air temperature due to an assumed increase of greenhouse gases. However, the models yield the climatic projections on grid points that in most cases do not correspond to the sites of major interest. To achieve local estimates of the climatological variables, methods like the one known as statistical down scaling are applied. In this article we show a case in point by applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to the Guajira Region in the northeast of Colombia

  9. Parallel Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods Applied to Coupled Orbit/Attitude Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-12-01

    A variable-step Gauss-Legendre implicit Runge-Kutta (GLIRK) propagator is applied to coupled orbit/attitude propagation. Concepts previously shown to improve efficiency in 3DOF propagation are modified and extended to the 6DOF problem, including the use of variable-fidelity dynamics models. The impact of computing the stage dynamics of a single step in parallel is examined using up to 23 threads and 22 associated GLIRK stages; one thread is reserved for an extra dynamics function evaluation used in the estimation of the local truncation error. Efficiency is found to peak for typical examples when using approximately 8 to 12 stages for both serial and parallel implementations. Accuracy and efficiency compare favorably to explicit Runge-Kutta and linear-multistep solvers for representative scenarios. However, linear-multistep methods are found to be more efficient for some applications, particularly in a serial computing environment, or when parallelism can be applied across multiple trajectories.

  10. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.

  11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied

  12. Study of Ascorbic Acid as Iron(III Reducing Agent for Spectrophotometric Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesar Elmagirbi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for iron(III has been investigated in order to obtain an alternative carcinogenic reducing agent, hydroxylamine, used in spectrophotometric standard method based on the formation of a red-orange complex of Fe(II-o-phenanthroline. The study was optimised with regards to ascorbic acid concentration as well as pH solution. The results showed that ascorbic acid showed maximum capacity as reducing agent of iron(III under concentration of 4.46.10-4 M and pH solution of 1-4.Under these conditions, ascorbic acid reduced iron(III proportionally and performed similarly to that of hydroxylamine.  The method gave result to linear calibration over the range of 0.2-2 mg/L withhigh accuracy of 97 % and relative standard deviation of less than 2 %. This method was successfully applied to assay iron speciation in water samples.

  13. The Fractional Step Method Applied to Simulations of Natural Convective Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes research done to apply the Fractional Step Method to finite-element simulations of natural convective flows in pure liquids, permeable media, and in a directionally solidified metal alloy casting. The Fractional Step Method has been applied commonly to high Reynold's number flow simulations, but is less common for low Reynold's number flows, such as natural convection in liquids and in permeable media. The Fractional Step Method offers increased speed and reduced memory requirements by allowing non-coupled solution of the pressure and the velocity components. The Fractional Step Method has particular benefits for predicting flows in a directionally solidified alloy, since other methods presently employed are not very efficient. Previously, the most suitable method for predicting flows in a directionally solidified binary alloy was the penalty method. The penalty method requires direct matrix solvers, due to the penalty term. The Fractional Step Method allows iterative solution of the finite element stiffness matrices, thereby allowing more efficient solution of the matrices. The Fractional Step Method also lends itself to parallel processing, since the velocity component stiffness matrices can be built and solved independently of each other. The finite-element simulations of a directionally solidified casting are used to predict macrosegregation in directionally solidified castings. In particular, the finite-element simulations predict the existence of 'channels' within the processing mushy zone and subsequently 'freckles' within the fully processed solid, which are known to result from macrosegregation, or what is often referred to as thermo-solutal convection. These freckles cause material property non-uniformities in directionally solidified castings; therefore many of these castings are scrapped. The phenomenon of natural convection in an alloy under-going directional solidification, or thermo-solutal convection, will be explained. The

  14. Investigation of actinides speciation within the presence of ligands of interest for decorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Data about the behaviour of actinides in biological media are required in order to investigate their decorporation. Those data are obtained through in vivo experiments and the study of chemical speciation of actinides within the presence of biological constituents. A part of this work consists in the development of a method leading to the determination of the speciation of actinides at the oxidation state +IV within the presence of a complexing species, as well as its structure. The method was applied to two types of ligands: 1) a constituent of blood plasma: the citrate anion. The various complexes formed were investigated and their formation constants were quantified. The coordination mode of the ligand was then clarified through a structural study of the complexes, underlining the role of only one carboxylic site and of the alcohol function. 2) chelating agents used for decorporation. The formation constants of complexes of An(IV) with NTA and DTPA were determined. The coordination number of the metallic cation in those complexes as well as the role of the nitrogen atom were proved. Lastly, the behaviour of Pu(IV) within the presence of LIHOPO was investigated. This chelating agent, more efficient than DTPA in the case of in vivo decorporation of Np, forms very stable complexes with the metallic cation. One of those complexes can be assumed to present a stoichiometry 2:3. (author)

  15. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  16. Resonating group method as applied to the spectroscopy of α-transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, V. B.; Semjonov, V. M.; Gridnev, K. A.; Hefter, E. F.

    1983-10-01

    In the conventional approach to α-transfer reactions the finite- and/or zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is used in liaison with a macroscopic description of the captured α particle in the residual nucleus. Here the specific example of 16O(6Li,d)20Ne reactions at different projectile energies is taken to present a microscopic resonating group method analysis of the α particle in the final nucleus (for the reaction part the simple zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is employed). In the discussion of suitable nucleon-nucleon interactions, force number one of the effective interactions presented by Volkov is shown to be most appropriate for the system considered. Application of the continuous analog of Newton's method to the evaluation of the resonating group method equations yields an increased accuracy with respect to traditional methods. The resonating group method description induces only minor changes in the structures of the angular distributions, but it does serve its purpose in yielding reliable and consistent spectroscopic information. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 16O(6Li,d)20Ne; E=20 to 32 MeV; calculated B(E2); reduced widths, dσdΩ extracted α-spectroscopic factors. ZRDWBA with microscope RGM description of residual α particle in 20Ne; application of continuous analog of Newton's method; tested and applied Volkov force No. 1; direct mechanism.

  17. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  18. The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.

  19. Comparison of Heuristic Methods Applied for Optimal Operation of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Borhani Dariane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources optimization problems are usually complex and hard to solve using the ordinary optimization methods, or they are at least  not economically efficient. A great number of studies have been conducted in quest of suitable methods capable of handling such problems. In recent years, some new heuristic methods such as genetic and ant algorithms have been introduced in systems engineering. Preliminary applications of these methods in water resources problems have shown that some of them are powerful tools, capable of solving complex problems. In this paper, the application of such heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO have been studied for optimizing reservoir operation. The Dez Dam reservoir inIranwas chosen for a case study. The methods were applied and compared using short-term (one year and long-term models. Comparison of the results showed that GA outperforms both DP and ACO in finding true global optimum solutions and operating rules.

  20. Boundary element methods applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi

    1985-01-01

    The Boundary element method (BEM) has been applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems. The boundary integral equation and its discretized form have been derived. Some numerical techniques have been developed, which can be applied to critical and fixed-source problems including multi-region ones. Two types of test programs have been developed according to whether the 'zero-determinant search' or the 'source iteration' technique is adopted for criticality search. Both programs require only the fluxes and currents on boundaries as the unknown variables. The former allows a reduction in computing time and memory in comparison with the finite element method (FEM). The latter is not always efficient in terms of computing time due to the domain integral related to the inhomogeneous source term; however, this domain integral can be replaced by the equivalent boundary integral for a region with a non-multiplying medium or with a uniform source, resulting in a significant reduction in computing time. The BEM, as well as the FEM, is well suited for solving irregular geometrical problems for which the finite difference method (FDM) is unsuited. The BEM also solves problems with infinite domains, which cannot be solved by the ordinary FEM and FDM. Some simple test calculations are made to compare the BEM with the FEM and FDM, and discussions are made concerning the relative merits of the BEM and problems requiring future solution. (author)

  1. Methodical basis of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Anatskyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop methodical bases of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions. Material and methods: Cadets of 2-3 courses at the age of 19-20 years (n=20 participated in researches. Cadets were selected by the best results of exercises performing included into the program of military applied heptathlon competitions (100 m run, 50 m freestyle swimming, Kalashnikov rifle shooting, pull-up, obstacle course, grenade throwing, 3000 m run. Preparation took place on the basis of training center. All trainings were organized and carried out according to the methodical basics: in a week preparation microcycle five days cadets had two trainings a day (on Saturday was one training, on Sunday they had rest. The selected exercises with individual loads were performed, Results : Sport scores demonstrated top results in the performance of 100 m run, 3000 m run and pull-up. The indices of performing exercise "obstacle course" were much lower than expected. Rather low results were demonstrated in swimming and shooting. Conclusions . Results of researches indicate the necessity of quality improvement: cadets’ weapons proficiency; physical readiness to perform the exercises requiring complex demonstration of all physical qualities.

  2. Nutrient Runoff Losses from Liquid Dairy Manure Applied with Low-Disturbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William; Sherman, Jessica; Cavadini, Jason

    2016-09-01

    Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance. These include strip-till injection and tine aerator-band manure application, which were compared with standard broadcast application, either incorporated with a disk or left on the surface. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator (42 mm h for 30 min) three separate times: (i) 2 to 5 d after the October manure application, (ii) in early spring, and (iii) after tillage and planting. In the postmanure application runoff, the highest losses of total P and dissolved reactive P were from surface-applied manure. Dissolved P loss was reduced 98% by strip-till injection; this result was not statistically different from the no-manure control. Reductions from the aerator band method and disk incorporation were 53 and 80%, respectively. Total P losses followed a similar pattern, with 87% reduction from injected manure. Runoff losses of N had generally similar patterns to those of P. Losses of P and N were, in most cases, lower in the spring rain simulations with fewer significant treatment effects. Overall, results show that low-disturbance manure application methods can significantly reduce nutrient runoff losses compared with surface application while maintaining residue cover better than incorporation by tillage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Electrochemical noise measurements techniques and the reversing dc potential drop method applied to stress corrosion essays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar Fernandes; Andrade, Arnaldo Paes de; MattarNeto, Miguel; Aoki, Idalina Vieira

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to collect information and to discuss the electrochemical noise measurements and the reversing dc potential drop method, applied to stress corrosion essays that can be used to evaluate the nucleation and the increase of stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 600 and/or Alloy 182 specimens from Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore we will pretend to establish a standard procedure to essays to be realized on the new autoclave equipment on the Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e Corrosao do Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo - Electrochemical and Corrosion Laboratory of the Chemical Engineering Department of Polytechnical School of Sao Paulo University, Brazil. (author)

  4. Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.

  5. A semiempirical method of applying the dechanneling correction in the extraction of disorder distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.S.; Thompson, D.A.; Poehlman, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    The application of single, plural or multiple scattering theories to the determination of defect dechanneling in channeling-backscattering disorder measurements is re-examined. A semiempirical modification to the method is described that results in making the extracted disorder and disorder distribution relatively insensitive to the scattering model employed. The various models and modifications have been applied to the 1 to 2 MeV He + channeling-backscatter data obtained from 20 to 80 keV H + to Ne + bombarded Si, GaP and GaAs at 50 K and 300 K. (author)

  6. Zoltàn Dörnyei, Research Methods in Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Françoise Narcy-Combes

    2012-01-01

    Research Methods in Applied Linguistics est un ouvrage pratique et accessible qui s’adresse en priorité au chercheur débutant et au doctorant en linguistique appliquée et en didactique des langues pour lesquels il représente un accompagnement fort utile. Son style clair et son organisation sans surprise en font une lecture facile et agréable et rendent les différents concepts aisément compréhensibles pour tous. Il présente un bilan de la méthodologie de la recherche en linguistique appliquée,...

  7. Cork-resin ablative insulation for complex surfaces and method for applying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. M.; Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method of applying cork-resin ablative insulation material to complex curved surfaces is disclosed. The material is prepared by mixing finely divided cork with a B-stage curable thermosetting resin, forming the resulting mixture into a block, B-stage curing the resin-containing block, and slicing the block into sheets. The B-stage cured sheet is shaped to conform to the surface being insulated, and further curing is then performed. Curing of the resins only to B-stage before shaping enables application of sheet material to complex curved surfaces and avoids limitations and disadvantages presented in handling of fully cured sheet material.

  8. Perturbative methods applied for sensitive coefficients calculations in thermal-hydraulic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1993-01-01

    The differential formalism and the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) are applied to sensitivity analysis of thermal-hydraulics problems related to pressurized water reactor cores. The equations describing the thermal-hydraulic behavior of these reactors cores, used in COBRA-IV-I code, are conveniently written. The importance function related to the response of interest and the sensitivity coefficient of this response with respect to various selected parameters are obtained by using Differential and Generalized Perturbation Theory. The comparison among the results obtained with the application of these perturbative methods and those obtained directly with the model developed in COBRA-IV-I code shows a very good agreement. (author)

  9. Uranium speciation in Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Conradson, S.D.; Tait, C.D.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Berg, J.; Musgrave, J.

    1992-01-01

    This report details progress made from January 1 to May 31, 1992 in this analytical support task to determine the speciation of uranium in contaminated soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site under the auspices of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration funded through the US DOE's Office of Technology Development. The authors' efforts have focused on characterization of soil samples collected by S.Y. Lee (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) from five locales at the Fernald site. These were chosen to sample a broad range of uranium source terms. On the basis of x-ray absorption spectroscopy data, they have determined that the majority of uranium (> 80--90%) exists in the hexavalent oxidation state for all samples examined. This is a beneficial finding from the perspective of remediation, because U(VI) species are more soluble in general than uranium species in other oxidation states. Optical luminescence data from many of the samples show the characteristic structured yellow-green emission from the uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) moiety. The luminescence data also suggest that much of the uranium in these soils is present as well-crystallized UO 2 2+ species. Some clear spectroscopic distinctions have been noted for several samples that illustrate significant differences in the speciation (1) from site to site, (2) within different horizons at the same site, and (3) within different size fractions of the soils in the same horizon at the same site. This marked heterogeneity in uranyl speciation suggests that several soil washing strategies may be necessary to reduce the total uranium concentrations within these soils to regulatory limits

  10. Ion-pair chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IPC-ICP-MS) as a method for thiomolybdate speciation in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmayer, Regina; Reithmaier, Gloria Maria Susanne; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2015-03-17

    Molybdenum precipitates preferentially under reducing conditions; therefore, its occurrence in sediment records is used as an indicator of paleoredox conditions. Although thiomolybdates (MoO4-xSx(2-) with x = 1-4) supposedly are necessary intermediates in the process of molybdenum precipitation under anoxic conditions, there is no information about their abundance in natural environments, because of a lack of element-specific methods with sufficiently low detection limits. Here, we optimized ion-pair chromatographic separation for coupling to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detector (IPC-ICP-MS). 2-Propanol (10%-25% gradient) replaced the previously used acetonitrile (25%-75%) as the solvent, to reduce the carbon load into the plasma. In synthetic solutions, formation of thiomolybdates was found to occur spontaneously in the presence of excess sulfide and the degree of thiolation was highest at pH 7. Excess hydroxyl led to a transformation of thiomolybdates to molybdate. Under acidic to neutral conditions, precipitation of molybdenum and hydrolysis of tetrathiomolybdate were observed. Flash-freezing was found to be suitable to stabilize tetrathiomolybdate, with 2 mM) negatively affected the detection of molybdate, which eluted mainly in the dead volume, but had no negative effect on higher thiolated molybdates. Detection limits were ∼10 nM. With the newly developed IPC-ICP-MS method, thiomolybdates were found to form spontaneously in euxinic marine waters after adding a molybdate spike and occur naturally in sulfidic geothermal waters.

  11. Geometric methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths applied to Vienna's streetscape surfaces database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Tadej; Graser, Anita; Leth, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Space, and in particular public space for movement and leisure, is a valuable and scarce resource, especially in today's growing urban centres. The distribution and absolute amount of urban space—especially the provision of sufficient pedestrian areas, such as sidewalks—is considered crucial for shaping living and mobility options as well as transport choices. Ubiquitous urban data collection and today's IT capabilities offer new possibilities for providing a relation-preserving overview and for keeping track of infrastructure changes. This paper presents three novel methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths and applies them to the official Viennese streetscape surface database. The first two methods use individual pedestrian area polygons and their geometrical representations of minimum circumscribing and maximum inscribing circles to derive a representative width of these individual surfaces. The third method utilizes aggregated pedestrian areas within the buffered street axis and results in a representative width for the corresponding road axis segment. Results are displayed as city-wide means in a 500 by 500 m grid and spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's I is studied. We also compare the results between methods as well as to previous research, existing databases and guideline requirements on sidewalk widths. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these methods for monitoring and regression analysis and suggest future methodological improvements for increased accuracy.

  12. MAIA - Method for Architecture of Information Applied: methodological construct of information processing in complex contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Moura Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.

  13. A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571

  14. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  15. Complex Method Mixed with PSO Applying to Optimization Design of Bridge Crane Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineer design, basic complex method has not enough global search ability for the nonlinear optimization problem, so it mixed with particle swarm optimization (PSO has been presented in the paper,that is the optimal particle evaluated from fitness function of particle swarm displacement complex vertex in order to realize optimal principle of the largest complex central distance.This method is applied to optimization design problems of box girder of bridge crane with constraint conditions.At first a mathematical model of the girder optimization has been set up,in which box girder cross section area of bridge crane is taken as the objective function, and its four sizes parameters as design variables, girder mechanics performance, manufacturing process, border sizes and so on requirements as constraint conditions. Then complex method mixed with PSO is used to solve optimization design problem of cane box girder from constrained optimization studying approach, and its optimal results have achieved the goal of lightweight design and reducing the crane manufacturing cost . The method is reliable, practical and efficient by the practical engineer calculation and comparative analysis with basic complex method.

  16. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies...

  17. Efficient alpha particle detection by CR-39 applying 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Soltani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha particles can be detected by CR-39 by applying either chemical etching (CE), electrochemical etching (ECE), or combined pre-etching and ECE usually through a multi-step HF-HV ECE process at temperatures much higher than room temperature. By applying pre-etching, characteristics responses of fast-neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 by HF-HV ECE versus KOH normality (N) have shown two high-sensitivity peaks around 5–6 and 15–16 N and a large-diameter peak with a minimum sensitivity around 10–11 N at 25°C. On the other hand, 50 Hz-HV ECE method recently advanced in our laboratory detects alpha particles with high efficiency and broad registration energy range with small ECE tracks in polycarbonate (PC) detectors. By taking advantage of the CR-39 sensitivity to alpha particles, efficacy of 50 Hz-HV ECE method and CR-39 exotic responses under different KOH normalities, detection characteristics of 0.8 MeV alpha particle tracks were studied in 500 μm CR-39 for different fluences, ECE duration and KOH normality. Alpha registration efficiency increased as ECE duration increased to 90 ± 2% after 6–8 h beyond which plateaus are reached. Alpha track density versus fluence is linear up to 10 6  tracks cm −2 . The efficiency and mean track diameter versus alpha fluence up to 10 6  alphas cm −2 decrease as the fluence increases. Background track density and minimum detection limit are linear functions of ECE duration and increase as normality increases. The CR-39 processed for the first time in this study by 50 Hz-HV ECE method proved to provide a simple, efficient and practical alpha detection method at room temperature. - Highlights: • Alpha particles of 0.8 MeV were detected in CR-39 by 50 Hz-HV ECE method. • Efficiency/track diameter was studied vs fluence and time for 3 KOH normality. • Background track density and minimum detection limit vs duration were studied. • A new simple, efficient and low-cost alpha detection method

  18. Impact of Eu(III) on mammalian cells as a function of its speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Susanne; Heller, Anne; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In the case of the accidental release of long-lived radionuclides, e.g., actinides, into the environment, knowledge of their behavior in bio-systems is necessary to asses and to prevent radiological and chemical induced adverse health effects. This includes knowledge of the bioavailability and chemo-/radio-toxicity of these elements for/onto cells, which are governed to a large extent by their speciation [1,2]. In order to gain a better process understanding, we study the interaction of trivalent actinides/lanthanides with mammalian cells on a cellular level combining biochemical and analytical methods. Results of these studies can contribute to the estimation of low dose effects and the development of new decontamination strategies. The cellular tolerance of FaDu cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cell line) toward Eu(III) as an analog for trivalent actinides as well as its uptake into the cells has been studied as a function of the Eu(III) concentration and nutrient composition. To differentiate between chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects of Eu(III), {sup 152}Eu (β{sup -}, ε) was applied as radioactive tracer besides europium with natural isotope composition. The Eu(III) speciation in the cell culture media has been investigated by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as well as by solubility studies in combination with ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, cation and anion analysis. These results are used to correlate cytotoxicity and uptake of Eu(III) on/into the cells with its chemical speciation in the nutrient. Presently, we are studying the interaction of Eu(III) with NRK-52E cells (rat kidney epithelial-like cells). The results of these studies will be discussed and compared to those obtained with FaDu cells. From the studies with FaDu cells it was concluded that the Eu(III) cytotoxicity onto these cells depends on the Eu(III) concentration and is influenced by its chemical speciation. This was also reported, for instance, for the

  19. A METHOD FOR PREPARING A SUBSTRATE BY APPLYING A SAMPLE TO BE ANALYSED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for preparing a substrate (105a) comprising a sample reception area (110) and a sensing area (111). The method comprises the steps of: 1) applying a sample on the sample reception area; 2) rotating the substrate around a predetermined axis; 3) during rotation......, at least part of the liquid travels from the sample reception area to the sensing area due to capillary forces acting between the liquid and the substrate; and 4) removing the wave of particles and liquid formed at one end of the substrate. The sensing area is closer to the predetermined axis than...... the sample reception area. The sample comprises a liquid part and particles suspended therein....

  20. Simplified inelastic analysis methods applied to fast breeder reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-El-Ata, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper starts with a review of some currently available simplified inelastic analysis methods used in elevated temperature design for evaluating plastic and thermal creep strains. The primary purpose of the paper is to investigate how these simplified methods may be applied to fast breeder reactor core design where neutron irradiation effects are significant. One of the problems discussed is irradiation-induced creep and its effect on shakedown, ratcheting, and plastic cycling. Another problem is the development of swelling-induced stress which is an additional loading mechanism and must be taken into account. In this respect an expression for swelling-induced stress in the presence of irradiation creep is derived and a model for simplifying the stress analysis under these conditions is proposed. As an example, the effects of irradiation creep and swelling induced stress on the analysis of a thin walled tube under constant internal pressure and intermittent heat fluxes, simulating a fuel pin, is presented

  1. Analytical Plug-In Method for Kernel Density Estimator Applied to Genetic Neutrality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudi, Molka; Alimi, Adel M.; Saoudi, Samir

    2008-12-01

    The plug-in method enables optimization of the bandwidth of the kernel density estimator in order to estimate probability density functions (pdfs). Here, a faster procedure than that of the common plug-in method is proposed. The mean integrated square error (MISE) depends directly upon [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] which is linked to the second-order derivative of the pdf. As we intend to introduce an analytical approximation of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], the pdf is estimated only once, at the end of iterations. These two kinds of algorithm are tested on different random variables having distributions known for their difficult estimation. Finally, they are applied to genetic data in order to provide a better characterisation in the mean of neutrality of Tunisian Berber populations.

  2. Analytical Plug-In Method for Kernel Density Estimator Applied to Genetic Neutrality Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saoudi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in method enables optimization of the bandwidth of the kernel density estimator in order to estimate probability density functions (pdfs. Here, a faster procedure than that of the common plug-in method is proposed. The mean integrated square error (MISE depends directly upon J(f which is linked to the second-order derivative of the pdf. As we intend to introduce an analytical approximation of J(f, the pdf is estimated only once, at the end of iterations. These two kinds of algorithm are tested on different random variables having distributions known for their difficult estimation. Finally, they are applied to genetic data in order to provide a better characterisation in the mean of neutrality of Tunisian Berber populations.

  3. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr; Traxler, H. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Boscary, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Schedler, B.; Schuler, P. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application.

  4. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Traxler, H.; Boscary, J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Schedler, B.; Schuler, P.

    2007-01-01

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application

  5. The fundamental parameter method applied to X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantenburg, F. J.; Beier, T.; Hennrich, F.; Mommsen, H.

    1992-05-01

    Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applying the fundamental parameter method is usually restricted to monochromatic excitation sources. It is shown here, that such analyses can be performed as well with a white synchrotron radiation spectrum. To determine absolute elemental concentration values it is necessary to know the spectral distribution of this spectrum. A newly designed and tested experimental setup, which uses the synchrotron radiation emitted from electrons in a bending magnet of ELSA (electron stretcher accelerator of the university of Bonn) is presented. The determination of the exciting spectrum, described by the given electron beam parameters, is limited due to uncertainties in the vertical electron beam size and divergence. We describe a method which allows us to determine the relative and absolute spectral distributions needed for accurate analysis. First test measurements of different alloys and standards of known composition demonstrate that it is possible to determine exact concentration values in bulk and trace element analysis.

  6. Super-convergence of Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to the Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Harold L.

    2009-01-01

    The practical benefits of the hyper-accuracy properties of the discontinuous Galerkin method are examined. In particular, we demonstrate that some flow attributes exhibit super-convergence even in the absence of any post-processing technique. Theoretical analysis suggest that flow features that are dominated by global propagation speeds and decay or growth rates should be super-convergent. Several discrete forms of the discontinuous Galerkin method are applied to the simulation of unsteady viscous flow over a two-dimensional cylinder. Convergence of the period of the naturally occurring oscillation is examined and shown to converge at 2p+1, where p is the polynomial degree of the discontinuous Galerkin basis. Comparisons are made between the different discretizations and with theoretical analysis.

  7. Data Analytics of Mobile Serious Games: Applying Bayesian Data Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Lukosch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional teaching methods in the field of resuscitation training show some limitations, while teaching the right actions in critical situations could increase the number of people saved after a cardiac arrest. For our study, we developed a mobile game to support the transfer of theoretical knowledge on resuscitation.  The game has been tested at three schools of further education. A number of data has been collected from 171 players. To analyze this large data set from different sources and quality, different types of data modeling and analyses had to be applied. This approach showed its usefulness in analyzing the large set of data from different sources. It revealed some interesting findings, such as that female players outperformed the male ones, and that the game fostering informal, self-directed is equally efficient as the traditional formal learning method.

  8. An input feature selection method applied to fuzzy neural networks for signal esitmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of a fuzzy neural networks strongly depends on the input features selected for its training. In its applications to sensor signal estimation, there are a large number of input variables related with an output. As the number of input variables increases, the training time of fuzzy neural networks required increases exponentially. Thus, it is essential to reduce the number of inputs to a fuzzy neural networks and to select the optimum number of mutually independent inputs that are able to clearly define the input-output mapping. In this work, principal component analysis (PAC), genetic algorithms (GA) and probability theory are combined to select new important input features. A proposed feature selection method is applied to the signal estimation of the steam generator water level, the hot-leg flowrate, the pressurizer water level and the pressurizer pressure sensors in pressurized water reactors and compared with other input feature selection methods

  9. Contribution of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical techniques to trace element speciation in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallorini, M.; Orvini, E.; Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of the NAA in contributing to trace element speciation in environmental and biological samples is shown by a few selected applications. They are: (i) the determination of different species of vanadium, arsenic and selenium in freshwater. The pre-irradiation treatments in which the different chemical species are selectively isolated are critically evaluated. Problems arising from possible contaminations or losses and from blanks are discussed; (ii) the use of NAA in metallobiochemical speciation once biochemical methods of cellular fractionation for the isolation of metallobiocomplexes are developed. Examples concern the biochemical speciation of vanadium in human blood and the development of a method for speciation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds in biological samples. The use of radioanalytical techniques in developing the separation procedures of different trace metal chemical and biochemical species is also briefly discussed. 24 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  10. Applicability of multisyringe chromatography coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry for mercury speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Mar, J.L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Serra, A.M.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Cerdà, V.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An automatic system, based on the applicability of multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) detection is developed for mercury speciation. Highlights: ► The on-line coupling of MSC to CV/AFS was developed for mercury speciation analysis. ► The speciation of MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + was achieved on a RP C18 monolithic column. ► The hyphenated system provided higher sample throughput compared to HPLC–CV/AFS. ► The limits of detection for mercury species were comparable or better than those reported by HPLC–CV/AFS. ► The developed method also provided low instrumental and operational costs. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel automatic approach for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ), methylmercury (MeHg + ) and ethylmercury (EtHg + ) using multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) was developed. For the first time, the separation of mercury species was accomplished on a RP C18 monolithic column using a multi-isocratic elution program. The elution protocol involved the use of 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)–acetonitrile (99:1, v/v), followed by 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)–acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The eluted mercury species were then oxidized under post-column UV radiation and reduced using tin(II) chloride in an acidic medium. Subsequently, the generated mercury metal were separated from the reaction mixture and further atomized in the flame atomizer and detected by AFS. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) were found to be 0.03, 0.11 and 0.09 μg L −1 for MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of the peak height for 3, 6 and 3 μg L −1 of MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + (as Hg) ranged from 2.4 to 4.0%. Compared with the conventional HPLC–CV/AFS hyphenated systems

  11. Performance comparison of two efficient genomic selection methods (gsbay & MixP) applied in aquacultural organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hailin; Li, Hengde; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yangfan; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-02-01

    Genomic selection is more and more popular in animal and plant breeding industries all around the world, as it can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. The objective of this study was to bring the advantages of genomic selection to scallop breeding. Two different genomic selection tools MixP and gsbay were applied on genomic evaluation of simulated data and Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) field data. The data were compared with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) method which has been applied widely. Our results showed that both MixP and gsbay could accurately estimate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, and thereby could be applied for the analysis of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV). In simulated data from different scenarios, the accuracy of GEBV acquired was ranged from 0.20 to 0.78 by MixP; it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.67 by gsbay; and it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.61 by GBLUP. Estimations made by MixP and gsbay were expected to be more reliable than those estimated by GBLUP. Predictions made by gsbay were more robust, while with MixP the computation is much faster, especially in dealing with large-scale data. These results suggested that both algorithms implemented by MixP and gsbay are feasible to carry out genomic selection in scallop breeding, and more genotype data will be necessary to produce genomic estimated breeding values with a higher accuracy for the industry.

  12. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  13. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  14. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  15. Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Said

    Full Text Available Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.

  16. Labile soil phosphorus as influenced by methods of applying radioactive phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, V.V.; Andersen, A.J.; Thomsen, J.D.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1980-03-01

    The influence of different methods of applying radioactive phosphorus on the E- and L-values was studied in four foil types using barley, buckwheat, and rye grass for the L-value determination. The four soils differed greatly in their E- and L-values. The experiment was carried out both with and without carrier-P. The presence of carrier-P had no influence on the E-values, while carrier-P in some cases gave a lower L-value. Both E- and L-values dependent on the method of application. When the 32 P was applied on a small soil or sand sample and dried before mixing with the total amount of soil, the E-values were higher than at direct application most likely because of a stronger fixation to the soil/sand particles. This was not the case for the L-values that are based on a much longer equilibrium time. On the contrary, the direct application of the 32 p-solution to the whole amount of soil gave higher L-values of a non-homogeneous distribution of the 32 p in the soil. (author)

  17. Advances in Ecological Speciation: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rui; Renaut, Sebastien; Galindo, Juan; Pinho, Catarina; Melo-Ferreira, José; Melo, Martim; Jones, Felicity; Salzburger, Walter; Schluter, Dolph; Butlin, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The role of natural selection in promoting reproductive isolation has received substantial renewed interest within the last two decades. As a consequence, the study of ecological speciation has become an extremely productive research area in modern evolutionary biology. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in ecological speciation. Genome scans provide significant insights but have some important limitations; efforts are needed to integrate them with other approaches to make full use of the sequencing data deluge. An international conference 'Advances in Ecological Speciation' organized by the University of Porto (Portugal) aimed to review current progress in ecological speciation. Using some of the examples presented at the conference, we highlight the benefits of integrating ecological and genomic data and discuss different mechanisms of parallel evolution. Finally, future avenues of research are suggested to advance our knowledge concerning the role of natural selection in the establishment of reproductive isolation during ecological speciation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Analysis of coupled neutron-gamma radiations, applied to shieldings in multigroup albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunley, Leonardo Souza

    2002-01-01

    The principal mathematical tools frequently available for calculations in Nuclear Engineering, including coupled neutron-gamma radiations shielding problems, involve the full Transport Theory or the Monte Carlo techniques. The Multigroup Albedo Method applied to shieldings is characterized by following the radiations through distinct layers of materials, allowing the determination of the neutron and gamma fractions reflected from, transmitted through and absorbed in the irradiated media when a neutronic stream hits the first layer of material, independently of flux calculations. Then, the method is a complementary tool of great didactic value due to its clarity and simplicity in solving neutron and/or gamma shielding problems. The outstanding results achieved in previous works motivated the elaboration and the development of this study that is presented in this dissertation. The radiation balance resulting from the incidence of a neutronic stream into a shielding composed by 'm' non-multiplying slab layers for neutrons was determined by the Albedo method, considering 'n' energy groups for neutrons and 'g' energy groups for gammas. It was taken into account there is no upscattering of neutrons and gammas. However, it was considered that neutrons from any energy groups are able to produce gammas of all energy groups. The ANISN code, for an angular quadrature order S 2 , was used as a standard for comparison of the results obtained by the Albedo method. So, it was necessary to choose an identical system configuration, both for ANISN and Albedo methods. This configuration was six neutron energy groups and eight gamma energy groups, using three slab layers (iron aluminum - manganese). The excellent results expressed in comparative tables show great agreement between the values determined by the deterministic code adopted as standard and, the values determined by the computational program created using the Albedo method and the algorithm developed for coupled neutron

  19. In silico toxicology: comprehensive benchmarking of multi-label classification methods applied to chemical toxicity data

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2017-12-05

    One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds\\' features may improve model\\'s performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.

  20. In silico toxicology: comprehensive benchmarking of multi-label classification methods applied to chemical toxicity data

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds' features may improve model's performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.

  1. Study on Feasibility of Applying Function Approximation Moment Method to Achieve Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kwak, Byung Man

    2011-01-01

    Robust optimization or reliability-based design optimization are some of the methodologies that are employed to take into account the uncertainties of a system at the design stage. For applying such methodologies to solve industrial problems, accurate and efficient methods for estimating statistical moments and failure probability are required, and further, the results of sensitivity analysis, which is needed for searching direction during the optimization process, should also be accurate. The aim of this study is to employ the function approximation moment method into the sensitivity analysis formulation, which is expressed as an integral form, to verify the accuracy of the sensitivity results, and to solve a typical problem of reliability-based design optimization. These results are compared with those of other moment methods, and the feasibility of the function approximation moment method is verified. The sensitivity analysis formula with integral form is the efficient formulation for evaluating sensitivity because any additional function calculation is not needed provided the failure probability or statistical moments are calculated

  2. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  3. An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Susana Vargas-Valencia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis.

  4. The Cn method applied to problems with an anisotropic diffusion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, P.M.

    A 2-dimensional Cn calculation has been applied to homogeneous media subjected to the Rayleigh impact law. Results obtained with collision probabilities and Chandrasekhar calculations are compared to those from Cn method. Introducing in the expression of the transport equation, an expansion truncated on a polynomial basis for the outgoing angular flux (or possibly entrance flux) gives two Cn systems of algebraic linear equations for the expansion coefficients. The matrix elements of these equations are the moments of the Green function in infinite medium. The search for the Green function is effected through the Fourier transformation of the integrodifferential equation and its moments are derived from their Fourier transforms through a numerical integration in the complex plane. The method has been used for calculating the albedo in semi-infinite media, the extrapolation length of the Milne problem, and the albedo and transmission factor of a slab (a concise study of convergence is presented). A system of integro-differential equations bearing on the moments of the angular flux inside the medium has been derived, for the collision probability method. It is numerically solved with approximately the bulk flux by step functions. The albedo in semi-infinite medium has also been computed through the semi-analytical Chandrasekhar method. In the latter, the outgoing flux is expressed as a function of the entrance flux by means of a integral whose kernel is numerically derived [fr

  5. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  6. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  7. Applying Novel Time-Frequency Moments Singular Value Decomposition Method and Artificial Neural Networks for Ballistocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivistoinen Teemu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD is designed for computing singular values (SVs of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an -by-1 or 1-by- array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ''time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD.'' In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal. This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs for ballistocardiogram (BCG data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.

  8. Applying Novel Time-Frequency Moments Singular Value Decomposition Method and Artificial Neural Networks for Ballistocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpo Värri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD is designed for computing singular values (SVs of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an m-by-1 or 1-by-m array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ‘‘time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD.’’ In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal. This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs for ballistocardiogram (BCG data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.

  9. Applying Novel Time-Frequency Moments Singular Value Decomposition Method and Artificial Neural Networks for Ballistocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Junnila, Sakari; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Värri, Alpo

    2006-12-01

    As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD) is designed for computing singular values (SVs) of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-by-1 or 1-by- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ''time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD).'' In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal). This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for ballistocardiogram (BCG) data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.

  10. Applying of whole-tree harvesting method; Kokopuujuontomenetelmaen soveltaminen aines- ja energiapuun hankintaan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesisenaho, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Liukkonen, S [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this project is to apply whole-tree harvesting method to Finnish timber harvesting conditions in order to lower the harvesting costs of energy wood and timber in spruce-dominant final cuttings. In Finnish conditions timber harvesting is normally based on the log-length method. Because of small landings and the high level of thinning cuttings, whole-tree skidding methods cannot be utilised extensively. The share of stands which could be harvested with whole-tree skidding method showed up to be about 10 % of the total harvesting amount of 50 mill. m{sup 3}. The corresponding harvesting potential of energy wood is 0,25 Mtoe. The aim of the structural measurements made in this project was to get information about the effect of different hauling methods into the structural response of the tractor, and thus reveal the possible special requirements that the new whole-tree skidding places forest tractor design. Altogether 7 strain gauge based sensors were mounted into the rear frame structures and drive shafts of the forest tractor. Five strain gauges measured local strains in some critical details and two sensors measured the torque moments of the front and rear bogie drive shafts. Also the revolution speed of the rear drive shaft was recorded. Signal time histories, maximum peaks, Time at Level distributions and Rainflow distributions were gathered in different hauling modes. From these, maximum values, average stress levels and fatigue life estimates were calculated for each mode, and a comparison of the different methods from the structural point of view was performed

  11. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  12. Arsenic speciation in marine organisms: from the analytical methodology to the constitution of reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moll, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Heimburger, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Lagarde, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Leroy, M.J.F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Maier, E. [Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), 75 rue Montoyer, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-03-01

    An analytical procedure for total arsenic and arsenic species quantification in marine organisms has been developed. Fresh materials are freeze-dried and reduced to powders before analysis. Arsenic is determined either by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) directly or by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) after microwave digestion. Arsenic speciation is performed on the extracted sample using liquid chromatography coupled to ICP/OES for arsenobetaine and arsenocholine determination and to the hydride generation-quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometric technique for arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids quantification. Special precautions are taken to avoid losses or contaminations as well as to prevent analytical errors during the quantification stage. Other methods are applied and the corresponding results compared for each step of the procedure. The method is finally validated by means of intercomparison studies within the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Community (formely BCR). (orig.). With 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Arsenic Speciation of Waters from the Aegean Region, Turkey by Hydride Generation: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Tülin Deniz; Henden, Emur

    2016-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a serious problem for human health. Since the toxicity of arsenic species As(III) and As(V) is different, it is important to determine the concentrations separately. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an accurate and sensitive method for the speciation of arsenic. It was intended with this work to determine the concentrations of arsenic species in water samples collected from Izmir, Manisa and nearby areas. A batch type hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer was used. As(V) gave no signal under the optimal measurement conditions of As(III). A certified reference drinking water was analyzed by the method and the results showed excellent agreement with the reported values. The procedure was applied to 34 water samples. Eleven tap water, two spring water, 19 artesian well water and two thermal water samples were analyzed under the optimal conditions.

  14. Speciation of actinides in marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation state distribution of plutonium in seawater, pore water from marine sediments, and a series of model solutions similar to seawater was measured using a TTA solvent extraction technique and α liquid scintillation counting methods. Electromigration was used to compare migration behavior of americium in 0.7M NaCl solutions (pH 6.5 to 8.0) with the behavior calculated from predicted speciation. In all pH 8 solutions studied, Pu(VI) was rapidly reduced to Pu(V). In 0.7M NaCl, pH 8.0, and artifical seawater (no organics), the Pu(V) formed was stable. In real seawater (with organic components), a rapid reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) was also observed. The Pu(V) formed in seawater was metastable; a very slow reduction to Pu(IV) occurred. This reduction was catalyzed by light. Humic acid (obtained from marine sediments from the Bahama Islands), was added to 0.7M NaCl, pH 8.0 solutions to determine its effect on Pu redox reactions. The effect was similar to the reductions in seawater. Increasing the humic acid concentration decreased the amount of Pu(V) which was formed and favored the IV state. The americium electromigration experiments showed a +0.12 net charge for the Am complexes formed in 0.7M NaCl solutions from pH 7.0 to 8.0. This value was smaller than the charge of +0.94 calculated from predicted speciation

  15. Speciation of rhenium and radiogenic osmium in molybdenite by sensitive XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    For the speciation of trace elements in rocks and minerals, fluorescence XAFS using energy-dispersive Ge detector has been often used. By this method, however, high quality fluorescence XAFS cannot be obtained under intense scattering and/or fluorescence from other predominant elements in the samples. To deal with this problem, we developed a system for fluorescence XAFS using a bent crystal analyzer to selectively extract fluorescence x-rays of a target element. In this paper, speciation of Os in molybdenite has been studied as an example of the application. Radiometric dating using various radioactive decay systems has been widely applied to various terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. Although the information is closely related to chemical stabilities of parent and daughter nuclides and the reliability of the radiometric dating, there have been few investigations on the direct identification of the chemical state of the daughter nuclides. In this study, we chose Re-Os system in molybdenite for the possible application of this idea, since initial abundance of Os in molybdenite is often negligible compared with radiogenic Os in molybdenite rich in Re. From XAFS spectra, we have investigated local structure of Re and Os in molybdenite. Details of the analyses will be given in the presentation. (author)

  16. Speciation analysis of aluminium in plant parts of Betula pendula and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    The research presents the first results of aluminium speciation analysis in aqueous extracts of individual plant parts of Betula pendula and soil samples, using High Performance Ion Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPIC-DAD). The applied method allowed us to carry out a full speciation analysis of aluminium in the form of predominant aluminium-fluoride complexes: AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) (first analytical signal), AlF 2+ (second analytical signal) and Al 3+ (third analytical signal) in samples of lateral roots, tap roots, twigs, stem, leaf and soil collected under roots of B. pendula. Concentrations of aluminium and its complexes were determined for two types of environment characterised by different degree of human impact: contaminated site of the Chemical Plant in Luboń and protected area of the Wielkopolski National Park. For all the analysed samples of B. pendula and soil, AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) had the largest contribution, followed by Al 3+ and AlF 2+ . Significant differences in concentration and contribution of Al-F complexes and Al 3+ form, depending on the place of sampling (different anthropogenic pressure) and plant part of B. pendula were observed. Based on the obtained results, it was found that transport of aluminium is "blocked" by lateral roots, and is closely related to Al content of soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Evaluation of cleaning methods applied in home environments after renovation and remodeling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiin, L.-M.; Lu, S.-E.; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Lim, B.S.; Rhoads, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a cleaning trial in 40 northern New Jersey homes where home renovation and remodeling (R and R) activities were undertaken. Two cleaning protocols were used in the study: a specific method recommended by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in the 1995 'Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing', using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered vacuum cleaner and a tri-sodium phosphate solution (TSP); and an alternative method using a household vacuum cleaner and a household detergent. Eligible homes were built before the 1970s with potential lead-based paint and had recent R and R activities without thorough cleaning. The two cleaning protocols were randomly assigned to the participants' homes and followed the HUD-recommended three-step procedure: vacuuming, wet washing, and repeat vacuuming. Wipe sampling was conducted on floor surfaces or windowsills before and after cleaning to evaluate the efficacy. All floor and windowsill data indicated that both methods (TSP/HEPA and non-TSP/non-HEPA) were effective in reducing lead loading on the surfaces (P<0.001). When cleaning was applied to surfaces with initial lead loading above the clearance standards, the reductions were even greater, above 95% for either cleaning method. The mixed-effect model analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods. Baseline lead loading was found to be associated with lead loading reduction significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.077). Such relations were different between the two cleaning methods significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.066), with the TSP/HEPA method being favored for higher baseline levels and the non-TSP/non-HEPA method for lower baseline levels. For the 10 homes with lead abatement, almost all post-cleaning lead loadings were below the standards using either cleaning method. Based on our results, we recommend that

  18. Method for pulse to pulse dose reproducibility applied to electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Oproiu, C.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.

    2002-01-01

    An original method for obtaining programmed beam single shots and pulse trains with programmed pulse number, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration and pulse dose is presented. It is particularly useful for automatic control of absorbed dose rate level, irradiation process control as well as in pulse radiolysis studies, single pulse dose measurement or for research experiments where pulse-to-pulse dose reproducibility is required. This method is applied to the electron linear accelerators, ALIN-10 of 6.23 MeV and 82 W and ALID-7, of 5.5 MeV and 670 W, built in NILPRP. In order to implement this method, the accelerator triggering system (ATS) consists of two branches: the gun branch and the magnetron branch. ATS, which synchronizes all the system units, delivers trigger pulses at a programmed repetition rate (up to 250 pulses/s) to the gun (80 kV, 10 A and 4 ms) and magnetron (45 kV, 100 A, and 4 ms).The accelerated electron beam existence is determined by the electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping. The method consists in controlling the overlapping of pulses in order to deliver the beam in the desired sequence. This control is implemented by a discrete pulse position modulation of gun and/or magnetron pulses. The instabilities of the gun and magnetron transient regimes are avoided by operating the accelerator with no accelerated beam for a certain time. At the operator 'beam start' command, the ATS controls electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping and the linac beam is generated. The pulse-to-pulse absorbed dose variation is thus considerably reduced. Programmed absorbed dose, irradiation time, beam pulse number or other external events may interrupt the coincidence between the gun and magnetron pulses. Slow absorbed dose variation is compensated by the control of the pulse duration and repetition frequency. Two methods are reported in the electron linear accelerators' development for obtaining the pulse to pulse dose reproducibility: the method

  19. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  20. Applying system engineering methods to site characterization research for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear research and engineering projects can benefit from the use of system engineering methods. This paper is brief overview illustrating how system engineering methods could be applied in structuring a site characterization effort for a candidate nuclear waste repository. System engineering is simply an orderly process that has been widely used to transform a recognized need into a fully defined system. Such a system may be physical or abstract, natural or man-made, hardware or procedural, as is appropriate to the system's need or objective. It is a way of mentally visualizing all the constituent elements and their relationships necessary to fulfill a need, and doing so compliant with all constraining requirements attendant to that need. Such a system approach provides completeness, order, clarity, and direction. Admittedly, system engineering can be burdensome and inappropriate for those project objectives having simple and familiar solutions that are easily held and controlled mentally. However, some type of documented and structured approach is needed for those objectives that dictate extensive, unique, or complex programs, and/or creation of state-of-the-art machines and facilities. System engineering methods have been used extensively and successfully in these cases. The scientific methods has served well in ordering countless technical undertakings that address a specific question. Similarly, conventional construction and engineering job methods will continue to be quite adequate to organize routine building projects. Nuclear waste repository site characterization projects involve multiple complex research questions and regulatory requirements that interface with each other and with advanced engineering and subsurface construction techniques. There is little doubt that system engineering is an appropriate orchestrating process to structure such diverse elements into a cohesive, well defied project

  1. A Precise Method for Cloth Configuration Parsing Applied to Single-Arm Flattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the contribution that visual perception affords to a robotic manipulation task in which a crumpled garment is flattened by eliminating visually detected wrinkles. In order to explore and validate visually guided clothing manipulation in a repeatable and controlled environment, we have developed a hand-eye interactive virtual robot manipulation system that incorporates a clothing simulator to close the effector-garment-visual sensing interaction loop. We present the technical details and compare the performance of two different methods for detecting, representing and interpreting wrinkles within clothing surfaces captured in high-resolution depth maps. The first method we present relies upon a clustering-based method for localizing and parametrizing wrinkles, while the second method adopts a more advanced geometry-based approach in which shape-topology analysis underpins the identification of the cloth configuration (i.e., maps wrinkles. Having interpreted the state of the cloth configuration by means of either of these methods, a heuristic-based flattening strategy is then executed to infer the appropriate forces, their directions and gripper contact locations that must be applied to the cloth in order to flatten the perceived wrinkles. A greedy approach, which attempts to flatten the largest detected wrinkle for each perception-iteration cycle, has been successfully adopted in this work. We present the results of our heuristic-based flattening methodology which relies upon clustering-based and geometry-based features respectively. Our experiments indicate that geometry-based features have the potential to provide a greater degree of clothing configuration understanding and, as a consequence, improve flattening performance. The results of experiments using a real robot (as opposed to simulated robot also confirm our proposition that a more effective visual perception system can advance the performance of cloth

  2. Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos

    Full Text Available The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is an inexpensive, fast and easily administered measure of cognitive function, especially in the elderly. This instrument is a popular clinical tool widely used in screening for cognitive disorders and dementia. The CDT can be applied in different ways and scoring procedures also vary. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of elderly on the CDT and evaluate inter-rater reliability of the CDT scored by using a specific algorithm method adapted from Sunderland et al. (1989. METHODS: We analyzed the CDT of 100 cognitively normal elderly aged 60 years or older. The CDT ("free-drawn" and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were administered to all participants. Six independent examiners scored the CDT of 30 participants to evaluate inter-rater reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A score of 5 on the proposed algorithm ("Numbers in reverse order or concentrated", equivalent to 5 points on the original Sunderland scale, was the most frequent (53.5%. The CDT specific algorithm method used had high inter-rater reliability (p<0.01, and mean score ranged from 5.06 to 5.96. The high frequency of an overall score of 5 points may suggest the need to create more nuanced evaluation criteria, which are sensitive to differences in levels of impairment in visuoconstructive and executive abilities during aging.

  3. An acceleration technique for the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cajigas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A preconditioning technique to improve the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems while preserving symmetry is proposed. The preconditioner is of the form I + K and can be applied an arbitrary number of times. It is shown that under certain conditions the application of the preconditioner a finite number of steps reduces the matrix to a diagonal. A series of numerical experiments using matrices from spatial discretizations of partial differential equations demonstrates that both versions of the preconditioner, point and block version, exhibit lower iteration counts than its non-symmetric version. Resumen. Se propone una técnica de precondicionamiento para mejorar la convergencia del método Gauss-Seidel aplicado a sistemas lineales simétricos pero preservando simetría. El precondicionador es de la forma I + K y puede ser aplicado un número arbitrario de veces. Se demuestra que bajo ciertas condiciones la aplicación del precondicionador un número finito de pasos reduce la matriz del sistema precondicionado a una diagonal. Una serie de experimentos con matrices que provienen de la discretización de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales muestra que ambas versiones del precondicionador, por punto y por bloque, muestran un menor número de iteraciones en comparación con la versión que no preserva simetría.

  4. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  5. IAEA-ASSET's root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  6. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Katharine T

    2016-03-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)-rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales-can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design-in bursts over macro timescales-ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

  7. IAEA-ASSET`s root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  8. [Influence of Sex and Age on Contrast Sensitivity Subject to the Applied Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Sabine; Bergmann, Lisa; Blaschke, Saskia; Böckelmann, Irina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to detect gender and age differences in both photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity with different methods in relation to German driver's license regulations (Fahrerlaubnisverordnung; FeV). We examined 134 healthy volunteers (53 men, 81 women) with an age between 18 and 76 years, that had been divided into two groups (AG I Mars charts under standardized illumination were applied for photopic contrast sensitivity. We could not find any gender differences. When evaluating age, there were no differences between the two groups for the Mars charts nor in the Rodatest. In all other tests, the younger volunteers achieved significantly better results. For contrast vision, there exists age-adapted cut-off-values. Concerning the driving safety of traffic participants, sufficient photopic and mesopic contrast vision should be focused on, independent of age. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the age-adapted cut-off-values. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Study of different ultrasonic focusing methods applied to non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amrani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of different ultrasonic focusing techniques applied to Nondestructive Testing (mechanical focusing and electronic focusing) and compares their capabilities. We have developed a model to predict the ultrasonic field radiated into a solid by water-coupled transducers. The model is based upon the Rayleigh integral formulation, modified to take account the refraction at the liquid-solid interface. The model has been validated by numerous experiments in various configurations. Running this model and the associated software, we have developed new methods to optimize focused transducers and studied the characteristics of the beam generated by transducers using various focusing techniques. (author). 120 refs., 95 figs., 4 appends

  10. Numerical method of applying shadow theory to all regions of multilayered dielectric gratings in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Asai, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Yamakita, Jiro

    2016-11-01

    Nakayama's shadow theory first discussed the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating in a planar mounting. In the theory, a new formulation by use of a scattering factor was proposed. This paper focuses on the middle regions of a multilayered dielectric grating placed in conical mounting. Applying the shadow theory to the matrix eigenvalues method, we compose new transformation and improved propagation matrices of the shadow theory for conical mounting. Using these matrices and scattering factors, being the basic quantity of diffraction amplitudes, we formulate a new description of three-dimensional scattering fields which is available even for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in any region. Some numerical examples are given for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in the middle regions.

  11. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macků

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to theproduction of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out whatdimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mouldproduction, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself.Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically.A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meetrequirements specified by a customer were the results.

  12. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

  13. Comparison of gradient methods for gain tuning of a PD controller applied on a quadrotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen A.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Many mechanical and electrical systems have utilized the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy. The concept of PID control is a classical approach but it is easy to implement and yields a very good tracking performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently experiencing a significant growth in popularity. Due to the advantages of PID controllers, UAVs are implementing PID controllers for improved stability and performance. An important consideration for the system is the selection of PID gain values in order to achieve a safe flight and successful mission. There are a number of different algorithms that can be used for real-time tuning of gains. This paper presents two algorithms for gain tuning, and are based on the method of steepest descent and Newton's minimization of an objective function. This paper compares the results of applying these two gain tuning algorithms in conjunction with a PD controller on a quadrotor system.

  14. Adding randomness controlling parameters in GRASP method applied in school timetabling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of randomness controlling parameters (RCP in first stage GRASP method applied in graph coloring problem, specifically school timetabling problems in a public high school. The algorithm (with the inclusion of RCP was based on critical variables identified through focus groups, whose weights can be adjusted by the user in order to meet the institutional needs. The results of the computational experiment, with 11-year-old data (66 observations processed at the same high school show that the inclusion of RCP leads to significantly lowering the distance between initial solutions and local minima. The acceptance and the use of the solutions found allow us to conclude that the modified GRASP, as has been constructed, can make a positive contribution to this timetabling problem of the school in question.

  15. Applied methods and techniques for mechatronic systems modelling, identification and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Quanmin; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yongji; Zhao, Dongya

    2014-01-01

    Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems brings together the relevant studies in mechatronic systems with the latest research from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, computational algorithm development and exemplary applications. Readers can easily tailor the techniques in this book to accommodate their ad hoc applications. The clear structure of each paper, background - motivation - quantitative development (equations) - case studies/illustration/tutorial (curve, table, etc.) is also helpful. It is mainly aimed at graduate students, professors and academic researchers in related fields, but it will also be helpful to engineers and scientists from industry. Lei Liu is a lecturer at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China; Quanmin Zhu is a professor at University of the West of England, UK; Lei Cheng is an associate professor at Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China; Yongji Wang is a professor at HUST; Dongya Zhao is an associate professor at China University o...

  16. Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)

  17. An implict LU scheme for the Euler equations applied to arbitrary cascades. [new method of factoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratynski, E. K.; Caughey, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An implicit scheme for solving the Euler equations is derived and demonstrated. The alternating-direction implicit (ADI) technique is modified, using two implicit-operator factors corresponding to lower-block-diagonal (L) or upper-block-diagonal (U) algebraic systems which can be easily inverted. The resulting LU scheme is implemented in finite-volume mode and applied to 2D subsonic and transonic cascade flows with differing degrees of geometric complexity. The results are presented graphically and found to be in good agreement with those of other numerical and analytical approaches. The LU method is also 2.0-3.4 times faster than ADI, suggesting its value in calculating 3D problems.

  18. Structural characterization of complex systems by applying a combination of scattering and spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, G.

    1999-01-01

    Lyotropic mesophases possess lattice dimensions of the order of magnitude of the length of their molecules. Consequently, the first Bragg reflections of such systems appear at small scattering angles (small angle scattering). A combination of scattering and NMR methods was applied to study structural properties of POPC/C 12 E n mixtures. Generally, the ranges of existence of the liquid crystalline lamellar phase, the dimension of the unit-cell of the lamellae and important structural parameters of the lipid and surfactant molecules in the mixed bilayers were determined. With that the POPC/C 12 E 4 bilayer represents one of the best structurally characterized mixed model membranes. It is a good starting system for studying the interrelation with other e.g. dynamic or thermodynamic properties. (K.A.)

  19. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macků M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to the production of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out what dimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mould production, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself. Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically. A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meet requirements specified by a customer were the results.

  20. US EPA's SPECIATE 4.4 Database: Development and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) repository of volatile organic gas and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. EPA released SPECIATE 4.4 in early 2014 and, in total, the SPECIATE 4.4 database includes 5,728 PM, volatile o...

  1. Particle generation methods applied in large-scale experiments on aerosol behaviour and source term studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Gomez, F.J.; Martin, M.

    1997-01-01

    In aerosol research aerosols of known size, shape, and density are highly desirable because most aerosols properties depend strongly on particle size. However, such constant and reproducible generation of those aerosol particles whose size and concentration can be easily controlled, can be achieved only in laboratory-scale tests. In large scale experiments, different generation methods for various elements and compounds have been applied. This work presents, in a brief from, a review of applications of these methods used in large scale experiments on aerosol behaviour and source term. Description of generation method and generated aerosol transport conditions is followed by properties of obtained aerosol, aerosol instrumentation used, and the scheme of aerosol generation system-wherever it was available. An information concerning aerosol generation particular purposes and reference number(s) is given at the end of a particular case. These methods reviewed are: evaporation-condensation, using a furnace heating and using a plasma torch; atomization of liquid, using compressed air nebulizers, ultrasonic nebulizers and atomization of liquid suspension; and dispersion of powders. Among the projects included in this worked are: ACE, LACE, GE Experiments, EPRI Experiments, LACE-Spain. UKAEA Experiments, BNWL Experiments, ORNL Experiments, MARVIKEN, SPARTA and DEMONA. The aim chemical compounds studied are: Ba, Cs, CsOH, CsI, Ni, Cr, NaI, TeO 2 , UO 2 Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 SiO 5 , B 2 O 3 , Cd, CdO, Fe 2 O 3 , MnO, SiO 2 , AgO, SnO 2 , Te, U 3 O 8 , BaO, CsCl, CsNO 3 , Urania, RuO 2 , TiO 2 , Al(OH) 3 , BaSO 4 , Eu 2 O 3 and Sn. (Author)

  2. Non-Invasive Seismic Methods for Earthquake Site Classification Applied to Ontario Bridge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson Darko, A.; Molnar, S.; Sadrekarimi, A.

    2017-12-01

    How a site responds to earthquake shaking and its corresponding damage is largely influenced by the underlying ground conditions through which it propagates. The effects of site conditions on propagating seismic waves can be predicted from measurements of the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the soil layer(s) and the impedance ratio between bedrock and soil. Currently the seismic design of new buildings and bridges (2015 Canadian building and bridge codes) requires determination of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 metres (Vs30) of a given site. In this study, two in situ Vs profiling methods; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Ambient Vibration Array (AVA) methods are used to determine Vs30 at chosen bridge sites in Ontario, Canada. Both active-source (MASW) and passive-source (AVA) surface wave methods are used at each bridge site to obtain Rayleigh-wave phase velocities over a wide frequency bandwidth. The dispersion curve is jointly inverted with each site's amplification function (microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) to obtain shear-wave velocity profile(s). We apply our non-invasive testing at three major infrastructure projects, e.g., five bridge sites along the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway in Windsor, Ontario. Our non-invasive testing is co-located with previous invasive testing, including Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test and downhole Vs data. Correlations between SPT blowcount and Vs are developed for the different soil types sampled at our Ontario bridge sites. A robust earthquake site classification procedure (reliable Vs30 estimates) for bridge sites across Ontario is evaluated from available combinations of invasive and non-invasive site characterization methods.

  3. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Durocher, A.; Schlosser, J.; Farjon, J.-L.; Vignal, N.; Traxler, H.; Schedler, B.; Boscary, J.

    2006-01-01

    As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of plasma-facing component (PFC) during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of non-destructive testing must be operated during R-and-D and manufacturing phases. Within this framework, advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) methods are one of the key issues to achieve a high level of quality and reliability of joining techniques in the production of high heat flux components but also to develop and built successfully PFCs for a next generation of fusion devices. In this frame, two NDE infrared thermographic approaches, which have been recently applied to the qualification of CFC target elements of the W7-X divertor during the first series production will be discussed in this paper. The first one, developed by CEA (SATIR facility) and used with successfully to the control of the mass-produced actively cooled PFCs on Tore Supra, is based on the transient thermography where the testing protocol consists in inducing a thermal transient within the heat sink structure by an alternative hot/cold water flow. The second one, recently developed by PLANSEE (ARGUS facility), is based on the pulsed thermography where the component is heated externally by a single powerful flash of light. Results obtained on qualification experiences performed during the first series production of W7-X divertor components representing about thirty mock-ups with artificial and manufacturing defects, demonstrated the capabilities of these two methods and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application. This comparative study, associated to a cross-checking analysis between the high heat flux performance tests and these inspection methods by infrared thermography, showed a good reproducibility and allowed to set a detectable limit specific at each method. Finally, the detectability of relevant defects showed excellent coincidence with thermal images obtained from high heat flux

  4. Assessment of Atmospheric Correction Methods for Sentinel-2 MSI Images Applied to Amazon Floodplain Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Souza Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data provide the only viable means for extensive monitoring of remote and large freshwater systems, such as the Amazon floodplain lakes. However, an accurate atmospheric correction is required to retrieve water constituents based on surface water reflectance ( R W . In this paper, we assessed three atmospheric correction methods (Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV, ACOLITE and Sen2Cor applied to an image acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI on-board of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2A platform using concurrent in-situ measurements over four Amazon floodplain lakes in Brazil. In addition, we evaluated the correction of forest adjacency effects based on the linear spectral unmixing model, and performed a temporal evaluation of atmospheric constituents from Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC products. The validation of MAIAC aerosol optical depth (AOD indicated satisfactory retrievals over the Amazon region, with a correlation coefficient (R of ~0.7 and 0.85 for Terra and Aqua products, respectively. The seasonal distribution of the cloud cover and AOD revealed a contrast between the first and second half of the year in the study area. Furthermore, simulation of top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance showed a critical contribution of atmospheric effects (>50% to all spectral bands, especially the deep blue (92%–96% and blue (84%–92% bands. The atmospheric correction results of the visible bands illustrate the limitation of the methods over dark lakes ( R W < 1%, and better match of the R W shape compared with in-situ measurements over turbid lakes, although the accuracy varied depending on the spectral bands and methods. Particularly above 705 nm, R W was highly affected by Amazon forest adjacency, and the proposed adjacency effect correction minimized the spectral distortions in R W (RMSE < 0.006. Finally, an extensive validation of the methods is required for

  5. Simulation methods to estimate design power: an overview for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Hogan, Daniel R; Colford, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2011-06-20

    Estimating the required sample size and statistical power for a study is an integral part of study design. For standard designs, power equations provide an efficient solution to the problem, but they are unavailable for many complex study designs that arise in practice. For such complex study designs, computer simulation is a useful alternative for estimating study power. Although this approach is well known among statisticians, in our experience many epidemiologists and social scientists are unfamiliar with the technique. This article aims to address this knowledge gap. We review an approach to estimate study power for individual- or cluster-randomized designs using computer simulation. This flexible approach arises naturally from the model used to derive conventional power equations, but extends those methods to accommodate arbitrarily complex designs. The method is universally applicable to a broad range of designs and outcomes, and we present the material in a way that is approachable for quantitative, applied researchers. We illustrate the method using two examples (one simple, one complex) based on sanitation and nutritional interventions to improve child growth. We first show how simulation reproduces conventional power estimates for simple randomized designs over a broad range of sample scenarios to familiarize the reader with the approach. We then demonstrate how to extend the simulation approach to more complex designs. Finally, we discuss extensions to the examples in the article, and provide computer code to efficiently run the example simulations in both R and Stata. Simulation methods offer a flexible option to estimate statistical power for standard and non-traditional study designs and parameters of interest. The approach we have described is universally applicable for evaluating study designs used in epidemiologic and social science research.

  6. Speciation of plutonium during sorption and diffusion in Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Ugras

    2013-01-01

    well as on OPA thin sections and diffusion samples. Pu L III -edge EXAFS spectra of powder samples showed that an innersphere sorption of Pu(IV) species on OPA surface was formed, independent from the initial Pu oxidation states in solution. By combining the applied spatially resolved methods, it was possible for the first time to determine the elemental distribution of Pu and other elements contained in OPA using μ-XRF. Pu L III -edge μ-XANES spectra on Pu hot spots of thin sections and diffusion samples confirmed that less mobile Pu(IV) is the dominating species on OPA after sorption and diffusion processes. In addition, for the first time a diffusion profile of Pu in OPA was measured using μ-XRF. The speciation of Pu with μ-XANES showed that Pu(V) was reduced progressively along its diffusion path to Pu(IV). By μ-XRD the clay mineral illite was identified as the main mineral phase in areas where Pu was enriched and iron(II)-bearing siderite could be one of the redox-active mineral phases contained in OPA. The results of this work show that OPA is a suitable option for the geological disposal with regard to the safety of a nuclear repository.

  7. Tea-industry waste activated carbon, as a novel adsorbent, for separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Celal, E-mail: cduran@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Ozdes, Duygu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, Ali [Faculty of Engineering, Food Department of Food Engineering, 29100, Guemueshane (Turkey); Imamoglu, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Senturk, Hasan Basri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-02-28

    Activated carbon was produced from tea-industry wastes (TIWAC) and employed as a low cost and effective solid phase material for the separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium species without using a complexing agent, prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The characterization of TIWAC was performed by utilizing several techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and elemental analysis. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a batch adsorption technique. Under the experimental conditions, Cr(VI) adsorption amount was nearly equal to zero, however the adsorption percentage of Cr(III) was in the range of 95-100%. Therefore total chromium was determined after the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was calculated by subtracting Cr(III) concentration from total chromium concentration. The suitable conditions for adsorption and speciation processes were evaluated in terms of pH, eluent type and volume, TIWAC concentration, adsorption and desorption contact time, etc. Adsorption capacity of TIWAC was found to be 61.0 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit for Cr(III) was found to be 0.27 {mu}g L{sup -1} and the preconcentration factor was 50 for 200 mL of sample volume. The procedure was applied to the determination and speciation of chromium in stream, tap and sea water. Also, the proposed method was applied to total chromium preconcentration in microwave digested tobacco and dried eggplant samples with satisfactory results. The method was validated by analyzing certified reference materials (CRM-TMDW-500 Drinking Water and CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C) and the results were in good agreement with the certified values.

  8. Tea-industry waste activated carbon, as a novel adsorbent, for separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Celal; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Imamoglu, Mustafa; Senturk, Hasan Basri

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from tea-industry wastes (TIWAC) and employed as a low cost and effective solid phase material for the separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium species without using a complexing agent, prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The characterization of TIWAC was performed by utilizing several techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and elemental analysis. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a batch adsorption technique. Under the experimental conditions, Cr(VI) adsorption amount was nearly equal to zero, however the adsorption percentage of Cr(III) was in the range of 95-100%. Therefore total chromium was determined after the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was calculated by subtracting Cr(III) concentration from total chromium concentration. The suitable conditions for adsorption and speciation processes were evaluated in terms of pH, eluent type and volume, TIWAC concentration, adsorption and desorption contact time, etc. Adsorption capacity of TIWAC was found to be 61.0 mg g -1 . The detection limit for Cr(III) was found to be 0.27 μg L -1 and the preconcentration factor was 50 for 200 mL of sample volume. The procedure was applied to the determination and speciation of chromium in stream, tap and sea water. Also, the proposed method was applied to total chromium preconcentration in microwave digested tobacco and dried eggplant samples with satisfactory results. The method was validated by analyzing certified reference materials (CRM-TMDW-500 Drinking Water and CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C) and the results were in good agreement with the certified values.

  9. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization H/D-exchange Mass Spectrometry for Speciation of Sulfur-containing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-08-01

    Herein we report the observation of atmospheric pressure in-source hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of thiol group for the first time. The HDX for thiol group was optimized for positive atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized HDX-MS was applied for 31 model compounds (thiols, thiophenes, and sulfides) to demonstrate that exchanged peaks were observed only for thiols. The optimized method has been successfully applied to the isolated fractions of sulfur-rich oil samples. The exchange of one and two thiol hydrogens with deuterium was observed in the thiol fraction; no HDX was observed in the other fractions. Thus, the results presented in this study demonstrate that the HDX-MS method using APPI ionization source can be effective for speciation of sulfur compounds. This method has the potential to be used to access corrosion problems caused by thiol-containing compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field.

  11. Multivariat least-squares methods applied to the quantitative spectral analysis of multicomponent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.; Vopicka, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an extension of earlier work, weighted multivariate least-squares methods of quantitative FT-IR analysis have been developed. A linear least-squares approximation to nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law is made by allowing the reference spectra to be a set of known mixtures, The incorporation of nonzero intercepts in the relation between absorbance and concentration further improves the approximation of nonlinearities while simultaneously accounting for nonzero spectra baselines. Pathlength variations are also accommodated in the analysis, and under certain conditions, unknown sample pathlengths can be determined. All spectral data are used to improve the precision and accuracy of the estimated concentrations. During the calibration phase of the analysis, pure component spectra are estimated from the standard mixture spectra. These can be compared with the measured pure component spectra to determine which vibrations experience nonlinear behavior. In the predictive phase of the analysis, the calculated spectra are used in our previous least-squares analysis to estimate sample component concentrations. These methods were applied to the analysis of the IR spectra of binary mixtures of esters. Even with severely overlapping spectral bands and nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law, the average relative error in the estimated concentration was <1%

  12. Design and fabrication of facial prostheses for cancer patient applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana

    2016-12-01

    Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.

  13. Applying the Weighted Horizontal Magnetic Gradient Method to a Simulated Flaring Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsós, M. B.; Chatterjee, P.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Here, we test the weighted horizontal magnetic gradient (WG M ) as a flare precursor, introduced by Korsós et al., by applying it to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar-like flares. The preflare evolution of the WG M and the behavior of the distance parameter between the area-weighted barycenters of opposite-polarity sunspots at various heights is investigated in the simulated δ-type sunspot. Four flares emanated from this sunspot. We found the optimum heights above the photosphere where the flare precursors of the WG M method are identifiable prior to each flare. These optimum heights agree reasonably well with the heights of the occurrence of flares identified from the analysis of their thermal and ohmic heating signatures in the simulation. We also estimated the expected time of the flare onsets from the duration of the approaching–receding motion of the barycenters of opposite polarities before each single flare. The estimated onset time and the actual time of occurrence of each flare are in good agreement at the corresponding optimum heights. This numerical experiment further supports the use of flare precursors based on the WG M method.

  14. Study on safety of crystallization method applied to dissolver solution in fast breeder reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Fujine, Yukio; Asakura, Toshihide; Murazaki, Minoru; Koyama, Tomozo; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    1999-03-01

    The crystallization method is proposed to apply for recovery of uranium from dissolution liquid, enabling to reduce handling materials in later stages of reprocessing used fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuels. This report studies possible safety problems accompanied by the proposed method. Crystallization process was first defined in the whole reprocessing process, and the quantity and the kind of treated fuel were specified. Possible problems, such as criticality, shielding, fire/explosion, and confinement, were then investigated; and the events that might induce accidental incidents were discussed. Criticality, above all the incidents, was further studied by considering exampled criticality control of the crystallization process. For crystallization equipment, in particular, evaluation models were set up in normal and accidental operation conditions. Related data were selected out from the nuclear criticality safety handbooks. The theoretical densities of plutonium nitrates, which give basic and important information, were estimated in this report based on the crystal structure data. The criticality limit of crystallization equipment was calculated based on the above information. (author)

  15. Method of moments as applied to arbitrarily shaped bounded nonlinear scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Massa, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying the moment method to determine the electromagnetic field distributions inside three-dimensional bounded nonlinear dielectric objects of arbitrary shapes. The moment method has usually been employed to solve linear scattering problems. We start with an integral equation formulation, and derive a nonlinear system of algebraic equations that allows us to obtain an approximate solution for the harmonic vector components of the electric field. Preliminary results of some numerical simulations are reported. Dans cet article nous explorons la possibilité d'appliquer la méthode des moments pour déterminer la distribution du champ électromagnétique dans des objets tridimensionnels diélectriques, non-linéaires, limités et de formes arbitraires. La méthode des moments a été communément employée pour les problèmes de diffusion linéaire. Nous commençons par une formulation basée sur l'équation intégrale et nous dérivons un système non-linéaire d'équations algébriques qui nous permet d'obtenir une solution approximative pour les composantes harmoniques du vecteur du champ électrique. Les résultats préliminaires de quelques simulations numériques sont présentés.

  16. [An experimental assessment of methods for applying intestinal sutures in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadudinov, M G

    1992-04-01

    The results of various methods used in applying intestinal sutures in obturation were studied. Three series of experiments were conducted on 30 dogs--resection of the intestine after obstruction with the formation of anastomoses by means of double-row suture (Albert--Shmiden--Lambert) in the first series (10 dogs), by a single-row suture after V. M. Mateshchuk [correction of Mateshuku] in the second series, and bu a single-row stretching suture suggested by the author in the third series. The postoperative complications and the parameters of physical airtightness of the intestinal anastomosis were studied in dynamics in the experimental animals. The results of the study: incompetence of the anastomosis sutures in the first series 6, in the second 4, and in the third series one. Adhesions occurred in all animals of the first and second series and in 2 of the third series. Six dogs of the first series died, 4 of the second, and one of the third. Study of the dynamics of the results showed a direct connection of the complications with the parameters of the physical airtightness of the anastomosis, and the last-named with the method of the intestinal suture. Relatively better results were noted in formation of the anastomosis by means of our suggested stretshing continuous suture passed through the serous, muscular, and submucous coats of the intestine.

  17. Chemometric methods and near-infrared spectroscopy applied to bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    data analysis (i) successfully determine the concentrations of moisture, protein, and starch in the feedstock material as well as glucose, ethanol, glycerol, lactic acid, acetic acid in the processed bioethanol broths; (ii) and allow quantifying a complex biofuel's property such as the heating value. At the third stage, this thesis focuses on new chemometric methods that improve mathematical analysis of multivariate data such as NIR spectra. The newly developed method 'repeated double cross validation' (rdCV) separates optimization of regression models from tests of model performance; furthermore, rdCV estimates the variability of the model performance based on a large number of prediction errors from test samples. The rdCV procedure has been applied to both the classical PLS regression and the robust 'partial robust M' regression method, which can handle erroneous data. The peculiar and relatively unknown 'random projection' method is tested for its potential of dimensionality reduction of data from chemometrics and chemoinformatics. The main findings are: (i) rdCV fosters a realistic assessment of model performance, (ii) robust regression has outstanding performance for data containing outliers and thus is strongly recommendable, and (iii) random projection is a useful niche application for high-dimensional data combined with possible restrictions in data storage and computing time. The three chemometric methods described are available as functions for the free software R. (author) [de

  18. Applying a weighted random forests method to extract karst sinkholes from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Pierskalla, William P.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed mapping of sinkholes provides critical information for mitigating sinkhole hazards and understanding groundwater and surface water interactions in karst terrains. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measures the earth's surface in high-resolution and high-density and has shown great potentials to drastically improve locating and delineating sinkholes. However, processing LiDAR data to extract sinkholes requires separating sinkholes from other depressions, which can be laborious because of the sheer number of the depressions commonly generated from LiDAR data. In this study, we applied the random forests, a machine learning method, to automatically separate sinkholes from other depressions in a karst region in central Kentucky. The sinkhole-extraction random forest was grown on a training dataset built from an area where LiDAR-derived depressions were manually classified through a visual inspection and field verification process. Based on the geometry of depressions, as well as natural and human factors related to sinkholes, 11 parameters were selected as predictive variables to form the dataset. Because the training dataset was imbalanced with the majority of depressions being non-sinkholes, a weighted random forests method was used to improve the accuracy of predicting sinkholes. The weighted random forest achieved an average accuracy of 89.95% for the training dataset, demonstrating that the random forest can be an effective sinkhole classifier. Testing of the random forest in another area, however, resulted in moderate success with an average accuracy rate of 73.96%. This study suggests that an automatic sinkhole extraction procedure like the random forest classifier can significantly reduce time and labor costs and makes its more tractable to map sinkholes using LiDAR data for large areas. However, the random forests method cannot totally replace manual procedures, such as visual inspection and field verification.

  19. A new sub-equation method applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using a new coupled Riccati equations, a direct algebraic method, which was applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations, is improved. And the exact travelling wave solutions of the complex KdV equation, Boussinesq equation and Klein-Gordon equation are investigated using the improved method. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to construct exact travelling wave solutions for other nonlinear complex equations.

  20. A mixed methods evaluation of team-based learning for applied pathophysiology in undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branney, Jonathan; Priego-Hernández, Jacqueline

    2018-02-01

    It is important for nurses to have a thorough understanding of the biosciences such as pathophysiology that underpin nursing care. These courses include content that can be difficult to learn. Team-based learning is emerging as a strategy for enhancing learning in nurse education due to the promotion of individual learning as well as learning in teams. In this study we sought to evaluate the use of team-based learning in the teaching of applied pathophysiology to undergraduate student nurses. A mixed methods observational study. In a year two, undergraduate nursing applied pathophysiology module circulatory shock was taught using Team-based Learning while all remaining topics were taught using traditional lectures. After the Team-based Learning intervention the students were invited to complete the Team-based Learning Student Assessment Instrument, which measures accountability, preference and satisfaction with Team-based Learning. Students were also invited to focus group discussions to gain a more thorough understanding of their experience with Team-based Learning. Exam scores for answers to questions based on Team-based Learning-taught material were compared with those from lecture-taught material. Of the 197 students enrolled on the module, 167 (85% response rate) returned the instrument, the results from which indicated a favourable experience with Team-based Learning. Most students reported higher accountability (93%) and satisfaction (92%) with Team-based Learning. Lectures that promoted active learning were viewed as an important feature of the university experience which may explain the 76% exhibiting a preference for Team-based Learning. Most students wanted to make a meaningful contribution so as not to let down their team and they saw a clear relevance between the Team-based Learning activities and their own experiences of teamwork in clinical practice. Exam scores on the question related to Team-based Learning-taught material were comparable to those

  1. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-04

    necessary, two-step gradient elution. The developed methods were then applied to real cosmetic samples to assess the method specificity, with regards to matrix interferences, and calibration curves were plotted to evaluate quantification. Besides, depending on the matrix and on the studied compounds, the importance of the detector type, UV or ELSD (evaporative light-scattering detection), and of the particle size of the stationary phase is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling Non-Steady Isotopologue and Isotopomer Speciation and Fractionation during Denitrification in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    The composition and location of 15N atoms on N2O isotopomers and isotopologues during isotope speciation has been used to characterize soil biological N cycling and N2O surface emissions. Although there exist few experimental observations, no attempt has been made to model N2O isotopomer speciation. The mathematical treatment of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications normally makes use of first-order and quasi steady-state complexation assumptions without taking into account changes in enzyme concentration, reaction stoichiometry, and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. When multiatomic isotopically-labeled reactants are used in a multi-molecurar reaction, these assumptions may fail since they always lead to a constant fractionation factor and cannot describe speciation of isotopologues and isotopomers. We have developed a mathematical framework that is capable of describing isotopologue and isotopmer speciation and fractionation under the assumption of non-steady complexation during biological kinetic reactions that overcome the limitations mentioned above. This framework was applied to a case study of non-steady (variable and inverse) isotopic effects observed during N2O production and consumption in soils. Our mathematical treatment has led to generalized kinetic equations which replicate experimental observations with high accuracy and help interpret non-steady isotopic effects and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. The kinetic equations introduced and applied here have general validity in describing isotopic effects in any biochemical reactions by considering: changing enzyme concentrations, mass and isotope conservation, and reaction stoichiometry. The equations also describe speciation of any isotopologue and isotopomer product from any isotopologue and isotopmer reactant.

  3. Pb speciation results in amended soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the distribution of Pb phases resulting from various amendments to change Pb speciation. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  4. Evolution: sympatric speciation the eusocial way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Nash, David Richard

    2014-01-01

    Sympatric speciation normally requires particular conditions of ecological niche differentiation. However, ant social parasites have been suspected to arise sympatrically, because (dis)loyalty to eusocial kin-structures induces disruptive selection for dispersal and inbreeding. A new study docume...

  5. Dearborn GC-MS organic speciation data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient particulate matter organic speciation data from July - August, 2011. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lynam, M., T. Dvonch, J....

  6. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  7. Non-parametric order statistics method applied to uncertainty propagation in fuel rod calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimescu, V.E.; Heins, L.

    2001-01-01

    method, which is computationally efficient, is presented for the evaluation of the global statement. It is proved that, r, the expected fraction of fuel rods exceeding a certain limit is equal to the (1-r)-quantile of the overall distribution of all possible values from all fuel rods. In this way, the problem is reduced to that of estimating a certain quantile of the overall distribution, and the same techniques used for a single rod distribution can be applied again. A simplified test case was devised to verify and validate the methodology. The fuel code was replaced by a transfer function dependent on two input parameters. The function was chosen so that analytic results could be obtained for the distribution of the output. This offers a direct validation for the statistical procedure. Also, a sensitivity study has been performed to analyze the effect on the final outcome of the sampling procedure, simple Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling. Also, the effect on the accuracy and bias of the statistical results due to the size of the sample was studied and the conclusion was reached that the results of the statistical methodology are typically conservative. In the end, an example of applying these statistical techniques to a PWR reload is presented together with the improvements and new insights the statistical methodology brings to fuel rod design calculations. (author)

  8. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  9. New methods applied to the analysis and treatment of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order, S.E.; Rosenshein, N.B.; Klein, J.L.; Lichter, A.S.; Ettinger, D.S.; Dillon, M.B.; Leibel, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of rigorous staging methods, appreciation of new knowledge concerning ovarian cancer dissemination, and administration of new treatment techniques have been applied to ovarian cancer. The method of staging consists of peritoneal cytology, total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), omentectomy, nodal biopsy, diaphragmatic inspection and is coupled with maximal surgical resection. An additional examination being evaluated for usefulness in future staging is intraperitoneal /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scans. Nineteen patients have entered the pilot studies. Sixteen patients (5 Stage 2, 10 Stage 3 micrometastatic, and 1 Stage 4) have been treated with colloidal 32 P, i.p. followed 2 weeks later by split abdominal irradiation (200 rad fractions pelvis-2 hr rest-150 rad upper abdomen) to a total abdominal dose of 3000 rad with a pelvic cone down to 4000 rad. Five of these patients received Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) (7 mg/m 2 ) maintenance therapy. The 3 year actuarial survival was 78% and the 3 year disease free actuarial survival 68%. Seven patients were treated with intraperitoneal tumor antisera and 4/7 remain in complete remission as of this writing. The specificity of the antiserum has been demonstrated by immunoelectrophoresis in 4/4 patients, and by live cell fluorescence in 1 patient. Rabbit IgG levels revealed significant increasing titers in 4/6 patients following i.p. antiovarian antiserum. Radiolabeled IgG derived from the antiserum demonstrated tumor localization and correlation with conventional radiograhy and computerized axial tomograhy (CAT) scans in 2 patients studied to date. Biomarker analysis reveals that free secretory protein 6/6, apha globulin 5/6, and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) 3/6 were elevated in the 6 patients studied. Two patients whose disease progressed demonstrated elevated levels of all three biomarkers

  10. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  11. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  12. Stochastic Methods Applied to Power System Operations with Renewable Energy: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy resources have been rapidly integrated into power systems in many parts of the world, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable supply of electricity. Wind and solar resources also introduce new challenges for system operations and planning in terms of economics and reliability because of their variability and uncertainty. Operational strategies based on stochastic optimization have been developed recently to address these challenges. In general terms, these stochastic strategies either embed uncertainties into the scheduling formulations (e.g., the unit commitment [UC] problem) in probabilistic forms or develop more appropriate operating reserve strategies to take advantage of advanced forecasting techniques. Other approaches to address uncertainty are also proposed, where operational feasibility is ensured within an uncertainty set of forecasting intervals. In this report, a comprehensive review is conducted to present the state of the art through Spring 2015 in the area of stochastic methods applied to power system operations with high penetration of renewable energy. Chapters 1 and 2 give a brief introduction and overview of power system and electricity market operations, as well as the impact of renewable energy and how this impact is typically considered in modeling tools. Chapter 3 reviews relevant literature on operating reserves and specifically probabilistic methods to estimate the need for system reserve requirements. Chapter 4 looks at stochastic programming formulations of the UC and economic dispatch (ED) problems, highlighting benefits reported in the literature as well as recent industry developments. Chapter 5 briefly introduces alternative formulations of UC under uncertainty, such as robust, chance-constrained, and interval programming. Finally, in Chapter 6, we conclude with the main observations from our review and important directions for future work.

  13. Holographic method coupled with an optoelectronic interface applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.; Sporea, D.; Niculescu, V.I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a holographic method applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry. It is possible to use two types of holographic interferometry like as double exposure holographic interferometry, or fast real time holographic interferometry. In this paper the applications of holographic interferometry to ionizing radiation dosimetry are presented. The determination of the accurate value of dose delivered by an ionizing radiation source (released energy per mass unit) is a complex problem which imposes different solutions depending on experimental parameters and it is solved with a double exposure holographic interferometric method associated with an optoelectronic interface and Z80 microprocessor. The method can determine the absorbed integral dose as well as the three-dimensional distribution of dose in given volume. The paper presents some results obtained in radiation dosimetry. Original mathematical relations for integral absorbed dose in irreversible radiolyzing liquids where derived. Irradiation effects can be estimated from the holographic fringes displacement and density. To measure these parameters, the obtained holographic interferograms were picked-up by a closed TV circuit system in such a way that a selected TV line explores the picture along the direction of interest using a special designed interface, a Z80 and our microprocessor system captures data along the selected TV line. When the integral dose is to be measured the microprocessor computes it from the information contained in the fringes distribution, according to the proposed formulae. Integral absorbed dose and spatial dose distribution can be estimated with an accuracy better than 4%. Some advantages of this method are outlined comparatively with conventional method in radiation dosimetry. The paper presents an original holographic set-up with an electronic interface, assisted by a Z80 microprocessor and used for nondestructive testing of transparent objects at the laser wave length

  14. Characterization modelling of aquatic ecotoxicity from metal emission to be applied in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan

    water, Al(III) and Cu(II) have the highest CF of all the investigated metals, while Cd has the highest CF in other water types. The emission weighted freshwater CF was recommended to be applied as site-generic CF in the LCA studies where emission location and water chemistry of the receiving freshwater......Following the Apeldoorn Declaration (Aboussouan et al. 2004) and Clearwater Consensus (Diamond et al. 2010), Gandhi et al. (2010) developed a new method to calculate metals Characterization Factor (CF) in freshwater and applied it on six metals, considering metals speciation and its impacts...... is either lacking (e.g. USEtox, IMPACT 2002+), or derived by applying freshwater ecotoxicity data and ignoring metal speciation (e.g. USES-LCA). Moreover, the connection between freshwater and seawater, the estuary, which may act as a metal filter, is missing in the framework. To solve the problems...

  15. A nuclear-medical method applied for determining the choledochus diameter after cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.

    1980-01-01

    54 patients (46 of them females, 8 males) who underwent cholecystectomy at least 4 years ago, were followed up roentgenologically by infusion cholangiography and nuclear-medicinally by quantitative hepatobiliary functional scintiscanning (HBFS). The ROI method applied for HBFS permits to record time/activity curves above the liver parenchyma (A) and the porta of the liver (B). By substracting curve A of curve B with the scale in which A is incorporated in B, a curve B' results, indicating the flow volume through the porta of the liver. The quotient Q=maximum pulse A to B/maximum pulse B to B indicates the portion of the liver parenchyma in the porta curve. The quotient represents a measure for the total volume of the large bile ducts included in the region of the porta of the liver. The quantity 1-Q/Q was put in relation with the roentgenologically determined common bile duct diameters. It resulted that both quantities correlated well, with a correlation coefficient of r=-0.860. Thus, the choledochus diameter can be determined in a primarily functional examination with a precision of 2 mm, a degree which permits the detection of clinically relevant discharge malfunctions. It was not possible to detect peristalsis-dependent phenomena with a dosage of 4-5 mCi 99 mTc-diethyl-IDA, an irradiation dose which was sufficient for answering the clinical questions and could be justified for the patients. (orig.) [de

  16. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengni Chen

    Full Text Available A country's total fertility rate (TFR depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  17. Multicriterial Hierarchy Methods Applied in Consumption Demand Analysis. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bob

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic information for computing the quantitative statistical indicators, that characterize the demand of industrial products and services are collected by the national statistics organizations, through a series of statistical surveys (most of them periodical and partial. The source for data we used in the present paper is an statistical investigation organized by the National Institute of Statistics, "Family budgets survey" that allows to collect information regarding the households composition, income, expenditure, consumption and other aspects of population living standard. In 2005, in Romania, a person spent monthly in average 391,2 RON, meaning about 115,1 Euros for purchasing the consumed food products and beverage, as well as non-foods products, services, investments and other taxes. 23% of this sum was spent for purchasing the consumed food products and beverages, 21.6% of the total sum was spent for purchasing non-food goods and 18,1%  for payment of different services. There is a discrepancy between the different development regions in Romania, regarding total households expenditure composition. For this reason, in the present paper we applied statistical methods for ranking the various development regions in Romania, using the share of householdsí expenditure on categories of products and services as ranking criteria.

  18. Bending stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints applied with a use of finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented work focuses on bending moment stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints with a use of Finite Element Method. The joints are created from Minifix and Rondorfix cams combined with non-glued wooden dowels. Laminated particleboard 18 mm of thickness is used as a connected material. The connectors were chosen such as the most applied kind in furniture industry for the case furniture. All gained results were reciprocally compared to each other and also in comparison to experimental testing by the mean of stiffness. The non-linear numerical model of chosen joints was successfully created using the software Ansys Workbench. The detailed analysis of stress distribution in the joint was achieved with non-linear numerical simulation. A relationship between numerical si­mu­la­tion and experimental testing was showed by comparison stiffness tangents. A numerical simulation of RTA joint loads also demonstrated the important role of non-glued dowels in the tested joints. The low strength of particleboard in the tension parallel to surface (internal bond is the most likely the cause of the joint failure. Results are applicable for strength designing of furniture with the aid of Computer Aided Engineering.

  19. Commissioning methods applied to the Hunterston 'B' AGR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Hunterston 'B' full scope AGR Simulator, built for the South of Scotland Electricity Board by Marconi Instruments, encompasses all systems under direct and indirect control of the Hunterston central control room operators. The resulting breadth and depth of simulation together with the specification for the real time implementation of a large number of highly interactive detailed plant models leads to the classic problem of identifying acceptance and acceptability criteria. For example, whilst the ultimate criterion for acceptability must clearly be that within the context of the training requirement the simulator should be indistinguishable from the actual plant, far more measurable (i.e. less subjective) statements are required if a formal contractual acceptance condition is to be achieved. Within the framework, individual models and processes can have radically different acceptance requirements which therefore reflect on the commissioning approach applied. This paper discusses the application of a combination of quality assurance methods, design code results, plant data, theoretical analysis and operator 'feel' in the commissioning of the Hunterston 'B' AGR Operator Training Simulator. (author)

  20. Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: a History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation {Population, 3, 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Brouard; J.-M. Robine; E. Cambois

    1999-01-01

    Cambois (Emmanuelle), Robin? (Jean-Marie), Brouard (Nicolas).- Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: A History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation Indicators of life expectancy applied to specific statuses, such as the state of health or professional status, were introduced at the end of the 1930s and are currently the object of renewed interest. Because they relate mortality to different domains (health, professional activity) applied life expectancies reflect simultan...

  1. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2010-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using advanced laser-based highly sensitive spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been performed for the chemical speciation of actinide in an aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. (1) Development of TRLFS technology for chemical speciation of actinides, (2) Development of LIBD technology for measuring solubility of actinides, (3) Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, (4) Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, (5) Development of technology for the chemical speciation of actinides by CE, (6) Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, (7) Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces, (8) Determination of actinide source terms of spent nuclear fuel

  2. A Study of the Efficiency of Spatial Indexing Methods Applied to Large Astronomical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Tom; Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Shiao, Bernie

    2018-01-01

    Spatial indexing of astronomical databases generally uses quadrature methods, which partition the sky into cells used to create an index (usually a B-tree) written as database column. We report the results of a study to compare the performance of two common indexing methods, HTM and HEALPix, on Solaris and Windows database servers installed with a PostgreSQL database, and a Windows Server installed with MS SQL Server. The indexing was applied to the 2MASS All-Sky Catalog and to the Hubble Source catalog. On each server, the study compared indexing performance by submitting 1 million queries at each index level with random sky positions and random cone search radius, which was computed on a logarithmic scale between 1 arcsec and 1 degree, and measuring the time to complete the query and write the output. These simulated queries, intended to model realistic use patterns, were run in a uniform way on many combinations of indexing method and indexing level. The query times in all simulations are strongly I/O-bound and are linear with number of records returned for large numbers of sources. There are, however, considerable differences between simulations, which reveal that hardware I/O throughput is a more important factor in managing the performance of a DBMS than the choice of indexing scheme. The choice of index itself is relatively unimportant: for comparable index levels, the performance is consistent within the scatter of the timings. At small index levels (large cells; e.g. level 4; cell size 3.7 deg), there is large scatter in the timings because of wide variations in the number of sources found in the cells. At larger index levels, performance improves and scatter decreases, but the improvement at level 8 (14 min) and higher is masked to some extent in the timing scatter caused by the range of query sizes. At very high levels (20; 0.0004 arsec), the granularity of the cells becomes so high that a large number of extraneous empty cells begin to degrade

  3. How common is ecological speciation in plant-feeding insects? A 'Higher' Nematinae perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Tommi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological speciation is a process in which a transiently resource-polymorphic species divides into two specialized sister lineages as a result of divergent selection pressures caused by the use of multiple niches or environments. Ecology-based speciation has been studied intensively in plant-feeding insects, in which both sympatric and allopatric shifts onto novel host plants could speed up diversification. However, while numerous examples of species pairs likely to have originated by resource shifts have been found, the overall importance of ecological speciation in relation to other, non-ecological speciation modes remains unknown. Here, we apply phylogenetic information on sawflies belonging to the 'Higher' Nematinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae to infer the frequency of niche shifts in relation to speciation events. Results Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of DNA sequence data show that the diversification of higher nematines has involved frequent shifts in larval feeding habits and in the use of plant taxa. However, the inferred number of resource shifts is considerably lower than the number of past speciation events, indicating that the majority of divergences have occurred by non-ecological allopatric speciation; based on a time-corrected analysis of sister species, we estimate that a maximum of c. 20% of lineage splits have been triggered by a change in resource use. In addition, we find that postspeciational changes in geographic distributions have led to broad sympatry in many species having identical host-plant ranges. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the importance of niche shifts for the diversification of herbivorous insects is at present implicitly and explicitly overestimated. In the case of the Higher Nematinae, employing a time correction for sister-species comparisons lowered the proportion of apparent ecology-based speciation events from c. 50-60% to around 20%, but such corrections are

  4. Speciation, in the nuclear fuel cycle by spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, S.; Plancque, G.; Allain, F.; Lamouroux, C.; Steiner, V.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C.

    2000-01-01

    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. They have to be selective (since matrix encountered are very complex), sensitive (in order to work at representative concentration and below solubility limit), as well as non intrusive (in order to keep the image of the real solution). Among them, laser-based analytical techniques present these advantages together with the possibility to perform remote measurements via fiber optics. Hence, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices from the reprocessing to waste storage. Moreover, new ion detection methods such as Electro-Spray - Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Hence, it is the first time that it is possible to directly couple a liquid at atmospheric pressure to a mass detection working at reduced pressure with a soft mode of ionisation that should allow to give informations on chemical species present. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained with the use of TRLIF and ES-MS on different systems of interest including actinides, lanthanides, fission products in interaction with simple organic molecules to very complex structure will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  5. Speciation, in the nuclear fuel cycle by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, S.; Plancque, G.; Allain, F.; Lamouroux, C.; Steiner, V.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept, des Procedes d' Enrichissement (DPE), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. They have to be selective (since matrix encountered are very complex), sensitive (in order to work at representative concentration and below solubility limit), as well as non intrusive (in order to keep the image of the real solution). Among them, laser-based analytical techniques present these advantages together with the possibility to perform remote measurements via fiber optics. Hence, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices from the reprocessing to waste storage. Moreover, new ion detection methods such as Electro-Spray - Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Hence, it is the first time that it is possible to directly couple a liquid at atmospheric pressure to a mass detection working at reduced pressure with a soft mode of ionisation that should allow to give informations on chemical species present. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained with the use of TRLIF and ES-MS on different systems of interest including actinides, lanthanides, fission products in interaction with simple organic molecules to very complex structure will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  6. Analysis of flow boiling heat transfer in narrow annular gaps applying the design of experiments method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunar Boye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The axial heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of n-hexane was measured using infrared thermography to determine the axial wall temperature in three geometrically similar annular gaps with different widths (s = 1.5 mm, s = 1 mm, s = 0.5 mm. During the design and evaluation process, the methods of statistical experimental design were applied. The following factors/parameters were varied: the heat flux q · = 30 − 190 kW / m 2 , the mass flux m · = 30 − 700 kg / m 2 s , the vapor quality x · = 0 . 2 − 0 . 7 , and the subcooled inlet temperature T U = 20 − 60 K . The test sections with gap widths of s = 1.5 mm and s = 1 mm had very similar heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer coefficient increases significantly in the range of subcooled boiling, and after reaching a maximum at the transition to the saturated flow boiling, it drops almost monotonically with increasing vapor quality. With a gap width of 0.5 mm, however, the heat transfer coefficient in the range of saturated flow boiling first has a downward trend and then increases at higher vapor qualities. For each test section, two correlations between the heat transfer coefficient and the operating parameters have been created. The comparison also shows a clear trend of an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing heat flux for test sections s = 1.5 mm and s = 1.0 mm, but with increasing vapor quality, this trend is reversed for test section 0.5 mm.

  7. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengni; Lloyd, Chris J.

    2018-01-01

    A country’s total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup’s potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies. PMID:29425220

  8. An implementation of the diagnosis method DYANA, applied to a combined heat-power device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Neut, F.

    1993-10-01

    The development and implementation of the monitor-and-diagnosis method DYANA is presented. This implementation is applied to and tested on a combined heat and power generating device (CHP). The steps that have been taken in realizing this implementation are evaluated into detail . In chapter two the theory behind DYANA is recapitulated. Attention is paid to the basic theory of diagnoses, and the steps of the path from this theory to the algorithm DYANA are revealed. These steps include the hierarchical approach, and explain the following features of DYANA: a) the use of best-first dynamic model zooming based on heuristics with respect to parsimony of the number of components within the diagnoses, b) the use of consistency of fault models with observations to focus on the most likely diagnoses, and c) the use of online diagnosis: the current set of diagnoses is incrementally updated after a new observation of the system is made. In chapter three the relevant aspects of the system to be diagnosed, the CHP, are dealt with in detail. An explanation is given of the broad working of the CHP, its hierarchical structure and mathematical representation are given, CHP observation is commented, and some possible forms of fault models are stated. In chapter four the pseudocode of the implementation, developed for DYANA, is presented. The pseudocode consists of two parts: the monitoring process (using numerical simulation), and the diagnostic process. The differences between the pseudocode and the actual implementation are mentioned. The CHP will then be monitored and diagnosed with this algorithm and results of this test are given in chapter five. An actual implementation of DYANA can be found in a separately supplied appendix, the Programme Appendix. The implementation of the monitoring process is meant only for this example of the CHP. The code for the diagnostic process can be easily adjusted for diagnosing other devices, such as electronic circuits. The language is Pascal.

  9. Proposal of inspection method of radiation protection applied to nuclear medicine establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Leopoldino da Cruz Gouveia

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to implement a method of an impartial and efficient inspection, due to a correct and secure dose of ionizing radiation in the field of Nuclear Medicine. The Radiological Protection Model was tested in 113 Nuclear Medicine Services all over the country, according to a biannual analysis frequency (1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002). The data sheet comprised general information about the structure of the NMS and a technical approach. In the analytical process, a methodology of inputting different importance levels to each of the 82 features was adopted, based on the risk factors stated in the CNEN NE's and in the IAEA recommendations, as well. From this point of view, as a feature does not fit one of the rules above, it will correspond to a radioprotection fault and be imparted a grade. The sum of those grades, classified the NMS in one of the three different ranges, as follows: - operating without restriction - 100 points and below- operating with restriction - between 100 and 300 points - temporary shutdown - above and equal to 300 points. The allowance of the second group to carry on operating should be attached to a defined and restricted period of time (six to twelve months), supposed large enough to the NMS solving the problems being new evaluation proceeded then. The NMS's classified in the third group are supposed to go back into operation only when fit all the pending radioprotection requirements. Until the next regular evaluation, meanwhile a multiplication factor 2 n was applied to the recalcitrant NMS s where n is the number of unwilling occurrences. The previous establishment of those items of radioprotection, with its respective grade, excluded subjective and personal values in the judgement and technical evaluation of the institutions. (author)

  10. Estimation Methods for Infinite-Dimensional Systems Applied to the Hemodynamic Response in the Brain

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2018-05-01

    Infinite-Dimensional Systems (IDSs) which have been made possible by recent advances in mathematical and computational tools can be used to model complex real phenomena. However, due to physical, economic, or stringent non-invasive constraints on real systems, the underlying characteristics for mathematical models in general (and IDSs in particular) are often missing or subject to uncertainty. Therefore, developing efficient estimation techniques to extract missing pieces of information from available measurements is essential. The human brain is an example of IDSs with severe constraints on information collection from controlled experiments and invasive sensors. Investigating the intriguing modeling potential of the brain is, in fact, the main motivation for this work. Here, we will characterize the hemodynamic behavior of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging data. In this regard, we propose efficient estimation methods for two classes of IDSs, namely Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs). This work is divided into two parts. The first part addresses the joint estimation problem of the state, parameters, and input for a coupled second-order hyperbolic PDE and an infinite-dimensional ordinary differential equation using sampled-in-space measurements. Two estimation techniques are proposed: a Kalman-based algorithm that relies on a reduced finite-dimensional model of the IDS, and an infinite-dimensional adaptive estimator whose convergence proof is based on the Lyapunov approach. We study and discuss the identifiability of the unknown variables for both cases. The second part contributes to the development of estimation methods for FDEs where major challenges arise in estimating fractional differentiation orders and non-smooth pointwise inputs. First, we propose a fractional high-order sliding mode observer to jointly estimate the pseudo-state and input of commensurate FDEs. Second, we propose a

  11. Solid phase speciation of arsenic by sequential extraction in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreweghe, Samuel van; Swennen, Rudy; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Cappuyns, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Leaching experiments, a mineralogical survey and larger samples are preferred when arsenic is present as discrete mineral phases. - Availability, mobility, (phyto)toxicity and potential risk of contaminants is strongly affected by the manner of appearance of elements, the so-called speciation. Operational fractionation methods like sequential extractions have been applied for a long time to determine the solid phase speciation of heavy metals since direct determination of specific chemical compounds can not always be easily achieved. The three-step sequential extraction scheme recommended by the BCR and two extraction schemes based on the phosphorus-like protocol proposed by Manful (1992, Occurrence and Ecochemical Behaviours of Arsenic in a Goldsmelter Impacted Area in Ghana, PhD dissertation, at the RUG) were applied to four standard reference materials (SRM) and to a batch of samples from industrially contaminated sites, heavily contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. The SRM 2710 (Montana soil) was found to be the most useful reference material for metal (Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) fractionation using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Two sequential extraction schemes were developed and compared for arsenic with the aim to establish a better fractionation and recovery rate than the BCR-scheme for this element in the SRM samples. The major part of arsenic was released from the heavily contaminated samples after NaOH-extraction. Inferior extraction variability and recovery in the heavily contaminated samples compared to SRMs could be mainly contributed to subsample heterogeneity

  12. Selfish X chromosomes and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Manus M

    2017-12-27

    In two papers published at about the same time almost thirty years ago, Frank (Evolution, 45, 1991a, 262) and Hurst and Pomiankowski (Genetics, 128, 1991, 841) independently suggested that divergence of meiotic drive systems-comprising genes that cheat meiosis and genes that suppress this cheating-might provide a general explanation for Haldane's rule and the large X-effect in interspecific hybrids. Although at the time, the idea was met with skepticism and a conspicuous absence of empirical support, the tide has since turned. Some of the clearest mechanistic explanations we have for hybrid male sterility involve meiotic drive systems, and several other cases of hybrid sterility are suggestive of a role for meiotic drive. In this article, I review these ideas and their descendants and catalog the current evidence for the meiotic drive model of speciation. In addition, I suggest that meiotic drive is not the only intragenomic conflict to involve the X chromosome and contribute to hybrid incompatibility. Sexually and parentally antagonistic selection pressures can also pit the X chromosome and autosomes against each other. The resulting intragenomic conflicts should lead to co-evolution within populations and divergence between them, thus increasing the likelihood of incompatibilities in hybrids. I provide a sketch of these ideas and interpret some empirical patterns in the light of these additional X-autosome conflicts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Higher Order, Hybrid BEM/FEM Methods Applied to Antenna Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.; Dobbins, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors address topics relevant to higher order modeling using hybrid BEM/FEM formulations. The first of these is the limitation on convergence rates imposed by geometric modeling errors in the analysis of scattering by a dielectric sphere. The second topic is the application of an Incomplete LU Threshold (ILUT) preconditioner to solve the linear system resulting from the BEM/FEM formulation. The final tOpic is the application of the higher order BEM/FEM formulation to antenna modeling problems. The authors have previously presented work on the benefits of higher order modeling. To achieve these benefits, special attention is required in the integration of singular and near-singular terms arising in the surface integral equation. Several methods for handling these terms have been presented. It is also well known that achieving he high rates of convergence afforded by higher order bases may als'o require the employment of higher order geometry models. A number of publications have described the use of quadratic elements to model curved surfaces. The authors have shown in an EFIE formulation, applied to scattering by a PEC .sphere, that quadratic order elements may be insufficient to prevent the domination of modeling errors. In fact, on a PEC sphere with radius r = 0.58 Lambda(sub 0), a quartic order geometry representation was required to obtain a convergence benefi.t from quadratic bases when compared to the convergence rate achieved with linear bases. Initial trials indicate that, for a dielectric sphere of the same radius, - requirements on the geometry model are not as severe as for the PEC sphere. The authors will present convergence results for higher order bases as a function of the geometry model order in the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation applied to dielectric spheres. It is well known that the system matrix resulting from the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation is ill -conditioned. For many real applications, a good preconditioner is required

  14. Nickel speciation and complexation kinetics in freshwater by ligand exchange and DPCSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han Bin Xue,; Jansen, S.; Prasch, A.; Sigg, L.

    2001-01-01

    A technique of ligand exchange with DMG (dimethylglyoxime) and DPCSV was applied to determine Ni speciation in lake, river, and groundwater samples. The working conditions related to ligand-exchange equilibrium were optimized, and the ligand-exchange kinetics were examined. The observed

  15. Dynamic speciation analysis of atrazine in aqueous latex nanoparticle dispersions using solid phase microextraction (SPME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhabib, K.; Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the dynamic speciation analysis of the pesticide atrazine in an aqueous medium containing sorbing latex nanoparticles. It is found that the overall rate of extraction of the analyte is faster than in the absence of nanoparticles and governed by the

  16. Solid phase microextraction speciation analysis of triclosan in aqueous mediacontaining sorbing nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, K.

    2014-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the speciation analysis of the hydrophobic compound triclosan in an aqueous medium containing sorbing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). It is found that these NPs, as well as their complexes with triclosan, partition between the bulk medium and the solid

  17. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  18. Four Methods for Completing the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory Building Research in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe four methods for completing the conceptual development phase of theory building research for single or multiparadigm research. The four methods selected for this review are (1) Weick's method of "theorizing as disciplined imagination" (1989); (2) Whetten's method of "modeling as theorizing" (2002); (3)…

  19. Geography, assortative mating, and the effects of sexual selection on speciation with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servedio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on the evolution of reproductive isolation have both indicated that the effects of sexual selection on speciation with gene flow are quite complex. As part of this special issue on the contributions of women to basic and applied evolutionary biology, I discuss my work on this question in the context of a broader assessment of the patterns of sexual selection that lead to, versus inhibit, the speciation process, as derived from theoretical research. In particular, I focus on how two factors, the geographic context of speciation and the mechanism leading to assortative mating, interact to alter the effect that sexual selection through mate choice has on speciation. I concentrate on two geographic contexts: sympatry and secondary contact between two geographically separated populations that are exchanging migrants and two mechanisms of assortative mating: phenotype matching and separate preferences and traits. I show that both of these factors must be considered for the effects of sexual selection on speciation to be inferred.

  20. Investigation of actinides speciation within the presence of ligands of interest for decorporation; Etude de la speciation des actinides vis-a-vis de ligands d'interet pour la decorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L

    2008-01-15

    Data about the behaviour of actinides in biological media are required in order to investigate their decorporation. Those data are obtained through in vivo experiments and the study of chemical speciation of actinides within the presence of biological constituents. A part of this work consists in the development of a method leading to the determination of the speciation of actinides at the oxidation state +IV within the presence of a complexing species, as well as its structure. The method was applied to two types of ligands: 1) a constituent of blood plasma: the citrate anion. The various complexes formed were investigated and their formation constants were quantified. The coordination mode of the ligand was then clarified through a structural study of the complexes, underlining the role of only one carboxylic site and of the alcohol function. 2) chelating agents used for decorporation. The formation constants of complexes of An(IV) with NTA and DTPA were determined. The coordination number of the metallic cation in those complexes as well as the role of the nitrogen atom were proved. Lastly, the behaviour of Pu(IV) within the presence of LIHOPO was investigated. This chelating agent, more efficient than DTPA in the case of in vivo decorporation of Np, forms very stable complexes with the metallic cation. One of those complexes can be assumed to present a stoichiometry 2:3. (author)

  1. How Facilitation May Interfere with Ecological Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.

  2. Speciation of zinc in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Chadi H.; Courchesne, Francois; Hendershot, William H.; McGrath, Steve P.; Chaudri, Amar M.; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Sauve, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The chemical speciation of zinc in soil solutions is critical to the understanding of its bioavailability and potential toxic effects. We studied the speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils representative of a wide range of field conditions in both North America and Europe. Within this dataset, we evaluated the links among the dissolved concentrations of zinc and the speciation of Zn 2+ , soil solution pH, total soil Zn, dissolved organic matter (DOM), soil organic matter (SOM) and the concentrations of different inorganic anions. The solid-liquid partitioning coefficient (K d ) for Zn ranged from 17 to 13,100 L kg -1 soil. The fraction of dissolved Zn bound to DOM varied from 60% to 98% and the soil solution free Zn 2+ varied from 40% to 60% of the labile Zn. Multiple regression equations to predict free Zn 2+ , dissolved Zn and the solid-liquid partitioning of Zn are given for potential use in environmental fate modeling and risk assessment. The multiple regressions also highlight some of the most important soil properties controlling the solubility and chemical speciation of zinc in contaminated soils. - We studied the relationships among the chemical speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils and various physicochemical properties of the soils

  3. Speciation by Symbiosis: the Microbiome and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, J Dylan; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2016-03-31

    Species are fundamental units of comparison in biology. The newly discovered importance and ubiquity of host-associated microorganisms are now stimulating work on the roles that microbes can play in animal speciation. We previously synthesized the literature and advanced concepts of speciation by symbiosis with notable attention to hybrid sterility and lethality. Here, we review recent studies and relevant data on microbes as players in host behavior and behavioral isolation, emphasizing the patterns seen in these analyses and highlighting areas worthy of additional exploration. We conclude that the role of microbial symbionts in behavior and speciation is gaining exciting traction and that the holobiont and hologenome concepts afford an evolving intellectual framework to promote research and intellectual exchange between disciplines such as behavior, microbiology, genetics, symbiosis, and speciation. Given the increasing centrality of microbiology in macroscopic life, microbial symbiosis is arguably the most neglected aspect of animal and plant speciation, and studying it should yield a better understanding of the origin of species. Copyright © 2016 Shropshire and Bordenstein.

  4. Atmospheric speciation of mercury in two contrasting Southeastern US airsheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Williamson, Derek G.; Brooks, Steve; Lindberg, Steve

    Simultaneous measurement of gaseous elemental, reactive gaseous, and fine particulate mercury took place in Tuscaloosa AL, (urban airshed) and Cove Mountain, TN (non-urban airshed) during the summers of 2002 and 2003. The objective of this research was to (1) summarize the temporal distribution of each mercury specie at each site and compare to other speciation data sets developed by other researchers and (2) provide insight into urban and non-urban mercury speciation effects using various statistical methods. Average specie concentrations were as follows: 4.05 ng m -3 (GEM), 13.6 pg m -3 (RGM), 16.4 pg m -3 (Hg-p) for Tuscaloosa; 3.20 ng m -3 (GEM), 13.6 pg m -3 (RGM), 9.73 pg m -3 (Hg-p) for Cove Mountain. As a result of urban airshed impacts, short periods of high concentration for all mercury species was common in Tuscaloosa. At Cove Mountain a consistent mid-day rise and evening drop for mercury species was found. This pattern was primarily the result of un-impacted physical boundary layer movement, although, other potential impacts were ambient photochemistry and air-surface exchange of mercury. Meteorological parameters that are known to heavily impact mercury speciation were similar for the study period for Tuscaloosa and Cove Mountain except for wind speed (m s -1), which was higher at Cove Mountain. For both sites statistically significant ( p<0.0001), inverse relationships existed between wind speed and Hg 0 concentration. A weaker windspeed-Hg 0 correlation existed for Tuscaloosa. By analyzing Hg concentration—wind speed magnitude change at both sites it was found that wind speed at Cove Mountain had a greater influence on Hg 0 concentration variability than Tuscaloosa by a factor of 3. Using various statistical tests, we concluded that the nature of Tuscaloosa's atmospheric mercury speciation was the result of typical urban airshed impacts. Cove Mountain showed atmospheric mercury speciation characteristics indicative of a non-urban area along with

  5. [Chlorine speciation and concentration in cultivated soil in the northeastern China studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lang, Chun-Yan; Ma, Ling-Ling; Xu, Dian-Dou; Zheng, Lei; Lu, Yu-Nanz; Cui Li-Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2014-10-01

    A procedure has been proposed to determine chlorine speciation and concentration in soil with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and this method was applied to study the cultivated soil (bog, dark brown and black cultivated soil) in the Northeastern China. Qualitative analysis was carried out by least-squares fitting of sample spectra with standard spectra of three model compounds (NaCl, 3-chloropropionic acid, chlorophenol red). Linear correlation between the absolute fluorescence intensity of a series of NaCl standards and the Cl concentration was used as quantification standard for measuring the total Cl concentration in samples. The detection limits,relative standard deviation (RSD), recoveries were 2 mg · kg(-1), 0%-5% and 77%-133%, respectively. The average concentration of total Cl was 19 mg · kg(-1). The average relative content was as high as 61% of organochlorine with the concentration of 1-2 times as high as the concentration of inorganic chloride. The distribution trend of the total Cl, inorganic chloride and organic chlorine in different types of soil was: bog arable soil > dark brown soil > black soil. In conclusion, XANES is a reliable method to nondestructively characterize the speciation and concentration of chlorine in soil, which would provide some basic data for the future study of the chlorine's biogeochemical transformations.

  6. Non-regularized inversion method from light scattering applied to ferrofluid magnetization curves for magnetic size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online

  7. Effects of pH on the speciation of radionuclides in groundwater of beishan area, gansu province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhanshi, Zhang; Wenbin, Zhou; Xianhua, Fan

    2002-01-01

    Speciation of radioactive nuclides is one of the most important factors in the study of migration and precipitation of the nuclides related to deep geological disposal of high level radwastes (HLW). Theoretical speciation analysis with thermodynamic equilibrium codes is an effective method. The authors have employed the EQ3NR, a computer program for geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculation, to evaluate the speciation of the key nuclides in the groundwater of Beishan Area, a potential area for hosting the HLW Repository of China. The calculated results showed that pH value as well as chemical composition of the water had a great impact on the speciation of key nuclides, such as Np, Pu, Am, U and Th, which would be released from HLW to the groundwater of Beishan Area. In addition, it was found that the speciation of nuclides varied from one to another. However, under alkaline conditions, the speciations were relatively simpler and hydroxyl complexes and carbonate complexes were dominant. (author)

  8. [Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Speciation of Pb in Purple Soil and Soil Solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-15

    Lead (Pb) in purple soil was selected as the research target, using one-step extraction method with 0.01 mol · L⁻¹ sodium nitrate as the background electrolyte to study the release effect of citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and acetic acid (AC) with different concentrations. Sequential extraction and geochemical model (Visual Minteq v3.0) were applied to analyze and predict the speciation of Pb in soil solid phase and soil solution phase. Then the ebvironmental implications and risks of low-molecule weight organic acid (LMWOA) on soil Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that all three types of LMWOA increased the desorption capacity of Pb in purple soil, and the effect followed the descending order of CA > TA > AC. After the action of LMWOAs, the exchangeable Pb increased; the carbonate-bound Pb and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb dropped in soil solid phase. Organic bound Pb was the main speciation in soil solution phase, accounting for 45.16%-75.05%. The following speciation of Pb in soil solution was free Pb, accounting for 22.71%-50.25%. For CA and TA treatments, free Pb ions and inorganic bound Pb in soil solution increased with increasing LMWOAs concentration, while organic bound Pb suffered a decrease in this process. An opposite trend for AC treatment was observed compared with CA and TA treatments. Overall, LMWOAs boosted the bioavailability of Pb in purple soil and had a potential risk to contaminate underground water. Among the three LMWOAs in this study, CA had the largest potential to activate soil Pb.

  9. Preservation procedures for arsenic speciation in a stream affected by acid mine drainage in southwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Rodas, Daniel; Oliveira, Vanesa; Gomez-Ariza, Jose Luis [University of Huelva, Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, Aguasanta M.; Nieto, Jose Miguel [University of Huelva, Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, Huelva (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    A preservation study has been performed for arsenic speciation in surface freshwaters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), a pollution source characterized by low pH and high metallic content. Two sample preservation procedures described in the literature were attempted using opaque glass containers and refrigeration: i) addition of 0.25 mol L{sup -1} EDTA to the samples, which maintained the stability of the arsenic species for 3 h; and ii) in situ sample clean-up with a cationic exchange resin, in order to reduce the metallic load, which resulted in a partial co-adsorption of arsenic onto Fe precipitates. A new proposed method was also tried: sample acidification with 6 mol L{sup -1} HCl followed by in situ clean-up with a cationic exchange resin, which allowed a longer preservation time of at least 48 h. The proposed method was successfully applied to water samples with high arsenic content, taken from the Aguas Agrias Stream (Odiel River Basin, SW Spain), which is severely affected by AMD that originates at the nearby polymetallic sulfide mine of Tharsis. The speciation results obtained by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) indicated that during the summer the main arsenic species was As(V) at the hundred {mu}g L{sup -1} level, followed by DMA (dimethyl arsenic) and As(III) below the ten {mu}g L{sup -1} level. In winter, As(V) and As(III) increased at least fivefold, whereas the DMA was not detected. (orig.)

  10. Emission and speciation of mercury from waste incinerators with mass distribution investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Jung, Seung Jae; Bhatta, Dhruba

    2010-01-01

    In this paper mercury emission and removal characteristics in municipal wastes incinerators (MWIs), hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) and hospital medical and infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs) with mercury mass distribution within the system are presented. Mercury speciation in flue gas at inlet and outlet of each air pollution control devices (APCDs) were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by U.S. EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for analysis. On an average, Hg emission concentrations in flue gas from MWIs ranged 173.9 to 15.3 μg Sm -3 at inlet and 10.5 to 3.8 μg Sm -3 at outlet of APCDs respectively. Mercury removal efficiency ranged 50 to 95% in MWIs, 7.2 to 59.9% in HWIs as co-beneficial results of APCDs for removing other air pollutants like particulate matter, dioxin and acidic gases. In general, mercury in incineration facilities was mainly distributed in fly ash followed by flue gas and bottom ash. In MWIs 94.4 to 74% of Hg were distributed in fly ash. In HWIs with dry type APCDs, Hg removal was less and 70.6% of mercury was distributed in flue gas. The variation of Hg concentration, speciation and finally the distribution in the tested facilities was related to the non-uniform distribution of Hg in waste combined with variation in waste composition (especially Cl, S content), operating parameters, flue gas components, fly ash properties, operating conditions, APCDs configuration. Long term data incorporating more number of tests are required to better understand mercury behavior in such sources and to apply effective control measures. (author)

  11. A global method for calculating plant CSR ecological strategies applied across biomes world-wide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, S.; Negreiros, D.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Kleyer, M.; Shipley, B.; Wright, S.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Onipchenko, V.G.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Frenette-Dussault, C.; Weiher, E.; Pinho, B.X.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Grime, J.P.; Thompson, K.; Hunt, R.; Wilson, P.J.; Buffa, G.; Nyakunga, O.C.; Reich, P.B.; Caccianiga, M.; Mangili, F.; Ceriani, R.M.; Luzzaro, A.; Brusa, G.; Siefert, A.; Barbosa, N.P.U.; Chapin III, F.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Fang, Jingyun; Wilson Fernandez, G.; Garnier, E.; Le Stradic, S.; Peñuelas, J.; Melo, F.P.L.; Slaviero, A.; Tabarrelli, M.; Tampucci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Competitor, stress-tolerator, ruderal (CSR) theory is a prominent plant functional strategy scheme previously applied to local floras. Globally, the wide geographic and phylogenetic coverage of available values of leaf area (LA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA)

  12. Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: Applied methods and status of the current database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Woelfel, Jana; Karsten, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    The current database on benthic microalgal production in Arctic waters comprises 10 peer-reviewed and three unpublished studies. Here, we compile and discuss these datasets, along with the applied measurement approaches used. The latter is essential for robust comparative analysis and to clarify ...

  13. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Examine the Impact of Different Response Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    In aptitude and achievement tests, different response formats are usually used. A fundamental distinction must be made between the class of multiple-choice formats and the constructed response formats. Previous studies have examined the impact of different response formats applying traditional statistical approaches, but these influences can also…

  14. How to apply the optimal estimation method to your lidar measurements for improved retrievals of temperature and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R. J.; Haefele, A.; Jalali, A.; Gamage, S.; Farhani, G.

    2018-04-01

    The optimal estimation method (OEM) has a long history of use in passive remote sensing, but has only recently been applied to active instruments like lidar. The OEM's advantage over traditional techniques includes obtaining a full systematic and random uncertainty budget plus the ability to work with the raw measurements without first applying instrument corrections. In our meeting presentation we will show you how to use the OEM for temperature and composition retrievals for Rayleigh-scatter, Ramanscatter and DIAL lidars.

  15. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  16. Evaluation of Two Fitting Methods Applied for Thin-Layer Drying of Cape Gooseberry Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying data of cape gooseberry was used to compare two fitting methods: namely 2-step and 1-step methods. Literature data was also used to confirm the results. To demonstrate the applicability of these methods, two primary models (Page, Two-term-exponential were selected. Linear equation was used as secondary model. As well-known from the previous modelling studies on drying, 2-step method required at least two regressions: One is primary model and one is secondary (if you have only one environmental condition such as temperature. On the other hand, one regression was enough for 1-step method. Although previous studies on kinetic modelling of drying of foods were based on 2-step method, this study indicated that 1-step method may also be a good alternative with some advantages such as drawing an informative figure and reducing time of calculations.

  17. Linear, Transfinite and Weighted Method for Interpolation from Grid Lines Applied to OCT Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Anne-Sofie Wessel; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2018-01-01

    of a square grid, but are unknown inside each square. To view these values as an image, intensities need to be interpolated at regularly spaced pixel positions. In this paper we evaluate three methods for interpolation from grid lines: linear, transfinite and weighted. The linear method does not preserve...... and the stability of the linear method further away. An important parameter influencing the performance of the interpolation methods is the upsampling rate. We perform an extensive evaluation of the three interpolation methods across a range of upsampling rates. Our statistical analysis shows significant difference...... in the performance of the three methods. We find that the transfinite interpolation works well for small upsampling rates and the proposed weighted interpolation method performs very well for all upsampling rates typically used in practice. On the basis of these findings we propose an approach for combining two OCT...

  18. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  19. Loss of speciation rate will impoverish future diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Human activities have greatly reduced the amount of the earth's area available to wild species. As the area they have left declines, so will their rates of speciation. This loss of speciation will occur for two reasons: species with larger geographical ranges speciate faster; and loss of area drives up extinction rates, thus reducing the number of species available for speciation. Theory predicts steady states in species diversity, and fossils suggest that these have t...

  20. Transuranium element behavior in the environment: What speciation studies can tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the transuranium elements - especially plutonium - can exist in the environment in several different oxidation states which differ chemically from one another as much as if they were different elements. Hence an understanding of the environmental chemistry of these elements requires knowledge of their oxidation-state distribution, or speciation, under a variety of realistic conditions. Such studies are in their infancy, but already several chemical speciation methods have yielded results indicating the uniqueness of transuranic environment chemistry; for example, dioxoplutonium(V), which is unstable in the acid solutions employed in laboratory and processing plant, is often the most prevalent plutonium oxidation state in natural waters. More sensitive and less invasive physical speciation methods under development will hopefully permit the extension of these studies to a wider variety of environmental conditions and to determinations of sorbed species necessary for an understanding of sorption processes