WorldWideScience

Sample records for specially selected fuel

  1. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  2. Quivers For Special Fuel Rods-Disposal Of Special Fuel Rods In CASTOR V Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannani, Amin; Cebula, Wojciech; Buchmuller, Olga; Huggenberg, Roland; Helmut Kuhl

    2015-01-01

    While GNS casks of the CASTOR family are a suitable means to transfer fuel assemblies (FA) from the NPP to an interim dry storage site, Germanys phase-out of nuclear energy has triggered the demand for an additional solution to dispose of special fuel rods (SFR), normally remaining in the fuel pond until the final shutdown of the NPP. SFR are fuel rods that had to be removed from fuel assemblies mainly due to their special condition, e. g. damages in the cladding of the fuel rods which may have occurred during reactor operations. SFR are usually stored in the spent fuel pond after they are removed from the FA. The quiver for special fuel rods features a robust yet simple design, with a high mechanical stability, a reliable leak-tightness and large safety margins for future requirements on safety analysis. The quiver for special fuel rods can be easily adapted to a large variety of different damaged fuel rods and tailored to the specific need of the customer. The quiver for special fuel rods is adaptable e.g. in length and diameter for use in other types of transport and storage casks and is applicable in other countries as well. The overall concept presented here is a first of its kind solution for the disposal of SFRs via Castor V-casks. This provides an important precondition in achieving the status 'free from nuclear fuel' of the shut down German NPPs

  3. Quivers For Special Fuel Rods-Disposal Of Special Fuel Rods In CASTOR V Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannani, Amin; Cebula, Wojciech; Buchmuller, Olga; Huggenberg, Roland [GNS, Essen (Germany); Helmut Kuhl [WTI, Julich (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    While GNS casks of the CASTOR family are a suitable means to transfer fuel assemblies (FA) from the NPP to an interim dry storage site, Germanys phase-out of nuclear energy has triggered the demand for an additional solution to dispose of special fuel rods (SFR), normally remaining in the fuel pond until the final shutdown of the NPP. SFR are fuel rods that had to be removed from fuel assemblies mainly due to their special condition, e. g. damages in the cladding of the fuel rods which may have occurred during reactor operations. SFR are usually stored in the spent fuel pond after they are removed from the FA. The quiver for special fuel rods features a robust yet simple design, with a high mechanical stability, a reliable leak-tightness and large safety margins for future requirements on safety analysis. The quiver for special fuel rods can be easily adapted to a large variety of different damaged fuel rods and tailored to the specific need of the customer. The quiver for special fuel rods is adaptable e.g. in length and diameter for use in other types of transport and storage casks and is applicable in other countries as well. The overall concept presented here is a first of its kind solution for the disposal of SFRs via Castor V-casks. This provides an important precondition in achieving the status 'free from nuclear fuel' of the shut down German NPPs.

  4. Special equipment support the fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    In the current juncture one of the keys to any company that works in a market that is as demanding as the nuclear, is its ability to developed new technological products that they can adapt to the different special situations/needs of nuclear Power Plants during their operating life. As an example, below are some of the specialized equipment that ENSA has been developing for more than thirty years that has been doing work in the area of fuel storage. (Author)

  5. Alternative Fuel News: May 2000 Special Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.; Ficker, C.

    2000-05-03

    In this special issue of Alternative Fuel News, the authors summarize DOE's current position on the local government and private fleet rulemaking that has been under consideration. The authors also look at the new area of focus, niche markets. Your participation and input are invited as the authors craft new directions for the nation's transportation future.

  6. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  7. Special Warfare: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Strategy. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981. (U162 .A78) 8. Atlantic Research Corporation. Georgetown Research Project. A Histori- cal Survey of...Corps Gazette. The Guerrillp. and How to Fight Him: Selections, ed. by T.N. Greene . Nev ’ork: Praeger, 1962. (U240 K33) 108. Martic, Milos. Insurrection

  8. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  9. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1988-06-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author) [pt

  10. Failed fuel action plan guidelines: Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a generic guideline that can be used to formulate a failed fuel action plan (FFAP) for specific application by a utility. This document is intended to be part of a comprehensive fuel reliability monitoring, management, and improvement program. The utilities may utilize this document as one resource in developing a failed fuel action plan. This document is not intended to be used as a failed fuel action plan standard. This document is intended to provide guidance on: management responsibilities; fuel performance parameters; cost/benefit analysis; action levels; long-term improvement methods; and data collection, analysis, and trending. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Special topics of inner fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschmann, A.

    1977-01-01

    Burnable Poison Rod Assemblies (BPRA) are currently used as lumped burnable poison only in the first cycles of many power reactors to insure a negative moderator coefficient at beginning of life and to help shape core power distribution (out-in shuffle scheme). BPRA's are also a valuable tool in later cycles where they can be used as an additional design parameter to improve fuel performance and fuel cycle economics, to shape fuel assembly power, and to increase fuel management flexibility (in-out shuffle scheme). This paper describes the two fuel shuffle schemes and compares the two shuffle strategies concerning economic and flexibility aspects. (orig.) [de

  12. Meeting the special requirements of the fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle industry is generally thriving, despite the slow-down in nuclear power plant construction. Turnover is expected to grow from the present Pound4.7 billion to Pound12 billion in 1985 and nearly Pound16 billion in 1988. The emerging fuel cycle companies have large demands for investment and working capital but are not yet financially strong. Utilities also are finding the funding of fuel onerous. Special nuclear fuel finance companies have been formed to help both satisfy their financing needs. A particular problem is the security of loans and much creative thinking is being applied to the use of contracts as collaterals. (U.K.)

  13. Metabolic fuels: regulating fluxes to select mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-15

    Animals must regulate the fluxes of multiple fuels to support changing metabolic rates that result from variation in physiological circumstances. The aim of fuel selection strategies is to exploit the advantages of individual substrates while minimizing the impact of disadvantages. All exercising mammals share a general pattern of fuel selection: at the same %V(O(2,max)) they oxidize the same ratio of lipids to carbohydrates. However, highly aerobic species rely more on intramuscular fuels because energy supply from the circulation is constrained by trans-sarcolemmal transfer. Fuel selection is performed by recruiting different muscles, different fibers within the same muscles or different pathways within the same fibers. Electromyographic analyses show that shivering humans can modulate carbohydrate oxidation either through the selective recruitment of type II fibers within the same muscles or by regulating pathway recruitment within type I fibers. The selection patterns of shivering and exercise are different: at the same %V(O(2,max)), a muscle producing only heat (shivering) or significant movement (exercise) strikes a different balance between lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Long-distance migrants provide an excellent model to characterize how to increase maximal substrate fluxes. High lipid fluxes are achieved through the coordinated upregulation of mobilization, transport and oxidation by activating enzymes, lipid-solubilizing proteins and membrane transporters. These endurance athletes support record lipolytic rates in adipocytes, use lipoprotein shuttles to accelerate transport and show increased capacity for lipid oxidation in muscle mitochondria. Some migrant birds use dietary omega-3 fatty acids as performance-enhancing agents to boost their ability to process lipids. These dietary fatty acids become incorporated in membrane phospholipids and bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors to activate membrane proteins and modify gene expression.

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-5 - Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel for use in aircraft; rules of general application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel... AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-5 Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel... of a diesel-powered highway vehicle, or of special motor fuel to an owner, lessee, or other operator...

  15. Selected Topics in International Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This article provides information on special education topics on the international front. Information is presented on projects that evaluated early intervention programs, a life-centered career education program in the Philippines, a Peruvian vocational program for individuals with severe disabilities, and special classes for children with…

  16. Selected Special-Purpose Telecommunications Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this memorandum report for your information and use. This report is the first of three reports resulting from the review of requirements for special-purpose voice circuits as part of Project...

  17. Special Issue: Selected Articles from the 1996 NORCHIP Seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the 14th NORCHIP Conference which was held November 4-5, in Helsinki, Finland...

  18. Special Issue: Selected Articles from the 1994 NORCHIP Seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the 12th NORCHIP Seminar which was held November 8-9, 1994, in Gothenburg, Sweden....

  19. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  20. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  1. 77 FR 45921 - Alaskan Fuel Hauling as a Restricted Category Special Purpose Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... operations, each aircraft used to transport fuel will be required to receive FAA certification for the... regulations. The special purpose of Alaskan fuel hauling was considered for aircraft type-certificated under... required for this special purpose. The fuel hauling system must be shown to meet the applicable...

  2. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  3. Whipple procedure: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Tam C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clara Tan-Tam,1 Maja Segedi,2 Stephen W Chung2 1Department of Surgery, Bassett Healthcare, Columbia University, Cooperstown, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplant, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: At the inception of pancreatic surgery by Dr Whipple in 1930s, the mortality and morbidity risk was more than 20%. With further understanding of disease processes and improvements in pancreas resection techniques, the mortality risk has decreased to less than 5%. Age and chronic illnesses are no longer a contraindication to surgical treatment. Life expectancy and quality of life at a later age have improved, making older patients more likely to receive pancreatic surgery , thereby also putting emphasis on operative patient selection to minimize complications. This review summarizes the benign and malignant illnesses that are treated with pancreas operations, and innovations and improvements in pancreatic surgery and perioperative care, and describes the careful selection process for patients who would benefit from an operation. These indications are not reserved only to Whipple operation, but to pancreatectomies as well.Keywords: pancreaticoduodenectomy, mortality, morbidity, cancer, trauma, pancreatitis

  4. Inspection of the UO2 special fuel for the prototype heavy water reactor 'FUGEN'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Makoto; Ohmori, Takuro; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hiromasa; Hirosawa, Naonori

    1979-01-01

    UO 2 special fuel assemblies are the fuel for material irradiation incorporating irradiation specimens, for the prototype heavy water reactor ''FUGEN''. In order to monitor the behavior of the pressure tube material irradiated with neutrons for long time, monitoring specimens were equipped in the core. This special fuel was fabricated by the Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI), and the fuel cladding tubes, the capsule guide tubes and the capsule tubes were furnished by PNC. The irradiation specimens were prepared by PNC, and incorporated into the assemblies by NFI. The inspection by PNC on the special fuel assemblies was conducted following the inspection by the maker, which was made on UO 2 pellets, fuel element and assembly parts except cladding tubes, after completing the fabrication. The specifications of the special fuel, especially for the outer and inner layer pellets, the outer and inner layer fuel elements and the fuel assemblies, are presented. The flow sheet for the inspection process and surveillance test of special fuel assemblies is illustrated. The inspection items, the materials and the quantity inspection are tabulated for the fuel elements, the fuel assemblies and the irradiation capsules, respectively. The structure of a special type fuel assembly is shown. For each inspection, the inspection methods and items and the results are explained. As for the results of inspection of the special fuel, the UO 2 pellets, fuel element parts, fuel elements, fuel assembly parts, fuel assemblies, capsules and irradiation specimens were in accordance with the specifications. Regarding the situation of the quality control in the processes, check was made with many documents, and it was recognized that the quality control was performed in the quality assurance program. (Nakai, Y.)

  5. Special routing of spent fuel shipments. Final report Dec 79-Apr 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, R.L.; Shaver, D.K.; Rudd, T.J.

    1982-05-01

    Special rail routing of spent fuel shipments from commercial nuclear power plants to Away-From-Reactor (AFR) storage and disposal sites has been proposed as one means of reducing the consequences and severity of radioactive materials accidents in areas of high population density. Whether or not special rail routing of spent fuel shipments does indeed decrease radiation exposure levels under normal and accident transportation conditions and at what incremental cost forms the basis of this study funded by the Federal Railroad Administration. The study is divided into five areas: (1) developing analytical models for assessing the risks associated with both the normal and accident transport modes; (2) selecting representative origin to destination routing pairs using the normal transportation and accident risk models; (3) analyzing rail shipment costs for nuclear spent fuel; and (4) performing sensitivity analyses to identify parameters that critically affect the total exposure level. The major findings resulting from this study are: (1) the risk over the seven example routes is relatively small for the normal transport mode; (2) the risk associated with an accident is at least an order of magnitude larger than the normal transport dose in all cases and as such is the overriding contribution to the total expected transport dose; and (3) no beneficial cost versus dose reduction relationship was found for any of the routes studied

  6. Propellant selection for ramjets with solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmucker, R H; Lips, H

    1976-03-11

    Ramjet propulsion using solid propellant for post-boost acceleration of missiles exhibits several favorable properties, brought about by heterogeneous combustion. A simplified theory for calculating the performance of possible propellants is presented, and they are classified with respect to maximum fuel-specific impulse. The optimal choice of fuel, from a system standpoint, must consider volume constraints, and defines the requirements for motor geometry.

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation... certificates that may affect the airplane fuel tank system, for turbine-powered transport category airplanes...

  8. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  9. Special aspects of implementing advanced fuel cycles at Kalinin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, A.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation showed the experience of different TVSA modifications usage at Kalinin NPP. The strategy of 18 month fuel cycles implementation at uprated power (104%) was also presented. The transition and equilibrium fuel loadings features were discussed. The implementation of burn-up measurement installation MKS-01 was presented, in order to solve the spent nuclear fuel handling and transportation issues due to the increased fuel enrichment and heavy metal mass

  10. Selection of materials in nuclear fuel: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Reja, C.; Fuentes, L.; Garcia de la Infanta, J. M.; Munoz Sicilia, A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main aspects of the nuclear fuel is the selection of materials for the components. The operating conditions of the fuel elements impose a major challenge to materials: high temperature, corrosive aqueous environment, high mechanical properties, long periods of time under these extreme conditions and what is the differentiating factor; the effect of irradiation. The materials are selected to fulfill these severe requirements and also to be able to control and to predict its behavior in the working conditions. Their development, in terms of composition and processing, is based on the continuous follow-up of the operation behavior. Many of these materials are specific of the nuclear industry, such as the uranium dioxide and the zirconium alloys. This article presents the selection and development of the nuclear fuel materials as a function of the services requirements. It also includes a view of the new nuclear fuels materials that are being raised after Fukushima accident. (Author)

  11. Special storage of leaking fuel at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Janos; Szőke, L.; Burján, T.; Lukács, R.; Hózer, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the activities related with spent, hermetic as well as leaking fuel handling and storage, including: Spent fuel pool; Transportation criteria for the spent fuel assemblies and Interim spent fuel dry storage; Short-term storage in the spent fuel pool; Identification of the leaking assemblies by the TS-device; Present conception of Identification, handling of the leaking FAs; Modified transport procedure for the leaking FAs; Calculation of solved activity inside the leaking fuel rod; Solved activity limit values for the leaking FAs; Long-term storage in the interim spent Fuel dry storage are presented. At the end authors’ concluded that: 1) The leaking FA can be transported to the interim dry storage together with the other spent fuel assemblies in the transport container. 2) The transport-documentation of the leaking FA has to contain: isotope inventory, calculated solved activity values of the failed FA and the quantity of failed fuel rods. 3) Performing three leakage tests of the identified leaking FA before the transportation in the 5FP. it is useful to decrease the solved activity concentration inside the leaking FA and give additional information about the extent of the leakage. 4) We can calculate simply the solved activity of the leaking FA. 5) The modified transport procedure will have to be authorized. 6) The radiological effects of the leaking FA are negligible relative to the natural background radiation

  12. PND fuel handling decontamination program: specialized techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.; Hobbs, K.; Minnis, M.; Graham, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at the Pickering Nuclear Station, an eight unit CANDU station located about 30 km east of Toronto. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for cleaning in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility, and the results achieved. (author)

  13. Criteria for the selection of graphites for HTR integral block fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the special requirements for integral block fuel elements of the type first used in the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The main idea of these elements is that the carrier block and separate graphite clad fuel pins are combined into a single monolith. This combination leads to lower fabrication costs and some improvement in the thermal performance (lower temperature difference between fuel and the surface of heat transfer into the coolant). The advent of block fuel for HTRs of the Fort St. Vrain type has placed a fresh emphasis on the selection of graphite for block manufacture in respect of physical properties. This is because the temperature distributions typical of such fuelled blocks lead to shutdown stresses close to the maximum the graphite can sustain without damage. Figures presented in this paper suggest that the physical properties of the graphite can play a relatively large part in reducing such stress levels and that guidance on the key requirements for suitable specifications is therefore particularly needed by the manufacturers of fuel block graphites. While graphites for fuel blocks have this special need for combinations of physical properties which lead to low thermal and shrinkage stresses, the other characteristics must also receive attention. A low graphite cost combined with good homogeneity in the brick, so that waste minimized, are still necessary, while isotropy is also very important

  14. Orbit selection of nanosatellite formation in term of fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin; Hiraki, Koju

    In nanosatellite formation mission design, orbit selection is a necessary factor. Fuel consumption is also necessary to maintain the orbit. Therefore, the best orbit should be the one of minimum fuel consumption for nanosatellite formation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a convenient way to estimate fuel consumption for a nanosatellite to keep formation flying. The formation is disturbed by J _{2} perturbation and other perturbing accelerations. Firstly, the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations are used in the analysis. Gaussian variation of parameters is included into the Hill’s equation to analyze the variation of Kaplerian orbital elements. The J _{2} perturbation and other perturbing accelerations such as atmospheric drag, solar-radiation pressure and third-body perturbations are considered. Thus, a linear model based on Hill’s equation is established to estimate fuel consumption. Finally, an example of the best orbit for formation flying with minimum fuel consumption shall be presented.

  15. Selection and development of advanced nuclear fuel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, David L.; Miller, Richard S.; Arnsberger, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    The highly competitive international marketplace requires a continuing product development commitment, short development cycle times and timely, on-target product development to assure customer satisfaction and continuing business. Westinghouse has maintained its leadership position within the nuclear fuel industry with continuous developments and improvements to fuel assembly materials and design. This paper presents a discussion of the processes used by Westinghouse in the selection and refinement of advanced concepts for deployment in the highly competitive US and international nuclear fuel fabrication marketplace. (author)

  16. Special concrete shield selection using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Special types of concrete radiation shields that depend on locally available materials and have improved properties for both neutron and gamma-ray attenuation were developed by using plastic materials and heavy ores. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is implemented to evaluate these types for selecting the best biological radiation shield for nuclear reactors. Factors affecting the selection decision are degree of protection against neutrons, degree of protection against gamma rays, suitability of the concrete as building material, and economic considerations. The seven concrete alternatives are barite-polyethylene concrete, barite-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) concrete, barite-portland cement concrete, pyrite-polyethylene concrete, pyrite-PVC concrete, pyrite-portland cement concrete, and ordinary concrete. The AHP analysis shows the superiority of pyrite-polyethylene concrete over the others

  17. Ontario Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources : Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, D.

    2002-06-01

    On June 28, 2001, the Ontario Legislative Assembly appointed the Select Committee an Alternative Fuel Sources, comprised of representatives of all parties, with a broad mandate to investigate, report and offer recommendations with regard to the various options to support the development and application of environmentally sustainable alternatives to the fossil fuel sources already existing. The members of the Committee elected to conduct extensive public hearings, conduct site visits, attend relevant conferences, do some background research to examine a vast number of alternative fuel and energy sources that could be of relevance to the province of Ontario. A discussion paper (interim report) was issued by the Committee in November 2001, and the present document represents the final report, containing 141 recommendations touching 20 topics. The information contained in the report is expected to assist in the development and outline of policy and programs designed to specifically support alternative fuels and energy sources and applicable technologies. Policy issues were discussed in Part A of the report, along with the appropriate recommendations. The recommendations on specific alternative fuels and energy sources were included in Part B of the report. It is believed that the dependence of Ontario on traditional petroleum-based fuels and energy sources can be reduced through aggressive action on alternative fuels and energy. The benefits of such action would be felt in the area of air quality, with social, and economic benefits as well. 3 tabs

  18. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  19. Water reactor fuel element fabrication, with special emphasis on its effects on fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The performance of nuclear fuel has improved over the years and is now a minor cause of outages and of power limitations in nuclear power plants. On the other hand, an increasing number of countries are in the process of developing or implementing their own capability for manufacturing fuel elements. In this context, the IAEA International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) advised that a symposium be organized devoted to the relationship between fuel fabrication and performance The Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission agreed to co-operate in the organization of this symposium and to host it in Prague. Those factors which influence fuel fabrication requirements are now well ascertained: as little reactor primary circuit contamination as possible, the tendency to increased burnups, reactor manoeuverability to match power grid demands, the desirability of an autonomous fabrication capability. It is the general experience of fuel element suppliers that fuel quality and performance has increased over the years, the importance of quality assurance and process monitoring has been decisive in this respect The ever increasing mass-production aspect of nuclear fuel leads to some processing steps being revised and alternatives being developed. The relation between fabrication processes and fuel performance characteristics, although generally well perceived, are still the subject of a large amount of experiment and assessment in most countries, both industrial and developing This evidence is most encouraging; it means indeed that nuclear power, which is already amongst the cheapest and safest sources of energy, will continue to be improved. The performance of Zircaloy fuel cladding - presently the material used in most water reactors - is under particular consideration. Better understanding of this quite recent alloy will pave the way for broader fuel utilization limits in the future. The panel discussion, which noted some

  20. Special equipment support the fuel storage; Equipos especiales para apoyos al almacenamiento de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    In the current juncture one of the keys to any company that works in a market that is as demanding as the nuclear, is its ability to developed new technological products that they can adapt to the different special situations/needs of nuclear Power Plants during their operating life. As an example, below are some of the specialized equipment that ENSA has been developing for more than thirty years that has been doing work in the area of fuel storage. (Author)

  1. Selection of fuel design for conversion and upgradation of Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) is being converted from the use of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel and its power is also being upgraded. In order to select new fuel for the converted and upgraded core ten different fuel element designs were analyzed and their relative performance was compared. Results of this study were later used to select appropriate design of the new fuel for PARR-1. This paper describes the computational methodology utilized for the analysis of various fuel element designs. Criteria for selecting the new fuel element are discussed and guidelines forming the selection basis of the new fuel design are given. (author)

  2. Selective alpha autoradiography for monitoring thorium distribution in UO2-ThO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriwastwa, B.B.; Raghunath, B.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Although natural uranium and thorium decay with similar alpha energies (4.20 and 3.98 MeV), their daughter products have different alpha characteristics. This has been exploited for selective alpha autoradiography for thoria in urania-thoria mixed nuclear fuel pellets. Difficulties in getting sufficient track density in alpha sensitive films due to the very low specific activity of natural uranium and thorium material were overcome by using a special film with annealing and pre-etching treatment. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Application of the Sensor Selection Approach in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Prognostics and Health Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sensor selection approach is investigated with the aim of using fewer sensors to provide reliable fuel cell diagnostic and prognostic results. The sensitivity of sensors is firstly calculated with a developed fuel cell model. With sensor sensitivities to different fuel cell failure modes, the available sensors can be ranked. A sensor selection algorithm is used in the analysis, which considers both sensor sensitivity to fuel cell performance and resistance to noise. The performance of the selected sensors in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell prognostics is also evaluated with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, and results show that the fuel cell voltage can be predicted with good quality using the selected sensors. Furthermore, a fuel cell test is performed to investigate the effectiveness of selected sensors in fuel cell fault diagnosis. From the results, different fuel cell states can be distinguished with good quality using the selected sensors.

  4. Specialized Training of Children and Youngsters in Selected Sports Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Buchtel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Specialized Training of Children and Youngsters in Selected Sports Games The study has two principal goals. The first one is the analysis of personal characteristics of coaches, who function with teams of youth in clubs participating in the top and second to top competitions of adults in handball, tennis and volleyball. Analysis brakes data down following criteria of age, level of education reached and gender. The second goal of our study is the analysis of the sport preparation of children and youth in mentioned sports games on their observation of federations’ recommendations about the content of training in respective age groups, including detection of their opinions on the beginning of specialized training for respective playing functions. Research sample was created all-together by 234 coaches (102 volleyball, 69 tennis, 63 handball, who responded to sent non-standard questionnaire with closed and halfopened queries (total rate of return was 67%. Used questionnaire contained eight identifying and five factual questions. Quantitative characteristics were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies, for synoptic presentation of results we have used graphical illustration of responses. Questions concerned players participating in competitions of age groups from about 8 to 19 years. As far as personal composition concerns, the prevailing part of observed sample is created by coaches of age category 30–40 years, out of which about 1/4 are women. We have found significant differences among respective games in the educational sphere. While in tennis and volleyball the university educated coaches creates simple majority (65% and 76% respectively, their portion in handball is only about 40%. The representation of P.E. teachers among respective sports games is similarly different – 83% and 76% respectively in tennis and volleyball, on the contrary to 29% in handball. Tennis possesses very low portion of coaches working with category of

  5. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - basis for site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1995-05-01

    International organizations, e.g. IAEA, have published several recommendations and guides for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. There are three major groups of issues affecting the site selection process, i.e. geological, environmental and socioeconomic. The first step of the site selection process is an inventory of potential host rock formations. After that, potential study areas are screened to identify sites for detailed investigations, prior to geological conditions and overall suitability for the safe disposal. This kind of stepwise site selection procedure has been used in Finland and in Sweden. A similar approach has been proposed in Canada, too. In accordance with the amendment to the Nuclear Energy Act, that entered into force in the beginning of 1995, Imatran Voima Oy has to make preparations for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Relating to the possible site selection, the following geological factors, as internationally recommended and used in the Nordic countries, should be taken into account: topography, stability of bedrock, brokenness and fracturing of bedrock, size of bedrock block, rock type, predictability and natural resources. The bedrock of the Loviisa NPP site is a part of the Vyborg rapakivi massif. As a whole the rapakivi granite area forms a potential target area, although other rock types or areas cannot be excluded from possible site selection studies. (25 refs., 7 figs.)

  6. Guest Editorial: Special issue: Selected papers from NorCAS 2016, the 2nd Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    complex digital systems to advanced analog and mixed-mode circuits. For this Special Issue, the papers are selected among those dealing with analog and mixed-mode circuits and systems. More than 25 papers were presented in this field, and from these, 8 papers have been selected for the Special Issue...

  7. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  8. Analysis of transient fuel failure mechanisms: selected ANL programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitrich, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical programs at Argonne National Laboratory related to fuel pin failure mechanisms in fast-reactor accident transients are described. The studies include transient fuel pin mechanics, mechanics of unclad fuel, and mechanical effects concerning potential fuel failure propagation. (U.S.).

  9. Steam generators and fuel engineering utilizing solid, liquid, gaseous and special fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, G

    1983-01-01

    Provided were technological specifications and details in the design of brown coal fired steam generators, produced in the German Democratic Republic. These steam generators range in their capacity between 1.6 and more than 1,000 t/h. The appropriate coal feeding systems, water supply and cleaning equipment, coal pulverizers and ash removal units are also manufactured. Various schemes show the design of a 25 to 64 t/h, a 320 t/h and an 815 t/h brown coal steam generator. Specifications are given for series of fuel pulverizers available, for the water circulation system and steam evaporators. The VEB Dampferzeugerbau Berlin also offers steam generators for saliniferous brown coal with a steam capacity up to 125 t/h, steam generators for pulverized black coal with a capacity up to 350 t/h and oil and gas fired generators up to 250 t/h. The company has experience in combustion of biomass (sugar cane waste) with oil in steam generators of more than 100 t/h capacity, and in projecting firing systems for other biofuels including rice, peanut and coconut hulls, wood and bark. Multi-biofuel firing in combination with coal for steam generation is also regarded as possible. (In English)

  10. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    consequence of the change in primary legislation that resulted in spent fuel from the Loviisa power plant having to be disposed of in Finland, with the result that the island of Haestholmen was added to the list of potential disposal sites, is explained. The results of these detailed investigations are discussed in terms of the development of lithological and structural models of these sites, and with reference to the development of an understanding of their hydrogeological and hydrochemical environments and the generation of groundwater flow and hydrochemical models. These last two subjects are discussed with reference to their significance for spent fuel disposal. In addition, the constructability of the rock mass at these sites is described, including how a repository could be fitted into the rock mass, taking into account site-specific factors, in particular the location and orientation of fracture zones. The constructability of the Olkiluoto site is described in more detail. Other factors that could be of significance for site selection, namely future climate change and seismicity, are also discussed. The selection of Olkiluoto from these four sites is described with reference to the requirements of a disposal site, as specified by Government, and to factors such as long-term safety, the feasibility of repository development, the possibility of repository enlargement, repository operation, social acceptance, land usage and the environmental burden, infrastructure and costs. The conclusions of this analysis and the special issues at Olkiluoto, namely the presence and significance of saline water at depth and the modelling of groundwater flow, are discussed. The further investigations at Olkiluoto, in particular the main aspects to consider when planning the UCRF (Underground Rock Characterisation Facility) at the site, are presented with the aim of indicating the type of work that still needs to be done in order to demonstrate that a disposal facility can be constructed

  11. Models for MOX fuel behaviour. A selective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massih, Ali R.

    2006-01-01

    This report reviews the basic physical properties of light water reactor mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel comprising nuclear characteristics, thermal properties such as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and heat capacity, and compares these with properties of conventional UO 2 fuel. These properties are generally well understood for MOX fuel and are well described by appropriate models developed for engineering analysis. Moreover, certain modelling approaches of MOX fuel in-reactor behaviour, regarding densification, swelling, fission product gas release, helium release, fuel creep and grain growth, are evaluated and compared with the models for UO 2 . In MOX fuel the presence of plutonium rich agglomerates adds to the complexity of fuel behaviour on the micro scale. In addition, we survey the recent fuel performance experience and post irradiation examinations on several types of MOX fuel types. We discuss the data from these examinations, regarding densification, swelling, fission product gas release and the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation. The results of our review indicate that in general MOX fuel has a higher fission gas release and helium release than UO 2 fuel. Part of this increase is due to the higher operating temperatures of MOX fuel relative to UO 2 fuel due to the lower thermal conductivity of MOX material. But this effect by itself seems to be insufficient to make for the difference in the observed fission gas release of UO 2 vs. MOX fuel. Furthermore, the irradiation induced creep rate of MOX fuel is higher than that of UO 2 . This effect can reduce the pellet-clad interaction intensity in fuel rods. Finally, we suggest that certain physical based approaches discussed in the report are implemented in the fuel performance code to account for the behaviour of MOX fuel during irradiation

  12. Models for MOX fuel behaviour. A selective review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    This report reviews the basic physical properties of light water reactor mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel comprising nuclear characteristics, thermal properties such as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and heat capacity, and compares these with properties of conventional UO{sub 2} fuel. These properties are generally well understood for MOX fuel and are well described by appropriate models developed for engineering analysis. Moreover, certain modelling approaches of MOX fuel in-reactor behaviour, regarding densification, swelling, fission product gas release, helium release, fuel creep and grain growth, are evaluated and compared with the models for UO{sub 2}. In MOX fuel the presence of plutonium rich agglomerates adds to the complexity of fuel behaviour on the micro scale. In addition, we survey the recent fuel performance experience and post irradiation examinations on several types of MOX fuel types. We discuss the data from these examinations, regarding densification, swelling, fission product gas release and the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation. The results of our review indicate that in general MOX fuel has a higher fission gas release and helium release than UO{sub 2} fuel. Part of this increase is due to the higher operating temperatures of MOX fuel relative to UO{sub 2} fuel due to the lower thermal conductivity of MOX material. But this effect by itself seems to be insufficient to make for the difference in the observed fission gas release of UO{sub 2} vs. MOX fuel. Furthermore, the irradiation induced creep rate of MOX fuel is higher than that of UO{sub 2}. This effect can reduce the pellet-clad interaction intensity in fuel rods. Finally, we suggest that certain physical based approaches discussed in the report are implemented in the fuel performance code to account for the behaviour of MOX fuel during irradiation.

  13. Special Issue of Selected Papers from Visualization and Data Analysis 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David L.; Wong, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    This special issue features the best papers that were selected from the 18th SPIE Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA 2011). This annual conference is a major international forum for researchers and practitioners interested in data visualization and analytics research, development, and applications. VDA 2011 received 42 high-quality submissions from around the world. Twenty-four papers were selected for full conference papers. The top five papers have been expanded and reviewed for this special issue.

  14. Selection Shapes Transcriptional Logic and Regulatory Specialization in Genetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelmark, Karl; Peterson, Carsten; Troein, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms need to regulate their gene expression in response to environmental signals and internal cues. This is a computational task where genes act as logic gates that connect to form transcriptional networks, which are shaped at all scales by evolution. Large-scale mutations such as gene duplications and deletions add and remove network components, whereas smaller mutations alter the connections between them. Selection determines what mutations are accepted, but its importance for shaping the resulting networks has been debated. To investigate the effects of selection in the shaping of transcriptional networks, we derive transcriptional logic from a combinatorially powerful yet tractable model of the binding between DNA and transcription factors. By evolving the resulting networks based on their ability to function as either a simple decision system or a circadian clock, we obtain information on the regulation and logic rules encoded in functional transcriptional networks. Comparisons are made between networks evolved for different functions, as well as with structurally equivalent but non-functional (neutrally evolved) networks, and predictions are validated against the transcriptional network of E. coli. We find that the logic rules governing gene expression depend on the function performed by the network. Unlike the decision systems, the circadian clocks show strong cooperative binding and negative regulation, which achieves tight temporal control of gene expression. Furthermore, we find that transcription factors act preferentially as either activators or repressors, both when binding multiple sites for a single target gene and globally in the transcriptional networks. This separation into positive and negative regulators requires gene duplications, which highlights the interplay between mutation and selection in shaping the transcriptional networks.

  15. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Felix JF Herth,1,2 Maren Schuhmann1 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, 2Translational Lung Research Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. Keywords: lung emphysema, valve treatment, collateral ventilation, patient selection, outcome

  16. A Study of Integrity Evaluation System for Spent Fuel and Selection of the Representative Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, C. J.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel (SF) integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in 10 CFR 71(transportation) and 10 CFR 72(storage) of the U. S. NRC licensing requirement. NRC regulation states that retrievability of SF after storage should be ensured and SF integrity under the normal condition must be guaranteed during transportation and handling process that is entailed before/during/after the interim storage. And SF integrity evaluation under the hypothetical accident condition is a core technology element for an assessment of critical, shielding, and containment. In this paper, SF integrity evaluation system which is suitable for domestic situation is suggested, and necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described. The ultimate goal of the SF integrity evaluation is to evaluate a safety margin in case of transportation/ handling/storage of SFs. It means that retrievability of SF after storage should be assured and SF integrity must be guaranteed at normal condition in the process of transportation/handling accompanied before/during/after interim storage. In Korea, SF integrity evaluation system is not established up to date. Especially, representative SF selection technology that is essential to SF integrity evaluation has not been fulfilled. To overcome this situation effectively, the methodology and technology of an overseas agency need to be benchmarked. In this paper, an overseas SF integrity evaluation system is analyzed, and an evaluation system suitable for domestic situation is suggested. Also, necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described

  17. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  18. Criteria for selecting children with special needs for dental treatment under general anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nova García, M. Joaquín de; Gallardo López, Nuria E.; Martín Sanjuán, Carmen; Mourelle Martínez, M. Rosa; Alonso García, Yolanda; Carracedo Cabaleiro, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study criteria for helping to select children with special needs for dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Materials and methods: Group of 30 children (aged under 18) examined on the Course at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) (Specialisation on holistic dental treatment of children with special needs) and subsequently referred to the Disabled Children’s Oral Health Unit (DCOHU) within Primary Health Care Area 2 of the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS) where dental ...

  19. Selective alpha autoradiography for monitoring thorium distribution in UO[sub 2]-ThO[sub 2] fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriwastwa, B.B.; Raghunath, B.; Ghosh, J.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1992-10-01

    Although natural uranium and thorium decay with similar alpha energies (4.20 and 3.98 MeV), their daughter products have different alpha characteristics. This has been exploited for selective alpha autoradiography for thoria in urania-thoria mixed nuclear fuel pellets. Difficulties in getting sufficient track density in alpha sensitive films due to the very low specific activity of natural uranium and thorium material were overcome by using a special film with annealing and pre-etching treatment. (orig./HP).

  20. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  1. Selection of criterions of fuels incineration on heat power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Minchenko, E.M.; Zelenukho, E.V.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel and energy complex takes first place in industry field of cities and defines in many respects environmental situation of cities. The products of combustion of fuel bring the greatest contribution in environmental contamination. This factor is ignored during calculation of technical and economics indexes. Ecological impact of heat power plants on the environment is determined separately from assessment of ecological damage. Determination of optimal conditions of functioning of heat power plants incineration with respect to technical, economics and ecological indexes with use of multicriterion mathematics model is proposed. (authors)

  2. Selection of LWR cycle length and fuel reload fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Handwerk, C.S.; McMahon, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    The continuing evolution of fuel having ever higher burnup capability and the increased emphasis on high plant capacity factor to keep nuclear power cost-competitive, motivates re-examination of some basic fuel management strategies. Specifically, what are the economic optimum goals for the fraction of core to be refueled, 1/n, and the length of the intra-refueling cycle, T c . The authors present a simple model to study these questions. They conclude that unless substantial improvements in technology are forthcoming, or economic circumstances change significantly, departure from 2- to 4-batch management, or longer than 2- to 3-year cycles in LWRs is not supported by their analysis

  3. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  4. User Impact on Selection, Digitization, and the Development of Digital Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Libraries and archives digitize their special collections in an effort to increase access to rare and unique items. To ensure that resulting digital collections meet user needs, institutions have made assessment, consultation, and user participation integral to digitization initiatives and the selection process. Institutions must also build…

  5. 5 CFR 335.106 - Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterans under merit promotion. 335.106 Section 335.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.106 Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion. Preference eligibles or veterans who have...

  6. Considerations in the selection of transport modes for spent nuclear fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; McNair, G.W.; Andrews, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This paper discusses the factors associated with selecting a particular transport mode for spent fuel shipments. These factors include transportation costs, economics of potential transportation accidents, risk/safety of spent fuel transportation, routing alternatives, shipping cask handling capabilities, and shipping cask availability. Data needed to estimate transportation costs and risks are presented and discussed. The remaining factors are discussed qualitatively and can be used as guidance for selecting a particular transport mode. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Selection of LEU/Th reference fuel for the HTGR-SC/C lead plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.F.; Neylan, A.J.; Baxter, A.M.; McEachern, D.W.; Stansfield, O.M.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes the reference fuel materials for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant for steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C). A development and testing program carried out in 1978 through 1982 led to the selection of coated fuel particles of uranium-oxycarbide (UCO) for fissile materials and thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) for fertiel materials. Low-enriched uranium (LEU) is the enrichment basis for the HTGR-SC/C application. While UC 2 and UO 2 would also meet the essential criteria for fissile fuel, the UCO, alternative was selected on the basis of improved performance, economics, and process conditions

  8. Selection of optimal conditions for preparation of emulsified fuel fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Berg, V. I.; Frolov, M. D.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the article is to derive the optimal concept of physical and chemical effects, and its application to the production of water-fuel emulsions. The authors set a research task to attempt to estimate the influence of the surfactant concentration on such indicator as the time before the beginning of emulsion breaking. The analysis, based on experimental data, showed that an increase in the concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate is expedient to a certain point, corresponding to 0.05% of the total mass fraction. The main advantage of the model is a rational combination of methods of physical and chemical treatment used in the production of emulsions.

  9. Reformulated and alternative fuels: modeled impacts on regional air quality with special emphasis on surface ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Benedikt; Ackermann, Ingmar J; Hass, Heinz

    2002-07-15

    The comprehensive European Air Pollution and Dispersion model system was used to estimate the impacts of the usage of reformulated and alternative fuels on regional air quality with special emphasis on surface ozone concentrations. A severe western European summer smog episode in July 1994 has been used as a reference, and the model predictions have been evaluated for this episode. A forecast simulation for the year 2005 (TREND) has been performed, including the future emission development based on the current legislation and technologies available. The results of the scenario TREND are used as a baseline for the other 2005 fuel scenarios, including fuel reformulation, fuel sulfur content, and compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel. Compared to the year 1994, significant reductions in episode peak ozone concentrations and ozone grid hours are predicted for the TREND scenario. These reductions are even more pronounced within the investigated alternative and reformulated fuel scenarios. Especially, low sulfur fuels are appropriate for an immediate improvement in air quality, because they effect the emissions of the whole fleet. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the introduction of CNG vehicles would also enhance air quality with respect to ozone.

  10. Evaluation of the qualification of SPERT [Special Power Excursion Reactor Test] fuel for use in non-power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's evaluation of the qualification of the stainless-steel-clad uranium/oxide (UO 2 ) fuel pins for use in non-power reactors. The fuel pins were originally procured in the 1960's as part of the Special Power Excursion Reactor Test (SPERT) program. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) examined 600 SPERT fuel pins to verify that the pins were produced according to specification and to assess their present condition. The pins were visually inspected under 6X magnification and by X-radiographic, destructive, and metallographic examinations. Spectrographic and chemical analyses were performed on the UO 2 fuel. The results of the qualification examinations indicated that the SPERT fuel pins meet the requirements of Phillips Specification No. F-1-SPT and have suffered no physical damage since fabrication. Therefore, the qualification results give reasonable assurance that the SPERT fuel rods are suitable for use in non-power reactors provided that the effects of thin-wall defects in the region of the upper end cap and low-density fuel pellets are evaluated for the intended operating conditions. 1 ref., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  11. The procedure for determination of special margin factors to account for a bow of the WWER-1000 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S. V.; Marin, S. V.; Shishkov, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1980s, the problem of bow of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for fuel assemblies that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of fuel assemblies of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the WWER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  12. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Belfadhel, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking high-level screenings of site suitability. The paper provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The paper will outline how NWMO sought to develop a socially-acceptable site selection process as a firm foundation for future decisions on siting. Through a two-year collaborative process, NWMO sought to understand the expectations of

  13. Fuel elements for high temperature reactors having special suitability for reuse of the structural graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Herrmann, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    There are prepared fuel elements for high temperature reactors from which the fuel zone can be removed from the structural graphite after the burnup of the fissile material has taken place so that the fuel element can be filled with new fuel and again placed in the reactor by having the strength of the matrix in the fuel zone sufficient for binding the embedded coated fuel particles but substantially less than the strength of the structural graphite whereby by the action of force it can be easily split up without destroying the particles

  14. Consequences of habitat change and resource selection specialization for population limitation in cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Resource selection specialization may increase vulnerability of populations to environmental change. One environmental change that may negatively impact some populations is the broad decline of quaking aspen Populus tremuloides, a preferred nest tree of cavity-nesting organisms who are commonly limited by nest-site availability. However, the long-term consequences of this habitat change for cavity-nesting bird populations are poorly studied.

  15. Yeast selection for fuel ethanol production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luiz C; de Amorim, Henrique V; de Oliveira, Antonio J; Lopes, Mario L

    2008-11-01

    Brazil is one of the largest ethanol biofuel producers and exporters in the world and its production has increased steadily during the last three decades. The increasing efficiency of Brazilian ethanol plants has been evident due to the many technological contributions. As far as yeast is concerned, few publications are available regarding the industrial fermentation processes in Brazil. The present paper reports on a yeast selection program performed during the last 12 years aimed at selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugar cane substrates (cane juice and molasses) with cell recycle, as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants. As a result, some evidence is presented showing the positive impact of selected yeast strains in increasing ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance (high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters). Results also suggest that the great yeast biodiversity found in distillery environments could be an important source of strains. This is because during yeast cell recycling, selective pressure (an adaptive evolution) is imposed on cells, leading to strains with higher tolerance to the stressful conditions of the industrial fermentation.

  16. An integrated approach to selecting materials for fuel cladding in advanced high-temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangacharyulu, C., E-mail: chary.r@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Guzonas, D.A.; Pencer, J.; Nava-Dominguez, A.; Leung, L.K.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    An integrated approach has been developed for selection of fuel cladding materials for advanced high-temperature reactors. Reactor physics, thermalhydraulic and material analyses are being integrated in a systematic study comparing various candidate fuel-cladding alloys. The analyses established the axial and radial neutron fluxes, power distributions, axial and radial temperature distributions, rates of defect formation and helium production using AECL analytical toolsets and experimentally measured corrosion rates to optimize the material composition for fuel cladding. The project has just been initiated at University of Saskatchewan. Some preliminary results of the analyses are presented together with the path forward for the project. (author)

  17. Exploring the role of motivational and coping resources in a Special Forces selection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marié de Beer

    2014-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose was to compare selected and not-selected candidates in terms of their sense of coherence, hardiness, locus of control and self-efficacy and to explore what they considered important for success in the selection process. Motivation for the study: Because of high attrition rates in Special Forces selection, the evaluation of the role of motivation and coping resources in terms of possible predictive utility could benefit the organisation from a logistical, financial and efficiency point of view. Research design, approach and method: A mixed-method cross-sectional survey design was used to assess an all-male candidate group (N = 73. The selected and not-selected groups were compared with regard to their sense of coherence, hardiness, locus of control and self-efficacy mean scores. Main findings: No statistically significant differences were found between the mean scores of the two groups concerning the quantitative measures used. Practical/managerial implications: The quantitative measures generally showed acceptable coefficient alpha reliabilities. Although no statistically significant mean differences were found between the groups, candidates showed high levels of sense of coherence, high levels of self-efficacy and average levels of hardiness and internal locus of control. The qualitative data confirmed the relevance of the quantitative constructs and pointed to additional aspects already considered in preparation for and during the selection process. Contribution/value-add: The results provide information regarding the constructs and measures used in a military context.

  18. Parameter Selection for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel to be Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Fillmore

    2003-10-01

    This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain license application. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data are reported for representative fuels and bounding fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported were not generated under any quality assurance program.

  19. Selection of away-from-reactor facilities for spent fuel storage. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    This publication aims to provide information on the approaches and criteria that would have to be considered for the selection of away-from-reactor (AFR) type spent fuel storage facilities, needs for which have been growing in an increasing number of Member States producing nuclear power. The AFR facilities can be defined as a storage system functionally independent of the reactor operation providing the role of storage until a further destination such as a disposal) becomes available. Initially developed to provide additional storage space for spent fuel, some AFR storage options are now providing additional spaces for extended storage of spent fuel with a prospect for long term storage, which is becoming a progressive reality in an increasing number of Member States due to the continuing debate on issues associated with the endpoints for spent fuel management and consequent delays in the implementation of final steps, such as disposal. The importance of AFR facilities for storage of spent fuel has been recognized for several decades and addressed in various IAEA publications in the area of spent fuel management. The Guidebook on Spent Fuel Storage (Technical Reports Series No. 240 published in 1984 and revised in 1991) discusses factors to be considered in the evaluation of spent fuel storage options. A technical committee meeting (TCM) on Selection of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Technologies held in Tokyo in 1995 also deliberated on this issue. However, there has not been any stand-alone publication focusing on the topic of selection of AFR storage facilities. The selection of AFR storage facilities is in fact a critical step for the successful implementation of spent fuel management programmes, due to the long operational periods required for storage and fuel handling involved with the additional implication of subsequent penalties in reversing decisions or changing the option mid-stream especially after the construction of the facility. In such a context, the long

  20. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

  1. Removal of actinides from selected nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The US Department of Energy awarded Oak Ridge National Laboratory a program to develop a cost-risk-benefit analysis of partitioning long-lived nuclides from waste and transmuting them to shorter lived or stable nuclides. Two subtasks of this program were investigated at Rocky Flats. In the first subtask, methods for solubilizing actinides in incinerator ash were tested. Two methods appear to be preferable: reaction with ceric ion in nitric acid or carbonate-nitrate fusion. The ceric-nitric acid system solubilizes 95% of the actinides in ash; this can be increased by 2 to 4% by pretreating ash with sodium hydroxide to solubilize silica. The carbonate-nitrate fusion method solubilizes greater than or equal to 98% of the actinides, but requires sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Two additional disadvantages are that it is a high-temperature process, and that it generates a lot of salt waste. The second subtask comprises removing actinides from salt wastes likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. A preliminary feasibility study of solvent extraction methods has been completed. The use of a two-step solvent extraction system - tributyl phosphate (TBP) followed by extraction with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant (DHDECMP) - appears to be the most efficient for removing actinides from salt waste. The TBP step would remove most of the plutonium and > 99.99% of the uranium. The second step using DHDECMP would remove > 99.91% of the americium and the remaining plutonium (> 99.98%) and other actinides from the acidified salt waste. 8 figures, 11 tables

  2. On Propagating Requirements and Selecting Fuels for a Benson Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Mølbak, Tommy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of optimal choice of sensors and actuators is addressed. Given a functional encapsulating information of the desired performance and production economy the objective is to choose a control instrumentation from a given set to comply with its minimum. The objective of the...... to propagate a global objective to local subsystems. Particular focus is on a boiler in a power plant operated by Dong Energy. The business objectives have been propagated to the actuator level to allow for selection of an actuator configuration....

  3. VARIABILITY OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN IN WINTER WHEAT AND SELECTION FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Weg Krstičević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of amylose and amylopectin in 24 Croatian and six foreign winter wheat varieties and to detect the potential of these varieties for special purposes. Starch composition analysis was based on the separation of amylose and amylopectin and the determination of their amounts and ratios. Analysis of the amount of amylose and amylopectin determined statistically highly significant differences between the varieties. The tested varieties are mostly bread wheat of different quality which have the usual content of amylose and amylopectin. Some varieties were identified among them with high amylopectin and low amylose content and one variety with high amylose content. They have the potential in future breeding programs and selection for special purposes.

  4. Role of the State Office for Nuclear Safety in testing special professional competence of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The laws and regulations governing the title topic are identified. The following terms are defined and their context highlighted: professional competence; special professional competence; selected personnel; requirements for selected personnel; requirements for selected personnel training; examination boards; and licensing procedure. (P.A.)

  5. Environmental implications of thorium use in selected nuclear fuel cycles. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.W.; Simmons, G.L.; Ziskind, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental implications of the nuclear fuel cycle associated with the highly enriched uranium concept of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor. Model fuel cycles were constructed for the HTGR and a reference light water reactor (LWR) cycle. Mass flows were developed, control technology cases proposed and costed, effluents determined, and population doses calculated. Emphasis was given to the intercomparison of the fuel cycles to delineate areas which show pronounced departure. The dose commitment received by the population both within and outside a radius of 50 miles of each facility was determined. The 100 year population dose commitments due to a single year's plant operation was selected to facilitate intercomparison among fuel cycle components. No account was taken for long term waste sources associated with the fuel cycle such as mill tailing piles or terminal waste storage (study groundrule). The resource utilization and radionuclide activity of various fuel cycle options for using thorium in a Pressurized Water Reactor were studied. These data were contrasted with similar results obtained for a uranium fuel PWR

  6. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  7. Selection and optimization of mooring cables on floating platform for special purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long; Zhao, Chen-yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper studied a new type of assembled marine floating platform for special purposes. The selection and optimization of mooring cables on the floating platform are studied. By using ANSYS AQWA software, the hydrodynamic model of the platform was established to calculate the time history response of the platform motion under complex water environments, such as wind, wave, current and mooring. On this basis, motion response and cable tension were calculated with different cable mooring states under the designed environmental load. Finally, the best mooring scheme to meet the cable strength requirements was proposed, which can lower the motion amplitude of the platform effectively.

  8. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  9. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  10. Special equipment for the fabrication and quality control of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guse, K.; Herbert, W.; Jaeger, K.

    1989-01-01

    For the fabrication of LWR fuel elements, columns are packed of up to 4 m in length, consisting of fuel pellets with different uranium enrichment, their weight and total length to be measured prior to further processing to fuel rods. An automated column packing device has been developed for this purpose. The packing jobs and other tasks are computer-controlled, measured data are stored and are printed out for quality documentation. The forces in the springs of fuel spacers of LWR fuel elements are to be measured and compared with the standard requirements, deviations to be documented. For this task, another computer-controlled, automated device has been developed for measuring the spring forces at all required positions after positioning and fixation of the spacers. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Checking the special professional qualification of selected personnel of Czechoslovak nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.; Bahnova, V.

    1990-01-01

    The system of examinations of selected staff members of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants for their special professional quanlification is described in detail. This selected personnel includes secondary circuit operators, primary circuit operators, graduate shift leaders as well as reactor unit managers. Attention is paid to the structure, methodology, contents and criteria of evaluation of the written, oral and practical parts of the examination, which is sat for before the State Examination Commission. Based on the results of the examinations, the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission grants, prolongs or cancels licenses for the particular functions. Over the period from 1985 to March 1989, 394 new licenses were issued, 93 licenses were prolonged and 4 were withdrawn. (Z.M.). 7 figs., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  12. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Patton, P.

    2012-01-01

    'Full Text:' The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking screenings of site suitability. This panel presentation provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The panel presentation will be conducted in three parts: site selection process and engagement, Aboriginal engagement and Technical evaluations, followed by a discussion. The presentation will outline how NWMO sought

  13. Comparative Genomics of Smut Pathogens: Insights From Orphans and Positively Selected Genes Into Host Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Benevenuto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Host specialization is a key evolutionary process for the diversification and emergence of new pathogens. However, the molecular determinants of host range are poorly understood. Smut fungi are biotrophic pathogens that have distinct and narrow host ranges based on largely unknown genetic determinants. Hence, we aimed to expand comparative genomics analyses of smut fungi by including more species infecting different hosts and to define orphans and positively selected genes to gain further insights into the genetics basis of host specialization. We analyzed nine lineages of smut fungi isolated from eight crop and non-crop hosts: maize, barley, sugarcane, wheat, oats, Zizania latifolia (Manchurian rice, Echinochloa colona (a wild grass, and Persicaria sp. (a wild dicot plant. We assembled two new genomes: Ustilago hordei (strain Uhor01 isolated from oats and U. tritici (strain CBS 119.19 isolated from wheat. The smut genomes were of small sizes, ranging from 18.38 to 24.63 Mb. U. hordei species experienced genome expansions due to the proliferation of transposable elements and the amount of these elements varied among the two strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that Ustilago is not a monophyletic genus and, furthermore, detected misclassification of the U. tritici specimen. The comparison between smut pathogens of crop and non-crop hosts did not reveal distinct signatures, suggesting that host domestication did not play a dominant role in shaping the evolution of smuts. We found that host specialization in smut fungi likely has a complex genetic basis: different functional categories were enriched in orphans and lineage-specific selected genes. The diversification and gain/loss of effector genes are probably the most important determinants of host specificity.

  14. Parameter selection for Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel to be used in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillmore, D.L.

    1998-06-01

    This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data is reported for representative fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported was not generated under any Q.A. Program

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  16. Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-22

    Mastery over the structure of nanomaterials enables control of their properties to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design and fabrication of Pt-based nanomaterials with enhanced catalytic activity and superior selectivity toward the reactions in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) upon the deep understanding of the mechanisms of these electrochemical reactions. In particular, the ternary Au@Ag2S-Pt nanocomposites display superior methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) selectivity due to the electronic coupling effect among different domains of the nanocomposites, while the cage-bell structured Pt-Ru nanoparticles exhibit excellent methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode because of the differential diffusion of methanol and oxygen in the porous Ru shell of the cage-bell nanoparticles. The good catalytic selectivity of these Pt-based nanomaterials via structural construction enables a DMFC to be built without a proton exchange membrane between the fuel electrode and the oxygen electrode.

  17. Artificial Photosystem I and II: Highly Selective solar fuels and tandem photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuchen; Castellanos, Ignacio; Cerkovnik, Logan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, or generation of solar fuels from CO2/H2O, can provide an important alternative for rising CO2 emission and renewable energy generation. In our recent work, composite photocatalysts (CPCs) made from widebandgap nanotubes and different QDs were used to mimic Photosystem II (PS680) and I (PS700), respectively. By tuning the redox potentials using the size, composition and energy band alignment of QDs, we demonstrate highly selective (>90%) and efficient production of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde as solar fuels with different wavelengths of light. We also show that this selectivity is a result of precise energy band alignments (using cationic/anionic doping of nanotubes, QD size etc.), confirmed using measurements of electronic density of states, and alignment of higher redox potentials with hot-carriers can also lead to hot-carrier photocatalysis. This wavelength-selective CPCs can have important implications for inexpensive production of solar fuels including alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrogen, and making tandem structures (red, green, blue) with three CPCs, allowing almost full visible spectrum (410 ~ 730nm) utilization with different fuels produced simultaneously.

  18. Selected concrete spent fuel storage cask concepts and the DOE/PSN Cooperative Cask Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creer, J.M.; McKinnon, M.A.; Collantes, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    To date, water pools, metal casks, horizontal concrete modules, and modular vaults have been used to store the major quantity of commercial light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. Recently, vertical concrete dry storage casks have received consideration for storage of spent nuclear fuel. This paper reviews the evolution of the development of selected vertical concrete dry storage casks and outlines a cooperative cask testing (heat transfer and shielding) program involving the US Department of Energy and Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates. Others participating in the cooperative program are Pacific Northwest Laboratory; EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc.; Wisconsin Electric Power Company; and the Electric Power Research Institute. 28 refs., 14 figs

  19. Study for the selection of a supplementary spent fuel storage facility for KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Iqbal, M.J.; Arshad, M.

    1999-01-01

    Steps taken for construction of the spent fuel facility of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) are the following: choice of conceptual design and site selection; preliminary design and preparation of Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR); Construction of the facility and preparation of PSAR; testing/commissioning and loading of the storage facility. Characterisation of the spent fuel is essential for design of the storage facility. After comparison of various storage types, it seems that construction of dry storage facility based on concrete canisters at KANUPP site is a suitable option to enhance the storage capacity

  20. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  1. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  2. Irradiation Performance of U-Mo Alloy Based ‘Monolithic’ Plate-Type Fuel – Design Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Robinson; G. S. Chang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; D. M. Wachs; D. L. Porter

    2009-08-01

    A down-selection process has been applied to the U-Mo fuel alloy based monolithic plate fuel design, supported by irradiation testing of small fuel plates containing various design parameters. The irradiation testing provided data on fuel performance issues such as swelling, fuel-cladding interaction (interdiffusion), blister formation at elevated temperatures, and fuel/cladding bond quality and effectiveness. U-10Mo (wt%) was selected as the fuel alloy of choice, accepting a somewhat lower uranium density for the benefits of phase stability. U-7Mo could be used, with a barrier, where the trade-off for uranium density is critical to nuclear performance. A zirconium foil barrier between fuel and cladding was chosen to provide a predictable, well-bonded, fuel-cladding interface, allowing little or no fuel-cladding interaction. The fuel plate testing conducted to inform this selection was based on the use of U-10Mo foils fabricated by hot co-rolling with a Zr foil. The foils were subsequently bonded to Al-6061 cladding by hot isostatic pressing or friction stir bonding.

  3. Selective separation of oil and water with special wettability mesh membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Defei

    2017-02-24

    Due to the different interfacial effects of oil and water, utilizing the special wettability of solid surfaces to design an oil and water separation process has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for oil/water separation. In this report, a simple process has been developed to fabricate special surface wettability mesh membranes. The carbon nanoparticles with diameters of 10 nm were first coated onto the surface of steel wires based on a candle soot coating process. These templates of carbon nanoparticles were then coated with a more stable layer of silica (SiO2) particles via a facile chemical vapor deposition route. After being modified by two separate methods, a superhydrophobic/superoleophilic membrane was obtained by the use of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTS) and a oleophobic/superhydrophilic membrane was obtained by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium-perfluorooctanoate) (PDDA–PFO). Separation experiments show that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes can be used to selectively separate oil/water with a high flux of more than 930 L m−2 h−1 and a collecting efficiency of over 97%. Furthermore, the repetitions of the separation experiments demonstrate that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes are durable, stable and reusable, making them encouraging candidates for practical oil-polluted water treatment.

  4. Introduction to the Special Issue on Information: Selected Papers from “FIS 2010 Beijing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Marijuán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, a systematic re-examination of the whole information science field has taken place around the FIS—Foundations of Information Science—initiative. With the occasion of its Fourth Conference in Beijing 2010, a group of selected contributors and leading practitioners of those fields have been invited to contribute to this Special Issue. What is the status of information science today? What is the relationship between information and the laws of nature? Is information merely “physical”? What is the difference between information and computation? Has the genomic revolution changed the contemporary views on information and life? And what about the nature of social information? Cogent answers to these questions and to quite many others are attempted in the contributions that follow.

  5. 20 CFR 670.420 - Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits... INVESTMENT ACT Recruitment, Eligibility, Screening, Selection and Assignment, and Enrollment § 670.420 Are...

  6. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-01-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  7. Impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers on shipping special nuclear materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of integrated nuclear fuel cycle facilities on the transportation sector appears from this admittedly rather narrow study to be of only marginal significance. However, there are other factors which must be taken into account such as nuclear safeguards, economics, and radiological, ecological, institutional, and sociological impacts. Unless more clear-cut advantages can be shown by on-going studies for some of these other considerations, the regimentation and control of industry that would result from the imposition of the integrated fuel cycle facility concept probably could not be justified. (auth)

  8. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Marshall, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ten candidates selected for further study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of {approx}10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory

  9. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs

  10. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. A simple numerical model to estimate the effect of coal selection on pulverized fuel burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Niksa, S.; Muzio, L.; Mehta, A.; Stallings, J. [Brown University, Providence, RI (USA). Division Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The amount of unburned carbon in ash is an important performance characteristic in commercial boilers fired with pulverized coal. Unburned carbon levels are known to be sensitive to fuel selection, and there is great interest in methods of estimating the burnout propensity of coals based on proximate and ultimate analysis - the only fuel properties readily available to utility practitioners. A simple numerical model is described that is specifically designed to estimate the effects of coal selection on burnout in a way that is useful for commercial coal screening. The model is based on a highly idealized description of the combustion chamber but employs detailed descriptions of the fundamental fuel transformations. The model is validated against data from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors burning a range of international coals, and then against data obtained from full-scale units during periods of coal switching. The validated model form is then used in a series of sensitivity studies to explore the role of various individual fuel properties that influence burnout.

  12. A systems evaluation model for selecting spent nuclear fuel storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postula, F.D.; Finch, W.C.; Morissette, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a system evaluation approach used to identify and evaluate monitored, retrievable fuel storage concepts that fulfill ten key criteria for meeting the functional requirements and system objectives of the National Nuclear Waste Management Program. The selection criteria include health and safety, schedules, costs, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. The methodology used to establish the selection criteria, develop a weight of importance for each criterion and assess the relative merit of each storage system is discussed. The impact of cost relative to technical criteria is examined along with experience in obtaining relative merit data and its application in the model. Topics considered include spent fuel storage requirements, functional requirements, preliminary screening, and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) system evaluation. It is concluded that the proposed system evaluation model is universally applicable when many concepts in various stages of design and cost development need to be evaluated

  13. Natural selection drove metabolic specialization of the chromatophore in Paulinella chromatophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Cano, Cecilio; Olivares-Hernández, Roberto; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo; DeLuna, Alexander; Delaye, Luis

    2017-04-14

    Genome degradation of host-restricted mutualistic endosymbionts has been attributed to inactivating mutations and genetic drift while genes coding for host-relevant functions are conserved by purifying selection. Unlike their free-living relatives, the metabolism of mutualistic endosymbionts and endosymbiont-originated organelles is specialized in the production of metabolites which are released to the host. This specialization suggests that natural selection crafted these metabolic adaptations. In this work, we analyzed the evolution of the metabolism of the chromatophore of Paulinella chromatophora by in silico modeling. We asked whether genome reduction is driven by metabolic engineering strategies resulted from the interaction with the host. As its widely known, the loss of enzyme coding genes leads to metabolic network restructuring sometimes improving the production rates. In this case, the production rate of reduced-carbon in the metabolism of the chromatophore. We reconstructed the metabolic networks of the chromatophore of P. chromatophora CCAC 0185 and a close free-living relative, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH 5701. We found that the evolution of free-living to host-restricted lifestyle rendered a fragile metabolic network where >80% of genes in the chromatophore are essential for metabolic functionality. Despite the lack of experimental information, the metabolic reconstruction of the chromatophore suggests that the host provides several metabolites to the endosymbiont. By using these metabolites as intracellular conditions, in silico simulations of genome evolution by gene lose recover with 77% accuracy the actual metabolic gene content of the chromatophore. Also, the metabolic model of the chromatophore allowed us to predict by flux balance analysis a maximum rate of reduced-carbon released by the endosymbiont to the host. By inspecting the central metabolism of the chromatophore and the free-living cyanobacteria we found that by

  14. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-01-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility's nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities

  15. ROAD TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON LIQUID FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salomon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of the transport of dangerous goods by road transport. It contains issues relating to the legal aspects, the risk to traffic and transport requirements for participants in force in the European Union and Poland. Particular emphasis has been placed on issues related to the carriage of liquid fuels.

  16. Development and application of special instrumentation for materials accountancy and process control in spent fuel recycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.A.; Gardner, N.; Merrill, N.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    Safe and optimum operations of spent fuel recycle plants rely on the availability of real time measurement systems at key points in the process. More than thirty types of special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned on the THORP reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These systems are compiled together with the associated information on measurement purpose, measurement technique and plant performance. A number of these measurement systems are of interest to support Safeguards arrangements on the plant. A more detailed overview of two such instrument systems respectively within the Head End and Product Finishing Stages of THORP is provided. The first of these is the Hulls Monitor, based on high resolution gamma spectrometry, as well as active and passive neutron measurements, of the basket of leached fuel cladding. This provides vital data for criticality assurance, nuclear material accountancy and inventory determination for ultimate disposal of the cladding waste. The second system is the Plutonium Inventory Monitoring System (PIMS) which employs passive neutron counting from a distributed array of neutron detectors within the Pu Finishing Line. This provides a near real time estimate of Pu inventories both during operations and at clean out of the Finishing Line. Both the Hulls Monitor and PIMS technologies are applicable to MOX Fuel recycle. Both systems enhance the control of fissile material in key areas of the recycle process which are of interest to the Safeguards authorities. (author)

  17. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  18. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 1., Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  19. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - site selection process update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository, located in an informed and willing host. The process of site selection is an important milestone in this program. The NWMO describes its approach to working collaboratively with communities which expressed interest in exploring the project, as well as Aboriginal communities in the area and other surrounding communities. The project is designed to be implemented through a long-term partnership involving the interested community, Aboriginal communities and surrounding communities working with the NWMO. (author)

  20. Physical protection of special nuclear material in the commercial fuel cycle. Volume I. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    This is the summary of the work and recommendations resulting from Sandia's participation in the Special Safeguards Study, which covered three areas: protection of SNM at fixed facilities, protection of SNM while in transit, and relocation and recovery of lost SNM. The results are published in full in five other volumes. 6 tables, 4 fig

  1. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Jancek

    Full Text Available The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome

  2. Special Section: ;Microbial fuel cells: From fundamentals to applications;: Guest Editors' note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Arbizzani, Catia; Erable, Benjamin; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    Water scarcity and production of non-renewable energy are among the most serious challenges faced by humankind at present. Water-related problems such as insufficient freshwater for drinking or irrigation or, even worse, unavailability of freshwater exist in many parts of the world. Over a billion people lack access to clean water, and approximately two million people die every year because of inadequate water sanitation. Fossil fuel combustion has also become problematic because of the depletion of fossil fuels, which are finite energy sources. This together with the emissions of greenhouse gases has increased the CO2 concentration in atmosphere to an unprecedented level of >400 ppm. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify new renewable energy sources and more efficient ways of energy consumption and hybridization with existing technologies.

  3. Selected Bibliography from the Special Collections Department of The College of The Bahamas Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gottardi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Special Collections Department of The College of The Bahamas Library resides a little treasure trove of resources pertaining to The Bahamas, the West Indies and Africa. These collections hold a variety of printed materials: books, dissertations, research studies, government documents, journals, newspaper clippings and ephemera. The Bahamian Collection is the most extensive. Established in 1984, it serves the purpose of a research depository for The Bahamas, as the National Library is yet to be built. Officially, the National Archives is the depository for the historical records of the country. The Bahamas is fortunate in having a very fine archival institution, located on Mackey Street. Titles included in the Bahamian Collection Selected Bibliography are books chosen for their representational appeal. The intention was to represent a cross-section of publications highlighting all aspects of The Bahamas. That was the primary criterion. The other consideration was motivational value. By this is meant the ability to tantalize the reader into discovering more about who, why and what has been printed to preserve, inform, entertain and contemplate the fascinating evolution of The Bahamas. Owing to the strong oral tradition of the country, the printed record of the people began somewhat later than in many other cultures. This too is of significance to the interested reader. In August 1996 when I came to work at The College of The Bahamas as the Special Collections Librarian, I knew nothing of the colors, textures and vitality of this country. A Fodor's travel guide provided factual information and description and some enticing photographs. The context of Bahamian life was a mystery to me. As the authors of the books selected for this bibliography, I have grown more and more intrigued by this island archipelago. Thanks to the encoded voice of natives and, like myself, windblown curious wanderers who have had the good fortune to arrive, if only

  4. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strigáč Július

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I –SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  5. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  6. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  7. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  8. The transport of radioactive materials, paying special attention to nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, M.

    1977-06-01

    The transport of radioactive materials, particularly within the nuclear fuel cycle, is of increasing importance, and is more than ever a matter of public debate. This report provides information concerning the necessary physical, technical and administrative precautions which must be taken to ensure protection of the environment. The international standard of requirements for the packing of the materials is emphasized, as in many cases, transports cross national borders. The relatively comprehensive list of references can be used for the study of details. (orig.) [de

  9. Energy and chemicals from the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols by organometallic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Miller, Hamish A; Oberhauser, Werner; Vizza, Francesco; Annen, Samuel P; Grützmacher, H

    2014-09-01

    Organometallic fuel cells catalyze the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols, simultaneously providing high power densities and chemicals of industrial importance. It is shown that the unique organometallic complex [Rh(OTf)(trop2NH)(PPh3)] employed as molecular active site in an anode of an OMFC selectively oxidizes a number of renewable diols, such as ethylene glycol , 1,2-propanediol (1,2-P), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-P), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) to their corresponding mono-carboxylates. The electrochemical performance of this molecular catalyst is discussed, with the aim to achieve cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals in a highly selective electrooxidation from diol precursors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Selection and evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle strategies. Technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, F.J.P.; Main, F.K.

    1983-01-01

    The original choices of thermal reactors and fuel cycles were largely determined by specific national circumstances and by experience and facilities acquired from defence-related programmes. These led to the development of LWRs in the USA and to the natural uranium/gas/graphite system in the United Kingdom and France, while Canada selected the HWR. Most countries with nuclear power programmes saw the plutonium-fuelled fast reactor, with its breeding potential, as the means to ensure that exhaustion of economic uranium resources would not prematurely curtail the contribution of nuclear power to world energy supplies. Fuel reprocessing was essential to this fuel cycle or indeed to other recycling options to make better use of the available uranium; it was also favoured for waste management reasons. Early expectations of nuclear power growth suggested that a transition from thermal to fast reactors would occur during the present century but the urgency has been reduced by world economic recession, slower increases in nuclear capacity and the continued availability of supplies of low-priced uranium. Reprocessing costs have risen and economics of scale favour large plants, which are therefore most likely to be built in countries with substantial thermal reactor capacities; these countries will be able to provide reprocessing services to others. As the ultimate strategic need for fast reactors has not been reduced by this slowdown it is important to continue the development and demonstration of fast-reactor technology and the associated fuel cycles. Uncertainties in future fuel prices mean that it could be advantageous to introduce fast reactors as soon as they become an economic, although not necessarily the most economic, choice. Notably, fast reactors may be installed initially when and where they become economic compared to coal-fired generation, in order to lay the foundation for more rapid expansion when economic break-even with thermal reactors occurs. (author)

  11. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil: effect of non ionic surfactants and selected bacteria addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Pitea, Demetrio; Franzetti, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2007-09-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition.

  12. Bioremediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soil: Effect of Non Ionic Surfactants and Selected Bacteria Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collina, E.; Lasagni, M.; Pitea, D.; Franzetti, A.; Di Gennaro, P.; Bestetti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC 50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition

  13. Discussion on two special stainless steels used in nuclear fuel processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desestret, A.; Ferriol, J.; Vallier, G.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel treatment may entail difficult corrosion problems for the metallurgist. A first case occurs when the nitric solution is concentrated (60 to 70% of HNO 3 ) at temperatures of 130 0 C. This is solved by use of a steel having a very high chromium content (25%), a high nickel content (20%), and a very low carbon content, which is now readily produced on an industrial scale. A second case happens when nitric solutions are made highly agressive, even when diluted at medium temperatures, by highly oxidising ions such as chromate or ceric ions. The stainless steel is then placed in transpassive conditions and subject to very rapid intergranular attack, even when free from precipitated chromium carbides. A steel of the Cr 17 / Ni 14 / Si 4 / C [fr

  14. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  15. Fossil-fuel dependence and vulnerability of electricity generation: Case of selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the diversity of fuel mix for electricity generation in selected European countries and investigates how the fuel bill has changed as a share of GDP between 1995 and 2005. The drivers of fuel-dependence-related vulnerability are determined using Laspeyres index decomposition. A 'what-if' analysis is carried out to analyse the changes in the vulnerability index due to changes in the drivers and a scenario analysis is finally used to investigate the future vulnerability in the medium term. The paper finds that the British and the Dutch electricity systems are less diversified compared to three other countries analysed. The gas dependence of the Dutch and Italian systems made them vulnerable but the vulnerability increased in all countries in recent years. Gas price and the level of dependence on gas for power generation mainly influenced the gas vulnerability. The United Kingdom saw a substantial decline in its coal vulnerability due to a fall in coal price and coal dependence in electricity generation. The scenario analysis indicates that UK is likely to face greater gas vulnerability in the future due to increased gas dependence in electricity generation and higher import dependence.

  16. Psychological and Physiological Selection of Military Special Operations Forces Personnel (Selection psychologique et physiologique des militaires des forces d’operations speciales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    in the selection literature today is the Five Factor Model ( FFM ) or “Big 5” model of personality. This model includes: 1) Openness; 2...Conscientiousness; 3) Extraversion; 4) Agreeableness; and 5) Emotional Stability. Meta-analytic studies have found the FFM of personality to be predictive...is a self-report measure of the FFM that has demonstrated reliability and validity in numerous studies [18]. Another FFM measure, the Trait Self

  17. Performance evaluation and comparison of fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell based on steam or autothermal reforming and on CO preferential oxidation or selective methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercolino, Giuliana; Ashraf, Muhammad A.; Specchia, Vito; Specchia, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of different fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell stack. • Steam or autothermal reforming + CO selective methanation or preferential oxidation. • Reforming of different hydrocarbons: gasoline, light diesel oil, natural gas. • 5 kW e net systems comparison via energy efficiency and primary fuel rate consumed. • Highest net efficiency: steam reformer + CO selective methanation based system. - Abstract: The performances of four different auxiliary power unit (APU) schemes, based on a 5 kW e net proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) stack, are evaluated and compared. The fuel processor section of each APU is characterized by a reformer (autothermal ATR or steam SR), a non-isothermal water gas shift (NI-WGS) reactor and a final syngas catalytic clean-up step: the CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor or the CO selective methanation (SMET) one. Furthermore, three hydrocarbon fuels, the most commonly found in service stations (gasoline, light diesel oil and natural gas) are considered as primary fuels. The comparison is carried out examining the results obtained by a series of steady-state system simulations in Aspen Plus® of the four different APU schemes by varying the fed fuel. From the calculated data, the performance of CO-PROX is not very different compared to that of the CO-SMET, but the performance of the SR based APUs is higher than the scheme of the ATR based APUs. The most promising APU scheme with respect to an overall performance target is the scheme fed with natural gas and characterized by a fuel processor chain consisting of SR, NI-WGS and CO-SMET reactors. This processing reactors scheme together with the fuel cell section, notwithstanding having practically the same energy efficiency of the scheme with SR, NI-WGS and CO-PROX reactors, ensures a less complex scheme, higher hydrogen concentration in the syngas, lower air mass rate consumption, the absence of nitrogen in the syngas and higher potential

  18. Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, F; Castellote, M

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (ζ), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ζ in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ζ in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conceptual design of the special nuclear material nondestructive assay and accountability system for the HTGR fuel refabrication pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; McNeany, S.R.; Rushton, J.E.

    1975-07-01

    The conceptual design of the fissile material assay and accountability system for the HTGR refabrication pilot plant has been established. The primary feature affecting the design is the high, time varying, gamma activity of the process material due to the unavoidable presence of uranium-232. This imposes stringent requirements for remote operation and remote maintainability of system components. At the same time, the remote operation lends itself to implementation of an automated data collection and processing system for real-time accountability. The high time-varying gamma activity of the material also precludes application of a number of techniques presently employed for light-water reactor fuel assay. The techniques selected for application in the refabrication facility are (1) active thermal neutron interrogation with fast-fission or delayed-neutron counting for fuel-rod and small-sample assay, (2) calorimetry for high-level waste assay, and (3) passive gamma scanning for low-level waste assay, and rapid on-line relative rod-loading measurements. The principal nondestructive assay subsystems are identified as (1) on-line devices for 100 percent product fuel rod assay and quality control, (2) a multipurpose device in the sample inspection laboratory for small- sample assay and secondary standards calibration, and (3) equipment for assay of high- and low-uranium content scrap and waste materials. A data processing system, which coordinates data from these subsystems with information from other process control sensors, is included to provide real-time material balance information. (U.S.)

  20. Determination of uranium metal concentration in irradiated fuel storage basin sludge using selective dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Sinkov, S.I.; Chenault, J.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Pool, K.N.; Welsh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiated uranium metal fuel was stored underwater in the K East and K West storage basins at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The uranium metal under damaged cladding reacted with water to generate hydrogen gas, uranium oxides, and spalled uranium metal particles which intermingled with other particulates to form sludge. While the fuel has been removed, uranium metal in the sludge remains hazardous. An expeditious routine method to analyze 0.03 wt% uranium metal in the presence of >30 wt% total uranium was needed to support safe sludge management and processing. A selective dissolution method was designed based on the rapid uranium oxide dissolution but very low uranium metal corrosion rates in hot concentrated phosphoric acid. The uranium metal-bearing heel from the phosphoric acid step then is rinsed before the uranium metal is dissolved in hot concentrated nitric acid for analysis. Technical underpinnings of the selective dissolution method, including the influence of sludge components, were investigated to design the steps and define the reagents, quantities, concentrations, temperatures, and times within the selective dissolution analysis. Tests with simulant sludge proved the technique feasible. Tests with genuine sludge showed a 0.0028 ± 0.0037 wt% (at one standard deviation) uranium metal analytical background, a 0.011 wt% detection limit, and a 0.030 wt% quantitation limit in settled (wet) sludge. In tests using genuine K Basin sludge spiked with uranium metal at concentrations above the 0.030 wt% ± 25 % (relative) quantitation limit, uranium metal recoveries averaged 99.5 % with a relative standard deviation of 3.5 %. (author)

  1. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  2. Ceramic Materials Selection of Fuel Crucibles based on Plasma Spray Coating for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jonghwan; Kim, Hyungtae; Ko, Youngmo; Woo, Yoonmyung; Oh, Seokjin; Kim, Kihwan; Lee, Chanbock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The plasma-sprayed coating can provide the crucible with a denser, more friable coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating, which was used to prevent the interaction between melt and crucibles. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense by the heat applied by the plasma. The increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent re coating and U-Zr melt penetration through the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating. In this study, we used Vacuum Plasma Spray method to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel onto niobium substrates. Niobium was selected as a substrate because of its refractory nature and the coefficient of thermal expansion is similar to that of many of the candidate materials. After the HfC, ZrC, TiC, TaC, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8% YSZ coatings were applied the resulting microstructure and chemical compositions was characterized to find the optimum process conditions for coating. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel, such as the U-Zr alloy proposed for sodium cooled fast reactors.

  3. Selective absorption pilot plant for decontamination of fuel reprocessing plant off-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Eby, R.S.; Huffstetler, V.C.

    1977-10-01

    A fluorocarbon-based selective absorption process for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and radon-222 from the off-gas of conventional light water and advanced reactor fuel reprocessing plants is being developed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in conjunction with fuel recycle work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Savannah River Laboratory. The process is characterized by an especially high tolerance for many other reprocessing plant off-gas components. This report presents detailed drawings and descriptions of the second generation development pilot plant as it has evolved after three years of operation. The test facility is designed on the basis of removing 99% of the feed gas krypton and 99.9% of the carbon and radon, and can handle a nominal 15 scfm (425 slm) of contaminated gas at pressures from 100 to 600 psig (7.0 to 42.2 kg/cm/sup 2/) and temperatures from minus 45 to plus 25/sup 0/F (-43 to -4/sup 0/C). Part of the development program is devoted to identifying flowsheet options and simplifications that lead to an even more economical and reliable process. Two of these applicative flowsheets are discussed.

  4. Site-selection studies for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.; Aeikaes, T.

    1984-02-01

    In the management of waste by the Industrial Power Company Ltd. (TVO) preparations are being made for the final disposal of unprocessed spent fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The site selection program will advance in three phases. The final disposal site must be made at the latest by the end of the year 2000, in accordance with a decision laid down by the Finnish Government. In the first phase, 1983-85, the main object is to find homogeneous stable bedrock blocks surrounded by fracture zones located at a safe distance from the planned disposal area. The work usually starts with a regional structural analysis of mosaics of Landsat-1 winter and summer imagery. Next an assortment of different maps, which cover the whole country, is used. Technical methods for geological and hydrogeological site investigations are being developed during the very first phase of the studies, and a borehole 1000 meters deep will be made in southwestern Finland. Studies for the final disposal of spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste have been made since 1974 in Finland. General suitability studies of the bedrock have been going on since 1977. The present results indicate that suitable investigation areas for the final disposal of highly active waste can be found in Finland

  5. Should You? May You? Can You? Factors in Selecting Rare Books and Special Collections for Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Selection for digitization is about more than which items to scan. Selection is what shapes the online collections that are built by libraries, archives, historical societies, and other cultural heritage institutions. By selecting well, institutions can concentrate on the parts of their collections that are best suited to digitization, that make…

  6. Growth kinetic and fuel quality parameters as selective criterion for screening biodiesel producing cyanobacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Manickam; Shunmugam, Sumathy; Mugasundari, Arumugam Vanmathi; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Muralitharan, Gangatharan

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of cyanobacterial strains as biodiesel feedstock varies with the dwelling habitat. Fourteen indigenous heterocystous cyanobacterial strains from rice field ecosystem were screened based on growth kinetic and fuel parameters. The highest biomass productivity was obtained in Nostoc punctiforme MBDU 621 (19.22mg/L/day) followed by Calothrix sp. MBDU 701 (13.43mg/L/day). While lipid productivity and lipid content was highest in Nostoc spongiaeforme MBDU 704 (4.45mg/L/day and 22.5%dwt) followed by Calothrix sp. MBDU 701 (1.54mg/L/day and 10.75%dwt). Among the tested strains, Nostoc spongiaeforme MBDU 704 and Nostoc punctiforme MBDU 621 were selected as promising strains for good quality biodiesel production by Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Greenpeace and the EIA process with special reference to the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, A.

    1995-01-01

    The author argues as follows: The legislation which currently regulates EIS, does not give any party other than the proponent the possibility of exercising influence over the EIA. Therefore, an extensive review and amendment of the existing legislation is necessary if the general public is to participate in the process. This should be regarded as necessary, if SKB is to gain general acceptance of its work. Work on developing a suitable method and identifying a suitable site is going on, but is not conducted in such a manner that it gives the general public an adequate possibility of participating. Furthermore, decision-makers in the candidate municipalities are not being given insight into the work. A specially established EIA authority, charged with the task of supervising the EIA, may lead to that the problems will be investigated in a better way, that can lead to the selection of the best method as well as the best site

  8. Greenpeace and the EIA process with special reference to the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, A. [Greenpeace (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The author argues as follows: The legislation which currently regulates EIS, does not give any party other than the proponent the possibility of exercising influence over the EIA. Therefore, an extensive review and amendment of the existing legislation is necessary if the general public is to participate in the process. This should be regarded as necessary, if SKB is to gain general acceptance of its work. Work on developing a suitable method and identifying a suitable site is going on, but is not conducted in such a manner that it gives the general public an adequate possibility of participating. Furthermore, decision-makers in the candidate municipalities are not being given insight into the work. A specially established EIA authority, charged with the task of supervising the EIA, may lead to that the problems will be investigated in a better way, that can lead to the selection of the best method as well as the best site.

  9. Comparative Genomics of Smut Pathogens: Insights From Orphans and Positively Selected Genes Into Host Specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benevenuto, J.; Texeira-Silva, N.S.; Kuramae, E.E.; Croll, D.; Vitorello, C.B.M.

    2018-01-01

    Host specialization is a key evolutionary process for the diversification and emergence of new pathogens. However, the molecular determinants of host range are poorly understood. Smut fungi are biotrophic pathogens that have distinct and narrow host ranges based on largely unknown genetic

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Removal Campaign Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The overall operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project will include fuel removal, sludge removal, debris removal, and deactivation transition activities. Figure 1-1 provides an overview of the current baseline operating schedule for project sub-systems, indicating that a majority of fuel removal activities are performed over an approximately three-and-one-half year time period. The purpose of this document is to describe the strategy for operating the fuel removal process systems. The campaign plan scope includes: (1) identifying a fuel selection sequence during fuel removal activities, (2) identifying MCOs that are subjected to extra testing (process validation) and monitoring, and (3) discussion of initial MCO loading and monitoring in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The campaign plan is intended to integrate fuel selection requirements for handling special groups of fuel within the basin (e.g., single pass reactor fuel), process validation activities identified for process systems, and monitoring activities during storage

  11. The selection criteria for Slovenian bibliography: with special emphasis on the articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šušteričič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection principles are an important stage in the creation of a national bibliography.The article outlines the selection of the national output to be included in Slovenian bibliography. It also presents theoretical basis for selection in general, with the emphasis on international guidelines and on the development of national principles and professional outlines. Statistical data and examples give more detailed analysis of selection criteria of articles regarding different types of serial publications. Results of the study show that selection criteria for Slovenian bibliography are to be constantly verified due to the dynamics of the national publishing industry. Nevertheless, the main features of selection criteria remain unchanged: lasting value of subject matter with the emphasis on scientific research and expert knowledge.

  12. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 1045.645 - What special provisions apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? 1045.645 Section 1045.645 Protection of Environment... for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? A certificate of conformity is no longer valid for.... This section applies if such modifications are done to convert the engine to run on a different fuel...

  14. 40 CFR 1051.650 - What special provisions apply for converting a vehicle to use an alternate fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... converting a vehicle to use an alternate fuel? 1051.650 Section 1051.650 Protection of Environment... vehicle to use an alternate fuel? A certificate of conformity is no longer valid for a vehicle if the... applies if such modifications are done to convert the vehicle to run on a different fuel type. Such...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.645 - What special provisions apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? 1054.645 Section 1054.645 Protection of Environment... apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? A certificate of conformity is no longer valid... fuel type. Such engines may need to be recertified as specified in this section if the certificate is...

  16. Efficiency of different techniques of physical flattening by fuel while selection of optimum arrangement of large fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, E.A.; Dejnega, N.L.; Mitin, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are given of calculations for selecting the parameters of the large fast breeder reactor core (1500 Mw) operating on oxide fuel with a sodium coolant. A complex optimum criterion was selected for energy intensity, energy distribution, breeding ratio and critical load factor, run duration, burning, reactivity variations, influence of CV3, fuel overloads, and calculated fue fuel expenses. The effectivities of various methods for physical grading of fuel (enrichment and composition) were examined in accordance with the optimum criterion. Parameters of reactor cores optimum arrangements are presented. Continuous reactor operation during 0.8-1.0 yr. at energy intensity more than 400 kW was shown to be essential for attaining the optimum chosen. Accounting for the CV3 system and partial fuel overloads, the methods of balancing energy release either by enriching fuel or by changing its composition proved to be almost equally effective. All calculations were performed with the aid of a 18-4-RZ-15B program on the basis of a BNAB-26 constant system [ru

  17. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  18. Preface to special issue of selected papers from Theoretical, Experimental, and Computational Mechanics (TECM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce this special issue of the Applied Mathematical Modelling journal with highlights from theTheoretical, Experimental, and Computational Mechanics Symposium (TECM-2015). This special issue consists of four rigorouslyselected papers originally presented at TECM-2015...... as a part of the 13th International Conference of Numerical Analysisand Applied Mathematics 2015 (ICNAAM 2015), which was held on 23-29 September 2015 in Rhodes, Greece.The symposium attracted a broad range of international and local leaders in theoretical, experimental, and computational mechanics across...... various fields and application. The symposium did an excellent job of outlining the current landscape of computational mechanics and its capabilities in solving complex industrial problems in the process industries, and we agree with the editor-in-chief of the journal that it is certainly worthwhile...

  19. Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Wu, Pei-Ssu; Tsao, Shuo-En; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2018-01-28

    This study was conducted to select electrogenic bacteria from wastewater sludge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) during the decomposition process of organic pollutants. Five culturable bacteria strains - namely, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Stenotrophomonas sp. - have a double potential in dye removal and electricity generation. We inoculated the mixed electrogenic bacteria at a specific ratio and treated them with a triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR), to evaluate their electricity generation ability for the artificial and real wastewater. The results of the VBR shock-loading experiment indicated that the inoculated MFC could adapt to shock loading in 1-2 days and exhibited high removal efficiency (95-100%) for 100-800 mg L -1 VBR with a power density of 8.62 ± 0.10 to 34.81 ± 0.25 mW m -2 . The selected electrogenic bacteria in the MFC could use VBR as only electron donor for power generation. The matrix effects of the real wastewater on VBR removal and electricity generation of MFC were insignificant. VBR degradation by the electrogenic bacteria involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. In addition, these results demonstrate the feasibility of inoculating culturable bacteria strains to develop an efficient MFC for purifying wastewater.

  20. Isotopic composition and radiological properties of uranium in selected fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, R.M.; Liikala, R.C.

    1975-04-01

    Three major topic areas are discussed: First, the properties of the uranium isotopes are defined relative to their respective roles in the nuclear fuel cycle. Secondly, the most predominant fuel cycles expected in the U. S. are described. These are the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycles. The isotopic compositions of uranium and plutonium fuels expected for these fuel cycles are given in some detail. Finally the various waste streams from these fuel cycles are discussed in terms of their relative toxicity. Emphasis is given to the high level waste streams from reprocessing of spent fuel. Wastes from the various fuel cycles are compared based on projected growth patterns for nuclear power and its various components. (U.S.)

  1. LWR mox fuel experience in Belgium and France with special emphasis on results obtained in BR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Haas, D.; Lippens, M.; Motte, F.; Lebastard, G.; Marin, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The course of the paper reflects two main topics: LWR MOX fuel experience in Belgium and France, summarizing the fabrication techniques, the references, the underlying MOX fuel technology and the current R and D programs for expanding the data base; behaviour of MOX fuel rods irradiated under steady state and transient operating conditions, focusing on MOX fuel technology features acquired through the irradiations performed in the BR3 PWR, supplemented by tests in the BR2 MTR. This paper focuses on the thermomechanical behaviour of LWR MOX fuel rods, which is intimately related to the fabrication technique and vice-versa. 22 refs

  2. Bacterial Membrane Depolarization-Linked Fuel Cell Potential Burst as Signal for Selective Detection of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sharbani; Goswami, Pranab

    2018-06-06

    The biosensing application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is hampered by its long response time, poor selectivity, and technical difficulty in developing portable devices. Herein, a novel signal form for rapid detection of ethanol was generated in a photosynthetic MFC (PMFC). First, a dual chambered (100 mL each) PMFC was fabricated by using cyanobacteria-based anode and abiotic cathode, and its performance was examined for detection of alcohols. A graphene-based nanobiocomposite matrix was layered over graphite anode to support cyanobacterial biofilm growth and to facilitate electron transfer. Injection of alcohols into the anodic chamber caused a transient potential burst of the PMFC within 60 s (load 1000 Ω), and the magnitude of potential could be correlated to the ethanol concentrations in the range 0.001-20% with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13% ( R 2 = 0.96). The device exhibited higher selectivity toward ethanol than methanol as discerned from the corresponding cell-alcohol interaction constant ( K i ) of 780 and 1250 mM. The concept was then translated to a paper-based PMFC (p-PMFC) (size ∼20 cm 2 ) wherein, the cells were merely immobilized over the anode. The device with a shelf life of ∼3 months detected ethanol within 10 s with a dynamic range of 0.005-10% and LOD of 0.02% ( R 2 = 0.99). The fast response time was attributed to the higher wettability of ethanol on the immobilized cell surface as validated by the contact angle data. Alcohols degraded the cell membrane on the order of ethanol > methanol, enhanced the redox current of the membrane-bound electron carrier proteins, and pushed the anodic band gap toward more negative value. The consequence was the potential burst, the magnitude of which was correlated to the ethanol concentrations. This novel approach has a great application potential for selective, sensitive, rapid, and portable detection of ethanol.

  3. Pollinator-mediated selection in a specialized hummingbird-Heliconia system in the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, E J; Rah, Y J; Andicoechea, J; Byanova, K L; Giller, G S J; Stolk, S B; Kress, W J

    2013-02-01

    Phenotypic matches between plants and their pollinators often are interpreted as examples of reciprocal selection and adaptation. For the two co-occurring plant species, Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea in the Eastern Caribbean, we evaluated for five populations over 2 years the strength and direction of natural selection on corolla length and number of bracts per inflorescence. These plant traits correspond closely to the bill lengths and body masses of their primary pollinators, female or male purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Eulampis jugularis). In H. bihai, directional selection for longer corollas was always significant with the exception of one population in 1 year, whereas selection on bract numbers was rare and found only in one population in 1 year. In contrast, significant directional selection for more bracts per inflorescence occurred in all three populations of the yellow morph and in two populations of the red morph of H. caribaea, whereas significant directional selection on corolla length occurred in only one population of the red morph and one population of the yellow morph. Selection for longer corollas in H. bihai may result from better mechanical fit, and hence pollination, by the long bills of female E. jugularis, their sole pollinator. In contrast, competition between males of E. jugularis for territories may drive selection for more bracts in H. caribaea. Competitive exclusion of female E. jugularis by territorial males also implicates pollinator competition as a possible ecological mechanism for trait diversification in these plants. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. THE METHODOLOGY OF CASES SELECTION FOR TEACHING FOREGN SPEECH TO THE STUDENTS OF NON-LIGUISTIC SPECIALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Lozovskaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the advantages of case-study and its potential in forming the motivation for studying the English language for students of non-linguistic specialities, psychology students in particular. Training future psychologists foreign language communication should involve cases, published in foreign periodicals, and numerous exercises and communicative tasks according to the requirements of the case-technology which is used during their learning process. The studies enable to single out the main criteria of cases selection for the successful formation of foreign speech with the students of psychological faculty.

  5. USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES IN SELECTED SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NONINI, CERISE

    A SURVEY BY QUESTIONNAIRE WAS MADE OF THE PROBLEM OF USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES USED IN THE DISSEMINATION OF MATERIALS AND INFORMATION TO A SELECTED NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL LIBRARIES. THE SURVEY RESULTED IN DATA CONCERNING STAFF SIZE, PROFESSIONAL-TO-CLERICAL RATIO, SIZE OF BOOK, DOCUMENT, PERIODICAL AND MICROFORM COLLECTIONS, LIBRARY…

  6. Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) Upper Yellowstone River, Montana: Environmental Assessment, FONSI, and Selected Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    slopes must be flatter than the angle of repose for the selected revetment material. For example, rock riprap normally needs to be placed on a slope...plan that responds effectively to physical, social , and legal changes. The need for future modifications to the SAMP will be evaluated periodically

  7. Prey selection by North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) with special reference to fish eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, F.H.I.D.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The herring stock in the North Sea in recent years has recovered to a relatively high biomass, and here we investigate prey selection of individual North Sea herring when population numbers are high. The diet composition, and specifically pelagic fish eggs, was investigated in February 2004. Samples

  8. A rapid selection strategy for an anodophilic consortium for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2010-07-01

    A rapid selection method was developed to enrich for a stable and efficient anodophilic consortium (AC) for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A biofilm sample from a microbial electrolysis cell was serially diluted up to 10-9 in anaerobic phosphate buffer solution and incubated in an Fe(III)-acetate medium, and an Fe(III)-reducing AC was obtained for dilutions up to 10-6. The activity of MFC inoculated with the enrichment AC was compared with those inoculated with original biofilm or activated sludge. The power densities and Coulombic efficiencies of the AC (226 mW/m2, 34%) were higher than those of the original biofilm (209 mW/m2, 23%) and activated sludge (192 mW/m2, 19%). The start-up period of the AC (60 h) was also shorter than those obtained with the other inocula (biofilm, 95 h; activated sludge, 300 h). This indicated that such a strategy is highly efficient for obtaining an anodophilic consortium for improving the performance of an MFC. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  10. Selection and Implementation of Skill Acquisition Programs by Special Education Teachers and Staff for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Cariveau, Tom; LeBlanc, Brittany A; Mahon, Jacob J; Carroll, Regina A

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation examined special education teachers' selection and use of teaching strategies for receptive identification training with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their classrooms. Teachers first responded to a survey in which they provided examples of receptive identification tasks taught in their classrooms, rated the efficacy of teaching strategies, described how they determined whether skills were mastered, listed any assessments they conducted to identify relevant prerequisite skills prior to receptive identification training, described how they selected teaching strategies for use in their classrooms, and listed their years of experience as a teacher and working with children with ASD. Subsequent observations of implementation of teaching strategies during trial-based instruction occurred in a proportion of teachers' classrooms. The results of the observations showed that participants did not consistently implement components of trial-based instruction as described in the literature, and there were differences in implementation depending on the types of skills targeted during instruction.

  11. Influences of the molecular fuel structure on combustion reactions towards soot precursors in selected alkane and alkene flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwe, Lena; Moshammer, Kai; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2018-04-25

    In this study, we experimentally investigate the high-temperature oxidation kinetics of n-pentane, 1-pentene and 2-methyl-2-butene (2M2B) in a combustion environment using flame-sampling molecular beam mass spectrometry. The selected C5 fuels are prototypes for linear and branched, saturated and unsaturated fuel components, featuring different C-C and C-H bond structures. It is shown that the formation tendency of species, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), yielded through mass growth reactions increases drastically in the sequence n-pentane fuel-dependent reaction sequences of the gas-phase combustion mechanism that provide explanations for the observed difference in the PAH formation tendency. First, we investigate the fuel-structure-dependent formation of small hydrocarbon species that are yielded as intermediate species during the fuel decomposition, because these species are at the origin of the subsequent mass growth reaction pathways. Second, we review typical PAH formation reactions inspecting repetitive growth sequences in dependence of the molecular fuel structure. Third, we discuss how differences in the intermediate species pool influence the formation reactions of key aromatic ring species that are important for the PAH growth process underlying soot formation. As a main result it was found that for the fuels featuring a C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond, the chemistry of their allylic fuel radicals and their decomposition products strongly influences the combination reactions to the initially formed aromatic ring species and as a consequence, the PAH formation tendency.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS ON THE COMBUSTION PROCESS IN THE SI ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    FLEKIEWICZ, Marek; KUBICA, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Summary. This paper presents the results of SI engine tests, carried out for different gaseous fuels. The analysis carried out made it possible to define the correlation between fuel composition and engine operating parameters. The tests covered various gaseous mixtures: methane with hydrogen from 5% to 50% by volume and LPG with DME from 5% to 26% by mass. The first group, considered as low-carbon-content fuels can be characterized by low CO2 emissions. Flammability of hydrogen added in thos...

  13. Wastes from selected activities in two light-water reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.R.; Hill, O.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents projected volumes and radioactivities of wastes from the production of electrical energy using light-water reactors (LWR). The projections are based upon data developed for a recent environmental impact statement in which the transuranic wastes (i.e., those wastes containing certain long-lived alpha emitters at concentrations of at least 370 becquerels, or 10 nCi, per gram of waste) from fuel cycle activities were characterized. In addition, since the WG.7 assumed that all fuel cycle wastes except mill tailings are placed in a mined geologic repository, the nontransuranic wastes from several activities are included in the projections reported. The LWR fuel cycles considered are the LWR, once-through fuel cycle (Strategy 1), in which spent fuel is packaged in metal canisters and then isolated in geologic formations; and the LWR U/Pu recycle fuel cycle (Strategy 2), wherein spent fuel is reprocessed for recovery and recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWRs. The wastes projected for the two LWR fuel cycles are summarized. The reactor operations and decommissioning were found to dominate the rate of waste generation in each cycle. These activities account for at least 85% of the fuel cycle waste volume (not including head-end wastes) when normalized to per unit electrical energy generated. At 10 years out of reactor, however, spent fuel elements in Strategy 1 represent 98% of the fuel cycle activity but only 4% of the volume. Similarly, the packaged high-level waste, fuel hulls and hardware in Strategy 2 concentrate greater than 95% of the activity in 2% of the waste volume

  14. Emission Performance of Selected Biodiesels Fuels - VTT's Contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakko, P.; Westerholm, M.

    2000-10-15

    The target of the IEA/AMF Annex XIII 'Performance of biodiesel' was to perform an extensive analysis of exhaust emissions using biodiesel in new diesel engines. The participants of the project were Belgium, Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden, USA, and the Netherlands. The work of Annex XIII was carried out both at ORNL and at VTT. This report includes only VTT's results. A summary report of the results of both laboratories will be prepared later. The major part of the tests was carried out with a Euro 2 emission level Volvo bus engine. Tests were made without a catalyst, with an oxidation catalyst and with a CRT particulate trap. Some tests were also carried out with a medium-duty Valmet farm tractor engine and with a light-duty Audi TDI vehicle. Several test cycles were used in the tests. In addition, engine mapping tests were carried out with the Volvo and the Valmet engine. The vegetable oil esters studied were rapeseed methyl ester (RME), soy bean oil methyl ester (SME) and used vegetable oil methyl ester (UVOME). RME and SME were tested as 30% blends in European grade diesel fuel (EN590) and as neat esters. RME was also blended (30%) into Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel fuel (RFD). The test fuel matrix also included Canadian diesel fuel blended with 10% hydrated tall oil (TO10) and an emulsion of Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel and some 15% ethanol (EtDI). Compared to hydrocarbon fuels, the bioesters reduced CO end HC emissions in most cases. Adding 30% ester in the EN590 fuel did not affect the NOx emission significantly, whereas neat ester resulted in an increase of around 10% in the NOx emission. When 30% ester was blended into the RDF fuel, the NOx emission increased by some 5% with the bus and the tractor engine, but decreased by about 5% with the TDI vehicle. The EtDI fuel resulted in a lower NOx emission than the EN590 fuel with the bus engine, but a higher emission with the TDI vehicle. The effect of esters on the formaldehyde

  15. Dasatinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: patient selection and special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Sadri, Sevil; Eskazan, Ahmet Emre

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib is one of the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in imatinib resistance and/or intolerance, as well as in the frontline setting in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase, and also in patients with advanced disease. It is also utilized in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia. While choosing the appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ie, dasatinib) for each individual patient, comorbidities and BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations should always be taken into consideration, among other things. This review mainly focuses on patient selection prior to dasatinib administration in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.

  16. Proposal of guidelines for selecting optimum options in packagings and transportation systems of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Abe, H.; Fukuda, S.

    1983-01-01

    Type and size of spent fuel shipping packagings and packaging transport ships in spent fuel transport system would have been determined separately in response to technical requirements etc. of reactor sites and reprocessing plants. However, since more and more spent fuel will be generated from world's nuclear power plants and will be transported much frequently to reprocessing plants or storage facilities, the current spent fuel transport system will have to be necessarily reexamined from the operational and economical aspects or an optimum transport system may have to be newly determined in the near future. In the literature, a variety of options are found, particularly of spent fuel packagings. This paper listed and classified options of spent fuel packagings and packaging transport ships in the transportation systems of spent fuel on the basis of literature surveys. These options were discussed from viewpoints of designers and users and compared in terms of transport efficiency. Finally, one way to determine an optimum transport system of spent fuel was indicated considering the total transport system in the light of safety, operational efficiency and economy

  17. Selection of the reference concept for the surface examination stations in the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.; Nash, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The prototype surface examination station for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will use closed circuit television (CCTV) for routine modes of operation along with a nuclear periscope for special examination needs. The CCTV and the nuclear periscope were evaluated against prescribed station requirements and compared in a side-by-side demonstration. A quantitative evaluation of their outputs showed that both systems were capable of meeting surface anomaly detection requirements. The CCTV system was superior in its ability to collect, suppress and present data into a more useful form for the experimenters

  18. Alemtuzumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr J

    2016-10-01

    the other are not yet available. Thus, the overall success of alemtuzumab treatment critically depends on the patient selection. The aim of this article is therefore, to characterize the significance of alemtuzumab in the treatment of MS with a focus on the selection of the optimal patient. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment, safety, efficacy, selection, benefit risk relation

  19. A Decision Support System (DSS to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS is introduced for selecting the best fuel to develop in the value chain of NG through four options, namely compressed NG (CNG, liquefied NG (LNG, dimethyl ether (DME, and gas-to-liquids (GTL. The DSS includes a model which uses the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to select the best fuel in the value chain of NG based on the attributes such as market situations, technology availability, and transportation infrastructure. The model recommends some key guidelines for two branches of countries, i.e. those which have NG resources and the others. We believe that applying the proposed DSS helps the oil and gas/energy ministries in a most effective and productive manner dealing with the complicated fuel-related production and transportation decision-making situations.

  20. Single-donor islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatum JA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jacob A Tatum,* Max O Meneveau,* Kenneth L Brayman Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, The University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient’s ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes. Given the shortage of transplantable organs, selecting appropriate candidates for whom the procedure will be of greatest benefit is essential. Although many of those who receive islets do not retain insulin independence, grafts do play a significant role in preventing hypoglycemic episodes that can be quite detrimental to quality of life and potentially fatal. Additionally, islet transplant requires lifelong immunosuppression. Antibodies, both preformed and following islet infusion, may play important roles in graft outcomes. Finally, no procedure is without inherent risk and islet transfusions can have serious consequences for recipients’ livers in the form of both vascular and metabolic complications. Therefore, patient-specific factors that should be taken into account before islet transplantation include aims of therapy, sensitization, and potential increased risk for hepatic and portal-venous sequelae. Keywords: islet transplantation, diabetes mellitus type 1, brittle diabetes, single donor, patient

  1. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    system for surgical room was obtained, consisting of three identical domes. The illuminator designed with the use of the proposed methodology showed high energy efficiency (92.3%. Practical Relevance. The results can find application in optical design of non-imaging systems having various functionality, for example, illuminators, concentrators, etc. and can provide import substitution of similar foreign devices. The results can be useful by engineers specializing in the design and/or operation of non-imaging optical systems.

  2. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  3. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in sickle cell disease: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia M

    2015-07-01

    be donors. Matched siblings should be referred to an experienced transplant center for evaluation and counseling. In this review, we will discuss the rationale for these opinions and make recommendations for patient selection.Keywords: sickle cell disease, morbidity, stem cell transplantation, patient selection, matched sibling donor

  4. Time Evolution of Selected Actinides in TRIGA MARK-II Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usang, M.D.; Naim Shauqi Hamzah; Mohamad Hairie Rabir

    2011-01-01

    Study is made on the evolution of several actinides capable of undergoing fission or breeding available on the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) TRIGA MARK-II fuel. Population distribution of burned fuel in the MNA reactor is determined with a model developed using WIMS. This model simulates fuel conditions in the hottest position in the reactor, thus the location where most of the burn up occurs. Theoretical basis of these nuclide time evolution are explored and compared with the population obtained from our models. Good agreements are found for the theoretical time evolution and the population of Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238 and Plutonium-239. (author)

  5. A high selectivity quaternized polysulfone membrane for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abuin, GC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available polysulfone membrane for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells Graciela C. Abuina, Esteban A. Franceschinib, Patrick Nonjolac, Mkhulu K. Mathec, Mmalewane Modibedic, Horacio R. Cortib,* aCentro de Procesos Superficiales, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS ON THE COMBUSTION PROCESS IN THE SI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek FLEKIEWICZ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of SI engine tests, carried out for different gaseous fuels. The analysis carried out made it possible to define the correlation between fuel composition and engine operating parameters. The tests covered various gaseous mixtures: methane with hydrogen from 5% to 50% by volume and LPG with DME from 5% to 26% by mass. The first group, considered as low-carbon-content fuels can be characterized by low CO2 emissions. Flammability of hydrogen added in those mixtures realizes the function of the combustion process activator. Thus, hydrogen addition improves energy conversion by about 3%. The second group of fuels is constituted by LPG and DME mixtures. DME mixes perfectly with LPG, and differently than other hydrocarbon fuels, consisting of oxygen as well, which makes the stoichiometric mixture less oxygen demanding. In the case of this fuel an improvement in engine volumetric and overall engine efficiency has been noticed compared with LPG. For the 11% DME share in the mixture an improvement of 2% in the efficiency has been noticed. During the tests, standard CNG–LPG feeding systems have been used, which underlines the utility value of the research. The stand-test results have been followed by combustion process simulation including exhaust forming and charge exchange.

  7. Information Needs and Use of Library Resources by Special Needs Students in Selected Government Schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Alami Atabor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is on the information needs and use of library resources by special needs students in selected government schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The survey technique was employed in the study. Five schools (i.e., Kaduna State Special Education School; Government Technical College, Malali, Kaduna; Alhudahuda College Zaria; Government Secondary School, Kwali and Government Secondary School, Kuje were purposefully selected out of a total of seven. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire for two respondent groups (i.e., special needs students and teachers/librarians. A total of 5 teachers/librarians and 345 special needs students were selected for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study show that the special needs students have high needs for information on education, employment opportunities, health matter, and human rights. The major information resources in the libraries are books, magazines, newspapers, and few Braille materials. In general, special needs students have a moderate level of satisfaction with the resources in the libraries. The major issue identified by special needs students is insufficient information resources, especially in Braille. On the part of the teachers/librarians, inadequate funds for the acquisition of information resources and the employment of qualified librarians/teachers are found to be the major challenges faced by the libraries.

  8. Technical Division quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1977. [Fuel cycle research and development; special materials production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slansky, C.M. (ed.)

    1978-02-01

    Results are presented on the fluidized-bed calcination of simulated radioactive waste from the reprocessing of spent commercial nuclear fuel and on the removal of actinide elements from the waste prior to calcination. Other programs include the development of storage technology for /sup 85/Kr waste; and the behavior of volatile radionuclides during the combustion of HTGR graphite-based fuel. The long-term management of defense waste from the ICPP covers post-calcination treatment of ICPP calcined waste; the removal of actinide elements from first-cycle raffinate; the retrieval and handling of calcined waste from ICPP storage vaults; and the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on ICPP waste. Process improvements are reported on the Fluorinel headend process for Zircaloy-clad fuels and on uranium accountability measurements. Other development results cover the process for recovering spent Rover fuel, buried pipeline transfer systems, support to the Waste Management Program, Waste Calcining Facility support, New Waste Calcining Facility support, and effluent monitoring methods evaluation and development. In this category are studies on nuclear materials security, application of a liquid-solid fluidized-bed heat exchanger to the recovery of geothermal heat, inplant reactor source term measurements, burnup methods for fast breeder reactor fuels, absolute thermal fission yield measurements, analytical support to light water breeder reactor development, research on analytical methods, and the behavior of environmental species of iodine.

  9. Selection of the new position for the instrumented fuel Flip type; Seleccion de la nueva posicion para el combustible instrumentado tipo Flip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L C

    1991-12-15

    It was selected and proved the new position for the instrumented fuel, in function of the smallest influence on the temperature of the fuel due to movements of the control bars, as well as to its functionality regarding their geometric localization in the core. Therefore, it intends that the instrumented fuel Flip type, pass from the position C-9 to the C-6. It was selected the turn angle of the fuel of 180 C, for to be the one that presents a smaller influence of the control bars and it allows to register the values of temperature but high. It was as the movements of the control bars they produce local interferences of the neutron flow in the fuels and that in the case of the ring C, these interferences became maximum variations of the fuel temperature of 125 C, for operations to 1 MW in the thermal column. (Author)

  10. Mathematical modelling of sewage sludge incineration in a bubbling fluidised bed with special consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-11-01

    Fluidised bed combustor (FBC) is one of the key technologies for sewage sludge incineration. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the simulation of a large-scale sewage sludge incineration plant. The model assumes the bed consisting of a fast-gas phase, an emulsion phase and a fuel particle phase with specific consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles. The model further improves over previous works by taking into account throughflow inside the bubbles as well as the floating and random movement of the fuel particles inside the bed. Validation against both previous lab-scale experiments and operational data of a large-scale industrial plant was made. Calculation results indicate that combustion split between the bed and the freeboard can range from 60/40 to 90/10 depending on the fuel particle distribution across the bed height under the specific conditions. The bed performance is heavily affected by the variation in sludge moisture level. The response time to variation in feeding rate is different for different parameters, from 6 min for outlet H2O, 10 min for O2, to 34 min for bed temperature.

  11. Performance Assessment of Disposal of Selected U.S. Department of Energy Spent Fuel in High Integrity Cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier, JR

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the effects on long-term dose from disposing of selected U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) in high integrity cans (HICs). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating contractor (CRWMS M and O) prepared the calculation as part of Performance Assessment (PA) activities for the DOE Yucca Mountain Project. DSNF encompasses approximately 2,500 MTHM (metric tons heavy metal) consisting of over 200 fuel types that have been categorized into 11 groups, referred to as Groups 1 to 11, to facilitate their performance assessment (DOE 1999a, Sec. 5). DSNF and high level waste (HLW) have been allocated 7,000 MTHM or 10% of the 70,000 MTHM of nuclear waste scheduled for disposal at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1999a, Sec. 8.1). Of the 7,000 MTHM, 2,333 will be DSNF, or 93% of all 2,500 MTHM of DSNF, and 4,667 MTHM equivalent will be HLW (DOE 1999a, Sec. 8.1). The DOE spent fuels selected for HIC disposal are those that are poorly characterized, fragmented, or damaged, and the HIC concept is intended to provide additional protection by delaying the radionuclide release to ensure that environmental and/or regulatory standards are met

  12. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  13. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of dust at some selected fuel filling stations in Accra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrifa, C. G.

    2011-07-01

    Heavy metal contaminated dust particles of fuel filling stations can be re-suspended into the ambient air and serve as a source of atmospheric pollution since the fine particles are aerodynamic and have longer life time in ambient air. This can cause ill-health effect on the fuel attendants and residents within the neighbourhood especially infants and the aged who are more vulnerable. In spite of this, not much research has been done on heavy metal contamination of dust at fuel filling stations. In this study, 55 dust samples were collected from six fuel filling stations in the Ga-East district and Accra Metropolitan assembly, both in Accra, in order to assess the levels of contamination of heavy metals; their possible sources and the human health risk associated with them. The dust samples were divided into two parts with one part sieved into four fractions using metric mesh sizes 500 µm, 200µm, 100µm and 45 µm, and pulverised. Total concentrations of heavy metals (Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in the dust samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The pollution indices; enrichment factors (EF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) were used to identify possible levels of pollution from anthropogenic sources. The possible sources of metals were also identified with principal component analysis. Noncancer effect of children and adults due to exposure to dust from these fuel filling stations were also estimated. For the three fuelling areas, the average concentrations of V, Cr, Ni and Cu exceeded the acceptable values in common soil in the <45 µm fraction. The average concentration of Zn however exceeded the acceptable value only at the mixed-fuel fuelling area whereas the average concentration of Pb was within the acceptable value for all three fuelling areas. The dust samples showed moderate to significant enrichments for V, Cu, Br

  14. Hydrogen Oxidation-Selective Electrocatalysis by Fine Tuning of Pt Ensemble Sites to Enhance the Durability of Automotive Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Su-Won; Park, Shin-Ae; Kim, Tae-June; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Pak, Gi-Woong; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-02-08

    A simple, inexpensive approach is proposed for enhancing the durability of automotive proton exchange membrane fuel cells by selective promotion of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and suppression of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the anode in startup/shutdown events. Dodecanethiol forms a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of Pt particles, thus decreasing the number of Pt ensemble sites. Interestingly, by controlling the dodecanethiol concentration during SAM formation, the number of ensemble sites can be precisely optimized such that it is sufficient for the HOR but insufficient for the ORR. Thus, a Pt surface with an SAM of dodecanethiol clearly effects HOR-selective electrocatalysis. Clear HOR selectivity is demonstrated in unit cell tests with the actual membrane electrode assembly, as well as in an electrochemical three-electrode setup with a thin-film rotating disk electrode configuration. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Selection and use of a low enriched fuel in high performance research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1978-08-01

    A new nuclear fuel composition for research reactors (Osiris, Siloe) is studied using low enriched (E<20%) uranium oxide. Its utilization leads to modifications in the facilities of these experimental reactors: increase of primary coolant flow, modifications in failed element detection system, handling of materials and storage

  16. Accident risk-based life cycle assessment methodology for green and safe fuel selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad, Sina; Khan, Faisal; Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using the emissions produced during the entire life-cycle of a fuel or a product, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective technique widely used to estimate environmental impacts. However, most of the conventional LCA methods consider the impacts of voluntary releases such as discharged toxic

  17. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated

  18. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. An investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knave, B; Persson, H E; Goldberg, M; Westerholm, P

    1976-09-01

    Chronic solvent intoxication due to jet fuel vapor was diagnosed after tests on 29 aircraft factory workers. The exposed subjects were classified into (1) heavily exposed and (2) less heavily exposed groups. Tests included a clinical neurological examination, measurements of the peipheral nerve conduction velocities and threshold determination of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 examined in the first group and 7 of 16 in the second group stated that, on repeated occasions, they had experienced acute effects (dizziness, dyspnoea, heart palpitations, chest striction, nausea, headaches) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. Air overrepresentation of symptoms of neurasthenia and physical disturbances, polyneuropathic symptoms and plyneuropathic findings were evident from the neurological status both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups taken as a whole when comparison was made with reference groups. Moreover, relatively lower nerve conduction velocities and higher vibration thresholds were witnessed in both groups compared with a reference group from the heavy metal industry.

  19. High-Density Renewable Fuels Based on the Selective Dimerization of Pinenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    RJ-5, significant ring strain contributing to a high heat of combustion (Table 1). Bulk agricultural waste products, such as cellulose and lignin , are...compact structures and reactive olefin functionalities, these molecules have sig- nificant potential as feedstocks for high-density renewable fuels.2b,7...potential to have heating values exceeding that of JP-10. Given the favorable potential net heat of combustion for these pinene dimers, reactivity

  20. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  1. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezi, Emiliano; Leal, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) was held from 15-18 May, 2012 in Seville, Spain. The event was organized by the Universidad de Sevilla with the support of the European Workgroup on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (EWG-MCTP). MCTP2012 followed two successful meetings, one held in Ghent (Belgium) in 2006 (Reynaert 2007) and one in Cardiff (UK) in 2009 (Spezi 2010). The recurrence of these workshops together with successful events held in parallel by McGill University in Montreal (Seuntjens et al 2012), show consolidated interest from the scientific community in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning. The workshop was attended by a total of 90 participants, mainly coming from a medical physics background. A total of 48 oral presentations and 15 posters were delivered in specific scientific sessions including dosimetry, code development, imaging, modelling of photon and electron radiation transport, external beam radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, brachitherapy and hadrontherapy. A copy of the programme is available on the workshop's website (www.mctp2012.com). In this special section of Physics in Medicine and Biology we report six papers that were selected following the journal's rigorous peer review procedure. These papers actually provide a good cross section of the areas of application of MC in treatment planning that were discussed at MCTP2012. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) and Wagner et al (2013) present the results of their work in small field dosimetry. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) studied field size and detector dependent correction factors for diodes and ion chambers within a clinical 6MV photon beam generated by a Siemens linear accelerator. Their modelling work based on the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc codes and experimental measurements revealed that unshielded diodes were the best choice for small field dosimetry because of their independence from the electron beam spot size and correction factor close to unity. Wagner et al (2013

  2. The perceptions and practices of selected high school teachers in special admission schools regarding writing across the curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca Hayward

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measured the writing achievement of 55,000 American school children. The students performed at the basic or lower level. In 1988, "The Writing Report Card of the NAEP," and in 1996, the Pennsylvania Mathematics and Reading Assessment along with the Stanford 9 Exam concluded that students, of all racial/ethnic backgrounds, are unable to write well except in response to the simplest tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and practices of math, science, and social studies high school teachers in special admission schools regarding writing across the curriculum (WAC). Specifically, this study attempted to answer: (1) Do math, science, and social studies teachers differ in their perceptions and practices regarding student writing in their classrooms? (2) Are teacher characteristics related to the perceptions and practices of math, science, and social studies teachers regarding the need for student writing in their classrooms? The questions led to the following null hypotheses: (1) There is no significant difference among math, science, and social studies teachers regarding their perceptions and practices for student writing in their classrooms. (2) There is no significant relationship between the highest degree earned, the length of teaching experience, and the level of grades taught by math, science, and social studies teachers and their perceptions and practices regarding the need for student writing in their classrooms. A review of the literature since 1992 using ERIC and Dissertation Abstracts revealed that there were no studies concerned with the focus of this particular study. A cross sectional survey of School District of Philadelphia math, science, and social studies high school teachers in special admission schools was conducted. A questionnaire was developed to obtain the data. A panel of experts was selected to establish validity of the instrument. Thirty-two usable

  3. Federal Republic of Germany R and D programme: A special issue of the journal radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the issues of radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. Topics considered include the challenges of waste handling and disposal, the borosilicate glass for Pamela, the treatment and conditioning of transuranelement bearing wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany, conditioning of low and intermediate level wastes, volume reduction of low level solid radioactive waste by incineration and compaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, MAW test emplacement in boreholes, treatment and disposal of special radioactive wastes comprising tritium, carbon 14, krypton 85 and iodine 129, and the German Project: ''Safety Studies for Nuclear Waste Management: Development of Safety Assessment Methodology for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste in a Salt Dome

  4. 9/11 and Canadian Special Operations Forces: How 40 Selected Men Indelibly Influenced the Future of the Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Terrorism strategy/plan and an unresolved dialogue surrounding special operations aviation (SO Avn ) deficiencies are but two specific examples of...Regiment-like sister unit (the Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR)) is created, an expanded SO Avn capability is formed (427 Special Operations...an adequate SO Avn Squadron under command, maturing CJIRU and CSOR sister units and lately a small but effective SOF training organization.127

  5. Selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds for the production of low sulfur transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Joo-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Kwon [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The current technologies for achieving low sulfur in diesel fuel are based on hydrotreating, which requires high temperature, high pressure and excessive supply of hydrogen. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) is considered one of the promising new methods for super deep desulfurization, which could be carried out under very mild conditions (atmospheric pressure, <100 .deg.. C) without consumption of hydrogen. In this paper, development status of ODS process by major licensors are described as well as general concepts of ODS reaction. In addition, the ODS process has been categorized into single phasic and biphasic system according to the oxidants involved. Recent trends in both systems are reviewed in detail and future work is also proposed.

  6. Selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds for the production of low sulfur transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Joo-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The current technologies for achieving low sulfur in diesel fuel are based on hydrotreating, which requires high temperature, high pressure and excessive supply of hydrogen. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) is considered one of the promising new methods for super deep desulfurization, which could be carried out under very mild conditions (atmospheric pressure, <100 .deg.. C) without consumption of hydrogen. In this paper, development status of ODS process by major licensors are described as well as general concepts of ODS reaction. In addition, the ODS process has been categorized into single phasic and biphasic system according to the oxidants involved. Recent trends in both systems are reviewed in detail and future work is also proposed

  7. Specializing on vulnerable habitat: Acropora selectivity among damselfish recruits and the risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Coral reef habitats are increasingly being degraded and destroyed by a range of disturbances, most notably climate-induced coral bleaching. Habitat specialists, particularly those associated with susceptible coral species, are clearly among the most vulnerable to population decline or extinction. However, the degree of specialization on coral microhabitats is still unclear for one of the most ubiquitous, abundant and well studied of coral reef fish families—the damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Using high taxonomic resolution surveys of microhabitat use and availability, this study provides the first species-level description of patterns of Acropora selectivity among recruits of 10 damselfish species in order to determine their vulnerability to habitat degradation. In addition, surveys of the bleaching susceptibility of 16 branching coral species revealed which preferred recruitment microhabitats are at highest risk of decline as a result of chronic coral bleaching. Four species (i.e., Chrysiptera parasema, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Chromis retrofasciata) were identified as highly vulnerable because they used only branching hard corals as recruitment habitat and primarily associated with only 2-4 coral species. The bleaching surveys revealed that five species of Acropora were highly susceptible to bleaching, with more than 50% of colonies either severely bleached or already dead. These highly susceptible corals included two of the preferred microhabitats of the specialist C. parasema and represented a significant proportion of its total recruitment microhabitat. In contrast, highly susceptible corals were rarely used by another specialist, P. moluccensis, suggesting that this species faces a lower risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss compared to C. parasema. As degradation to coral reef habitats continues, specialists will increasingly be forced to use alternative recruitment microhabitats, and this is likely to reduce population

  8. Selective conversion of butane into liquid hydrocarbon fuels on alkane metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Szeto, Kaï Chung; Hardou, Lucie; Merle, Nicolas; Basset, Jean-Marie; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean; Papaioannou, Charalambos; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    We report a selective direct conversion of n-butane into higher molecular weight alkanes (C 5+) by alkane metathesis reaction catalysed by silica-alumina supported tungsten or tantalum hydrides at moderate temperature and pressure. The product

  9. Effect of biofilm and selective mixed culture on microbial fuel cell for the treatment of tempeh industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbianti, Rita; Surya Utami, Tania; Leondo, Vifki; Elisabeth; Andyah Putri, Syafira; Hermansyah, Heri

    2018-03-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) provides a new alternative in the treatment of organic waste. MFC produces 50-90% less sludge to be disposed than other methods. MFC technology can utilize existing microorganisms in the waste as a catalyst to generate electricity and simultaneously also serves as a wastewater treatment unit itself. Tempeh wastewater is one of the abundant industrial wastewater which can be processed using MFC. Research using the selective mixed culture is very likely to do due to the good result on COD removals by adding mixed culture. Microorganisms in tempeh wastewater consist of bacteria gram positive and gram negative. This study focused on the aspects of waste treatment which is determined by decreased levels of COD and BOD. Variations in this study are the formation time of biofilm and the addition of selective gram. MFC operated for 50 hours. For a variation of biofilm formation, experiments were performed after incubation by replacing incubation substrates used in the formation of biofilms. Biofilm formation time in this study was 3 days, 5 days, 7 days and 14 days. Gram positive and gram negative bacteria were used in selective mixed culture experiments. Selective mixed culture added to the reactor by 1 mL and 5 mL. Selection of gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria carried by growing mixed culture on selective media. COD and BOD levels were measured in the wastewater before and after the experiment conducted in each variation. Biofilm formation optimum time is 7 days which decrease COD and BOD levels by 18.2% and 35.9%. The addition of gram negative bacteria decreases COD and BOD levels by 29.32% and 51.32%. Further research is needed in order to get a better result on decreasing levels of COD and BOD.

  10. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  12. SHAPE SELECTIVE NANO-CATALYSTS: TOWARD DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2010-06-16

    A series of bimetallic core-shell-alloy type Au-Pt nanomaterials with various morphologies, aspect ratios and compositions, were produced in a heterogenous epitaxial fashion. Gold nanoparticles with well-controlled particle size and shape, e.g. spheres, rods and cubes, were used as 'seeds' for platinum growth in the presence of a mild reducing agent, ascorbic acid and a cationic surfactant cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactions take place in air and water, and are quick, economical and amenable for scaling up. The synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Nafion membranes were embedded with the Au-Pt nanomaterials and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their potential in direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  13. Quench gas and preamplifier selection influence on {sup 3}He tube performance for spent fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henziova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard [Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Current {sup 3}He tubes utilized in neutron coincidence counting use different quench gas admixtures to shorten the avalanche process. In addition amplifier modules with different shaping characteristics are used to process detector signals. Both of these aspects affect the detector response. In the current paper, {sup 3}He tubes with several quench gas admixtures (CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar+CH{sub 4} and CF{sub 4}) and amplifier modules (PDT, AMPTEK, BOT) are compared. The plateau characteristics, gamma-sensitivity and deadtime of individual counters in combination with the listed amplifier modules are compared to determine optimum amplifier module/counter performance for the spent fuel applications.

  14. Report of special study meeting on 'Atomic energy research aiming at consistent nuclear fuel cycle', fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, Kojiro; Nishihara, Hideaki; Mishima, Kaichiro

    1994-12-01

    This meeting was held on March 4, 1993. Since the first power generation with the JPDR and the initial criticality of the KUR, 30 years, and since the initial criticality of the KUCA, 20 years have elapsed. The researchers in universities have contributed greatly to the research and education of atomic energy, but the perspective of leading the world hereafter in this field is very uncertain. This study meeting was held to seek the way to make the proper contribution. In the meeting, lectures were given on Japanese policy on nuclear fuel cycle, the present state of the upstream research and the downstream research in Japan, the experimental plan in NUCEF, the present state of the researches on TRU decay heat data and TRU nucleus data, the present state of the experimental researches at KUCA and at FCA, the present state of the research on the heat removal from high conversion LWRs and the KUR, the present state of the research on radioactive waste treatment, and the present state of TRU chemical research. The record of the holding of this study meeting is added. (K.I.)

  15. Selective conversion of butane into liquid hydrocarbon fuels on alkane metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Szeto, Kaï Chung

    2012-01-01

    We report a selective direct conversion of n-butane into higher molecular weight alkanes (C 5+) by alkane metathesis reaction catalysed by silica-alumina supported tungsten or tantalum hydrides at moderate temperature and pressure. The product is unprecedented, asymmetrically distributed towards heavier alkanes. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 06: selection criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Confidence in decisionmaking can often come from knowing if others in similar circumstances would choose the same management strategy. Researchers at the USDA FS Pacific Northwest Research Station and the University of Saskatchewan have developed a Selection Criteria Analysis for answering this very question. This fact sheet discusses factors affecting the choice of...

  17. Experiences of risk in connection with site selection for a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, A.; Dahlstrand, U.

    1991-03-01

    Describes an investigation of the experiences of risks the the Swedish inhabitants have in connection with site selection for a repository for radioactive waste. The attitudes show a rather complicated picture. It is influenced by such factors as: sex, education and distance to the facility. (KAE)

  18. HTGR fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, L.H.; Heath, C.A.; Shefcik, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The following aspects of HTGR reprocessing technology are discussed: characteristics of HTGR fuels, criteria for a fuel reprocessing flowsheet; selection of a reference reprocessing flowsheet, and waste treatment

  19. A geographic information system and multi criteria analysis method for site selection of spent nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Vivian Borges

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims to develop a site selection methodology for the construction of final repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal, by using geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making processes of this kind are often complex, given the great number of space parameters to consider and also the typically conflicting opinions of the diverse stake holders. By using GIS, data from different space parameters can be quickly and reliably stored, treated and analyzed. Multi-criteria techniques allow for the incorporation of different stake holders' opinions. These tools, when jointly used, allow for the decision process to be more transparent, quick and reliable. The method developed was applied to the particular case of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Weights obtained from an expert panel and also by using the Hierarchical Analysis Method and cartographic data were combined in the GIS. The application showed that it is possible not only to select and classify areas as to their aptness for the proposed objective, but also to exclude those clearly inadequate areas, thus optimizing the selection process by reducing the search space and consequently minimizing costs and the time spent in the search. (author)

  20. Simultaneous selection of soil electroactive bacterial communities associated to anode and cathode in a two-chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Bacci, Giovanni; Fani, Renato; Mocali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Different bacteria have evolved strategies to transfer electrons over their cell surface to (or from) their extracellular environment. This electron transfer enables the use of these bacteria in bioelectrochemical systems (BES) such as Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). In MFC research the biological reactions at the cathode have long been a secondary point of interest. However, bacterial biocathodes in MFCs represent a potential advantage compared to traditional cathodes, for both their low costs and their low impact on the environment. The main challenge in biocathode set-up is represented by the selection of a bacterial community able to efficiently accept electrons from the electrode, starting from an environmental matrix. In this work, a constant voltage was supplied on a two-chamber MFC filled up with soil over three weeks in order to simultaneously select an electron donor bacterial biomass on the anode and an electron acceptor biomass on the cathode, starting from the same soil. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was performed to characterize the bacterial community of the initial soil, in the anode, in the cathode and in the control chamber not supplied with any voltage. Results highlighted that both the MFC conditions and the voltage supply affected the soil bacterial communities, providing a selection of different bacterial groups preferentially associated to the anode (Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Clostridia) and to the cathode (Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria). These results confirmed that several electroactive bacteria are naturally present within a top soil and, moreover, different soil bacterial genera could provide different electrical properties.

  1. A cost-benefit analysis of alternatively fueled buses with special considerations for V2G technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Yosef; Carr, Edward; Knapp, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by climate, health and economic considerations, alternatively-fueled bus fleets have emerged worldwide. Two popular alternatives are compressed natural gas (CNG) and electric vehicles. The latter provides the opportunity to generate revenue through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services if properly equipped. This analysis conducts a robust accounting of the costs of diesel, CNG and battery-electric powertrains for school buses. Both marginal and fleet-wide scenarios are explored. Results indicate that the marginal addition of neither a small CNG nor a small V2G-enabled electric bus is cost effective at current prices. Contrary to previous findings, a small V2G-enabled electric bus increases net present costs by $7,200/seat relative to diesel for a Philadelphia, PA school district. A small CNG bus increases costs by $1,200/seat relative to diesel. This analysis is the first to quantify and include the economic implications of cold temperature extremes on electric vehicle battery operations, and the lower V2G revenues that result. Additional costs and limitations imposed by electric vehicles performing V2G are frequently overlooked in the literature and are explored here. If a variety of technical, legal, and economic challenges are overcome, a future eBus may be economical. - Highlights: • We present a robust cost-benefit analysis of various bus technologies. • Diesel is a low-cost technology at current prices. • CNG represents slightly higher costs on a marginal bus basis. • V2G-enabled electric buses are not cost-effective at current prices. • We identify frequently overlooked costs and challenges to V2G implementation.

  2. Selection of critical group in relation to the release of radionuclides from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In respect of internal radiation due to the coastal release of radionuclides, survey on marine food consumption is most useful for the selection of critical group. Species of marine organisms they usually eat is fully over 100 in the coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture where the fuel reprocessing plant is located. Though it gives only a spot datum, one day's consumption survey a season is of convenience to obtain cooperation from housewives and is of use to pick up critical organisms and those who eat much of them. However, long-term survey is required to estimate ordinary intake of the critical foods or those who are supposed critical people. One day's consumption survey makes it easy to perform the subsequent long-term one

  3. Selection of dissolution process for spent fuels and preparation of corrosion test solution simulated to dissolver (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Terakado, Shogo; Koya, Toshio; Hamada, Shozo; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-03-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of reprocessing equipment materials used in the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, we have proceeded a mock-up test and laboratory tests for getting corrosion parameters. In a dissolver made of zirconium, the simulation of test solutions to the practical solution which includes the high concentration of radioactive elements such as FP and TRU is one of the important issues with respect to the life prediction. On this experiment, the dissolution process of spent fuels and the preparation of test solution for evaluating the corrosion resistance of dissolver materials were selected. These processes were tested in the No.3 cell of WASTEF. The test solution for corrosion tests was prepared by adjusting the uranium and nitric acid concentrations. (author)

  4. Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzi, Elisa [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy); Verdolini, Elena, E-mail: elena.verdolini@feem.it [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy); Universita Cattolica, del Sacro Cuore di Milano (Italy); Hascic, Ivan [OECD Environment Directorate (France)

    2011-11-15

    This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: > We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. > Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. > We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. > Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. > Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

  5. Biomedical and environmental aspects of the thorium fuel cycle: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Cone, M.V.; Meyer, H.R.; Till, J.E.

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography was compiled to assist in the evaluation of the health and environmental consequences of high specific activity thorium and related nuclides which could be released to the environment by activities related to the Thorium Fuel Cycle. The general scope covers studies regarding potential releases, environmental transport, metabolism, dosimetry, dose assessment, and overall risk assessment for radionuclides specific to the NASAP project. This publication of 740 abstracted references highlights the biological and medical aspects of thorium 228 and thorium 232 in man and animals. Similar studies on related nuclides such as radium 224, radium 226, radium 228, and thorium 230 are also emphasized. Additional categories relevant to these radionuclides are included as follows: chemical analysis; ecological aspects; energy; geological aspects; instrumentation; legal and political aspects; monitoring, measurement and analysis; physical aspects; production; radiation safety and control; and waste disposal and management. Environmental assessment and sources categories were used for entries which contain a multiple use of categories. Leading authors appear alphabetically within each category. Indexes are provided for : author(s), geographic location, keywords, title, and publication description. The bibliography contains literature dating from December 1925 to February 1978

  6. Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzi, Elisa; Verdolini, Elena; Hascic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: → We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. → Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. → We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. → Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. → Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

  7. Biomedical and environmental aspects of the thorium fuel cycle: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Cone, M.V.; Meyer, H.R.; Till, J.E.

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography was compiled to assist in the evaluation of the health and environmental consequences of high specific activity thorium and related nuclides which could be released to the environment by activities related to the Thorium Fuel Cycle. The general scope covers studies regarding potential releases, environmental transport, metabolism, dosimetry, dose assessment, and overall risk assessment for radionuclides specific to the NASAP project. This publication of 740 abstracted references highlights the biological and medical aspects of thorium 228 and thorium 232 in man and animals. Similar studies on related nuclides such as radium 224, radium 226, radium 228, and thorium 230 are also emphasized. Additional categories relevant to these radionuclides are included as follows: chemical analysis; ecological aspects; energy; geological aspects; instrumentation; legal and political aspects; monitoring, measurement and analysis; physical aspects; production; radiation safety and control; and waste disposal and management. Environmental assessment and sources categories were used for entries which contain a multiple use of categories. Leading authors appear alphabetically within each category. Indexes are provided for : author(s), geographic location, keywords, title, and publication description. The bibliography contains literature dating from December 1925 to February 1978.

  8. Geological site selection studies for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, M.; Vuorela, P.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    1985-10-01

    In the work of selecting at the areas, heed has been taken of international geological recommendations, which have been adapted to local conditions prevailing in this country. At the present stage, the studies are largely based on the available information about the bedrock of Finland, as contained in, for example, geological maps, various geophysical maps covering the country as a whole and the maps of ore deposits and indications as well as of groundwater areas. The regional investigations of the structure of the Finnish bedrock has taken as its point of departure the study of satellite photos. These pictures best show the mosaiclike block structure of the Finnish bedrock, where the fracture zones surrounding the blocks are involved in the movements of the bedrock resulting mainly from land uplift. From the interpretation of satellite photos, attention has switched over to the interpretation of large-scale maps and stereoscopic aerial photographs. The investigation areas selected by the interpretation of aerial photos have also been studied tentatively on the ground to obtain a more accurate comparative estimation of the different localities. Of the areas chosen for study, the majority consist of granites, which best meet the geological site selection recommendations. The investigation areas have been classified into four categories according to how well they are suited to further study. One important criterion in the classification has been the amount of information obtainable from the bedrock. The areas included in the first category have well exposed and solid bedrock. The areas chosen for inclusion in the second category contain fewer outcrops and are not so easy to study with respect to the structure of the bedrock. The areas included in the third category are generally blanketed under surficial deposits with the result that obtaining reliable information about the bedrock calls for further investigation. The fourth category represents areas where features

  9. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  10. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel; Evaluacion Analitica de 4 Metodos de Determinacion de PAHs medianteHPLC en un Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-05-21

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  11. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. 25-year retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Repository 2 (NWTSR2), in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. In the base conceptual design the spent fuel is to be stored in a retrievable mode for 5 years. This report presents the results of a separate study on 25-year retrievability with open storage rooms. Drawings prepared for 25-year retrievability are only those which differ from the companion 5-year retrievability drawings which comprise Volume II of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). NWTSR2 capital facilities originally were to be constructed in phases. Phase I was to include those facilities required for the first 5 years of operation, which were hypothesized to be from 1985 through 1990; Phase II was to include facilities required from 1991 until the capacity of the 2000-acre mine was reached. These dates are used as the basis for conceptual design and for Special Study No. 1 but do not represent actual schedule dates for the repository. The terms Phase I and Phase II are used throughout the drawings and test, so they need to be understood. However, it is not now intended to phase the capital construction because of the relatively small effort represented by Phase II surface construction. An optional future expansion of the mine, Phase III, would add 1000 acres on the end of the mine opposite the shaft pillar. The optional Phase III expansion would commence operation upon completion of Phase II operations. The drawings and design comparisons for Phase III mine operations appear only in this report

  12. Selective identification of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators from their biosynthetic double di-oxygenation isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Trond V; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N

    The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases. During inflammatory processes, these enzymes form several distinct families of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids coined specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Structural elucidation of these natural products using LC-MS/MS based metabololipidomics with the pico- to nanogram amounts of biosynthetic material available have been performed. The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators display stereospecific and potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. Most often the different families among these mediators are chemically characterized by two or three chiral, secondary alcohols, separated by either an E,E,Z -triene or an E,Z,E,E -tetraenemoiety. The lipoxygenases also form other oxygenated polyunsaturated natural products, coined double di-oxygenation products, that are constitutional isomers of the protectin and maresin families of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Very often these products exhibit similar chromatographic properties and mass spectrometrical fragment ions as the pro-resolving mediators. In addition, the double di-oxygenation products are sometimes formed in larger amounts than the specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Thus, it is not always possible to distinguish between the specialized pro-resolving mediators and their double di-oxygenation isomers in biological systems, using LC/MS-based techniques. Herein, a convenient and easy-to-use protocol to meet this challenge is presented.

  13. FLUCTUATING SELECTION AND THE MAINTENANCE OF INDIVIDUAL AND SEX-SPECIFIC DIET SPECIALIZATION IN FREE-LIVING OYSTERCATCHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Brouwer, Lyanne; Ens, B; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Candolin, U.

    Fluctuating and disruptive selection are important mechanisms for maintaining intrapopulation trait variation. Nonetheless, few field studies quantify selection pressures over long periods and identify what causes them to fluctuate. Diet specialists in oystercatchers differ in short-term payoffs

  14. Microalgal Species Selection for Biodiesel Production Based on Fuel Properties Derived from Fatty Acid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurun Nabi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and species selection through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles were used to calculate the likely key chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel [cetane number (CN, iodine value (IV, cold filter plugging point, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value] of nine microalgal species (this study and twelve species from the literature, selected for their suitability for cultivation in subtropical climates. An equal-parameter weighted (PROMETHEE-GAIA ranked Nannochloropsis oculata, Extubocellulus sp. and Biddulphia sp. highest; the only species meeting the EN14214 and ASTM D6751-02 biodiesel standards, except for the double bond limit in the EN14214. Chlorella vulgaris outranked N. oculata when the twelve microalgae were included. Culture growth phase (stationary and, to a lesser extent, nutrient provision affected CN and IV values of N. oculata due to lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents. Application of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA weighting to saturation led to a lower ranking of species exceeding the double bond EN14214 thresholds. In summary, CN, IV, C18:3 and double bond limits were the strongest drivers in equal biodiesel parameter-weighted PROMETHEE analysis.

  15. Physical fitness testing of students did not specialized departments in the selection and admission to the department of military-sports-round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryanovaty A.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress of military-sports-round trends are considered. Influence of informing tests is rotined on a selection and put in the separation of military-sports-round. 180 (n = 180 students of the not special faculties took part in research. On results testing 18 students which rotined the level of preparedness above average were selected. 72 students were yet selected with a low level, 54 - below the average and to 36 middle. The optimum distributing has testing and it is counted on two days. It is set that the selection of these tests helps to define the level of physical preparedness of students and take away physically geared-up for future fruitful work. Directions and examples of planning of educational training process are rotined for achievement of certain results.

  16. Combustion, performance, and selective catalytic reduction of NOx for a diesel engine operated with combined tri fuel (H_2, CH_4, and conventional diesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jrai, Ahmad M.; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.; Hasan, Ahmad O.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of tri fuel (ULSD, H_2, and CH_4) operation under real exhaust gas conditions with different gaseous fuel compositions on the combustion characteristics, engine emissions, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) after treatment was examined at low, medium, and high engine loads. Pt/Al_2O_3-SCR reactor was used and operated at different exhaust gas temperatures. Results revealed that at low load, the two gaseous fuels (H_2 and CH_4) have the same trend on combustion proccess, where both reduce the in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. At the high engine load there was a considerable influence appeared as an increase of the premixed combustion phase and a significant decrease of the total combustion duration. In terms of emissions, it was observed that at high engine load, fuels with high CH_4 content tend to reduce NOx formation, whereas, fuels with high H_2 content tend to reduce PM formation, moreover, combustion of tri fuel with 50:50 fuel mixture resulted in lower BSFC compared to the other ratios and hence, the best engine efficiency. The hydrocarbon-SCR catalyst has shown satisfactory performance in NOx reduction under real diesel exhaust gas in a temperature window of 180–280 °C for all engine loads. - Highlights: • Effect of tri fuel (ULSD, H_2, CH_4) on combustion and engine emissions was examined. • Fuel with high CH_4 content (H50-M50 and H25-M75) tend to reduce NOx formation. • Fuel with high H_2 content (H75-M25 and H50-M50) tend to reduce PM formation. • Increasing the percentage of H_2 in the feed gas improved the NO_x reduction. • The hydrocarbon-SCR catalyst has shown satisfactory performance in NO_x reduction.

  17. From algae to diesel and kerosene. Tailored fuels via selective catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C.; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    A new route to convert crude microalgae oils using ZrO{sub 2} promoted Ni catalysts into diesel-range alkanes in a cascade reaction is presented. Ni nanoparticles catalyze the selective cleavage of C-O of fatty acid esters leading to the hydrogenolysis of triglycerides. Hydrogenation of the resulting fatty acids to aldehydes (rate determining step) is uniquely catalyzed via two parallel pathways, one via aldehyde formation on metallic Ni and the second via a synergistic action by Ni and ZrO{sub 2} through adsorbing the carboxylic groups at the oxygen vacancies of ZrO{sub 2} to form carboxylates and subsequently abstracting {alpha}-hydrogen atom to produce ketene, which is in turn hydrogenated to aldehydes and decarbonylated on Ni nanoparticles. (orig.)

  18. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  19. Feasibility studies on selected bioenergy concepts producing electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. IEA Bioenergy, Techno-economic analysis activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Podesser, E. [Joanneum Research (Austria); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc. (Canada); Overend, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Techno-Economic Analysis Activity reported here, had the following objectives: To assist companies working with technologies and products related to bioenergy applications in their efforts to demonstrate these; To promote bioenergy technologies, processes and applications; To build and maintain a network for R and D organisations and industry. The objectives were pursued 1995 - 1997 through carrying out site-specific prefeasibility studies in participating countries. Both electricity and liquid fuel applications were studied, utilising gasification, pyrolysis, and combustion technologies. Studies were carried out in collaboration with companies developing new products or services from participating countries (Austria, Canada, Finland, and the United States of America) in the bioenergy field. Cases are: Austria: Power production at a district heating station, Stirling-engine driven by unclean boiler flue gases, 50 kWe; Canada - Bio-oil production for a boiler power plant, Fast pyrolysis of sawmill wastes and bark, 11 MWe; Finland: Co-generation of power and heat at a pulp and paper mill, Pressurised integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) using bark and wood, 34 MWe; Sweden: Bio-oil production for heating fuel, Fast pyrolysis of forest residues, 20 000 t/a; USA - Case 1: Co-firing in a coal boiler, Combustion of plantation willow, 15 MWe; USA - Case 2: Condensing power production, Pressurised IGCC using alfalfa stems, 75 MWe All of the cases studied are at different stages of development. Results from these case studies are reported together with technical uncertainties and future development needs, which are required for all the systems. In general, the results showed that for most of the cases studied economic conditions are possible, through existing subsidies or tax incentives, for feasible industrial operation. Specially designed Stirling engines have a short amortisation time integrated to biomass district heating plants in Austria

  20. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterward undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. 44 refs., 3 figs

  1. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterwards undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows some trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. (author)

  2. Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2006-03-10

    In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential

  3. Selective conversion of methane to synthetic fuels using dielectric barrier discharge contacting liquid film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Goujard, Valentin; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Moriyama, Shota; Okazaki, Ken [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 1528552 (Japan); Agiral, Anil, E-mail: tnozaki@mech.titech.ac.jp [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the reaction mechanism of single-step methane partial oxidation to methanol at room temperature using non-thermal plasma microreactor. Macroscopic quantities of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and methyl hydroperoxide (CH{sub 3}OOH) are produced when methane is partially oxidized at room temperature (about 5 {sup 0}C). CH{sub 3}OOH is known to be the principle intermediate of incomplete methane oxidation product such as CH{sub 3}OH and HCHO, but has not been demonstrated experimentally so far. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} promotes post-plasma oxidation of oxygenates in the condensed plasma-synthesized liquid. At an early stage of in-liquid oxidation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidizes HCHO into HCOOH preferentially; subsequently, HCOOH is fully oxidized to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Depending upon the concentration of oxygenates and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, electrical conductivity of the plasma solution dramatically increased, which detrimentally influences plasma properties. Methane partial oxidation with air was also investigated from a practical viewpoint. Generation of active nitrogen species (ANS) is the key to promoting overall methane conversion in the presence of oxygen; however, fragile oxygenates were also decomposed by ANS, thus selectivity for useful oxygenates was degraded in the presence of nitrogen. When oxygen is fully consumed, CH{sub 4} conversion is also terminated and water gas shift reaction (CO + H{sub 2}O = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}) becomes predominant.

  4. Black-chinned hummingbird nest-site selection and nest survival in response to fuel reduction in a southwestern riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread efforts to avert wildfire by reducing the density of flammable vegetation, little is known about the effects of this practice on the reproductive biology of forest birds. We examined nest-site selection and nest survival of the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) in New Mexico riparian forests treated or not for fuel...

  5. Relation of fuel rod service parameters and design requirements to produced fuel rod and their components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the presented material it is possible to state that there is a very close link between the fuel operational parameters and the requirements for its design and production process. The required performance and life-time of a fuel rod can be only assured by the correctly selected design and process solutions. The economical aspect of this problem is significantly depend on the commercial feasibility of a particular selected solution with the provision of an automated and comparative by inexpensive production of a fuel rod and its components. The operational conditions are also important for the life time of the fuel rods. If there are no special measures for the mitigation of the certain operation conditions the leakage of fuel elements can take place before the planned time. (authors)

  6. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel; Metodo Optimizado de Extraccion por Ultrasonidos para la Determinacion de PAHs Seleccionados en un Suelo Contaminado con Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-10-21

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  7. Using a rainforest-flame forest mosaic to test the hypothesis that leaf and litter fuel flammability is under natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter J; Prior, Lynda D; French, Ben J; Vincent, Ben; Knox, Kirsten J E; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-12-01

    We used a mosaic of infrequently burnt temperate rainforest and adjacent, frequently burnt eucalypt forests in temperate eastern Australia to test whether: (1) there were differences in flammability of fresh and dried foliage amongst congeners from contrasting habitats, (2) habitat flammability was related to regeneration strategy, (3) litter fuels were more flammable in frequently burnt forests, (4) the severity of a recent fire influenced the flammability of litter (as this would suggest fire feedbacks), and (5) microclimate contributed to differences in fire hazard amongst habitats. Leaf-level comparisons were made among 11 congeneric pairs from rainforest and eucalypt forests. Leaf-level ignitability, combustibility and sustainability were not consistently higher for taxa from frequently burnt eucalypt forests, nor were they higher for species with fire-driven recruitment. The bulk density of litter-bed fuels strongly influenced flammability, but eucalypt forest litter was not less dense than rainforest litter. Ignitability, combustibility and flame sustainability of community surface fuels (litter) were compared using fuel arrays with standardized fuel mass and moisture content. Forests previously burned at high fire severity did not have consistently higher litter flammability than those burned at lower severity or long unburned. Thus, contrary to the Mutch hypothesis, there was no evidence of higher flammability of litter fuels or leaves from frequently burnt eucalypt forests compared with infrequently burnt rainforests. We suggest the manifest pyrogenicity of eucalypt forests is not due to natural selection for more flammable foliage, but better explained by differences in crown openness and associated microclimatic differences.

  8. The environmental factors to be considered in the site selection studies of the spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, Timo

    1985-10-01

    The ojective of the work has been to elucidate environmental factors, which could have an influence on the selection of areas. The factors were identified and their significance evaluated by going through the present plan for the final disposal of spent fuel. Population density and transport conditions were the most important factors. Protected areas, groundwater reservoirs and restrictions presented in regional land-use plans were also noted. The potential areas have been identified by the Geological Survey of Finland. First 327 large bedrock blocks were identified. The extent of the block areas was between 100-200 km 2 . The environmental factors of these areas were mapped and the areas were classified. The study was based on maps, published regional plans and inventory of groundwater reservoirs. The Geological Survey of Finland selected 162 block areas for preliminary characterization and geological classification. 61 block areas were chosen for further geological studies. By interpretation of aerial photographs and field reconnaissance trip the Geological Survey identified 134 potential investigation areas. A large block area typically contained two possible investigation areas. The extent of these areas varied between 5-10 km 2 . The environmental factors of 134 possible investigation areas were studied in detail. Due to the classification made earlier, the areas were typically sparsely populated forest areas. In the detailed study the main emphasis was but on evaluation of population density, transport and inventory of land ownership. The land-ownership is important for practical reasons. Land-owner's permission is needed for the operations in the field. Areas were classified separately according to population density, transport and land-ownership. In classification the most suitable areas were uninhabited regions with few landowners and locating close (less than 10 km) to the railroad. Only a minority of the areas fell in this category with the requirement

  9. Evaluation study of an ion selective field effect transistor electrode for measuring quality parameters of fuel ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano B.; Sobral, Sidney P.; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Goncalves, Mary A., E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia(INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Metrologia Quimica

    2013-01-15

    An ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) electrode was evaluated for measuring pH and acid number (AN) of fuel ethanol and compared to two glass electrodes with different reference filling solutions: KCl aqueous solution (glass-KCl electrode)and LiCl ethanolic solution (glass-LiCl electrode). pH was determined at different measurement times and AN was determined using automatic potentiometric titration. For pH, the glass-KCl electrode showed the best precision and stability, with an average repeatability about four times better when compared to the ISFET electrode for the measurement time of 30 s (as indicated in the ASTM D6423 standard). For AN, the glass-KCl and glass-LiCl electrodes showed similar repeatabilities, which were about three times better than that of the ISFET electrode. In addition, the results from a recovery study demonstrated better accuracy of the glass-LiCl electrode, with a recovery value of 100.1% (author)

  10. Bio fuels in the framework of law of the World Trade Organization under special consideration of their ecologically relevant properties; Biokraftstoffe im Rechtsregime der WTO unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung ihrer umweltrelevanten Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    The increasing world market for bio fuels urgently needs a framework of law which regulates the conflict potentials of the cultivation of energy plant. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the trade with bio fuels in the World Trade Organization and discusses the legal negotiability of sustainability criteria for the production of bio fuel. Apart from the creation of a specific duty nomenclature for the new product line, straight in the agrarian sector the regulations of the world trade law for national subsidies are to be considered. With bio fuels from non-ecologic production, the contract texts permit import-controlling and marketing-adjusting measures to the World Trade Organization while the extraterritorial employment of the genetic engineering only is limited controllable by according to commercial law instruments. The mutual obligations of some members of the World Trade Organization also can play a role in the public procurement department if bio fuels become the criterion with the national placing of orders. For developing countries, the World Trade Organization law plans some special arrangements which facilitate their participation in the bio fuel trade. The contribution under consideration is addressed to lawyers, decision makers and advisors in politics and authority practice.

  11. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  12. Decree of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission No. 191/1989 on procedures, terms and conditions for examining special professional qualification and competence of selected nuclear facility personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The procedures, terms and conditions for examining special professional competence of selected nuclear facility personnel are specified, including conditions for professional training and for issuing licenses qualifying the personnel for their work. Nuclear safety-related jobs at nuclear facilities are listed. Professional licenses with a two-year term of validity are granted by the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Agency (CSAEC) to candidates who have passed examination before the State Examination Commission. Personnel training may only be performed by bodies authorized for that by the CSAEC. The Decree entered into force on 1 January 1990. (J.B.)

  13. Scientific issues in fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current limits on discharge burnup in today's nuclear power stations have proven the fuel to be very reliable in its performance, with a negligibly small rate of failure. However, for reasons of economy, there are moves to increase the fuel enrichment in order to extend both the cycle time and the discharge burnup. But, longer periods of irradiation cause increased microstructural changes in the fuel and cladding, implying a larger degradation of physical and mechanical properties. This degradation may well limit the plant life, hence the NSC concluded that it is of importance to develop a predictive capability of fuel behaviour at extended burnup. This can only be achieved through an improved understanding of the basic underlying phenomena of fuel behaviour. The Task Force on Scientific Issues Related to Fuel Behaviour of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee has identified the most important scientific issues on the subject and has assigned priorities. Modelling aspects are listed in Appendix A and discussed in Part II. In addition, quality assurance process for performing and evaluating new integral experiments is considered of special importance. Main activities on fuel behaviour modelling, as carried out in OECD Member countries and international organisations, are listed in Part III. The aim is to identify common interests, to establish current coverage of selected issues, and to avoid any duplication of efforts between international agencies. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  14. Impact of fuel selection on the environmental performance of post-combustion calcium looping applied to a cement plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Tokheim, Lars Andre; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Worrell, Ernst; Ramírez, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Calcium looping CO2 capture is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production. Coal has been seen as a logical choice of fuel to drive the calcium looping process as coal is already the primary fuel used to produce cement. This study assesses the impact of using different

  15. PREFACE: Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Xavier; Sánchez, Àlvar; López-López, Josep

    2012-10-01

    The development of superconducting applications and superconducting engineering requires the support of consistent tools which can provide models for obtaining a good understanding of the behaviour of the systems and predict novel features. These models aim to compute the behaviour of the superconducting systems, design superconducting devices and systems, and understand and test the behavior of the superconducting parts. 50 years ago, in 1962, Charles Bean provided the superconducting community with a model efficient enough to allow the computation of the response of a superconductor to external magnetic fields and currents flowing through in an understandable way: the so called critical-state model. Since then, in addition to the pioneering critical-state approach, other tools have been devised for designing operative superconducting systems, allowing integration of the superconducting design in nearly standard electromagnetic computer-aided design systems by modelling the superconducting parts with consideration of time-dependent processes. In April 2012, Barcelona hosted the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), the third in a series of workshops started in Lausanne in 2010 and followed by Cambridge in 2011. The workshop reflected the state-of-the-art and the new initiatives of HTS modelling, considering mathematical, physical and technological aspects within a wide and interdisciplinary scope. Superconductor Science and Technology is now publishing a selection of papers from the workshop which have been selected for their high quality. The selection comprises seven papers covering mathematical, physical and technological topics which contribute to an improvement in the development of procedures, understanding of phenomena and development of applications. We hope that they provide a perspective on the relevance and growth that the modelling of HTS superconductors has achieved in the past 25 years.

  16. Influence of FGR complexity modelling on the practical results in gas pressure calculation of selected fuel elements from Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, M.

    2001-01-01

    A modernization fuel system and advanced fuel for operation up to the high burnup are used in present time in Dukovany NPP. Reloading of the cores are evaluated using computer codes for thermomechanical behavior of the most loaded fuel rods. The paper presents results of parametric calculations performed by the NRI Rez integral code PIN, version 2000 (PIN2k) to assess influence of fission gas release modelling complexity on achieved results. The representative Dukovany NPP fuel rod irradiation history data are used and two cases of fuel parameter variables (soft and hard) are chosen for the comparison. Involved FGR models where the GASREL diffusion model developed in the NRI Rez plc and standard Weisman model that is recommended in the previous version of the PIN integral code. FGR calculation by PIN2k with GASREL model represents more realistic results than standard Weisman's model. Results for linear power, fuel centre temperature, FGR and gas pressure versus burnup are given for two fuel rods

  17. A cost-effective microbial fuel cell to detect and select for photosynthetic electrogenic activity in algae and cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luimstra, V.M.; Kennedy, S.J.; Güttler, J.; Wood, S.A.; Williams, D.E.; Packer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of an easily constructed, cost-effective photosynthetic microbial fuel cell design with highly reproducible electrochemical characteristics that can be used to screen algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthetic electrogenic activity. It is especially suitable for

  18. Process for the conversion of and aqueous biomass hydrolyzate into fuels or chemicals by the selective removal of fermentation inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.; Sluiter, Amie D.; Hayward, Tammy K.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    2004-05-18

    A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.

  19. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  20. Fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  1. Feasibility study of passive gamma spectrometry of molten core material from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2, and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy - low-volatile FP and special nuclear material inventory analysis and fundamental characteristics of gamma-rays from fuel debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    The technologies applied to the analysis of the Three Mile Island accident were examined in a feasibility study of gamma spectrometry of molten core material from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2, and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy. The focus is on low-volatile fission products and heavy metal inventory analysis, and the fundamental characteristics of gamma-rays from fuel debris with respect to passive measurements. The inventory ratios of the low-volatile lanthanides, "1"5"4Eu and "1"4"4Ce, to special nuclear materials were evaluated by the entire core inventories in units 1, 2, and 3 with an estimated uncertainty of 9%-13% at the 1σ level for homogenized molten fuel material. The uncertainty is expected to be larger locally owing to the use of the irradiation cycle averaging approach. The ratios were also evaluated as a function of burnup for specific fuel debris with an estimated uncertainty of 13%-25% at the 1σ level for units 1 and 2, and most of the fuels in unit 3, although the uncertainty regarding the separated mixed oxide fuel in unit 3 would be significantly higher owing to the burnup dependence approach. Source photon spectra were also examined and cooling-time-dependent data sets were prepared. The fundamental characteristics of high-energy gamma-rays from fuel debris were investigated by a bare-sphere model transport calculation. Mass attenuation coefficients of fuel debris were evaluated to be insensitive to its possible composition in a high-energy region. The leakage photon ratio was evaluated using a variety of parameters, and a significant impact was confirmed for a certain size of fuel debris. Its correlation was summarized with respect to the leakage photopeak ratio of source "1"5"4Eu. Finally, a preliminary study using a hypothetical canister model of fuel debris based on the experience at Three Mile Island was presented, and future plans were introduced. (author)

  2. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  3. Elements of nuclear reactor fueling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with a review of the simple batch size effect, a more general theory of nuclear fueling is derived to describe the behavior and physical requirements of operating cycle sequences and fueling strategies having practical use in the management of nuclear fuel. The generalized theory, based on linear reactivity modeling, is analytical and represents the effects of multiple-stream, multiple-depletion-batch fueling configurations in systems employing arbitrary, non-integer batch size strategies, and containing fuel with variable energy generation rates. Reactor operating cycles and cycle sequences are represented with realistic structure that includes the effects of variable cycle energy production, cycle lengths, end-of-cycle operating extensions and maneuvering allowances. Results of the analytical theory are first applied to the special case of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences, yielding several fundamental principles related to the selection of refueling strategy, and which govern fueling decisions normally made by the fuel manager. It is also demonstrated in this application that the simple batch size effect is not valid for non-integer fueling strategies, even in the simplest sequence configurations, and that it systematically underestimates the fueling requirements of degenerate sequences in general

  4. An update on the use of natalizumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: appropriate patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornek B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Kornek Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Abstract: In the context of an increasing repertoire of multiple sclerosis (MS therapeutics, choosing the appropriate treatment for an individual patient is becoming increasingly challenging. Natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against alpha4beta1 integrin, has proven short-term and long-term efficacies in terms of relapse rate reduction, prevention of disability progression, and reduction of magnetic resonance imaging-detectable activity. It is well tolerated and has further been shown to improve patients’ quality of life. Its use is limited by the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, which occurs at an overall incidence of 3.78 cases per 1,000 patients. Three major risk factors for the occurrence of natalizumab-associated PML have been identified: John Cunningham virus (JCV seropositivity, prior use of immunosuppressants, and treatment duration ≥2 years. Therefore, in patients considered for natalizumab therapy, as well as in patients receiving natalizumab, effective control of MS activity has to be balanced against the risk of an opportunistic central nervous system infection associated with a high risk of significant morbidity or death. Discontinuation of natalizumab is an issue in daily clinical practice, since it is an option to reduce the PML risk. However, after cessation of natalizumab therapy, currently, there is no approved strategy for avoiding postnatalizumab disease reactivation available. In this paper, short-term and long-term safety and efficacy data are reviewed. Issues in daily clinical practice, such as selection of patients, monitoring of patients, and natalizumab discontinuation, are discussed. Keywords: safety, long-term outcome, pediatric multiple sclerosis, adherence, PML, treatment discontinuation 

  5. Mechanical properties examined by nanoindentation for selected phases relevant to the development of monolithic uranium-molybdenum metallic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Ryan; Park, Youngjoo; Mehta, Abhishek [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32826 (United States); Keiser, Dennis [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, 83402 (United States); Sohn, Yongho, E-mail: Yongho.Sohn@ucf.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32826 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Nanomechanical properties, specifically the reduced modulus and hardness of several intermetallic and solid solution phases are reported to assist the development of the U-10 wt% Mo (U-10Mo) monolithic fuel system for research and test reactors. Findings from this study and reported values of mechanical properties provide data critical for understanding and predicting the structural behavior of the fuel system during fabrication and irradiation. The phases examined are products of interdiffusion and reaction between (1) the AA6061 cladding and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely (Al,Si){sub 3}Zr and Al{sub 3}Zr, (2) the U-10Mo fuel and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely UZr{sub 2}, Mo{sub 2}Zr, and α-U, and (3) the U (or U-10Mo) and Mo, namely a mixture gradient of α- and γ-phases. The UC inclusions observed within the fuel alloy were also examined. Only phases present in thick or continuous microstructure on cross-sectioned fuel plates and diffusion couples were investigated for reduced modulus and hardness. Concentration-dependence of room-temperature reduced modulus in U solid solution with 0–10 wt% Mo was semi-quantitatively modeled based on mixture of α- and γ-phases and solid solutioning within the γ-phase.

  6. Mechanical properties examined by nanoindentation for selected phases relevant to the development of monolithic uranium-molybdenum metallic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ryan; Park, Youngjoo; Mehta, Abhishek; Keiser, Dennis; Sohn, Yongho

    2017-04-01

    Nanomechanical properties, specifically the reduced modulus and hardness of several intermetallic and solid solution phases are reported to assist the development of the U-10 wt% Mo (U-10Mo) monolithic fuel system for research and test reactors. Findings from this study and reported values of mechanical properties provide data critical for understanding and predicting the structural behavior of the fuel system during fabrication and irradiation. The phases examined are products of interdiffusion and reaction between (1) the AA6061 cladding and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely (Al,Si)3Zr and Al3Zr, (2) the U-10Mo fuel and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely UZr2, Mo2Zr, and α-U, and (3) the U (or U-10Mo) and Mo, namely a mixture gradient of α- and γ-phases. The UC inclusions observed within the fuel alloy were also examined. Only phases present in thick or continuous microstructure on cross-sectioned fuel plates and diffusion couples were investigated for reduced modulus and hardness. Concentration-dependence of room-temperature reduced modulus in U solid solution with 0-10 wt% Mo was semi-quantitatively modeled based on mixture of α- and γ-phases and solid solutioning within the γ-phase.

  7. An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i distributed generation system; (ii combined heat and power system; and (iii availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy. This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy.

  8. Lead Isotopic Compositions of Selected Coals, Pb/Zn Ores and Fuels in China and the Application for Source Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-Yang; Li, Zhong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Rui; Liu, Jin-Ling; Yang, Hong-Mei; Guo, Ming-Zhi

    2017-11-21

    Lead (Pb) pollution emission from China is becoming a potential worldwide threat. Pb isotopic composition analysis is a useful tool to accurately trace the Pb sources of aerosols in atmosphere. In this study, a comprehensive data set of Pb isotopes for coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels from China was presented. The ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in the coals were in the range of 1.114-1.383 and 1.791-2.317, similar to those from Europe, Oceania, and South Asia, but different from those from America (p fuels from in coals. Urban aerosols demonstrated similar Pb isotopic compositions to coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels in China. After removing the leaded gasoline, the Pb in aerosols is more radiogenic, supporting the heavy contribution of coal combustion to the atmospheric Pb pollution.

  9. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2009 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high - level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment - specific laboratory experiments, in - situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site - specific characterization . The current sixth period beyond 2010 represents a new effort to set waste management policy in the United States. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project , the tabulation also shows the interaction between the policy realm and technical realm using four broad categories of events : (a) Regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives, (c) technical milestones of implementing institutions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste. Preface The historical progression of technical milestones for the Yucca Mountain Project was originally developed for 10 journal articles in a special issue of Reliability Engineering System Safety on the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain license

  10. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  11. Selecting the sharpest tools to explore the food-feed-fuel debate: Sustainability assessment of family farmers producing food, feed and fuel in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florin, M.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Ven, van de G.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing interest in sustainable biofuel production is linked with sustainable farming and begs for insights from farming systems research on sustainability assessment and the role of family farms. The aims of this work were two-fold. First, to present a tools and methods selection framework

  12. Environmental, Economic, and Scalability Considerations and Trends of Selected Fuel Economy-Enhancing Biomass-Derived Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Systems; Biddy, Mary [National; Jones, Susanne [Energy; Cai, Hao [Systems; Benavides, Pahola Thathiana [Systems; Markham, Jennifer [National; Tao, Ling [National; Tan, Eric [National; Kinchin, Christopher [National; Davis, Ryan [National; Dutta, Abhijit [National; Bearden, Mark [Energy; Clayton, Christopher [Energy; Phillips, Steven [Energy; Rappé, Kenneth [Energy; Lamers, Patrick [Bioenergy

    2017-10-30

    24 biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, that could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall, bio-blendstock yields in biochemical processes were lower than in thermochemical processes, in which all biomass, including lignin, is converted to a product. Bio-blendstock yields were a key determinant in overall viability. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock as compared to a chemical. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blendability of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost fuel economy can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... methane to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, ethylene, methanol, and so on. ... Therefore, active and selective catalyst design is a big challenge in the field of ..... by nonlinear dependence of selective and non-selective elementary stages of ... uidized bed reactors should work at gas velocities higher than experim.

  14. A comparison of radiation doses and risks between spent fuel transport/storage and selected non-nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel transport and storage have achieved an exemplary safety record over four decades within both the United States (US) and the global community at large. This paper offers an assessment demonstrating the safety of spent fuel transport and storage packagings relative to currently accepted but unregulated non-nuclear activities and practices within society. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel transport and storage packaging test programmes have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has used this information to develop projected worst-case, low probability population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses potential population exposures from these packagings based on analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) events, including missile attacks, and then defines and defends an acceptance criterion for the bounding outcomes of these events, based upon current accepted activities within society that produce high radiation doses to the general public. These activities involve unregulated technologies and practices within society that yield population doses significantly exceeding those that would result from such hypothetical and highly improbable events as a terrorist missile attack on a spent fuel transport or storage packaging. In particular, technologically enhanced natural radiation (TENR) exposures from building materials, farming, and masonry construction are highlighted. Recent landmark work by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) are cited in support of this assessment, along with work from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). From this compelling evidence, it is concluded that spent fuel transport and storage represent a low

  15. Ion-Exchange-Induced Selective Etching for the Synthesis of Amino-Functionalized Hollow Mesoporous Silica for Elevated-High-Temperature Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jian; Lu, Shanfu; Zhu, Haijin; Aili, David; De Marco, Roland; Xiang, Yan; Forsyth, Maria; Li, Qingfeng; Jiang, San Ping

    2017-09-20

    As differentiated from conventional synthetic processes, amino-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica (NH 2 -HMS) has been synthesized using a new and facile strategy of ion-exchange-induced selective etching of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH 2 -meso-silica) by an alkaline solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and in situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveal that ion-exchange-induced selective etching arises from the gradient distribution of OH - in the NH 2 -meso-silica nanospheres. Moreover, the ion-exchange-induced selective etching mechanism is verified through a successful synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica. After infiltration with phosphotungstic acid (PWA), PWA-NH 2 -HMS nanoparticles are dispersed in the poly(ether sulfone)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PES-PVP) matrix, forming a hybrid PWA-NH 2 -HMS/PES-PVP nanocomposite membrane. The resultant nanocomposite membrane with an optimum loading of 10 wt % of PWA-NH 2 -HMS showed an enhanced proton conductivity of 0.175 S cm -1 and peak power density of 420 mW cm -2 at 180 °C under anhydrous conditions. Excellent durability of the hybrid composite membrane fuel cell has been demonstrated at 200 °C. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of the facile synthetic strategy in the fabrication of NH 2 -HMS with controlled mesoporous structure for application in nanocomposite membranes as a technology platform for elevated-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  16. The selection and performance of the natural zeolite clinoptilolite in British Nuclear Fuels' site ion exchange effluent plant, SIXEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, S.G.; Berghauser, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    SIXEP has been conducted by British Nuclear Fuels plc at its Sellafield reprocessing site as part of its committment to reduce radioactive discharges to the Irish Sea. An extensive development program identified the natural ion exchange mineral clinoptilolite, from a particular deposit in California now owned by Tenneco Specialty Minerals, as the most suitable for use in SIXEP to extract caesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel storage pond water. Close cooperation with the supplier in a Quality Assurance scheme ensured the supply of a fully-characterised, high grade ion exchanger. Since SIXEP commenced treating pond water on 28 May 1985, the plant has performed well, exceeding the design expectation in terms of discharge reduction and availability

  17. Evaluation Tests of Select Fuel Additives for Potential Use in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Feasibility of Using Biodiesel Additives.” The technical monitor was Dr. Todd Bridges (CEERD- EM-D). The work was performed by the Coastal Engineering...analysis, quality assurance and control, and reporting was managed by Southern Research Institute’s Advanced Energy and Transportation Technologies...candidate conditions. The calculations were based on BTU contents found on the GREET Transportation Fuel Cycle Analyses Model (Argone National

  18. Fabrication of Fast Reactor Fuel Pins for Test Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsten, G. [Institute for Applied Reactor Physics, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Dippel, T. [Institute for Radiochemistry, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Laue, H. J. [Institute for Applied Reactor Physics, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1967-09-15

    An extended irradiation programme is being carried out for the fuel element development of the Karlsruhe fast breeder project. A very important task within the programme is the testing of plutonium-containing fuel pins in a fast-reactor environment. This paper deals with fabrication of such pins by our laboratories at Karlsruhe. For the fast reactor test positions at present envisaged a fuel with 15% plutonium and the uranium fully enriched is appropriate. Hie mixed oxide is both pelletized and vibro-compacted with smeared densities between 80 and 88% theoretical. The pin design is, for example, such that there are two gas plena at the top and bottom, and one blanket above the fuel with the fuel zone fitting to the test reactor core length. The specifications both for fuel and cladding have been adapted to the special purpose of a fast-breeder reactor - the outer dimensions, the choice of cladding and fuel types, the data used and the kind of tests outline the targets of the development. The fuel fabrication is described in detail, and also the powder line used for vibro-compaction. The source materials for the fuel are oxalate PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} from the UF{sub 6} process. The special problems of mechanical mixing and of plutonium homogeneity have been studied. The development of the sintering technique and grain characteristics for vibratory compactive fuel had to overcome serious problems in order to reach 82-83% theoretical. The performance of the pin fabrication needed a major effort in welding, manufacturing of fits and decontamination of the pin surfaces. This was a stimulation for the development of some very subtle control techniques, for example taking clear X-ray photographs and the tube testing. In general the selection of tests was a special task of the production routine. In conclusion the fabrication of the pins resulted in valuable experiences for the further development of fast reactor fuel elements. (author)

  19. Overview of P.I.E. techniques for L.W.R. fuels at Saclay hot cells with special emphasis on new apparatus and on mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Hardy, J.L.; Trotabas, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art in the Saclay hot cells for examining L.W.R. fuels. First, we present the classical path followed by a fuel rod in the laboratory, to begin with non-destructive testing. This is completed by destructive examinations, such as free volume determination and fission gases analyses, density measurement and metallographies including X-rays diffraction and microprobe (EPMA/WDX). These two last techniques enable the identification of elements and chemical nature of compounds which are present. We also perform mechanical tests on metallic components, on clads and guide-tubes (tensile tests, creep, burst or fatigue tests by internal pressure). Another apparatus is devoted to the study of irradiated clad behaviour during LOCA-type transients. In the second chapter, a particular emphasis is given to the developments in progress, or planned in the near future. This includes: (a) The implementation of a new non-destructive testing bench to inspect more fuel rods simultaneously. (b) A new image analyzer to be applied e.g. to hydrides analysis in the clad, or to the inspection of safety test fuel bundles. (c) As for mechanical testing, we describe here the tensile tests on clads or on guide-tubes, performed on longitudinal samples or ring samples

  20. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, B.; Sen, R.S.; Pope, M.A.; Ougouag, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO 2 kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 (micro)mm kernel diameter, 100 (micro)mm buffer, 35 (micro)mm IPyC, 35 (micro)mm SiC, 40 (micro)mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10 -2 failure probability. For a 'best-estimate' FGR fraction of 50

  1. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  2. Modelling of thermal mechanical behaviour of high burn-Up VVER fuel at power transients with special emphasis on the impact of fission gas induced swelling of fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.; Medvedev, A.; Khvostov, G.; Bogatyr, S.; Kuzetsov, V.; Korystin, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the modelling of unsteady state mechanical and thermo-physical behaviour of high burn-up VVER fuel at a power ramp. The contribution of the processes related to the kinetics of fission gas to the consequences of pellet-clad mechanical interaction is analysed by the example of integral VVER-440 rod 9 from the R7 experimental series, with a pellet burn-up in the active part at around 60 MWd/kgU. This fuel rod incurred ramp testing with a ramp value ΔW 1 ∼ 250 W/cm in the MIR research reactor. The experimentally revealed residual deformation of the clad by 30-40 microns in the 'hottest' portion of the rod, reaching a maximum linear power of up to 430 W/cm, is numerically justified on the basis of accounting for the unsteady state swelling and additional degradation of fuel thermal conductivity due to temperature-induced formation and development of gaseous porosity within the grains and on the grain boundaries. The good prediction capability of the START-3 code, coupled with the advanced model of fission gas related processes, with regard to the important mechanical (residual deformation of clad, pellet-clad gap size, central hole filling), thermal physical (fission gas release) and micro-structural (profiles of intra-granular concentration of the retained fission gas and fuel porosity across a pellet) consequences of the R7 test is shown. (authors)

  3. IMPACTT5A model : enhancements and modifications since December 1994 with special reference to the effect of tripled-fuel-economy vehicles on fuel-cycle energy and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Version 5A of the Integrated Market Penetration and Anticipated Cost of Transportation Technologies (IMPACIT5A) model is a spreadsheet-based set of algorithms that calculates the effects of advanced-technology vehicles on baseline fuel use and emi...

  4. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail

  5. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements.

  6. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements

  7. The promise of a specially-designed graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose as selective sorbent for heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Hisham A; Mohamed, Magdy F; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Hanan S

    2017-10-01

    A specially-designed graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto in-situ formed cellulose-fulvate hybrid showed privileged tendency for uptake of Pb(II) during competitive removal from a mixture containing Cd(II) and Ni(II) within 5min at pH 5. This novel trend is attributed mainly to the crowded high content of coordinating centers within the designed graft copolymer along with the acquired superabsorbency. This provides an outstanding tool to separate some metal ions selectively from mixtures containing multiple ions on kinetic basis. Thus, the designed graft copolymer structure exhibited superior efficiency that reached ∼95% for sole removal of Pb(II). Kinetic modeling for Pb(II) individual removal showed excellent fitting with a pseudo second-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model on the other hand ensured governance of boundary layer effect over diffusion during the removal process due to the superabsorbency feature of the graft copolymer. The experimental findings were described with models such as Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The Langmuir and Freundlich models showed convenience with the adsorption isotherm of Pb(II) onto the developed graft copolymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  9. A Decision Support System (DSS) to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mousaei; Mohammad Ali Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG) in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) is int...

  10. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primio, J.C. di.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of sectoral CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO 2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO 2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

  11. Equivalent Selection in Specialized e-Lexicography: A Case Study with Spanish Accounting Terms Ekwivalent-seleksie in gespesialiseerde e-leksikografie: 'n Gevallestudie met Spaanse rekeningkundige terme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Interest in specialized lexicography has been propelled both by the development of LSP communication in academic circles and by the consolidation of function-based approaches to lexicography that have identified the existence of several user types, e.g., experts, semi-experts and interested laypersons, and use situations, typically cognitive-oriented and communicative-oriented (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish equivalents in a particular dictionary project: the Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, one of the Accounting dictionaries. This dictionary aims to satisfy the needs of translators (primary user group, accountants and financial experts (secondary user group, as well as students of accountancy and translation, journalists, and interested laypersons (tertiary user group. It addresses the issue as a lexicographical problem and makes comments on the decisions taken by elaborating on three lexicographical principles that take into consideration the nature of lexicography, the technical options the Internet offers, and the defining characteristics of specialized discourse: relevance, proscription and recreation.

    Belangstelling in gespesialiseerde leksikografie is aangevuur deur sowel die ontwikkeling van TSD-kommunikasie in akademiese kringe as die konsolidasie van funksie-gebaseerde benaderings tot leksikografie. Laasgenoemde benadering het die bestaan van verskeie gebruikerstipes, bv. kundiges, semi-kundiges en geïnteresseerde leke, en gebruiksituasies, tipies kognitief-georiënteerde en kommunikatief-goriënteerde situasies, geïdentifiseer (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. Hierdie artikel volg hierdie ontwikkelings na en wei uit oor die seleksie van Spaanse ekwivalente in 'n spesifieke woordeboekprojek: die Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, 'n

  12. Biomonitoring of human population exposed to petroleum fuels with special consideration of the role of benzene as a genotoxic component. Report of the EC Environment programme. Project EV5V-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carere, A; Crebelli, R [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1997-12-01

    In the framework of an EC research programme on the health risks of environmental chemicals, the Istituto Superiore di Sanita` co-ordinated, in 1993-1996, a project on the biological effects of benzene and petroleum fuels. Seven laboratories from six European countries collaborated in the biological monitoring of selected population with occupational exposure to petrochemicals. Several markers of early biological effect were applied together with environmental and personal exposure monitoring techniques. An epidemiological retrospective mortality study was also carried out on Italian filling station attendants. The results obtained highlighted an excess of genetic damage in some of the study populations, compared to matched unexposed controls. Even though these results do not allow a reliable risk estimation, the possible prognostic significance of cytogenetic damage for future cancer onset, together with some alerting findings from the mortality study, suggest that low dose exposures to benzene and petroleum fuels may retain some toxicological significance.

  13. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  14. Spent-fuel special-studies progress report: probable mechanisms for oxidation and dissolution of single-crystal UO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.

    1981-03-01

    Due to the complexity of the structural, microstructural and compositional characteristics of spent fuel, basic leaching and dissolution mechanisms were studied with UO 2 matrix material, specifically with single-crystal UO 2 , to isolate individual contributory factors. The effects of oxidation and oxidation-dissolution were investigated in different oxidation conditions, such as in air, oxygenated solutions and deionized water containing H 2 O 2 . In addition, the effects of temperature on dissolution of UO 2 were studied in autoclaves at 75 and 150 0 C. Also, oxidation and dissolution measurements were investigated via electrochemical methods to determine if those techniques could be applied to the characterization of leaching and dissolution of spent fuel in a hot cell. Finally, the effects of radiation were explored since the radiolysis of water may create a localized oxidizing condition at or near the spent fuel-solution interface, even in neutral or reducing conditions as commonly found in deep geological environments. The oxidation and oxidation-dissolution mechanisms for UO 2 are proposed as follows: The UO 2 surface is first oxidized in solution to form a UO/sub 2+x/ surface layer several angstroms thick. This oxidized surface has a high dissolution rate since the UO/sub 2+x/ reacts with the dissolved O 2 , or H 2 O 2 , to form uranyl complex ions in a U(VI) state. As the uranyl ions exceed the solubility limits in solution, they become hydrolyzed to form solid deposits and suspended particles of UO 3 hydrates. The thickness and porosity of the deposited UO 3 hydrate surface-film is dependent on temperature, pH and deposition time. A long-term dissolution rate is then determined by the nature of the surface film, such as porosity, solubility and mechanical properties

  15. Mineral production and mining trends for selected non-fuel commodities in Idaho and Montana, 1905-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeremy C.; Long, Keith R.; Assmus, Kenneth C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Idaho and Montana state mining statistics were obtained from historical mineral production records and compiled into a continuous record from 1905 through 2001. To facilitate comparisons, the mineral production data were normalized by converting the units of measure to metric tons for all included commodities. These standardized statistical data include production rates for principal non-fuel mineral commodities from both Idaho and Montana, as well as the production rates of similar commodities for the U.S. and the world for contrast. Data are presented here in both tabular and bar chart format. Moreover, the tables of standardized mineral production data are also provided in digital format as, commodity_production.xls. Some significant historical events pertaining to the mining industry are described as well. When taken into account with the historical production data, this combined information may to help explain both specific fluctuations and general tendencies in the overall trends in the rates of mineral resource production over time.

  16. Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100 degree C. 52 refs., 9 figs

  17. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3

  18. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  19. A method for selection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation route considering socioeconomic cost based on contingent valuation method (CVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2008-02-01

    A transportation of SNF may cause an additional radiation exposure to human beings. It means that the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for the public who live near the shipments route. Before the SNF transportation is performed, the route selection is concluded based on the radiological risk estimated with RADTRAN code in existing method generally. It means the existing method for route selection is based only on the radiological health risk but there are not only the impacts related to the radiological health risk but also the socioeconomic impacts related to the cost. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection on transporting SNF is proposed based on cost estimation because there are several costs in transporting SNF. The total cost consists of radiological health cost, transportation cost, and socioeconomic cost. Each cost is defined properly to the characteristics of SNF transportation and many coefficients and variables describing the meaning of each cost are obtained or estimated through many surveys. Especially to get the socioeconomic cost, contingent valuation method (CVM) is used with a questionnaire. The socioeconomic cost estimation is the most important part of the total cost originated from transporting SNF because it is a very dominant cost in the total cost. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be supported with the proposed method reasonably and unnecessary or exhausting controversies about the shipments could be avoided

  20. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2006-01-01

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality now matched

  1. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2006-09-15

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality

  2. The fission products palladium and rhodium: Their state in solutions, their behavior in the regeneration of fuel of atomic power stations, and the search for selective extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arseenkov, L.V.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Lunichkina, K.P.; Renard, E.V.; Rogozhkin, V.Yu.; Shorokhov, N.A.

    1992-01-01

    At the present time many research centers are working on the extraction of noble metals in the form of fission fragments. Consistent data has been obtained on the mass accumulation of noble metals in various forms of processed nuclear fuel. Requirements are noted that must be met for obtaining industrial and economic efficiency in the extraction of noble metals by the Purex process. Presently there is a lack of information on the extraction of noble metals from spent fuel, particularly as far as the nitric acid media of the Purex process are concerned. The authors will discuss individual test observations on simulating systems and real systems with noble metals. The investigations focused on the noble metals of lowest radioactivity, namely palladium and rhodium. The complexity of the chemistry of ruthenium, on the one hand, and the possible selective, clearing distillation of ruthenium tetroxide from nitric acid solutions, on the other hand, make it necessary to focus the attention on the unresolved problems of the extraction of palladium and rhodium. The article further includes discussion on the following topics: noble metals in solutions of purex process, electrochemical operations involving noble metals, extraction systems for rhodium and palladium, separation of palladium from real solutions

  3. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  4. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  5. Sobol's sensitivity analysis for a fuel cell stack assembly model with the aid of structure-selection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Cho, Chongdu; Piao, Changhao; Choi, Hojoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for identifying the main parameters affecting the stress distribution of the components used in assembly modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. This method is a combination of an approximation model and Sobol's method, which allows a fast global sensitivity analysis for a set of uncertain parameters using only a limited number of calculations. Seven major parameters, i.e., Young's modulus of the end plate and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), the contact stiffness between the MEA and bipolar plate (BPP), the X and Y positions of the bolts, the pressure of each bolt, and the thickness of the end plate, are investigated regarding their effect on four metrics, i.e., the maximum stresses of the MEA, BPP, and end plate, and the stress distribution percentage of the MEA. The analysis reveals the individual effects of each parameter and its interactions with the other parameters. The results show that the X position of a bolt has a major influence on the maximum stresses of the BPP and end plate, whereas the thickness of the end plate has the strongest effect on both the maximum stress and the stress distribution percentage of the MEA.

  6. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Guang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ye, Feiyan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Jing, E-mail: cejingxiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: cezhli@scut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Haihui [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was developed for selective adsorption of DBTs under UV irradiation. • Remarkable adsorption uptake and selectivity were achieved for deep desulfurization. • Introduction of TiO{sub 2} into SiO{sub 2} enhanced its adsorption for DBTO{sub 2}. • Adsorption mechanism using TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV irradiation was elucidated. - Abstract: This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV-irradiation. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO{sub 2}/0.7SiO{sub 2} adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO{sub 2} served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO{sub 2} acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO{sub 2} as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO{sub 2}/0.7SiO{sub 2} adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions.

  7. Investigation of special resins for the extraction-chromatogaphic separation of Np and Pu from the process stream of a reprocessing plant for HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G

    1977-03-15

    The effectiveness of several special resins for extraction chromatographic separation of plutonium and neptunium from the process streams of a reprocessing plant was investigated. These special resins consisted of polystyrol and were loaded with Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) during the polymerization process. A commercial structural body of polytrifluormonochlorethylene (Voltalef), subsequently wetted with TOA, served as reference material. Despite its good separation characteristics, this separation body has considerable disadvantages. The individual particles of separation body are only approximately spherical, the homogeneity of the separation bed is consequently only moderate. This size (85% less than 0.062 mm) and the shape of the separation body particles cause high pressure loss in the solution which streams through. Filling the column with the Voltalef separation body is very complicated and often not reproducible. A relatively high elution rate of the stationary phase and low radiation resistance are other disadvantages of this separation body. Because of the unfavorable characteristics of the Voltalef separation body, the above mentioned polystyrol resins have been developed by the Bayer firm. The individual separation body particles of these resins have ideal spherical shape. The diameter of the spheres is 0.4 to 0.6 mm, causing only slight pressure losses in a chromatographic column. A homogeneous and compact column fill is much simpler to achieve with these resins than with Voltalef. Radiation resistance and elution rate of the polystyrol resins correspond to the expectations which must be met during hot operation. The separation characteristics of the investigated polystyrol resins are not optimum, however. The relatively large separation body particles considerably delay the establishment of equilibrium, for two reasons. The rate-determining step during loading is diffusion through an aqueous film, which surrounds the separation body particles.

  8. Solid state protonic conductors II for fuel cells and sensors. Proceedings of the European workshop on solid state materials for low to medium temperature fuel cells and monitors, with special emphasis on proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, J B; Jensen, J; Kleitz, M [eds.

    1983-01-01

    Solid electrolytes for chemical sensing, energy storage and conversion have been actively researched and developed since the early sixties. The zirconia fuel-cell electrolyser, the sodium-sulphur rechargeable battery, the oxygen sensor and lithium batteries can all be cited as significant developments from the field. Although of great potential the solid protonic conductors have somehow been ignored by comparison to the great interest that has been shown in, e.g., the lithium conductors. The long absence of any good, stable protonic conductors could easily explain this. The presence of water in the protonic conductors eliminates the possibility of high-temperature preparation and hence of conventional ceramic processing. Since solid electrolytes are used as dense ceramic membranes, difficulties with the fabrication of protonic electrilytes has been a strong disincentive. However, techniques have been developed for fabricating dense composite membranes; these contain free, but immobilized water that is lost at relatively low temperatures. Framework hydrates hold their water to higher temperatures. Although low-temperature ion-exchange preparations are possible, they yield weak ceramics. Nevertheless, their support on strong substrates, as reported in this conference, may provide an alternate way forward. A second workshop was organised on this theme at Hindsgavl Castle, Denmark, 1982. The aim was to compare the progress made in laboratories in Denmark, France and U.K. and also to review present and and future applications of fuel cells in a broader sense. Thirty scientists and representatives from the Commission of the European Communities, European Space Agency and the Daish Ministry of Energy participated. The proceedings cover all the papers of the workshop and the main comments and suggestions proposed during the discussions.

  9. Identifying emerging trends for implementing learning technology in special education: a state-of-the-art review of selected articles published in 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Wu, No-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2013-10-01

    As electronic learning (e-learning) becomes increasingly popular in education worldwide, learning technology (LT) has been applied in various learning environments and activities to promote meaningful, efficient, and effective learning. LT has also been adopted by researchers and teacher-practitioners in the field of special education, but as yet little review-based research has been published. This review research thus carefully examined the trends of LT implementations in special education, providing a comprehensive analysis of 26 studies published in indexed journals in the past five years (2008-2012). Two research questions were addressed: (a) What are the major research aims, methodologies, and outcomes in these studies of implementing LT in the field of special education? and (b) What types of LT are mainly used with special education students, and for what kinds of students? Major findings include that examining the learning effectiveness of LT using was the most common research purpose (75%); researchers primarily relied on experimental studies (46%, 12 studies), followed by interviews and questionnaires (19%, 5 studies). Moreover, the most common use of LT was computer-assisted technology (such as web-based mentoring, educational computer games, laptop computers) in special education; studies investigating the use of LT with mentally disabled students were more than those with physically disabled ones. It is expected that the findings of this work and their implications will serve as valuable references with regard to the use of LT with special education students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selection of concepts for monitored retrievable storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The monitored retrievable storage (MRS) concepts considered are: metal cask (stationary and transportable); concrete cask (sealed storage cask); concrete cask-in-trench; field drywell; tunnel drywell; open cycle vault; closed cycle vault; and tunnel rack vault. These concepts were compared primarily upon the relative performance of the storage units on seven criteria which together encompass the key considerations for selecting an MRS concept, namely their ability to satisfy the MRS mission requirements. These criteria were: safety and licensing; environmental impacts; socioeconomic impacts; siting requirements; cost; concept maturity; and flexibility. Evaluations of the candidate concepts indicate that all of the concepts could satisfactorily serve in an MRS facility. However, using the above criteria, the two concepts selected for further design studies are the concrete cask (primary concept), better entitled the sealed storage cask, and the field drywell (alternate concept). It was recognized that the transportable metal storage cask may be used to supplement at-reactor storage until such time as the repository or MRS becomes available. Consequently, a hybrid storage facility may be required (e.g., one using concrete casks or field drywells, with the capability of receiving and storing the transportable cask). Both the concrete cask and the field drywell concepts can easily accommodate the transportable cask. Further design efforts will ensure the compatibility of the MRS designs with the transportable cask

  11. A perfect fuel supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasvirta, R.

    2008-01-01

    WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

  12. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  13. Fuel loads and fuel type mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Riaño, David; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Morsdof, Felix; Chuvieco, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    Correct description of fuel properties is critical to improve fire danger assessment and fire behaviour modeling, since they guide both fire ignition and fire propagation. This chapter deals with properties of fuel that can be considered static in short periods of time: biomass loads, plant geometry, compactness, etc. Mapping these properties require a detail knowledge of vegetation vertical and horizontal structure. Several systems to classify the great diversity of vegetation characteristics in few fuel types are described, as well as methods for mapping them with special emphasis on those based on remote sensing images.

  14. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  15. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P.

    2014-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2008 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment-specific laboratory experiments, in-situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site-specific characterization. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project, the tabulation also shows the interaction between four broad categories of political bodies and government agencies/institutions: (a) technical milestones of the implementing institutions, (b) development of the regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives and decisions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste.

  16. Biological impacts of alcohol fuel emission on selected pollinator, predatory and nutrient-cycling insects and arachnids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Eliscu, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral effects of methanol, ethanol, indolene, and formaldehyde emissions on selected arthropods are related to different relative organismic activities, metabolic rates, and respiratory demands. Various species of important pollinators, predators, and nutrient-cycling insects and arachnids respond differently to tailpipe and elevated levels of emissions. A gradient of responses is related to metabolism and trophic niche. Orders tested included various Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola, Thysanura, Araneae, Acarina, and Opiliones. Responses included narcosis, spatial disorientation, cardiac arrhythmia, flight muscle and walking leg dysfunction, decreased feeding efficiency and prey capture success ratios, and increased positive thigmotaxis. Tolerance appears to be inversely related to oxygen demand of the arthropods tested, with active fliers most susceptible, weak fliers midscale, and non-fliers most tolerant. Electronic monitoring of heart, brain, and muscle characteristics suggests neuronal and neurosynaps disruptions from alcohols and formaldehyde, and neuromuscular effects from indolene in most arthropods tested.

  17. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 3. Waste retrieval from backfilled regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Methods and costs were studied for delayed canister retrieval from rooms that had been backfilled immediately after canister storage. The effects of this method of storage on mine geometry, thermal and rock mechanics environments, mine development and operations, mine ventilation, time schedule, retrieval machinery and safety were investigated. Salt and air temperatures were determined. Pillar width, number of rooms, extraction ratio, tonnages of mined salt, and salt handling and hoisting requirements were calculated. The required changes in mining equipment were established. Salt handling and elapsed time schedules were developed. Ventilation requirements - size and number of shafts, size the arrangement of airways, number of stacks, and size and number of fans were then calculated. The development sequence of these facilities was established. Canister retrieval problems were analyzed for canisters stuck in the hole as well as free. Retrieval methods and machinery were studied and are described. Safety with respect to both radiation and room collapse was studied and compared with CDR safety conditions. The effects of a reduced themal loading of 30 KW/acre on temperatures, room closure, mine layout, ventilation and ground control were studied and reported. A cost estimate was prepared, giving cost differentials between the base CDR costs and Special Study No. 3. Two appendices are included. The first contains nine Heat Transfer memoranda that state the thermal basis of this study. The second appendix provides a detailed operating time analysis of the retrieval machinery

  18. Software development assurance for special control computer sets on the base of the Electronica-60M microcomputer in the stations of fuel element nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'kova, A.D.; Grachev, S.N.; Salakatova, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    A special computational control complex (SCCC) including the ''Elektronika-60M'' microcomputer, a device for communication with an object (DCO) based on the typical microprocessing set (TMS) based on LIUS-2 KTS means and an adapter for communication of the ''Elektronika-60M'' microcomputer bus with IK1 TMS bus developed for their conjugation is used for development of nondestructive control post software. An instrumental SCCC including SM-4 microcomputer, TMS units as DCO, an adapter for communication of the common bus of the SM-4 minicomputer with the IK1 TMS bus developed for their conjugation and devices for simulation of the facility operation is suggested to increase labour productivity of programmers. The SM-4 microcomputer permits to develop programs in the FORTRAN language and to carry out their effective adjustment. A subprogram library for communication with TMS units is compiled, and the technique for testing FORTRAN programs in programmable read-only memory TMS as well as start of these programs are developed

  19. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, F.R.; Tooper, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of alternative fuel cycles was initiated to identify a fuel cycle with inherent technical resistance to proliferation; however, other key features such as resource use, cost, and development status are major elements in a sound fuel cycle strategy if there is no significant difference in proliferation resistance. Special fuel reprocessing techniques such as coprocessing or spiking provide limited resistance to diversion. The nuclear fuel cycle system that will be most effective may be more dependent on the institutional agreements that can be implemented to supplement the technical controls of fuel cycle materials

  20. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  1. The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2014-05-28

    The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 °C and 60 °C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 60 °C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts.

  2. Spent fuel storage practices and perspectives for WWER fuel in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the general issues and options in spent fuel management and storage are reviewed. Quantities of spent fuel world-wide and spent fuel amounts in storage as well as spent fuel capacities are presented. Selected examples of typical spent fuel storage facilities are discussed. The storage technologies applied for WWER fuel is presented. Description of other relevant storage technologies is included

  3. Development of compaction technique for spent fuel skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Jung, Jae Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    To increase the utilization of uranium resources contained in the spent fuel, the spent fuel is reused. For this, the spent fuel is dismantled or spent fuel rod is extracted from the spent fuel assembly. When the rod is extracted, the remaining components of spent fuel assembly, so called a NFBC(Non-Fuel Bearing Components), should be compacted for the final disposal. To this end, several companies developed the NFBC compactors. German company, named as GNS has developed the direct compression devices of the NFBCs for the rod consolidation and installed it at the PKA(2) of pilot conditioning plant. B and W (Babcock and Wilcox) in USA adopted cutting method rather than the compression method and developed the special cutting devices of NFBC which can be applied underwater environment. In this study the characteristics of these two methods was investigated, in terms of fabrication cost of devices, maintainability in a high radioactive environment, required power and work volume for operation. Also, the optimal power source is selected by comparing the maximum power versus the work volume for operation. In addition to these, the reduction ratio of the bulk volume is obtained while varying the cutting length of the NFBC through a series of experiments. Based on the results of analysis and experiments, the cutting method after compression is selected as an optimal volume reduction method and its design specification is obtained. 8 refs., 62 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  4. The selection and use of a sorption database for the geosphere model in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergraaf, T.T.; Ticknor, K.V.; Melnyk, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    An extensively characterized intrusive granitic formation, the Lac du Bonnet batholith, is being used as a test case for environmental and safety assessment calculations of the impact of a hypothetical disposal vault. The conceptual vault has dimensions of 2 x 2 km and is located at a depth of 500 m, near the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) (CANADA). Hydraulic investigations of the batholith have shown that the bulk of the groundwater flow will be limited to the existing network of water-bearing fractures. Groundwater flow and contaminant transport modelling is based on a porous-medium concept for both the fracture systems and the rock matrix. Geochemical investigations have identified a number of alteration minerals in these fracture systems. The geochemistry encountered along the flow field is too complex to allow the interaction of radionuclides with the geological material to be represented by a single sorption coefficient for each radionuclide on a single rock type. However, the level of understanding of radionuclide interaction with geological materials is not sufficiently well developed to calculate radionuclide transport using models based on chemical thermodynamics or on advanced sorption models based on surface complexation or mass action. Instead, a parametric model has been developed using the total dissolved solids and radionuclide concentrations as independent variables. The mineralogical complexity of the flow field is addressed by selecting sorption data on the nine most commonly occurring fracture infilling minerals in this batholith, four common rock-forming minerals, and on altered and unaltered granite. This approach produces two polynomial equations for each radionuclide/mineral combination, one under oxic and one under anoxic conditions. Where insufficient information is available, these polynomial expressions are reduced to an equation with one variable or to a single sorption coefficient. 48 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  5. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF NUMBERICAL AIR QUALITY MODELS WITH SPECIALIZED AMBIENT OBSERVATIONS: TESTING THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (CMAQ) AT SELECTED SOS 95 GROUND SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three probes for diagnosing photochemical dynamics are presented and applied to specialized ambient surface-level observations and to a numerical photochemical model to better understand rates of production and other process information in the atmosphere and in the model. Howeve...

  6. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  7. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  8. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  9. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  10. 26 CFR 48.4042-2 - Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Fuel Used on Inland Waterways § 48.4042-2 Special rules...)); (ii) The type of vessel in which fuel is consumed and the type of vessel in which cargo is transported...

  11. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  12. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  13. The origin of the selectivity and activity of ruthenium-cluster catalysts for fuel-cell feed-gas purification: a gas-phase approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sandra M; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Krstić, Marjan; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2014-05-19

    Gas-phase ruthenium clusters Ru(n)(+) (n=2-6) are employed as model systems to discover the origin of the outstanding performance of supported sub-nanometer ruthenium particles in the catalytic CO methanation reaction with relevance to the hydrogen feed-gas purification for advanced fuel-cell applications. Using ion-trap mass spectrometry in conjunction with first-principles density functional theory calculations three fundamental properties of these clusters are identified which determine the selectivity and catalytic activity: high reactivity toward CO in contrast to inertness in the reaction with CO2; promotion of cooperatively enhanced H2 coadsorption and dissociation on pre-formed ruthenium carbonyl clusters, that is, no CO poisoning occurs; and the presence of Ru-atom sites with a low number of metal-metal bonds, which are particularly active for H2 coadsorption and activation. Furthermore, comprehensive theoretical investigations provide mechanistic insight into the CO methanation reaction and discover a reaction route involving the formation of a formyl-type intermediate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Homan, F.J.; Balthesen, E.; Turner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred in the development of HTGR fuel and fuel cycle. These accomplishments permit a wide choice of fuel designs, reactor concepts, and fuel cycles. Fuels capable of providing helium outlet temperatures of 750 0 C are available, and fuels capable of 1000 0 C outlet temperatures may be expected from extension of present technology. Fuels have been developed for two basic HTGR designs, one using a spherical (pebble bed) element and the other a prismatic element. Within each concept a number of variations of geometry, fuel composition, and structural materials are permitted. Potential fuel cycles include both low-enriched and high-enriched Th- 235 U, recycle Th- 233 U, and Th-Pu or U-Pu cycles. This flexibility offered by the HTGR is of great practical benefit considering the rapidly changing economics of power production. The inflation of ore prices has increased optimum conversion ratios, and increased the necessity of fuel recycle at an early date. Fuel element makeup is very similar for prismatic and spherical designs. Both use spherical fissile and fertile particles coated with combinations of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Both use carbonaceous binder materials, and graphite as the structural material. Weak-acid resin (WAR) UO 2 -UC 2 fissile fuels and sol-gel-derived ThO 2 fertile fuels have been selected for the Th- 233 U cycle in the prismatic design. Sol-gel-derived UO 2 UC 2 is the reference fissile fuel for the low-enriched pebble bed design. Both the United States and Federal Republic of Germany are developing technology for fuel cycle operations including fabrication, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste handling. Feasibility of basic processes has been established and designs developed for full-scale equipment. Fuel and fuel cycle technology provide the basis for a broad range of applications of the HTGR. Extension of the fuels to higher operating temperatures and development and commercial demonstration of fuel

  15. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  16. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  17. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Lindskog, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA

  18. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Assessment of microalgae biodiesel fuels using a fuel property estimation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, Jonas Colen Ladeia; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho; Mariano, Andre Bellin [Center for Research and Development of Sustainable Energy. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Recently, depleting supplies of petroleum and the concerns about global warming are drawing attention to alternative sources of energy. In this context, advanced biofuels, derived from non edible superior plants and microorganisms, are presented as promising options for the transportation sector. Biodiesel, which is the most prominent alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, have a large number as potential feedstock, such as plants (e.g., soybean, canola, palm) and microorganism (i.e., microalgae, yeast, fungi and bacterium). In order to determine their potential, most studies focus on the economic viability, but few discuss the technical viability of producing high quality fuels from such feedstock. Since the fuel properties depend on the composition of the parent oil, and considering the variability of the fatty acid profile found in these organisms, it is clear that the fuels derived may present undesirable properties, e.g., high viscosity, low cetane number, low oxidative stability and poor cold flow properties. Therefore, it is very important to develop ways of analysing the fuel quality prior to production, specially considering the high cost of producing and testing several varieties of plants and microorganisms. In this aim, this work presents the use of fuel properties estimation methods on the assessment of the density, viscosity, cetane number and cold filter plugging point of several microalgae derived biofuels, comparing then to more conventional biodiesel fuels. The information gathered with these methods helps on the selection of species and cultivation parameters, which have a high impact on the derived fuel quality, and have been successfully employed on the Center for Research and Development of Sustainable Energy. The results demonstrate that some species of microalgae have the potential to produce high quality biodiesel if cultivated with optimised conditions, associated with the possibility of obtaining valuable long chain

  1. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  2. Waste as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, T. M.; Lorimer, A. D.

    1979-07-01

    The methods of using the energy available in wastes to reduce the energy costs in processes are discussed. Special reference is made to the need for careful evaluation of the potential of the waste to reduce energy costs, before significant investment is made. Problems generally arise due to the effective balancing of the cost of the waste pretreatment with the disposal fee and prime fuel saving. Special reference is made to use of waste as a fuel in the cement industry. Municipal refuse is discussed as a typical successful application.

  3. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  4. European experience with spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Transport Ltd has transported 5000 tonnes of spent fuel from 35 reactors in 8 European countries since 1972. Transport management is governed by the Quality Plan for: transport administration, packaging and shipment procedures at the shipping plant, operations at the power plant, and packaging and shipment organization at the power plant. Selection of a suitable carrier device is made with regard to the shipping plant requirements, physical limitations of the reactor, fuel characteristics, and transport route constraints. The transport plan is set up taking into account exploitation of the casks, reactor shut-down requirements, fuel acceptance plans at the reprocessing plant, and cask maintenance periods. A transport cycle involving spent fuel shipment to La Hague or to Sellafield takes typically two or four weeks, respectively. Most transports through Europe are by rail. A special-design railway ferry boat serves transports to the United Kingdom. Both wet or dry casks are employed. Modern casks are designed for high burnups and for oxide fuels. (J.B.)

  5. 24 CFR 51.207 - Special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Handling Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.207 Special circumstances..., require the application of this subpart C with respect to a substance not listed in appendix I to this...

  6. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  7. Solvent extraction studies of RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, Anthony P.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicide fuels, which are candidate RERTR fuel compositions, may require special considerations in solvent extraction reprocessing. Since Savannah River Plant may be reprocessing RERTR fuels as early as 1985, studies have been conducted at Savannah River Laboratory to demonstrate the solvent extraction behavior of this fuel. Results of solvent extraction studies with both unirradiated and irradiated fuel are presented along with the preliminary RERTR solvent extraction reprocessing flow sheet for Savannah River Plant. (author)

  8. Cost analysis and economic comparison for alternative fuel cycles in the heavy water cooled canadian reactor (CANDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, S.

    2000-01-01

    Three main options in a CANDU fuel cycle involve use of: (1) natural uranium (0.711 weight percent U-235) fuel, (2) slightly enriched uranium (1.2 weight percent U-235) fuel, and (3) recovered uranium (0.83 weight percent U-235) fuel from light water reactor spent fuel. ORIGEN-2 computer code was used to identify composition of the spent fuel for each option, including the standard LWR fuel (3.3 weight percent U-235). Uranium and plutonium credit calculations were performed using ORIGEN-2 output. WIMSD-5 computer code was used to determine maximum discharge burnup values for each case. For the 3 cycles selected (natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, recovered uranium), levelized fuel cycle cost calculations are performed over the reactor lifetime of 40 years, using unit process costs obtained from literature. Components of the fuel cycle costs are U purchase, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, SF storage, SF disposal, and reprocessing where applicable. Cost parameters whose effects on the fuel cycle cost are to be investigated are escalation ratio, discount rate and SF storage time. Cost estimations were carried out using specially developed computer programs. Share of each cost component on the total cost was determined and sensitivity analysis was performed in order to show how a change in a main cost component affects the fuel cycle cost. The main objective of this study has been to find out the most economical option for CANDU fuel cycle by changing unit prices and cost parameters

  9. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  10. Impact of Fuel Selection on Techno-environmental Performance of Post-combustion Calcium Looping Process Applied to a Cement Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Orregioni, Gabriel; Strømman, Anders; Ramirez, Andrea

    Calcium looping CO2 capture is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production. Coal is generally considered the fuel used to drive the calcium looping process as coal is already used as feedstock for cement production. This study assesses the impact of different fuels (coal,

  11. Analysis of consumer response to fuel price fluctuations applying sample selection model to GPS panel data : Dynamics in individuals' car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Dujuan; Timmermans, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fuel price increases on people's car use have been widely discussed during the last few decades in travel behavior research. It is well recognized that fuel price has significant effects on driving distance and driving efficiency. However, most of this research assumed that these

  12. Overview of Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Harman, Donna; Allan, James; Kelly, Diane; Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bennet, Paul; Callan, Jamie; Clarke, Charles; Diaz, Fernando; Dumais, Susan; Ferro, Nicola; Harman, Donna; Ruthven, Ian; Sakai, Tetsuya; Smucker, Mark D.; Zobel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of SIGIR Forum marks the 40th anniversary of the ACM SIGIR Conference by showcasing papers selected for the ACM SIGIR Test of Time Award from the years 1978-2001. These papers document the history and evolution of IR research and practice, and illustrate the intellectual impact

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... such as the athletes. This is done through gene doping, ... reduced risk of injury and drug abuse, talent selection through DNA and special training ..... GJB2 gene among Malays with non-syndromic hearing loss. International ...

  14. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  15. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    applications and have these applications reviewed by the appropriate authorities. An analysis of conceivable alternatives for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel has confirmed that deep geological disposal according to the KBS-3 method has the best prospects of meeting all requirements. The alternative of putting off a decision until some future time (the zero alternative) does not appear tenable. The assessment of long-term safety shows that the prospects of building a safe deep repository in the Swedish bedrock are good. Independent Swedish and international review of the safety assessment confirm that the body of data in this respect is adequate for the siting process to proceed to the site investigation phase. A fuller summary is given below of the account given in this report of method as well as site selection and programme for the site investigation phase. The point of departure for the account is the review comments made by the regulatory authorities and the Government's decision regarding RD and D-Programme 98. In its decision, the Government stipulated conditions for SKB's continued research and development programme. The analysis of alternative system designs was to be supplemented, mainly with regard to the zero alternative and very deep boreholes. Furthermore, the Government decided that SKB shall submit an integrated evaluation of completed feasibility studies and other background material for selection of sites for site investigations and present a clear programme for site investigations.

  16. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capossela, H.J.; Dwyer, J.R.; Luce, R.G.; McCoy, D.F.; Merriman, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect. 1 figure

  17. Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety No. 146/1997 of 18 June 1997 specifying activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety, and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection, requirements for qualification and professional training, procedures for examining special professional competence and for granting certificates to selected personnel, and the scope and structure of documentation to be approved for permitting the training of selected personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Decree specifies requirements in the following fields: (a) activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection; (b) requirements for the qualification of selected personnel; (c) requirements for professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources who are to gain special professional competence; (d) examination commission; (e) examination of special professional competence of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources; (f) granting permission to perform activities of selected personnel; and (g) scope and structure of documentation required to permit professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources. (P.A.)

  18. Selectivity of calixarene-bonded silica phases in HPLC: Description of special characteristics with a multiple term linear equation at different methanol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Jira, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Retention and selectivity characteristics of different calixarene-, resorcinarene- and alkyl-bonded stationary phases are examined by analyzing a set of test solutes covering the main interactions (hydrophobic, steric, ionic, polar) that apply in HPLC. Therefore Dolan and Snyder's multiple term linear equation has been adapted to fit the properties of calixarene-bonded columns. The obtained parameters are used to describe retention and selectivity of the novel Caltrex(®) phases and to elucidate underlying mechanisms of retention. Here, differences of stationary phase characteristics at different methanol concentrations in the mobile phases are examined. Both selectivity and retention were found to depend on the methanol content. Differences of these dependencies were found for different stationary phases and interactions. The differences between common alkyl-bonded and novel calixarene-bonded phases increase with increasing methanol content.

  19. Test of fuel handling machine for Monju in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoichiro; Masuda, Yoichi; Kataoka, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Various types of fuel handling machines were studied, and under-the-plug method of fuel exchange and the fuel handling machine of single turning plug, fixed arm type were selected for the prototype reactor ''Monju'', because the turning plug is relatively small, and the rate of operation, safety, operational ability, maintainability and reliability required for the reactor are satisfied, moreover, the extrapolation to the demonstration reactor was considered. Attention must be paid to the points that the fuel handling machine is very long and invisible from outside, and the smooth operation and endurance in sodium are required for it. The full mock-up testing facility of single turning plug, fixed arm type was installed in 1974, and the full mock-up test has been carried out since 1975 in Oarai. Fuel exchange is carried out at about 6 months intervals in Monju, and about 20 to 30% of core and blanket fuels are exchanged for about one month period. The functions required for the fuel handling machine for Monju, the outline of the testing facility, the schedule of the testing, the items of testing and the results, and the matters to be specially written are described. The full mock-up test in sodium has been carried out for 5 years, and the functions and the endurance have been proved sufficiently. (Kako, I.)

  20. Dictionary of the fuel trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A dictionary of liquid and solid fuels and applications for thermal engineering and heating, in understandable terms and explanations with a broad range of terminology, special aspects and definitions Annex: 1. International trade conditions, 2. tables of conversion relations, not calorific value, division of solids fuels etc.

  1. Elements of nuclear reactor fueling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with a review of the simple batch size effect, a more general theory of nuclear fueling is derived to describe the behaviour and physical requirements of operating cycle sequences and fueling strategies having practical use in fuel management. The generalized theory, based on linear reactivity modeling, is analytical and represents the effects of multiple-stream, multiple-depletion-batch fueling configurations in systems employing arbitrary, non-integer batch size strategies, and containing fuel with variable energy generation rates. Reactor operating cycles and cycle sequences are represented with realistic structure that includes the effects of variable cycle energy production, cycle lengths, end-of-cycle operating extensions and manoeuvering allowances. Results of the analytical theory are first applied to the special case of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences, yielding several fundamental principles related to the selection of refueling strategy. Numerical evaluations of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences are then performed for a typical PWR core, and accompanying fuel cycle costs are calculated. The impact of design and operational limits as constraints on the performance mappings for this reactor are also studied with respect to achieving improved cost performance from the once-through fuel cycle. The dynamics of transition cycle sequences are then examined using the generalized theory. Proof of the existence of non-degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences is presented when the mechanics of the fixed reload batch size strategy are developed analytically for transition sequences. Finally, an analysis of the fixed reload enrichment strategy demonstrates the potential for convergence of the transition sequence to a fully degenerate equilibrium sequence. (author)

  2. Distribution of trichloroethylene and selected aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons between ''weathered'' and ''unweathered'' fuel mixtures and groundwater: Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucette, W.J.; Dupont, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of trichloroethylene and several aliphatic and aromatic fuel components between 46 weathered and 11 unweathered fuel mixtures and groundwater was investigated using a slow stirring method. The weathered fuel mixtures were obtained from several contaminated field sites. Both unlabeled and 14C-labeled test compounds were used in the distribution experiments. Analyses of the test compound concentrations over time was performed by gas chromatograph or liquid scintillation counting. The time required to reach equilibrium varied from about 24 to 72 hours. Generally, the greater the hydrophobicity of the test compounds the longer time that was required to reach equilibrium. It was also observed that the fuel/water distribution coefficients were generally larger for the weathered fuels than those measured for the unweathered fuels, in some cases by a factor of 100. The weathered fuel mixtures obtained from the field site were depleted of the more water soluble compounds over time and became significantly more enriched in long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons. The ability of several models to describe the observed distribution behavior was examined

  3. Fuel Handbook[Wood and other renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-03-15

    This handbook on renewable fuels is intended for power and heat producers in Sweden. This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method to evaluate different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but does not include household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or fuels that have potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 26 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experiences and literature references are outlined for each fuel. [Special properties, operating experiences and literature references are not included in this English version] The handbook also contains: A proposed methodology for introduction of new fuels. A recommendation of analyses and tests to perform in order to reduce the risk of problems is presented. [The recommendation of analyses and tests is not included in the English version] A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with references to relevant documentation. [Only laws and taxes regarding EU are included] Theory and background to evaluate a fuel with respect to combustion, ash and corrosion properties and methods that can be used for such evaluations. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks on biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and links to web sites where further information about the fuels can be found. The appendices includes: A methodology for trial firing of fuels. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition, key number and free fall velocity [Free fall velocity is not included in the English version]. In addition, conversion routines between different units for a number of different applications are provided. Fuel analyses are presented in the appendix. (The report is a translation of parts of the report VARMEFORSK--911 published in 2005)

  4. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  5. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  6. Safety and economic study of special trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, W.V.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is being conducted of the safety and economics of special (35 mph and less) and regular trains for shipment of spent fuels. The approach, pertinent considerations, and results to date are discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that special train requirements have potential for only a small reduction in the accident likelihood, while increasing the cost

  7. Special Issue: Engineering Digital Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J. Garcia-Sabater

    2018-04-01

    We gratefully acknowledge the authors and particularly the reviewers, whose valuable comments have improved the quality of the selected papers, which were extended (and again reviewed by pairs after the conference in order to be published in this Special Issue.

  8. Performance of MOX fuel: An overview of the experimental programme of the OECD Halden Reactor Project and review of selected results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, W.; McGrath, M.

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has defined an extensive experimental programme related to MOX fuels which is being executed with the objective to provide a performance data base similar to that available for UO 2 . In addition to utilising fresh MOX fuel and re-instrumented segments from LWR irradiations to high burnup, the concept of inert matrix fuel is being addressed. The irradiation in the Halden reactor is performed in rigs allowing steady state, power ramping and cyclic operation. In-pile data are obtained from instrumentation such as fuel centreline thermocouples, pressure transducers, fuel and cladding elongation detectors, and movable gauges for measuring the diametral deformation. Various phenomena can be assessed in this way, e.g. thermal performance, swelling and densification, PCMI and fission gas release. The paper describes the objectives of various experiments and provides examples of temperature, pressure and cladding elongation measurements performed on MOX fuel. Salient results are related to the threshold for the onset of significant fission gas release and the relaxation behaviour in a power ramp-PCMI situation. (author)

  9. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B S; Park, Y S; Oh, S C; Kim, S H; Cho, M W; Hong, D H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  10. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  11. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  12. Low Loss Advanced Metallic Fuel Casting Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kihwan; Ko, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghwan; Song, Hoon; Lee Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of fuel slug casting, loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and the fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycles streams in the fabrication process. Recycle streams include fuel slug reworks, returned scraps, and fuel casting heels, which are a special concern in the counter gravity injection casting process because of the large masses involved. Large recycle and waste streams result in lowering the productivity and the economic efficiency of fuel production. To increase efficiency the fuel losses in the furnace chamber, crucible, and the mold, after casting a considerable amount of fuel alloy in the casting furnace, will be quantitatively evaluated. After evaluation the losses will be identified and minimized. It is expected that this study will contribute to the minimization of fuel losses and the wastes streams in the fabrication process of the fuel slugs. Also through this study the technical readiness level of the metallic fuel fabrication process will be further enhanced. In this study, U-Zr alloy system fuel slugs were fabricated by a gravity casting method. Metallic fuel slugs were successfully fabricated with 19 slugs/batch with diameter of 5mm and length of 300mm. Fuel losses was quantitatively evaluated in casting process for the fuel slugs. Fuel losses of the fuel slugs were so low, 0.1∼1.0%. Injection casting experiments have been performed to reduce the fuel loss and improve the casting method. U-Zr fuel slug having φ5.4-L250mm was soundly fabricated with 0.1% in fuel loss. The fuel losses could be minimized to 0.1%, which showed that casting technology of fuel slugs can be a feasible approach to reach the goal of the fuel losses of 0.1% or less in commercial scale

  13. Demonstration of fuel resistant to pellet-cladding interaction: Phase 2. Third semiannual report, January-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, H.S. (comp.)

    1980-09-01

    Two fuel concepts are being developed for possible demonstration within this program: (a) Cu-barrier fuel and (b) Zr-liner fuel. These advanced fuels (known collectively as barrier fuels) have special fuel cladding designed to avoid the harmful effects of localized stress and reactive fission products during reactor service. Within the work scope of this program one of these concepts is to be selected for demonstration in a commercial power reactor. It was decided to demonstrate Zr-liner in 132 bundles which have liners of either crystal-bar zirconium or of low-oxygen sponge zirconium in the reload for Quad Cities Unit 2, Cycle 6. Irradiation testing or barrier fuel was continued, and the superior PCI resistance of Zr-liner fuel was further substantiated in the current report period. Furthermore, an irradiation experiment in which Zr-liner fuel, having a deliberately fabricated cladding perforation, was operated at a linear heat generation rate of 35 kW/m to a burnup of approx. 3 MWd/kg U showed no unusual signs of degradation compared with a similarly defected reference fuel rod. Four lead test assemblies of barrier fuel (two of Zr-liner and two of Cu-barrier), presently under irradiation in Quad Cities Unit 1, have achieved a burnup of 11 MWd/kg U.

  14. Demonstration of fuel resistant to pellet-cladding interaction: Phase 2. Third semiannual report, January-June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1980-09-01

    Two fuel concepts are being developed for possible demonstration within this program: (a) Cu-barrier fuel and (b) Zr-liner fuel. These advanced fuels (known collectively as barrier fuels) have special fuel cladding designed to avoid the harmful effects of localized stress and reactive fission products during reactor service. Within the work scope of this program one of these concepts is to be selected for demonstration in a commercial power reactor. It was decided to demonstrate Zr-liner in 132 bundles which have liners of either crystal-bar zirconium or of low-oxygen sponge zirconium in the reload for Quad Cities Unit 2, Cycle 6. Irradiation testing or barrier fuel was continued, and the superior PCI resistance of Zr-liner fuel was further substantiated in the current report period. Furthermore, an irradiation experiment in which Zr-liner fuel, having a deliberately fabricated cladding perforation, was operated at a linear heat generation rate of 35 kW/m to a burnup of approx. 3 MWd/kg U showed no unusual signs of degradation compared with a similarly defected reference fuel rod. Four lead test assemblies of barrier fuel (two of Zr-liner and two of Cu-barrier), presently under irradiation in Quad Cities Unit 1, have achieved a burnup of 11 MWd/kg U

  15. Dry fuel store for advanced gas cooled reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.S.; Boocock, P.M.; Ealing, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fuel storage requirements in Scotland and the selection of a Dry Fuel Store of the Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) design developed by GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Limited (GECA). A similar design of store has been selected and has been constructed in the USA by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation in collaboration with GECA

  16. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  17. Experimental and theoretical requirements for fuel modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatesoupe, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    From a scientific point of view it may be considered that any event in the life of a fuel pin under irradiation should be perfectly well understood and foreseen from that deterministic point of view, the whole behaviour of the pin maybe analysed and dismantled with a specific function for every component part and each component part related to one basic phenomenon which can be independently studied on pure physical grounds. When extracted from the code structure the subroutine is studied for itself by specialists who try to keep as close as possible to the physics involved in the phenomenon; that often leads to an impressive luxury in details and a subsequent need for many unavailable input data. It might seem more secure to follow that approach since it tries to be firmly based on theoretical grounds. One should think so if the phenomenological situation in the pin were less complex than it is. The codes would not be adequate for off-normal operating conditions since for the accidental transient conditions the key-phenomena would not be the same as for steady-state or slow transient conditions. The orientation given to fuel modelling is based on our two main technological constraints which are: no fuel melting; no cladding failure; no excessive cladding deformation. In this context, the only relevant models are those which have a significant influence on the maximum temperatures in the fuel or on the cladding damage hence the selection between key models and irrelevant models which will next be done. A rather pragmatic view is kept on codification with a special focus on a few determinant aspects of fuel behaviour and no attention to models which are nothing but decorative. Fuel modeling is merely considered as a link between experimental knowledge; it serves as a guide for further improvements in fuel design and as so happens to be quite useful. On this basis the main lacks in of fuel behaviour is described. These are mainly concerning: thermal transfer through

  18. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    move forward separately. Thus, we wanted the meeting to encourage the cross-fertilization of ideas of all the people involved and active in the areas of optics, photonics, microelectronics and materials, by gathering together theoreticians, experimentalists and those interested in industrial applications. For these reasons the conference programme focused on fundamental as well as more applied topics. Photonic crystals, non-linear and quantum optics in micro-devices, nanophotonic-based devices, silicon-based optoelectronics and MOEMS, microsensors, biochips and the new characterization methods for materials and devices were among the hot topics of the conference. Special emphasis was also given to industrial applications and to technologies enabling the production of microsytems and their sub-components. In this special section of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a series of interesting papers has been collected, reporting progress in the different aspects of microsystems design, production, characterization and testing. The papers embrace most of the various topics that were debated during the conference. We hope that these papers will not only report the most up-to-date research progress made in this field, but will also involve and stimulate everyone working in these areas to continue in the effort of developing more and better optical microsystems in the future. We would like to thank all the members of the Scientific and Industrial Committees for the high scientific content of the meeting and the European Optical Society for its support of the conference organization.

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  1. Overview of the CANDU fuel handling system for advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, D.J.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Because of its neutron economies and on-power re-fuelling capabilities the CANDU system is ideally suited for implementing advanced fuel cycles because it can be adapted to burn these alternative fuels without major changes to the reactor. The fuel handling system is adaptable to implement advanced fuel cycles with some minor changes. Each individual advanced fuel cycle imposes some new set of special requirements on the fuel handling system that is different from the requirements usually encountered in handling the traditional natural uranium fuel. These changes are minor from an overall plant point of view but will require some interesting design and operating changes to the fuel handling system. Some preliminary conceptual design has been done on the fuel handling system in support of these fuel cycles. Some fuel handling details were studies in depth for some of the advanced fuel cycles. This paper provides an overview of the concepts and design challenges. (author)

  2. Selective catalytic oxidation: a new catalytic approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for fuel cell reformer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, J.

    In both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), sulfur degrades the performance of the catalysts used in fuel reformers and fuel cells. In order to improve system performance, the sulfur must be removed to concentrations of less than 200 ppbv (in many applications to less than 20 ppbv) before the fuel reforming operation. Engelhard Corporation presents a unique approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and LPG. This new method catalytically converts the organic and inorganic sulfur species to sulfur oxides. The sulfur oxides are then adsorbed on a high capacity adsorbent. The sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted to sulfur oxides by combining the fuel with a small amount of air. The mixture is then heated from 250 to 270 °C, and contacted with a monolith supported sulfur tolerant catalyst at atmospheric pressure. When Engelhard Corporation demonstrated this catalytic approach in the laboratory, the result showed sulfur breakthrough to be less than 10 ppbv in the case of natural gas, and less than 150 ppbv for LPG. We used a simulated natural gas and LPG mixture, doped with a 50-170 ppmv sulfur compound containing equal concentrations of COS, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, methylethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene. There is no need for recycled H 2 as in the case for hydrodesulfurization.

  3. Selectivity of calixarene-bonded silica-phases in HPLC: description of special characteristics with a multiple term linear equation at two different pH-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Meyer, Rüdiger; Jira, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Six different calixarene-bonded phases were characterized by analyzing 36 and 26 solutes at pH 3 and 7, respectively. Dolan and Snyder's multiple term linear equation was used to correlate retention factors k' to parameters of the solutes and columns. The column parameters have been related to molecular properties of the stationary phases and new suggestions were made for the interpretation of steric selectivity. Ionic and polar interactions have been found dependent on pH value, while steric interactions are less dependent and hydrophobic interactions remain unchanged. Distinct differences of the supported interactions were confirmed between the calixarene-bonded and the common alkyl-bonded silicas. By use of the parameters, values of k' can be estimated with an average deviation of 2.50 and 7.92% at low and neutral pH-value, respectively.

  4. Mineralocorticoid hypertension: clinical and laboratory studies with special reference to selective percutaneous venography combined with aldosterone assay in the adrenal venous blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajchenberg, B.L.; Liberman, B.; Novaes, M.

    1977-01-01

    With the purpose of demonstrating the presence of hypertension, hypokalemia and alkalosis were studied. The presence of daily aldosteronism was verified in five patients; the sixth one presented no daily aldosteronism but an increase of 18-OH-DOCA production, an ACTH dependente mineralocorticoid. The presence of tumor (less than 0.9cm) could not be shown in two patients by bilateral selective adrenal venography. The aldosterone assay during catherization of adrenal vein of those patients permitted to determine the tumoral side. Attention must be given to the fact that the blood collection of adrenal vein must always be made during adrenal venography to demonstrate the presence of short unilateral tumor or bilateral disease [pt

  5. General and special engineering materials science. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondracek, G.; Voehringer, O.

    1983-04-01

    The present report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes: Volume I treats general engineering materials science in 4 capital chapters on the structure of materials, the properties of materials, materials technology and materials testing and investigation supplemented by a selected detailed chapter about elasticity plasticity and rupture mechanics. Volume II concerns special engineering materials science with respect to nuclear materials under normal reactor operation conditions including reactor clad and structural materials, nuclear fuels and fuel elements and nuclear waste as a materials viewpoint. Volume III - also concerning special engineering materials science - considers nuclear materials with respect to off-normal (''accident'') reactor operation conditions including nuclear materials in loss-of-coolant accidents and nuclear materials in core melt accidents. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  7. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  8. Thermophotovoltaics, wood powder and fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Operational Efficiency; Broman, L; Jarefors, K [Solar Energy Research Center, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    PV cells can be used for electricity production based on other heat sources than the sun. If the temperature of the source is around 1500 K it is possible to get reasonably high conversion efficiency from heat radiation to electricity. This is due to recent advances in low-bandgap PV cells and selectively emitting fibrous emissive burners. There are some different biomass fuels capable of producing this temperature in the flame, especially gas and liquid fuels of different kinds. Wood powder is the only solid wood fuel with a sufficiently stable quality and properties for this high temperature combustion. A joint project between SERC, SLU and National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL in Golden, Colorado, USA aims at building a wood powder fuelled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for cogeneration of heat and electricity. A stable flame temperature of 1500 K has been achieved in a prototype pilot-scale burner that includes feeder and combustion chamber. Furthermore, a setup for measuring TPV cell efficiency for a wide region of black body emitter temperatures and cell irradiation has been constructed and several 0.6 eV GaInAs TPV cells have been investigated. A setup for testing the chain IR emitter - selectively reflecting filter - TPV cell has been designed. In order to limit the region of filter incident angles, which will make the filter act more efficiently, a special geometry of the internally reflecting tube that transmits the radiation is considered 23 refs, 4 figs

  9. Pilot studies of an extraction process for reprocessing of spent fuel from fast reactors: Hardware and process details of extractor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, V.I.; Pavlovich, V.B.; Smetanin, E.Ya.; Glazunov, N.V.; Shklyar, L.I.; Dubrovskii, V.G.; Serov, A.V.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Konorchenko, V.D.; Korotkov, I.A.; Neumoev, N.V.; Renard, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    While acknowledging the bold and persistent efforts of U.S. and Russian specialists to develop the concept of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from fast reactors on remote-controlled equipment for removal of actinides from the fission products one should recognize that the tasks of reprocessing such fuel can be handled only by using water-extraction technology, especially since the known Purex process continues to be improved to the point that a single-cycle scheme may be developed. This article presents results of pilot studies conducted in hot cells using multistage extractors in continuous counterflow operation; data on various extractor types used in reprocessing spent mixed oxide nuclear fuel; advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal and pulsed column extractor; comparison of column-type and centrifugal extractors; and extraction process

  10. Demonstration of fuel resistant to pellet-cladding interaction: Phase 2. Fourth semiannual report, July-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    This program has as its ultimate objective the demonstration of an advanced fuel design that is resistant to the failure mechanism known as fuel pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). Two fuel concepts have been developed for possible demonstration: (a) Cu-barrier fuel and (b) Zr-liner fuel. These advanced fuels (known collectively as barrier fuels) have special fuel cladding designed to avoid the harmful effects of localized stress and reactive fission products during reactor service. Within the scope of this program one of these concepts had to be selected for a large-scale demonstration in a commercial power reactor. The selection was made to demonstrate Zr-liner fuel and to include bundles which have liners prepared from either low oxygen sponge zirconium or of crystal bar zirconium. The demonstration is intended to include a total of 132 barrier bundles in the reload for Quad Cities Unit 2, Cycle 6. In the current report period changes in the nuclear design were made to respond to changes in the Energy Utilization Plan for Quad Cities Unit 2. Bundle designs were completed, and were licensed for use in a BWR/3. The core specific licensing will be done as part of the reload license for Quad Cities Unit 2, Cycle 6

  11. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  12. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  13. Special lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  14. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  15. Special effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  16. ABB high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Helmersson, S.; Nilsson, S.; Jourdain, P.; Karlsson, L.; Limback, M.; Garde, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel designed and fabricated by ABB is now operating in 40 PWRs and BWRs in Europe, the United States and Korea. An excellent fuel reliability track record has been established. High burnups are proven for both PWR and BWR. Thermal margin improving features and advanced burnable absorber concepts enable the utilities to adopt demanding duty cycles to meet new economic objectives. In particular we note the excellent reliability record of ABB PWR fuel equipped with Guardian TM debris filter proven to meet the 6 rod-cycles fuel failure goal, and the out-standing operating record of the SVEA 10 x 10 fuel, where ABB is the only vendor to date with batch experience to high burnup. ABB is dedicated to maintain high fuel reliability as well as continually improve and develop a broad line of PWR and BWR products. ABB's development and fuel follow-up activities are performed in close co-operation with its utility customers. This paper provides an overview of recent fuel performance and reliability experience at ABB. Selected development and validation activities for PWR and BWR fuel are presented, for which the ABB test facilities in Windsor (TF-2 loop, mechanical test laboratory) and Vaesteras (FRIGG, BURE) are essential. (authors)

  17. HTGR fuel performance basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660 0 C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents. The slow release of fission products over hundreds of hours allows for decay of short-lived isotopes. The slow and limited release of fission products under HTGR accident conditions results in very low off-site doses. The slow nature of the accident provides more time for operator action to mitigate the accident and for local and state authorities to respond. These features can be used to take advantage of close-in siting for process applications, flexibility in site selection, and emergency planning

  18. Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Placing the special trains issue in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Chais, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Association of American Railroads has proposed changes in the way railroads handle shipments of radioactive materials. These changes are embodied in a set of recommended operating practices that would require shipments of spent fuel and radioactive waste to be moved only in special train service. The proposed operating practices include a 35 mph maximum speed restriction, a passing restriction and a no-other freight restriction. Shippers of radioactive materials oppose the imposition of these operating practices. The special train issue is currently being argued in hearings before the Interstate Commerce Commission. The history and current status of these hearings are reviewed. Pacific Northwest Laboratories has undertaken a study to provide perspective on the safety and economic factors related to the use of special trains for shipping spent fuel. The results of this study for the amount of spent fuel anticipated to be shipped in 1986 are reviewed. The safety analysis determines the frequencies and severities of accidents for conventional freight trains and compares these to extrapolated frequencies and severities of accidents for conventional freight trains subject to the special train operating restrictions. Results of the study show that the adoption of special trains and attendant operating restrictions has limited potential for improving safety during shipment. The economic analysis compares the cost of spent fuel shipments made by special train and by conventional freight train service.Results of the economics phase of the study show that the use of special trains will most likely increase the cost of shipments by about 50%, although under certain circumstances shipping costs for spent fuel by special trains may be up to 20% lower than by conventional train service. Possible methods to resolve the special train issue are explored

  1. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.)

  4. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol by...

  5. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.).

  6. Special energies and special frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.

    1987-01-01

    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  7. Numerical investigations of the fuel cycle for a 10 GW(TH)-OTTO-pebble-bed reactor with regard to high conversion ratio under special consideration of U-236 disconnexion through isotope-separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.

    1976-12-01

    A conversion ratio of near 1.0 can be achieved in a pebble-bed reactor using the OTTO (once through then out) loading scheme, having an economic burn-up of the fuel, an economic power density and a moderation ratio, which is considered realistically for the future. The flexibility of the reactor concept and of the fuel element design allows to recycle the fuel during full-power operation. In the present report first the criteria are shown, which are necessary to reach a high conversion ratio. Further it is presented that the conversion ratio increases considerably by closing the fuel cycle in consequence of the building-up of U-233. In this way the fuel inventory and the fuel consumption can considerably be diminished. It is demonstrated that the building-up and the accumulation of U-236 effects an important deterioration of the neutron economy. By taking the reprocessed uranium through an isotope separation (for example: ultra-gas-centrifugation) and by separation of U-236 from the other uranium isotopes it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption considerably. The expenditure and the cost which are necessary for the isotope separation are presented. (orig.) [de

  8. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  9. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  10. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  11. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  12. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  13. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  14. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  15. Federal interim storage fee study for civilian spent nuclear fuel: a technical and economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the study conducted by the Department of Energy (the Department) regarding payment charges for the federal interim storage (FIS) of spent fuel and presents the details of the study results. It describes the selection of a methodology for calculating a FIS fee schedule, sets forth the estimates of cost for construction and operation of FIS facilities, provides a range of estimates for the fee for FIS services, and identifies special contractual considerations associated with providing FIS services to authorized users. The fee is structured for a range of spent fuel capacities because of uncertainties regarding the schedule of availability and amount of spent fuel that may require and qualify for FIS. The results set forth in the report were used as a basis for development of the report entitled Payment Charges for Federal Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Civilian Nuclear Power Plants in the United States, dated July 1983

  16. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  17. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  18. Project UNESA MAAP5-SFP. Criteria for Selecting Lots of Fuel Elements; Proyecto UNESA MAAP5-SFP. Criterios para la Seleccion de Lotes de elementos CombustibleS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira Pereira, P.; Sanchez Fernandez, R.

    2013-07-01

    As a result of the events in the global nuclear sector arising from the Fukushima accident and due to the demand for analysis tools that can be used with confidence to the understanding of the phenomenology of accident resulting UNESA conceived a project with the main objective of analyze and evaluate the capabilities of the module behavior of spent fuel pool (SFP) recently incorporated into the simulation code MAAP5 severe accident, Modular accident Analysis Program.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Toxic Responses of Organic Extracts from Diesel and Selected Alternative Fuels Engine Emissions in Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líbalová, Helena; Rössner ml., Pavel; Vrbová, Kristýna; Brzicová, Táňa; Sikorová, Jitka; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Beránek, V.; Kléma, J.; Cigánek, M.; Neča, J.; Pěnčíková, K.; Machala, M.; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2016), s. 1833 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01438S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : diesel * alternative fuel s * diesel exhaust particles Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  1. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  2. Fuel pin bowing and related investigation of WWER-440 control rod influence on power release inside of neighbouring fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work consists in investigation of the WWER-440 control rod (CR) influence on space power distribution, especially from viewpoint of the values and gradient occurrence that could result in static and cyclic loads with some consequences, e.g. fuel pin bowing. As known, CR can cause power peaks in periphery fuel pins of adjacent operating assemblies because of the butt joint design of the absorbing adapter to the CR fuel part, that is, presence of the water cavity resulting in a flash up of thermal neutrons. As a consequence, beside well-known peaks in axial power distribution, above power gradients can occur inside of mentioned fuel pins. Because of complicated geometry and material composition of the CR, the detailed calculations concerning both above phenomena are complicated, too. Therefore it is useful to acquire appropriate experimental data to investigate mentioned influence and compare them with calculations. Since detailed power distributions cannot be obtained in the NPP, needed information is provided by means of experiments on research reactors. In case of measurements inside of fuel pins, special (e.g. track) detectors placed between fuel pellets are used. Such works are relatively complicated and time consuming, therefore an evaluation based on mathematical modelling and numerical approximation was proposed by means of that, and using measured power release in some selected fuel pins, information about power release inside of one of these fuel pins, can be obtained. For this purpose, an experiment on light water, zero-power research reactor LR-0 was realized and axial power distribution measurements were performed in a WWER-440 type core near to an authentic CR model. Application of the above evaluation method is demonstrated on one ''investigated'' fuel pin neighbouring CR by means of following results: 1. Axial power distribution inside of investigated fuel pin in two opposite positions on its pellets surface that are situated to

  3. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2018-04-03

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  4. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-09-26

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuels and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  5. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  6. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  7. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  8. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  9. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  10. Impacts of GDP, Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption, Energy Consumption Intensity, and Economic Structure on SO2 Emissions: A Multi-Variate Panel Data Model Analysis on Selected Chinese Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution gradually become a focus of concern all over the world owing to its detrimental influence on human health as well as long range impact on global ecosystem. This paper investigated the relationship among SO2 emissions, GDP, fossil fuel energy consumption, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure of five provinces in China with the highest SO2 emissions spanning from 2002–2015 based on panel data model. Through comparatively analyzing the coefficients in the established panel data model for Hebei, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Shanxi, we can obtain that: (1 fossil fuel energy consumption made the most devotion to SO2 discharge compared with GDP, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure. And the more the fossil fuel energy consumption, the more the devotion made by it to SO2 discharge. (2 GDP devoted less to SO2 emissions than fossil fuel energy consumption, and the larger the scale of the economy, the greater the contribution made by it to SO2 emissions. (3 The higher the proportion of the secondary industry added value accounted in GDP, the more the devotion made by the economic structure and energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions. Through analyzing the Granger causality examination results, it can be concluded that: (1 there existed a bi-directional causal relationship between fossil fuel energy consumption and SO2 emissions among five selected provinces. (2 There existed uni-directional causal nexus running from GDP to SO2 emissions, from energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions, and from economic structure to SO2 emissions among five chosen provinces. Based on the empirical analysis, several policy implications were proposed to provide references for policy makers, which were (1 Giving full play to the guiding role of price signals, and improving the price policy for desulfurization. (2 Formulating a new comprehensive evaluation system to measure the regional development level

  11. Artificial neural networks application for solid fuel slagging intensity predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakietek Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slagging issues present in pulverized steam boilers very often lead to heat transfer problems, corrosion and not planned outages of boilers which increase the cost of energy production and decrease the efficiency of energy production. Slagging especially occurs in regions with reductive atmospheres which nowadays are very common due to very strict limitations in NOx emissions. Moreover alternative fuels like biomass which are also used in combustion systems from two decades in order to decrease CO2 emissions also usually increase the risk of slagging. Thus the prediction of slagging properties of fuels is not the minor issue which can be neglected before purchasing or mixing of fuels. This however is rather difficult to estimate and even commonly known standard laboratory methods like fusion temperature determination or special indexers calculated on the basis of proximate and ultimate analyses, very often have no reasonable correlation to real boiler fuel behaviour. In this paper the method of determination of slagging properties of solid fuels based on laboratory investigation and artificial neural networks were presented. A fuel data base with over 40 fuels was created. Neural networks simulations were carried out in order to predict the beginning temperature and intensity of slagging. Reasonable results were obtained for some of tested neural networks, especially for hybrid feedforward networks with PCA technique. Consequently neural network model will be used in Common Intelligent Boiler Operation Platform (CIBOP being elaborated within CERUBIS research project for two BP-1150 and BB-1150 steam boilers. The model among others enables proper fuel selection in order to minimize slagging risk.

  12. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  13. Editorial: Special issue on education

    OpenAIRE

    Masal Ercan; Önder İsmail; Çalışkan Hüseyin; Beşoluk Şenol; Demirhan Eda

    2017-01-01

    This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. I...

  14. Editorial: Special issue on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masal Ercan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. In sum the results of studies will contribute to the field.

  15. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  17. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  18. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  19. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 1. Summary: alternatives for the back of the LWR fuel cycle types and properties of LWR fuel cycle wastes projections of waste quantities; selected glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I of the five-volume report contains executive and technical summaries of the entire report, background information of the LWR fuel cycle alternatives, descriptions of waste types, and projections of waste quantities. Overview characterizations of alternative LWR fuel cycle modes are also included

  20. Review of the IAEA nuclear fuel cycle and material section activities connected with nuclear fuel including WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, F.

    2001-01-01

    Program activities on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials cover the areas of: 1) raw materials (B.1.01); 2) fuel performance and technology (B.1.02); 3) pent fuel (B.1.03); 4) fuel cycle issues and information system (B.1.04); 5) support to technical cooperation activities (B.1.05). The IAEA activities in fuel performance and technology in 2001 include organization of the fuel experts meetings and completion of the Co-ordinate Research Projects (CRP). The special attention is given to the advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel and fuel behavior under transients and LOCA conditions. An international research program on modeling of activity transfer in primary circuit of NPP is finalized in 2001. A new CRP on fuel modeling at extended burnup (FUMEX II) has planed to be carried out during the period 2002-2006. In the area of spent fuel management the implementation of burnup credit (BUC) in spent fuel management systems has motivated to be used in criticality safety applications, based on economic consideration. An overview of spent fuel storage policy accounting new fuel features as higher enrichment and final burnup, usage of MOX fuel and prolongation of the term of spent fuel storage is also given

  1. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  2. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  3. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  4. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  5. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  6. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  7. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  8. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  9. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction (explaining the special interest of the London Borough of Brent, as forming part of the route for transportation of irradiated fuel elements); nuclear power (with special reference to transport of spent fuel and radioactive wastes); the flask aspect (design, safety regulations, criticisms, tests, etc.); the accident aspect (working manual for rail staff, train formation, responsibility, postulated accident situations); the emergency arrangements aspect; the monitoring aspect (health and safety reports); legislation; contingency plans; radiation - relevant background information. (U.K.)

  10. Development of CANDU high-burnup fuel fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, H. C.; Kwon, H. I.; Ji, C. G.; Cho, M. S.; Chang, H. I.

    1997-07-01

    This study is focused on the achievement of the fabrication process improvement of CANFLEX-NU and for this purpose, following two areas of basic research were executed this year. 1) development of amorphous alloy for use in brazing of nuclear materials. 2) development of ECT techniques for the end-cap weld inspection. Also, preliminary feasibility analyses on the characteristics and handling techniques of CANFLEX-RU fuel were executed this year. - Selection of optimum conversion process of RU power -Characterization of the composition of RU power - Radiological characterization of RU power and sintered pellets - Compaction and sintering characteristics of RU power - Required special process for the production of CANFLEX-RU fuel - Development of technical specification for RU powder and pellets. In addition, technical support activities were performed for in-pile and out-pile fuel performance tests such as precision measurement of out-pile test fuel dimensions, establishment of quality control technique on fuel bundle by providing bundle kits to AECL for use in-pile irradiation tests in the NRU research reactor. (author). 57 refs., 16 tabs.,40 figs

  11. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  12. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-07

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  17. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-07-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  18. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2012-04-03

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  19. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seigoro.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of a thermal neutron absorber showing ultraplasticity is dispersed in oxide ceramic fuels by more than 1% to 10% or lower. The ultrafine particles of the thermal neutron absorber showing ultrafine plasticity is selected from any one of ZrGd, HfEu, HfY, HfGd, ZrEu, and ZrY. The thermal neutron absorber is converted into ultrafine particles and solid-solubilized in a nuclear fuel pellet, so that the dispersion thereof into nuclear fuels is made uniform and an absorbing performance of the thermal neutrons is also made uniform. Moreover, the characteristics thereof, for example, physical properties such as expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the nuclear fuels are also improved. The neutron absorber, such as ZrGd or the like, can provide plasticity of nuclear fuels, if it is mixed into the nuclear fuels for showing the plasticity. The nuclear fuel pellets are deformed like an hour glass as burning, but, since the end portion thereof is deformed plastically within a range of a repulsive force of the cladding tube, there is no worry of damaging a portion of the cladding tube. (N.H.)

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  2. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Keywords: transport, alternative types of fuels, natural gas vehicle fuel, ... environmentally friendly, and therefore find application as a public transport [7]. ..... Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport Systems ...

  5. Changes of the level of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players of 14–15 years old as a result of the specially selective exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Biykova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine changes of the level of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players of 14–15 years old under the influence of the specially selective sets of exercises. Material and Methods: test exercises, one of which is recommended by the training program of CYSS of beach handball, two others were created proceeding from the content of the game activity in beach handball, the analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical information processing were used for the definition of the level of development of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players. Results: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature revealed gaps in questions of training of beach handball players, in particular in physical preparation. It moved us making the use of experience of the educational and training work in beach volleyball, to make sets of exercises, which are aimed at the development high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players. Conclusions: the positive reliable changes are received (t=2,19–2,32 at p≤0,05 of the level of high-speed and power abilities of players of 14-15 years old under the influence of the sets of exercises which are offered by us, allows us to recommend them for use in the educational and training process of beach handball players

  6. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  7. Advantages and implications of U233 fueled thermionic space power energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper two recent analyses are reported which demonstrate advantages of a U233 fueled thermionic fuel element (TFE) compared to 93 w/o U235, and that application (mission) has broad latitude in how space power reactor systems could or should be optimized. A reference thermionic reactor system was selected to provide the basis for the fuel comparisons. Both oxide and metal fuel forms were compared. Of special interest was to estimate the efficiencies of the four fuel forms to produce electrical power. A figure of merit (FOM) was defined which is directly proportional to the electrical average electrical power produced is proportional to the electrical power produced per unit uranium mass. In a TFE the average electrical power produced is proportional to the emitter surface area (Esa), hence the ratio Esa/Mu was selected as the FOM. Results indicate that the choice of fuel type and form leads to wide variations in critical and system masses FOM values, and system total power

  8. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  9. Fuel cells for naval aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)

  10. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  11. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  12. The design of cermet fuel phase fraction and fuel particle diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Sheng.

    1986-01-01

    UO 2 -Zr-2 is an ideal cermet fuel. As an exemplification with this fuel, this paper emphatically elucidates the irradiation theory of cermet fuel and its application in the design of cermet fuel phase fraction and of fuel particle diameter. From the point of view of the irradiation theory and the consideration for sandwich rolling, the suitable volume fraction of UO 2 phase of 25% and diameter of UO 2 particle of 100 +- 15 μm are selected

  13. Leaking Fuel Impacts and Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Peter; Somfai, Barbara; Cherubini, Marco; Aldworth, Robin; Waeckel, Nicolas; Delorme, Tim; Dickson, Raymond; Fujii, Hajime; Rey Gayo, Jose Maria; Grant, Wade; Gorzel, Andreas; Hellwig, Christian; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Klouzal, Jan; Miklos, Marek; Nagase, Fumihisa; Nilsson, Marcus; Petit, Marc; Richards, Stuart; Lundqvist Saleh, Tobias; Stepniewski, Marek; Sim, Ki Seob; ); Rehacek, Radomir; Kissane, Martin; )

    2014-01-01

    The impact of leaking fuel rods on the operation of nuclear power plants and the practices of handling leaking fuel has been reviewed by the CSNI Working Group on Fuel Safety in order to promote a better understanding on the handling of leaking fuel in power reactors, as well as to discuss and review the current practices in member countries to help in decisions on the specification of reactor operation conditions with leaking fuel rods and on the handling of leaking fuel after removal from reactor. Experts from 15 countries provided data on the handling of leaking fuel in PWR, BWR, VVER and PHWR reactor types. The review covered the operation of NPP reactors with leaking fuel, wet and dry storage and transport of leaking assemblies. The methods and applied instruments to identify leaking fuel assemblies and the repair of them were addressed in the review. Special attention was paid to the activity release from leaking rods in the reactor and under storage conditions. The consideration of leaking fuel in safety analyses on core behaviour during postulated accidents was also discussed in the review. The main conclusions of the review pointed out that the activity release from leaking fuel rods in the reactor can be handled by technological systems, or in case of failure of too many rods the reactor can be shutdown to minimize activity release. Under accident conditions and operational transients the leaking rods may produce coolant activity concentration peaks. The storage of spent leaking fuel is normally characterised by moderate release of radionuclides from the fuel. The power plants apply limits for activity concentration to limit the amount of leaking rods in the core. In different countries, the accident analyses take into consideration the potential release from leaking fuel rods in design basis accidents in different ways. Some power plants apply special tools for handling and repair of leaking assemblies and rods. The leaking rods are stored together with

  14. Fuel cycle studies for the Dragon HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoisa, J A; Nunn, R M; Twitchin, A E

    1971-02-15

    This note reports the progress made at B.N.L. in the study of the fuel cycle for the HTR design described by Daub (1970). The primary purpose of the study is to examine the special problems of the approach to equilibrium fuel cycle.

  15. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2000-04-01

    It is well known that the operation of dual fuel engines at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To rectify this problem, tests have been conducted on a special single cylinder compression ignition research engine (Ricardo E6) to investigate the effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of an indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with gaseous fuel. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel and methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted into the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. Through experimental investigations, it is shown that, the low efficiency and excess emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the amount of pilot fuel, while increasing the amount of pilot fuel at high loads led to early knocking. (author)

  16. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  1. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  2. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  3. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  4. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), in collaboration with the nuclear industry, has been conducting research and development (R&D) activities on advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels for the last few years. The emphasis for these activities was on improving the fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization and increased power density for power upgrades, as well as collaborating with industry on fuel reliability. After the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, Conference Report 112-75, the U.S. Congress directed DOE-NE to: • Give “priority to developing enhanced fuels and cladding for light water reactors to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools.” • Give “special technical emphasis and funding priority…to activities aimed at the development and near-term qualification of meltdown-resistant, accident-tolerant nuclear fuels that would enhance the safety of present and future generations of light water reactors.” • Report “to the Committee, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on its plan for development of meltdown-resistant fuels leading to reactor testing and utilization by 2020.” Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The overall draft strategy for development and demonstration is comprised of three phases: Feasibility Assessment and Down-selection; Development and Qualification; and

  5. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  14. Assessment of fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Barner, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relative merits of various LWR UO 2 fuel concepts with the potential for improved power-ramping capability were qualitatively assessed. In the evaluation, it was determined that of the various concepts being considered, those that presently possess an adequately developed experience base include annular pellets, cladding coated with graphite on the inner surface, and packed-particle fuel. Therefore, these were selected for initial evaluation as part of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. For this program, graphite-coated cladding is being used in conjunction with annular pellet fuel as one of the concepts with the anticipation of gaining the advantage of the combined improvements. The report discusses the following: the criteria used to evaluate the candidate fuel concepts; a comparison of the concepts selected for irradiation with the criteria, including a general description of their experience bases; and a general discussion of other candidate concepts, including identifying those which may be considered for out-of-reactor evaluation as part of this program, those for which the results of other programs will be monitored, and those which have been deleted from further consideration at this time

  15. Proceedings of fuel strategies for conventional and unconventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahr, D.; Nechvatal, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    Fuel selection is a major decision for a power engineer. It is the single largest item in the power plant operating budget and has a major effect on power plant economics. Fuel determines plant design requirements and the types of systems that are provided. As a result, it affects capital budgets and financing requirements. In the last few decades, we have seen different fuels of choice at any one time. Coal has always been a staple for power generation. During the 1950s and 1960s, oil became an attractive alternative. Nuclear fuel became a popular choice due to its very low energy cost. After Three-Mile-Island, however, capital budgets went through the roof, resulting in severe financial constraints. Natural gas, which was rationed in some regions a few years ago, is now a popular choice. Some sources predict that its cost will increase faster than other fuels. To mitigate the relative variations in energy cost for different fuels, a balanced energy plan is required. A balanced power generation plan with fuel options provides the flexibility to react to unpredictable changes. The papers in this book are a continuation of the Fuel Strategies theme. Three technical topics are covered: Converting to Orimulsion, A Replacement Fuel for Heavy Oil; Innovations in Handling Conventional and Unconventional Fuels for Power Plants; and Pacific Rim Experience With Coal

  16. Automated nuclear fuel rod pattern loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.V.; Nylund, T.W.; Byers, J.W.; Haley, D.E. Jr.; Cioffi, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for loading fuel rods in a desired pattern. It comprises providing a supply of fuel rods of known enrichments; providing a magazine defining a matrix of elongated slots open at their forward ends for receiving fuel rods; defining a fuel rod feed path; receiving successively one at a time along the feed path fuel rods selected from the supply thereof; verifying successively one at a time along the feed path the identity of the selected fuel rods, the verifying including blocking passage of each selected fuel rod along the feed path until the identity of each selected fuel rod is confirmed as correct; feeding to the magazine successively one at a time along the feed path the selective and verified fuel rods; and supporting and moving the magazine along X-Y axes to successively align one at a time selected ones of the slots with the feed path for loading in the magazine the successive fuel rods in a desired enrichment pattern

  17. The Fuel Handbook 2012; Braenslehandboken 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie

    2012-04-15

    This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method of evaluating different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but not including household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or which are judged to have the potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 31 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experience, recommendations, risks when using the fuels and literature references are outlined for each fuel. The handbook also contains 1. A proposed route to follow when one plans to introduce a new fuel. Those analyses and tests one should perform to reduce the risk of encountering problems. 2. A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with directions as to where relevant documentation can be found. 3. Theory and background to judge the fuel's combustion, ash and corrosion properties and different methods that can be used for such judgement. 4. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks for biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and details on where further information on the fuels can be found, with the help of links to different web sites. Included in the annexes are 1. A proposal for a standard procedure for test burning of fuel. 2. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition and key numbers. In addition, calculations routines for different units for a number of different applications are provided

  18. The Fuel Handbook 2012; Braenslehandboken 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie

    2012-04-15

    This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method of evaluating different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but not including household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or which are judged to have the potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 31 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experience, recommendations, risks when using the fuels and literature references are outlined for each fuel. The handbook also contains 1. A proposed route to follow when one plans to introduce a new fuel. Those analyses and tests one should perform to reduce the risk of encountering problems. 2. A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with directions as to where relevant documentation can be found. 3. Theory and background to judge the fuel's combustion, ash and corrosion properties and different methods that can be used for such judgement. 4. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks for biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and details on where further information on the fuels can be found, with the help of links to different web sites. Included in the annexes are 1. A proposal for a standard procedure for test burning of fuel. 2. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition and key numbers. In addition, calculations routines for different units for a number of different applications are provided

  19. METMET fuel with Zirconium matrix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.; Konovalov, I.; Totev, T.

    2008-01-01

    The novel type of WWER-1000 fuel has been designed at A.A. Bochvar Institute. Instead of WWER-1000 UO 2 pelletized fuel rod we apply dispersion type fuel element with uniformly distributed high uranium content granules of U9Mo, U5Nb5Zr, U3Si alloys metallurgically bonded between themselves and to cladding by a specially developed Zr-base matrix alloy. The fuel meat retains a controllable porosity to accommodate fuel swelling. The optimal volume ratios between the components are: 64% fuel, 18% matrix, 18% pores. Properties of novel materials as well as fuel compositions on their base have been investigated. Method of fuel elements fabrication by capillary impregnation has been developed. The primary advantages of novel fuel are high uranium content (more than 15% in comparison with the standard UO 2 pelletized fuel rod), low temperature of fuel ( * d/tU) and serviceability under transient conditions. The use of the novel fuel might lead to natural uranium saving and reduced amounts of spent fuel as well as to optimization of Nuclear Plant operation conditions and improvements of their operation reliability and safety. As a result the economic efficiency shall increase and the cost of electric power shall decrease. (authors)

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value