WorldWideScience

Sample records for specialized outer layer

  1. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  2. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  3. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin.

    Fabacher, D L; Little, E E

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  4. Dust in the outer layers of the Barnard 5 globule

    Il'in, V. B.; Efimov, Yu S.; Khudyakova, T. N.; Prokopjeva, M. S.; Varivoda, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of our UBVRI polarimetric observations of a dozen stars located close to the well-studied Bok globule Barnard 5 (B5), with several of the stars being seen through its outer layers (with AV up to ˜3 mag). Using recent astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys, we estimate the distance, spectral class and visual extinction for the observed stars and find that the results are in a good agreement with the available 3D extinction maps. We use a two-layer dust model of interstellar polarization towards B5, in which the layer closer to us is an extension of the Taurus cloud complex, and the farther one (including B5 and its halo) is related to the Perseus cloud complex (d ≈ 280-350 pc). Using spectral, photometric and polarimetric data on about 30 additional stars, we estimate the parameters of the former layer as λmax ≈ 0.56 μm, Pmax ≈ 0.7 per cent, θ ≈ 50°, AV ≈ 0.7 mag, and show that the observed wavelength dependence of the position angle for the stars observed generally agrees with the two-layer model. We find that when the stars are seen through the globule layers with AV = 2-3 mag, λmax ≈ 0.6-0.8 μm, which differs significantly from the λmax = 0.52-0.58 μm obtained by us for the diffuse interstellar medium in the direction of B5. We discuss the correlation of λmax with the optical thickness into the globule as well as other correlations of the extinction and polarization parameters.

  5. On the theory of helium diffusion in stellar outer layers

    Ponce D, S.; Verga, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the approximations usually made in the different approaches to diffusion in stellar outer layers. We analyze the hypotheses of binary diffusion and diffusion over a non altered background both analytically and numerically. Numerical calculations are applied to central stars of planetary nebulae in which a depletion of helium is observed. We find that in this case helium diffusion may be considered as a binary process but cannot be decoupled from the structure computation. We present an alternative method for studying diffusion and apply it to the central stars. We thus solve a stationary hydrodynamic model for a completely ionized H-He plasma, which takes into account consistently the behavior of all the species. We find equilibrium abundance distributions very different from those obtained according to the trace element approaches while helium and electron densities increase with depth in the atmosphere, protons tend to decrease. However, preliminary studies of the stability show that these are not the actual distributions. (author)

  6. Origin of the outer layer of martian low-aspect ratio layered ejecta craters

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Wilson, Lionel; Barlow, Nadine G.

    2015-01-01

    Low-aspect ratio layered ejecta (LARLE) craters are one of the most enigmatic types of martian layered ejecta craters. We propose that the extensive outer layer of these craters is produced through the same base surge mechanism as that which produced the base surge deposits generated by near-surface, buried nuclear and high-explosive detonations. However, the LARLE layers have higher aspect ratios compared with base surge deposits from explosion craters, a result of differences in thicknesses of these layers. This characteristics is probably caused by the addition of large amounts of small particles of dust and ice derived from climate-related mantles of snow, ice and dust in the areas where LARLE craters form. These deposits are likely to be quickly stabilized (order of a few days to a few years) from eolian erosion by formation of duricrust produced by diffusion of water vapor out of the deposits.

  7. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    Campbell,; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay, A [Oviedo, FL

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  8. Protecting peroxidase activity of multilayer enzyme-polyion films using outer catalase layers.

    Lu, Haiyun; Rusling, James F; Hu, Naifei

    2007-12-27

    Films constructed layer-by-layer on electrodes with architecture {protein/hyaluronic acid (HA)}n containing myoglobin (Mb) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were protected against protein damage by H2O2 by using outer catalase layers. Peroxidase activity for substrate oxidation requires activation by H2O2, but {protein/HA}n films without outer catalase layers are damaged slowly and irreversibly by H2O2. The rate and extent of damage were decreased dramatically by adding outer catalase layers to decompose H2O2. Comparative studies suggest that protection results from catalase decomposing a fraction of the H2O2 as it enters the film, rather than by an in-film diffusion barrier. The outer catalase layers controlled the rate of H2O2 entry into inner regions of the film, and they biased the system to favor electrocatalytic peroxide reduction over enzyme damage. Catalase-protected {protein/HA}n films had an increased linear concentration range for H2O2 detection. This approach offers an effective way to protect biosensors from damage by H2O2.

  9. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; (Stanford-MED); (CH-Boston)

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  10. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the goldfish retina

    Joselevitch, Christina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    We studied the localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the goldfish outer plexiform layer by light-and electron-microscopical immunohistochemistry. The mGluR1alpha antibody labeled putative ON-type bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes in both rod spherules and

  11. Formation of the outer layer of the Dictyostelium spore coat depends on the inner-layer protein SP85/PsB.

    Metcalf, Talibah; Kelley, Karen; Erdos, Gregory W; Kaplan, Lee; West, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    The Dictyostelium spore is surrounded by a 220 microm thick trilaminar coat that consists of inner and outer electron-dense layers surrounding a central region of cellulose microfibrils. In previous studies, a mutant strain (TL56) lacking three proteins associated with the outer layer exhibited increased permeability to macromolecular tracers, suggesting that this layer contributes to the coat permeability barrier. Electron microscopy now shows that the outer layer is incomplete in the coats of this mutant and consists of a residual regular array of punctate electron densities. The outer layer is also incomplete in a mutant lacking a cellulose-binding protein associated with the inner layer, and these coats are deficient in an outer-layer protein and another coat protein. To examine the mechanism by which this inner-layer protein, SP85, contributes to outer-layer formation, various domain fragments were overexpressed in forming spores. Most of these exert dominant negative effects similar to the deletion of outer-layer proteins, but one construct, consisting of a fusion of the N-terminal and Cys-rich C1 domain, induces a dense mat of novel filaments at the surface of the outer layer. Biochemical studies show that the C1 domain binds cellulose, and a combination of site-directed mutations that inhibits its cellulose-binding activity suppresses outer-layer filament induction. The results suggest that, in addition to a previously described early role in regulating cellulose synthesis, SP85 subsequently contributes a cross-bridging function between cellulose and other coat proteins to organize previously unrecognized structural elements in the outer layer of the coat.

  12. Composition Effect of the Outer Layer on the Vesicle Fusion Catalyzed by Phospholipase D

    Park, Jin Won [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzed the generation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from phosphatidylcholine (PC) at the outer layer of the vesicles prepared through layer by layer via a double emulsion technique. The generation induced a curvature change in the vesicles, which eventually led them to fuse each other. The ratio of two-fattyacid-tail ethanolamine (PE) to one-fatty-acid-tail ethanolamine (PE) was found to acquire the condition where the mixed-phospholipid vesicles were stable identically with pure two-fatty-acid-tail PC. The effect of the outer-layer mixture on the PLD-induced vesicle fusion was investigated using the fluorescence intensity change. 8-Aminonaph- thalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid disodium salt (ANTS) and p-Xylene-bis(N-pyridinium bromide) (DPX) were encapsulated in the vesicles, respectively, for the quantification of the fusion. The fluorescence scale was calibrated with the fluorescence of a 1/1 mixture of ANTS and DPX vesicles in NaCl buffer taken as 100% fluorescence (0% fusion) and the vesicles containing both ANTS and DPX as 0% fluorescence (100% fusion), considering the leakage into the medium studied directly in a separate experiment using vesicles containing both ANTS and DPX. The fusion data for each composition were acquired with the subtraction of the leakage from the quenching. From the monitoring, the vesicle fusion caused by the PLD reaction seems dominantly to occur rather than the vesicle lysis, because the composition effect on the fusion was observed identically with that on the change in the vesicle structure. Furthermore, the diameter measurements also support the fusion dominancy.

  13. Mechanical modelling quantifies the functional importance of outer tissue layers during root elongation and bending

    Dyson, Rosemary J; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Band, Leah R; Fernandes, Anwesha N; French, Andrew P; Fozard, John A; Hodgman, T Charlie; Kenobi, Kim; Pridmore, Tony P; Stout, Michael; Wells, Darren M; Wilson, Michael H; Bennett, Malcolm J; Jensen, Oliver E

    2014-01-01

    Root elongation and bending require the coordinated expansion of multiple cells of different types. These processes are regulated by the action of hormones that can target distinct cell layers. We use a mathematical model to characterise the influence of the biomechanical properties of individual cell walls on the properties of the whole tissue. Taking a simple constitutive model at the cell scale which characterises cell walls via yield and extensibility parameters, we derive the analogous tissue-level model to describe elongation and bending. To accurately parameterise the model, we take detailed measurements of cell turgor, cell geometries and wall thicknesses. The model demonstrates how cell properties and shapes contribute to tissue-level extensibility and yield. Exploiting the highly organised structure of the elongation zone (EZ) of the Arabidopsis root, we quantify the contributions of different cell layers, using the measured parameters. We show how distributions of material and geometric properties across the root cross-section contribute to the generation of curvature, and relate the angle of a gravitropic bend to the magnitude and duration of asymmetric wall softening. We quantify the geometric factors which lead to the predominant contribution of the outer cell files in driving root elongation and bending. PMID:24641449

  14. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  15. Normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by software image enhancing based on Stratus optical coherence tomography images

    Christensen, U.C.; Krøyer, K.; Thomadsen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    backscattered light within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in the fovea was registered and compared with backscattered light within the ONL in the peripheral part of the macula (I-ratio-ONL). Results: The mean RPE-OScomplex thickness in the foveal centre was 77.2 mu m (SD = 3.95). The RPE-OScomplex thickness...... in the superior macula 0.5-3 mm of the centre was significantly increased as compared with the corresponding inferior retina. In healthy subjects, the I-ratio-ONL was 1.06. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced OCT images enable quantification of outer photoreceptor layer thickness, and normative values may help...

  16. Relationship between Outer Retinal Layers Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    Raymond L. M. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the correlation of outer retinal layers (ORL thickness and visual acuity (VA in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME. Methods. Consecutive DME patients seen at the Retina Clinic of The University of Hong Kong were recruited for OCT assessment. The ORL thickness was defined as the distance between external limiting membrane (ELM and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE at the foveal center. The correlation between total retinal thickness, ORL thickness, and vision was calculated. Results. 78 patients with DME were recruited. The mean age was 58.1 years (±11.5 years and their mean visual acuity measured with Snellen chart was 0.51 (±0.18. The correlation coefficient between total retinal thickness and visual acuity was 0.34 (P < 0.001 whereas the correlation coefficient was 0.65 between ORL thickness and visual acuity (P < 0.001. Conclusion. ORL thickness correlates better with vision than the total retinal thickness. It is a novel OCT parameter in the assessment of DME. Moreover, it could be a potential long term visual prognostic factor for patients with DME.

  17. EXACT SOLUTION OF HEAT CONDUCTION IN A TWO-DOMAIN COMPOSITE CYLINDER WITH AN ORTHOTROPIC OUTER LAYER

    AVILES-RAMOS, C.; RUDY, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transient exact solution of heat conduction in a two-domain composite cylinder is developed using the separation of variables technique. The inner cylinder is isotropic and the outer cylindrical layer is orthotropic. Temperature solutions are obtained for boundary conditions of the first and second kinds at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer. These solutions are applied to heat flow calorimeters modeling assuming that there is heat generation due to nuclear reactions in the inner cylinder. Heat flow calorimeter simulations are carried out assuming that the inner cylinder is filled with plutonium oxide powder. The first objective in these simulations is to predict the onset of thermal equilibrium of the calorimeter with its environment. Two types of boundary conditions at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer are used to predict thermal equilibrium. The procedure developed to carry out these simulations can be used as a guideline for the design of calorimeters. Another important application of these solutions is on the estimation of thermophysical properties of orthotropic cylinders. The thermal conductivities in the vertical, radial and circumferential directions of the orthotropic outer layer can be estimated using this exact solution and experimental data. Simultaneous estimation of the volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivities is also possible. Furthermore, this solution has potential applications to the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem in this cylindrical geometry. An interesting feature of the construction of this solution is that two different sets of eigenfunctions need to be considered in the eigenfunction expansion. These eigenfunctions sets depend on the relative values of the thermal diffusivity of the inner cylinder and the thermal diffusivity in the vertical direction of the outer cylindrical layer

  18. Secretory IgA is Concentrated in the Outer Layer of Colonic Mucus along with Gut Bacteria

    Eric W. Rogier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies of the secretory IgA (SIgA class comprise the first line of antigen-specific immune defense, preventing access of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and their secreted products into the body proper. In addition to preventing infection, SIgA shapes the composition of the gut microbiome. SIgA is transported across intestinal epithelial cells into gut secretions by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The epithelial surface is protected by a thick network of mucus, which is composed of a dense, sterile inner layer and a loose outer layer that is colonized by commensal bacteria. Immunofluorescence microscopy of mouse and human colon tissues demonstrated that the SIgA co-localizes with gut bacteria in the outer mucus layer. Using mice genetically deficient for pIgR and/or mucin-2 (Muc2, the major glycoprotein of intestinal mucus, we found that Muc2 but not SIgA was necessary for excluding gut bacteria from the inner mucus layer in the colon. Our findings support a model whereby SIgA is anchored in the outer layer of colonic mucus through combined interactions with mucin proteins and gut bacteria, thus providing immune protection against pathogens while maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with commensals.

  19. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a kvlcc model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    An Nam Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15~2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  20. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a KVLCC model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Nam Hyun An

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15∼2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  1. Analysis of gene expression in the outer cell layers of Arabidopsis roots during lateral root development

    Veth-Tello, Luz Marina

    2005-01-01

    Lateral roots are an important means for the plant to increase its absorptive area and the volume of substrate exploited. Lateral roots originate in the pericycle, the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder, and by growing penetrate the overlaying cell layers before emergence. This process is

  2. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in

  3. A laser syringe aimed at delivering drug into the outer layer of human skin

    Yoh, Jack J.; Jang, Hun-jae; Park, Mi-ae; Han, Tae-hee; Hah, Jung-moo

    2012-07-01

    A desire to eliminate hypodermic needle in transdermal drug delivery may now be realized. Imaging of the skin after injection of fluorescent probe and biotin via the bio-ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 μm underneath the abdominal skin of the guinea-pig. An extensive network of cells are shown in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dose is administered by repeated injection via the laser-based microjet. Here, we show our method of laser-based microjet drug delivery is capable of breaching guinea-pig's skin tissue and then delivering controlled dose of drug to the targeted region between 10 to 400 μm underneath the outermost layer of the skin. While minimizing pain and tissue damage by reducing the injection volume to ˜100 nl per pulse and the microjet diameter of half the conventional syringe needle in 100 μm, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drug by the irradiated laser pulse is shown possible.

  4. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  5. A Theoretical Study of the Outer Layers of Eight Kepler F-stars: The Relevance of Ionization Processes

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the theoretical model envelopes of eight Kepler F-stars by computing the phase shift of the acoustic waves, α (ω ), and its related function, β (ω ). The latter is shown to be a powerful probe of the external stellar layers since it is particularly sensitive to the partial ionization zones located in these upper layers. We found that these theoretical envelopes can be organized into two groups, each of which is characterized by a distinct β (ω ) shape that we show to reflect the differences related to the magnitudes of ionization processes. Since β (ω ) can also be determined from the experimental frequencies, we compared our theoretical results with the observable β (ω ). Using the function β (ω ), and with the purpose of quantifying the magnitude of the ionization processes occurring in the outer layers of these stars, we define two indexes, {{Δ }}{β }1 and {{Δ }}{β }2. These indexes allow us to connect the microphysics of the interior of the star with macroscopic observable characteristics. Motivated by the distinct magnetic activity behaviors of F-stars, we studied the relation between the star’s rotation period and these indexes. We found a trend, in the form of a power-law dependence, that favors the idea that ionization is acting as an underlying mechanism, which is crucial for understanding the relation between rotation and magnetism and even observational features such as the Kraft break.

  6. Penetration of steady fluid motions into an outer stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells

    Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Youhei

    2018-03-01

    Penetration of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disturbances into an upper strongly stratified stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells is investigated. The theoretical model proposed by Takehiro (2015) is reexamined in the case of steady fluid motion below the bottom boundary. Steady disturbances penetrate into a density stratified MHD fluid existing in the semi-infinite region in the vertical direction. The axis of rotation of the system is tilted with respect to the vertical. The basic magnetic field is uniform and may be tilted with respect to the vertical and the rotation axis. Linear dispersion relation shows that the penetration distance with zero frequency depends on the amplitude of Alfvén wave speed. When Alfvén wave speed is small, viscous diffusion becomes dominant and penetration distance is similar to the horizontal scale of the disturbance at the lower boundary. In contrast, when Alfvén wave speed becomes larger, disturbance can penetrate deeper, and penetration distance becomes proportional to the Alfvén wave speed and inversely proportional to the geometric average of viscous and magnetic diffusion coefficients and to the total horizontal wavenumber. The analytic expression of penetration distance is in good agreement with the extent of penetration of mean zonal flow induced by finite amplitude convection in a rotating spherical shell with an upper stably stratified layer embedded in an axially uniform basic magnetic field. The theory expects that the stable layer suggested in the upper part of the outer core of the earth could be penetrated completely by mean zonal flows excited by thermal/compositional convection developing below the stable layer.

  7. Monolithic pixel development in TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    Berdalovic, I.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Cardella, R.; Egidos Plaja, N.; Hemperek, T.; Hiti, B.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Sharma, A.; Snoeys, W.; Solans Sanchez, C.; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS tracking detector (ITk) for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires the development of novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Latest developments in CMOS sensor processing offer the possibility of combining high-resistivity substrates with on-chip high-voltage biasing to achieve a large depleted active sensor volume. We have characterised depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which were produced in a novel modified imaging process implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process in the framework of the monolithic sensor development for the ALICE experiment. Sensors fabricated in this modified process feature full depletion of the sensitive layer, a sensor capacitance of only a few fF and radiation tolerance up to 1015 neq/cm2. This paper summarises the measurements of charge collection properties in beam tests and in the laboratory using radioactive sources and edge TCT. The results of these measurements show significantly improved radiation hardness obtained for sensors manufactured using the modified process. This has opened the way to the design of two large scale demonstrators for the ATLAS ITk. To achieve a design compatible with the requirements of the outer pixel layers of the tracker, a charge sensitive front-end taking 500 nA from a 1.8 V supply is combined with a fast digital readout architecture. The low-power front-end with a 25 ns time resolution exploits the low sensor capacitance to reduce noise and analogue power, while the implemented readout architectures minimise power by reducing the digital activity.

  8. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures

  9. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-07-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

  10. Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in mice: correlation with HPLC quantitation of RPE lipofuscin and measurement of retina outer nuclear layer thickness.

    Sparrow, Janet R; Blonska, Anna; Flynn, Erin; Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Secondi, Roberta; Ueda, Keiko; Delori, François C

    2013-04-17

    Our study was conducted to establish procedures and protocols for quantitative autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in mice, and to report changes in qAF, A2E bisretinoid concentration, and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in mice of different genotypes and age. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) images (55° lens, 488 nm excitation) were acquired in albino Abca4(-/-), Abca4(+/-), and Abca4(+/+) mice (ages 2-12 months) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). Gray levels (GLs) in each image were calibrated to an internal fluorescence reference. The bisretinoid A2E was measured by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histometric analysis of ONL thicknesses was performed. The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (95% confidence interval) was ±18% for between-session qAF measurements. Mean qAF values increased with age (2-12 months) in all groups of mice. qAF was approximately 2-fold higher in Abca4(-/-) mice than in Abca4(+/+) mice and approximately 20% higher in heterozygous mice. HPLC measurements of the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E also revealed age-associated increases, and the fold difference between Abca4(-/-) and wild-type mice was more pronounced (approximately 3-4-fold) than measurable by qAF. Moreover, A2E levels declined after 8 months of age, a change not observed with qAF. The decline in A2E levels in the Abca4(-/-) mice corresponded to reduced photoreceptor cell viability as reflected in ONL thinning beginning at 8 months of age. The qAF method enables measurement of in vivo lipofuscin and the detection of genotype and age-associated differences. The use of this approach has the potential to aid in understanding retinal disease processes and will facilitate preclinical studies.

  11. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  12. Preface to special issue: Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region

    Chu, Xinzhao; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2017-09-01

    Historically, the Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) workshops have focused on studies of mesospheric clouds and their related science, including spectacular noctilucent clouds (NLCs), polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs). This is because, in the pre-technology era, these high-altitude ( 85 km) clouds revealed the existence of substance above the 'normal atmosphere' - our near-space environment is not empty! The occurrence and nature of these clouds have commanded the attention of atmospheric and space scientists for generations. Modern technologies developed in the last 50 years have enabled scientists to significantly advance our understanding of these layered phenomena. Satellite observations expanded these studies to global scales, while lidar and radar observations from the ground enabled fine-scale studies. The launch of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite in 2007 brought mesospheric cloud research to a more mature level.

  13. Preface to the special issue of PSS on "Surfaces, atmospheres and magnetospheres of the outer planets, their satellites and ring systems: Part XII″

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.; Spilker, L.; Strazzulla, G.

    2018-06-01

    This issue contains six articles on original research and review papers presented in the past year in sessions organized during several international meetings and congresses including the European Geosciences Union (EGU), European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and others. The manuscripts cover recent observations and models of the atmospheres, magnetospheres and surfaces of the giant planets and their satellites based on ongoing and recent planetary missions. Concepts of architecture and payload for future space missions are also presented. The six articles in this special issue cover a variety of objects in the outer solar system ranging from Jupiter to Neptune and the possibilities for their exploration. A brief introductory summary of their findings follows.

  14. Narrative Texture: The Layering of Voices in a Secondary Classroom for Learners with Special Needs

    Blair, Deborah V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I explore the layers of voices represented in a classroom of high school students with special needs. As their guest music teacher, I learned about their strengths and challenges, their teachers, and their engagement with music. Issues of inclusion, access, privacy, and personal bias confronted me as I worked to construct narratives…

  15. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated. PMID:29259611

  16. A Fungus-Inducible Pepper Carboxylesterase Exhibits Antifungal Activity by Decomposing the Outer Layer of Fungal Cell Walls.

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Park, Sangkyu; Han, Yun-Jeong; Hoang, Quyen T N; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2018-05-01

    Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes. Moreover, we examined the decomposition of cell-wall materials from the fungal surface after reaction with PepEST, which led to the identification of 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol (DTD) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Exogenous DTD treatment did not elicit expression of defense-related genes in the host plant but did trigger the necrosis of C. gloeosporioides. Furthermore, the DTD compound displayed protective effects on pepper fruits and plants against C. gloeosporioides and C. coccodes, respectively. In addition, DTD was also effective in preventing other diseases, such as rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust. Therefore, our results provide evidence that PepEST is involved in hydrolysis of the outmost layer of the fungal cell walls and that DTD has antifungal activity, suggesting an alternative strategy to control agronomically important phytopathogens.

  17. Outer magnetosphere

    Schardt, A.W.; Behannon, K.W.; Lepping, R.P.; Carbary, J.F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc

  18. Abundance of the multiheme c-type cytochrome OmcB increases in outer biofilm layers of electrode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Camille S Stephen

    Full Text Available When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10-20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0-10 µm. In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth.

  19. Methods of generalizing and classifying layer structures of a special form

    Viktorova, N P

    1981-09-01

    An examination is made of the problem of classifying structures represented by weighted multilayer graphs of special form with connections between the vertices of each layer. The classification of structures of such a form is based on the construction of resolving sets of graphs as a result of generalization of the elements of the training sample of each class and the testing of whether an input object is isomorphic (with allowance for the weights) to the structures of the resolving set or not. 4 references.

  20. Preface: Special Topic on Atomic and Molecular Layer Processing: Deposition, Patterning, and Etching

    Engstrom, James R.; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    Thin film processing technologies that promise atomic and molecular scale control have received increasing interest in the past several years, as traditional methods for fabrication begin to reach their fundamental limits. Many of these technologies involve at their heart phenomena occurring at or near surfaces, including adsorption, gas-surface reactions, diffusion, desorption, and re-organization of near-surface layers. Moreover many of these phenomena involve not just reactions occurring under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium but also the action of energetic species including electrons, ions, and hyperthermal neutrals. There is a rich landscape of atomic and molecular scale interactions occurring in these systems that is still not well understood. In this Special Topic Issue of The Journal of Chemical Physics, we have collected recent representative examples of work that is directed at unraveling the mechanistic details concerning atomic and molecular layer processing, which will provide an important framework from which these fields can continue to develop. These studies range from the application of theory and computation to these systems to the use of powerful experimental probes, such as X-ray synchrotron radiation, probe microscopies, and photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies. The work presented here helps in identifying some of the major challenges and direct future activities in this exciting area of research involving atomic and molecular layer manipulation and fabrication.

  1. Thickness of the retinal photoreceptor outer segment layer in healthy volunteers and in patients with diabetes mellitus without retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, or diabetic macular edema

    Abdullah Ozkaya

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The PROS layer at the foveal center was thinner in patients who had diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema than both the healthy volunteers and diabetic patients without retinopathy.

  2. Tunical Outer Layer Plays an Essential Role in Penile Veno-occlusive Mechanism Evidenced from Electrocautery Effects to the Corpora Cavernosa in Defrosted Human Cadavers.

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Huang, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Chen, Heng-Shen; Huang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Wu; Hsu, Geng-Long

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact anatomical structure for establishing penile veno-occlusive function, we sought to conduct a hemodynamic study on defrosted human cadavers. Thirteen penises were used for this experiment, and 11 intact penises were allocated into the electrocautery group (EG, n = 6) and the ligation group (LG, n = 5). A circumcision was made on the penis to access the veins. Two #19 scalp needles were fixed in the 3 and 9 o'clock positions in the distal penis for colloid infusion and intracavernous pressure (ICP) monitoring, respectively. For the EG, the deep dorsal vein and cavernosal vein trunks were freed for 3-5 cm where at least 3 emissary veins were identified via opening Buck's fascia; these veins underwent electrocautery at 45 watts, while the ICP was maintained at 0, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mmHg, respectively. For control, venous ligation was made but at the ICP of 150 mmHg. A tissue block including the emissary vein was then obtained for histological analysis. Except all in the EG and those whose ICP exceed 125 mmHg in the EG, the sinusoids of the corpora cavernosa sustained varied fulgurated fibrosis in every specimen and the severity appeared reversely commensurate with the ICP regarding sinusoidal clumping and darkish bands (P electrocautery damage to intracavernous sinusoids once the ICP reached a level corresponding to a rigid erection. The outer tunica plays an essential role in fulfilling the veno-occlusive mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dry sand as a specialized layer to improve the acoustic insulation between rooms one above another

    Díaz, C.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and analyses the experimental field results of the sound insulation from airborne and impact noise of the horizontal separating elements commonly used in the past, in which a uniform layer of sand was placed on top of the floor construction to serve as a base for the ceramic tiling. The results of the acoustic measurements show that when there is an intermediate layer of sand in the horizontal separating element between rooms, the sound insulation is greater than would be obtained with other construction systems with equal mass per unit area, where the floor is joined rigidly to the floor construction. The effect on the sound insulation between the rooms produced by this layer of sand placed between the floor construction and the tiling is that of a cushioning layer, and demonstrates that this type of structure acts as a floating floor.En este trabajo se exponen y se analizan los resultados experimentales in situ del aislamiento acústico a ruido aéreo y a ruido de impactos de elementos de separación horizontales, habituales hace años, en los que sobre el forjado se coloca una capa uniforme de arena que sirve de asiento al suelo cerámico. Los resultados de las mediciones acústicas muestran que, cuando en el elemento de separación horizontal entre los recintos hay una capa intermedia de arena, el aislamiento acústico es mejor que el que se obtendría con otros sistemas constructivos de igual masa por unidad de superficie, con el suelo unido rígidamente al forjado. El efecto de la capa de arena colocada entre el forjado y el suelo, en el aislamiento acústico entre los recintos, es el de una capa amortiguadora, que hace que este tipo de suelo pueda considerarse como flotante.

  4. TOPOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION AND SPECIALIZED AREAS IN THE RETINA OF Callopistes palluma: GANGLION CELL LAYER

    Inzunza, Oscar; Barros B., Zitta; Bravo, Hermes

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the topographic distribution and cell body size of neurons (ganglion and displaced amacrine) of layer 8 of the retina in the chilean reptile Callopistes palluma; using whole mount retinaswith nissl stain. Callopistes palluma retina has an area centralis without fovea in which the ganglion cell density amounts 20.000 cells / µm2 while the displaced amacrine neurons is about 7.000 cells / µm2. This neural density decreased gradually towards the peripheral retina. A hor...

  5. Three-dimensional Features of the Outer Heliosphere Due to Coupling between the Interstellar and Heliospheric Magnetic Field. V. The Bow Wave, Heliospheric Boundary Layer, Instabilities, and Magnetic Reconnection

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Heerikhuisen, J. [Department of Space Science, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Roytershteyn, V. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S., E-mail: nikolai.pogorelov@uah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The heliosphere is formed due to interaction between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium (LISM). The shape and position of the heliospheric boundary, the heliopause, in space depend on the parameters of interacting plasma flows. The interplay between the asymmetrizing effect of the interstellar magnetic field and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms plays an important role in the SW–LISM interaction. By performing three-dimensional, MHD plasma/kinetic neutral atom simulations, we determine the width of the outer heliosheath—the LISM plasma region affected by the presence of the heliosphere—and analyze quantitatively the distributions in front of the heliopause. It is shown that charge exchange modifies the LISM plasma to such extent that the contribution of a shock transition to the total variation of plasma parameters becomes small even if the LISM velocity exceeds the fast magnetosonic speed in the unperturbed medium. By performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we show that a distinct boundary layer of decreased plasma density and enhanced magnetic field should be observed on the interstellar side of the heliopause. We show that this behavior is in agreement with the plasma oscillations of increasing frequency observed by the plasma wave instrument onboard Voyager 1. We also demonstrate that Voyager observations in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock and the heliopause are consistent with dissipation of the heliospheric magnetic field. The choice of LISM parameters in this analysis is based on the simulations that fit observations of energetic neutral atoms performed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer .

  6. The Outer Space Treaty

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  7. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  8. TPS for Outer Planets

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  9. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  10. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  11. Management of outer space

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  12. Outer atmospheric research

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  13. Developments for the outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment

    Bachmann, S; Haas, T; Uwer, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D

    2004-01-01

    The outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment is discussed. The outer tracking system (OT) is made of three stations and every station is made up of four detecting planes with a double layer of straw tubes. The straw tubes are mounted in detector module boxes made up of sandwich panels. The use of a counting gas with a high drift velocity is suggested to cope with high bunch crossing rate at the LHCb experiment. (Edited abstract) 3 Refs.

  14. The Performance of Rotary Magnetic Refrigerators with Layered Beds of LaFeSiH(<Special Topic>Magnetic Cooling)

    Steven, JACOBS; Steven, RUSSEK; Jon, AURINGER; Andre, BOEDER; Jeremy, CHELL; Lenny, KOMOROWSKI; John, LEONARD; Carl, ZIMM; Astronautics Technology Center; Astronautics Corporation; Astronautics Technology Center; Astronautics Technology Center; Astronautics Technology Center; Astronautics Technology Center; Astronautics Technology Center

    2013-01-01

    Astronautics Corporation has designed, constructed, and extensively tested two generations of magnetic refrigerators employing a rotary magnet-fixed bed architecture. This paper reviews and summarizes the performance of these prototypes. In particular, the testing on the 1st-generation prototype demonstrates the significant performance advantage associated with the use of layered beds of LaFeSiH, a magnetocaloric material with a sharp, first-order transition and a readily adjustable Curie tem...

  15. Vacuum Outer-Gap Structure in Pulsar Outer Magnetospheres

    Gui-Fang, Lin; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We study the vacuum outer-gap structure in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through a pair production process. In this case, the trans-field height is limited by the photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. By solving self-consistently the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and γ-rays in a vacuum outer gap for the parameters of Vela pulsar, we obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e. the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface) and ends at the outer boundary which locates inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  16. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    Arink, R; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th.; Berkien, A.; Farber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Blouw, J.; Ceelie, L.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Deng, Z.; Dettori, F.; van Eijk, D.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Karbach, T.M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Lavrentyev, V.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Meissner, M.; Michalowski, J.; Morawski, P.; Nawrot, A.; Nedos, M.; Pellegrino, A.; Polok, G.; van Petten, O.; Rovekamp, J.; Schimmel, F.; Schuylenburg, H.; Schwemmer, R.; Seyfert, P.; Serra, N.; Sluijk, T.; Spaan, B.; Spelt, J.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Swientek, S.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.; Zeng, M.; Zwart, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  17. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  18. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  19. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  20. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  1. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  2. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  3. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Outer space structure and development

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  5. Outer space structure and development

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  6. Plasmas in the outer heliosphere

    Belcher, J. W.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.

    1995-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere, including observations from Voyager and the Pioneers, as well as from inner heliospheric probes as appropriate. These observations are crucial to modeling of the heliosphere and its interactions with the interstellar medium, since the wind ram pressure and its temporal variations are important in understanding the distance to the termination shock and heliopause and how those boundaries might vary in time. We focus on results since Solar Wind 7. Among the issues we will discuss are: (1) the time scales for and statistical properties of variations in the ram pressure in the outer heliosphere, and how those variations might affect the morphology of the heliospheric/interstellar medium interface; (2) the question of possible solar wind slowing in the outer heliosphere due to the pick-up of interstellar ions; (3) the issue of whether there is bulk heating of the solar wind associated either with interstellar ion pick-up or with continued heating due to stream-stream interactions; (4) evidence for latitudinal variations in solar wind properties; and (5) the 1.3 year periodicities apparent in the outer heliosphere, and the close correspondence with similar variations seen with inner heliospheric probes.

  7. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  8. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  9. Normal Mode Derived Models of the Physical Properties of Earth's Outer Core

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's outer core, the largest reservoir of metal in our planet, is comprised of an iron alloy of an uncertain composition. Its dynamical behaviour is responsible for the generation of Earth's magnetic field, with convection driven both by thermal and chemical buoyancy fluxes. Existing models of the seismic velocity and density of the outer core exhibit some variation, and there are only a small number of models which aim to represent the outer core's density.It is therefore important that we develop a better understanding of the physical properties of the outer core. Though most of the outer core is likely to be well mixed, it is possible that the uppermost outer core is stably stratified: it may be enriched in light elements released during the growth of the solid, iron enriched, inner core; by elements dissolved from the mantle into the outer core; or by exsolution of compounds previously dissolved in the liquid metal which will eventually be swept into the mantle. The stratified layer may host MAC or Rossby waves and it could impede communication between the chemically differentiated mantle and outer core, including screening out some of the geodynamo's signal. We use normal mode center frequencies to estimate the physical properties of the outer core in a Bayesian framework. We estimate the mineral physical parameters needed to best produce velocity and density models of the outer core which are consistent with the normal mode observations. We require that our models satisfy realistic physical constraints. We create models of the outer core with and without a distinct uppermost layer and assess the importance of this region.Our normal mode-derived models are compared with observations of body waves which travel through the outer core. In particular, we consider SmKS waves which are especially sensitive to the uppermost outer core and are therefore an important way to understand the robustness of our models.

  10. Process analysis of two-layered tube hydroforming with analytical and experimental verification

    Seyedkashi, S. M. Hossein; Panahizadeh R, Valiollah; Xu, Haibin; Kim, Sang Yun; Moon, Young Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Two-layered tubular joints are suitable for special applications. Designing and manufacturing of two layered components require enough knowledge about the tube material behavior during the hydroforming process. In this paper, hydroforming of two-layered tubes is investigated analytically, and the results are verified experimentally. The aim of this study is to derive an analytical model which can be used in the process design. Fundamental equations are written for both of the outer and inner tubes, and the total forming pressure is obtained from these equations. Hydroforming experiments are carried out on two different combinations of materials for inner and outer tubes; case 1: copper/aluminum and case 2: carbon steel/stainless steel. It is observed that experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical model obtained for estimation of forming pressure able to avoid wrinkling.

  11. NMR structure of temporin-1 ta in lipopolysaccharide micelles: mechanistic insight into inactivation by outer membrane.

    Rathi Saravanan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs play important roles in the innate defense mechanism. The broad spectrum of activity of AMPs requires an efficient permeabilization of the bacterial outer and inner membranes. The outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is made of a specialized lipid called lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The LPS layer is an efficient permeability barrier against anti-bacterial agents including AMPs. As a mode of protection, LPS can induce self associations of AMPs rendering them inactive. Temporins are a group of short-sized AMPs isolated from frog skin, and many of them are inactive against Gram negative bacteria as a result of their self-association in the LPS-outer membrane. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using NMR spectroscopy, we have determined atomic resolution structure and characterized localization of temporin-1Ta or TA (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-amide in LPS micelles. In LPS micelles, TA adopts helical conformation for residues L4-I12, while residues F1-L3 are found to be in extended conformations. The aromatic sidechain of residue F1 is involved in extensive packing interactions with the sidechains of residues P3, L4 and I5. Interestingly, a number of long-range NOE contacts have been detected between the N-terminal residues F1, P3 with the C-terminal residues S10, I12, L13 of TA in LPS micelles. Saturation transfer difference (STD NMR studies demonstrate close proximity of residues including F1, L2, P3, R7, S10 and L13 with the LPS micelles. Notably, the LPS bound structure of TA shows differences with the structures of TA determined in DPC and SDS detergent micelles. SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that TA, in LPS lipids, forms helical oligomeric structures employing N- and C-termini residues. Such oligomeric structures may not be translocated across the outer membrane; resulting in the inactivation of the AMP. Importantly, the results of our studies will be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents with a

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  13. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    appearance were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). RESULTS: Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss...... of all the segments composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal...

  14. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss of all the segments...... composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal dysfunction. The field...

  15. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  16. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  17. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  18. Alterations of the outer retina in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy detected using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Ackermann, Philipp; Brachert, Maike; Albrecht, Philipp; Ringelstein, Marius; Finis, David; Geerling, Gerd; Aktas, Orhan; Guthoff, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    A characteristic disease pattern may be reflected by retinal layer thickness changes in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy measured using spectraldomain optical coherence tomography. Retinal layer segmentation is enabled by advanced software. In this study, retinal layer thicknesses in acute and chronic non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy were compared. A single-centre cross-sectional analysis was used. A total of 27 patients (20 age-matched healthy eyes) were included: 14 with acute (optic neuropathy. Macular volume and 12° peripapillary ring optical coherence tomography scans were used. The peripapillary thicknesses of the following layers were determined by manual segmentation: retinal nerve fibres, ganglion cells + inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer + outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer + inner segments of the photoreceptors and outer segments of the photoreceptors to Bruch's membrane. Macular retinal layer thicknesses were automatically determined in volume cubes centred on the fovea. Peripapillary retinal swelling in acute nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy was attributable to retinal nerve fibre layer, ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer and outer nuclear layer/segments of the photoreceptors thickening. In chronic cases, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thinning were observed. In acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, the inner and outer peripapillary retinal layers are affected by thickness changes. In chronic cases, atrophy of the ganglion cells and their axons and dendrites is evident by inner retinal layer thinning. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Inspection of small multi-layered plastic tubing during extrusion, using low-energy X-ray beams

    Armentrout, C.; Basinger, T.; Beyer, J.; Colesa, B.; Olsztyn, P.; Smith, K.; Strandberg, C.; Sullivan, D.; Thomson, J.

    1999-01-01

    The automotive industry uses nylon tubing with a thin ETFE (ethylene-tetrafluroethylene) inner layer to carry fuel from the tank to the engine. This fluorocarbon inner barrier layer is important to reduce the migration of hydrocarbons into the environment. Pilot Industries has developed a series of real-time inspection stations for dimensional measurements and flaw detection during the extrusion of this tubing. These stations are named LERA TM (low-energy radioscopic analysis), use a low energy X-ray source, a special high-resolution image converter and intensifier (ICI) stage, image capture hardware, a personal computer, and software that was specially designed to meet this task. Each LERA TM station operates up to 20 h a day, 6 days a week and nearly every week of the year. The tubing walls are 1-2 mm thick and the outer layer is nylon and the inner 0.2 mm thick layer is ethylene-tetrafluroethylene

  20. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  1. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables by outer approximation

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several variants of an outer approximation method are proposed to solve truss topology optimization problems with discrete design variables to proven global optimality. The objective is to minimize the volume of the structure while satisfying constraints on the global stiffness of the structure...... for classical outer approximation approaches applied to optimal design problems. A set of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems are solved and the numerical results suggest that the proposed approaches are competitive with other special-purpose global optimization methods for the considered class...... under the applied loads. We extend the natural problem formulation by adding redundant force variables and force equilibrium constraints. This guarantees that the designs suggested by the relaxed master problems are capable of carrying the applied loads, a property which is generally not satisfied...

  2. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  3. Measurements of the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in convexly curved boundary layers - Effects of curvature, recovery and free-stream turbulence

    Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of streamwise convex curvature, recovery, and freestream turbulence intensity on the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in a mature boundary layer are studied using a specially designed three-wire hot-wire probe. Increased freestream turbulence is found to increase the profiles throughout the boundary layer on the flat developing wall. Curvature effects were found to dominate turbulence intensity effects for the present cases considered. For the higher TI (turbulence intensity) case, negative values of the turbulent Prandtl number are found in the outer half of the boundary layer, indicating a breakdown in Reynolds analogy.

  4. Detailed Performance of the Outer Tracker at LHCb

    Tuning, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance in terms of the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. Details on the ionization length and subtle effects regarding signal reflections and the subsequent time-walk correction are given. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um, depending on the detailed implementation of the internal alignment of individual detector modules. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  5. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  6. Early photoreceptor outer segment loss and retinoschisis in Cohen syndrome.

    Uyhazi, Katherine E; Binenbaum, Gil; Carducci, Nicholas; Zackai, Elaine H; Aleman, Tomas S

    2018-06-01

    To describe early structural and functional retinal changes in a patient with Cohen syndrome. A 13-month-old Caucasian girl of Irish and Spanish ancestry was noted to have micrognathia and laryngomalacia at birth, which prompted a genetic evaluation that revealed biallelic deletions in COH1 (VPS13B) (a maternally inherited 60-kb deletion involving exons 26-32 and a paternally inherited 3.5-kb deletion within exon 17) consistent with Cohen syndrome. She underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography and retinal imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Central vision was central, steady, and maintained. There was bilateral myopic astigmatic refractive error. Fundus exam was notable for dark foveolar pigmentation, but no obvious abnormalities of either eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross sections through the fovea revealed a normal appearing photoreceptor outer nuclear layer but loss of the interdigitation signal between the photoreceptor outer segments and the apical retinal pigment epithelium. Retinoschisis involving the inner nuclear layer of both eyes and possible ganglion cell layer thinning were also noted. There was a detectable electroretinogram with similarly reduced amplitudes of rod- (white, 0.01 cd.s.m -2 ) and cone-mediated (3 cd.s.m -2 , 30 Hz) responses. Photoreceptor outer segment abnormalities and retinoschisis may represent the earliest structural retinal change detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with Cohen syndrome, suggesting a complex pathophysiology with primary involvement of the photoreceptor cilium and disorganization of the structural integrity of the inner retina.

  7. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell with a specially tailored TiO{sub 2} compact layer prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Abdullah, M.H., E-mail: hanapiah801@ppinang.uitm.edu.my [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • A novel gradient index antireflective TiO{sub 2} compact layer based DSSC was fabricated. • Higher right-shifted transmittance spectra favour the spectral response of N719 dye. • The arc-TiO{sub 2} film on ITO has decreased the charge interfacial resistance, R{sub 1}. • The arc-TiO{sub 2} film prevents electrons recombination at ITO and nc-TiO{sub 2} interfaces. • Almost 42% increment in the overall efficiency compared to the bare ITO cell. - Abstract: We demonstrate that a graded index TiO{sub 2} antireflective compact layer (arc-TiO{sub 2}) employed by RF sputtering can modulate the optical transmittance and reduce the electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The spectral response of the DSSC is improved, due to higher and red-shifted transmittance spectra in a specific region that favours the sensitization effect of the dye. The effects of arc-TiO{sub 2} prepared at various RF sputtering powers to the performances of DSSC were investigated by means of the incident photo to current efficiency (IPCE), open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The slow decay of the photo-voltage attributed to the desirable merits of the arc-TiO{sub 2} compact layer has been evidenced by the OCVD measurement. Meanwhile, the improvement of adhesion between an arc-TiO{sub 2} film and porous-TiO{sub 2} has decreased the interfacial-charge resistance, R{sub 1} in the EIS measurement. This lower R{sub 1} then facilitates the charge-transfer process of the electron in the DSSC. At 100 W of RF power, these blended effects improved the overall conversion efficiency of the DSSC by an increase of 42% compared to the cell without the compact layer.

  8. Periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

    Lyu, Zhi Xin; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are integral membrane proteins that reside in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and perform a diverse range of biological functions. Synthesized in the cytoplasm, OMPs must be transported across the inner membrane and through the periplasmic space before they are assembled in the outer membrane. In Escherichia coli, Skp, SurA and DegP are the most prominent factors identified to guide OMPs across the periplasm and to play the role of quality control. Although extensive genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed many basic functions of these periplasmic proteins, the mechanism of their collaboration in assisting the folding and insertion of OMPs is much less understood. Recently, biophysical approaches have shed light on the identification of the intricate network. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in the characterization of these key factors, with a special emphasis on the multifunctional protein DegP. In addition, we present our proposed model on the periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of OMPs.

  9. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  10. Inspection of the UO2 special fuel for the prototype heavy water reactor 'FUGEN'

    Miura, Makoto; Ohmori, Takuro; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hiromasa; Hirosawa, Naonori

    1979-01-01

    UO 2 special fuel assemblies are the fuel for material irradiation incorporating irradiation specimens, for the prototype heavy water reactor ''FUGEN''. In order to monitor the behavior of the pressure tube material irradiated with neutrons for long time, monitoring specimens were equipped in the core. This special fuel was fabricated by the Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI), and the fuel cladding tubes, the capsule guide tubes and the capsule tubes were furnished by PNC. The irradiation specimens were prepared by PNC, and incorporated into the assemblies by NFI. The inspection by PNC on the special fuel assemblies was conducted following the inspection by the maker, which was made on UO 2 pellets, fuel element and assembly parts except cladding tubes, after completing the fabrication. The specifications of the special fuel, especially for the outer and inner layer pellets, the outer and inner layer fuel elements and the fuel assemblies, are presented. The flow sheet for the inspection process and surveillance test of special fuel assemblies is illustrated. The inspection items, the materials and the quantity inspection are tabulated for the fuel elements, the fuel assemblies and the irradiation capsules, respectively. The structure of a special type fuel assembly is shown. For each inspection, the inspection methods and items and the results are explained. As for the results of inspection of the special fuel, the UO 2 pellets, fuel element parts, fuel elements, fuel assembly parts, fuel assemblies, capsules and irradiation specimens were in accordance with the specifications. Regarding the situation of the quality control in the processes, check was made with many documents, and it was recognized that the quality control was performed in the quality assurance program. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  12. ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina.

    Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C

    2018-01-01

    To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.

  13. Low-Outgassing Photogrammetry Targets for Use in Outer Space

    Gross, Jason N.; Sampler, Henry; Reed, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    A short document discusses an investigation of materials for photogrammetry targets for highly sensitive optical scientific instruments to be operated in outer space and in an outer-space-environment- simulating thermal vacuum chamber on Earth. A key consideration in the selection of photogrammetry-target materials for vacuum environments is the need to prevent contamination that could degrade the optical responses of the instruments. Therefore, in addition to the high levels and uniformity of reflectivity required of photogrammetry-target materials suitable for use in air, the materials sought must exhibit minimal outgassing. Commercially available photogrammetry targets were found to outgas excessively under the thermal and vacuum conditions of interest; this finding prompted the investigators to consider optically equivalent or superior, lower-outgassing alternative target materials. The document lists several materials found to satisfy the requirements, but does not state explicitly whether the materials can be used individually or must be combined in the proper sequence into layered target structures. The materials in question are an aluminized polyimide tape, an acrylic pressure- sensitive adhesive, a 500-A-thick layer of vapor-deposited aluminum, and spherical barium titanate glass beads having various diameters from 20 to 63 microns..

  14. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  15. Model Research On Synthesis Of Al2O3-C Layers By MOCVD

    Sawka A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available These are model studies whose aim is to obtain information that would allow development of new technology for synthesizing monolayers of Al2O3-C with adjusted microstructure on cemented carbides. The Al2O3-C layer will constitute an intermediate layer on which the outer layer of Al2O3 without carbon is synthesized. The purpose of the intermediate layer is to block the cobalt diffusion to the synthesized outer layer of Al2O3 and to stop the diffusion of air oxygen to the substrate during the synthesis of the outer layer. This layer should be thin, continuous, dense and uniform in thickness.

  16. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  17. Earth's Outer Core Properties Estimated Using Bayesian Inversion of Normal Mode Eigenfrequencies

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.

    2016-12-01

    The outer core is arguably Earth's most dynamic region, and consists of an iron-nickel liquid with an unknown combination of lighter alloying elements. Frequencies of Earth's normal modes provide the strongest constraints on the radial profiles of compressional wavespeed, VΦ, and density, ρ, in the outer core. Recent great earthquakes have yielded new normal mode measurements; however, mineral physics experiments and calculations are often compared to the Preliminary reference Earth model (PREM), which is 35 years old and does not provide uncertainties. Here we investigate the thermo-elastic properties of the outer core using Earth's free oscillations and a Bayesian framework. To estimate radial structure of the outer core and its uncertainties, we choose to exploit recent datasets of normal mode centre frequencies. Under the self-coupling approximation, centre frequencies are unaffected by lateral heterogeneities in the Earth, for example in the mantle. Normal modes are sensitive to both VΦ and ρ in the outer core, with each mode's specific sensitivity depending on its eigenfunctions. We include a priori bounds on outer core models that ensure compatibility with measurements of mass and moment of inertia. We use Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques to explore different choices in parameterizing the outer core, each of which represents different a priori constraints. We test how results vary (1) assuming a smooth polynomial parametrization, (2) allowing for structure close to the outer core's boundaries, (3) assuming an Equation-of-State and adiabaticity and inverting directly for thermo-elastic parameters. In the second approach we recognize that the outer core may have distinct regions close to the core-mantle and inner core boundaries and investigate models which parameterize the well mixed outer core separately from these two layers. In the last approach we seek to map the uncertainties directly into thermo-elastic parameters including the bulk

  18. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  19. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  20. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  1. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  2. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  3. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  4. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  5. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  6. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  7. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  8. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  9. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  10. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  11. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  12. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  13. Genomic analysis indicates the presence of an asymmetric bilayer outer membrane in Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia

    Daan R Speth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes are of special interest for the study of compartmental cellular organization. Members of this phylum share a very unusual prokaryotic cell plan, featuring several membrane-bound compartments. Recently, it was shown that this cellular organization might extend to certain members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. The Planctomycete cell plan has been defined as featuring a proteinaceous cell wall, a cytoplasmic membrane surrounding the paryphoplasm and an intracytoplasmic membrane defining the riboplasm. So far it was presumed that Planctomycetes did not have an asymmetric bilayer outer membrane as observed in Gram-negative bacteria. However, recent work on outer membrane biogenesis has provided several marker genes in the outer membrane protein (OMP assembly and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS insertion complexes. Additionally, advances in computational prediction of OMPs provided new tools to perform more accurate genomic screening for such proteins.Here we searched all 22 Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia genomes available in Genbank, plus the recently published genome of ‘Candidatus Scalindua profunda’, for markers of outer membrane biogenesis and OMPs. We were able to identify the key components of LPS insertion, OMP assembly and at least eight OMPs in all genomes tested. Additionally, we have analyzed the transcriptome and proteome data of the Planctomycetes ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and ‘Ca. S. profunda’ and could confirm high expression of several predicted OMPs, including the biomarkers of outer membrane biogenesis.

  14. Inner-outer predictive wall model for wall-bounded turbulence in hypersonic flow

    Martin, M. Pino; Helm, Clara M.

    2017-11-01

    The inner-outer predictive wall model of Mathis et al. is modified for hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The model is based on a modulation of the energized motions in the inner layer by large scale momentum fluctuations in the logarithmic layer. Using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of turbulent boundary layers with free stream Mach number 3 to 10, it is shown that the variation of the fluid properties in the compressible flows leads to large Reynolds number (Re) effects in the outer layer and facilitate the modulation observed in high Re incompressible flows. The modulation effect by the large scale increases with increasing free-stream Mach number. The model is extended to include spanwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations and is generalized through Morkovin scaling. Temperature fluctuations are modeled using an appropriate Reynolds Analogy. Density fluctuations are calculated using an equation of state and a scaling with Mach number. DNS data are used to obtain the universal signal and parameters. The model is tested by using the universal signal to reproduce the flow conditions of Mach 3 and Mach 7 turbulent boundary layer DNS data and comparing turbulence statistics between the modeled flow and the DNS data. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant FA9550-17-1-0104.

  15. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  16. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  17. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  18. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  19. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  20. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  1. Special Weapons

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  2. Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer

    Taylor, John R.

    Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory

  3. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  4. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  5. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  6. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  7. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  8. Exploring the interaction network of the Bacillus subtilis outer coat and crust proteins.

    Krajčíková, Daniela; Forgáč, Vladimír; Szabo, Adam; Barák, Imrich

    2017-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores, representatives of an exceptionally resistant dormant cell type, are encircled by a thick proteinaceous layer called the spore coat. More than 80 proteins assemble into four distinct coat layers: a basement layer, an inner coat, an outer coat and a crust. As the spore develops inside the mother cell, spore coat proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm are gradually deposited onto the prespore surface. A small set of morphogenetic proteins necessary for spore coat morphogenesis are thought to form a scaffold to which the rest of the coat proteins are attached. Extensive localization and proteomic studies using wild type and mutant spores have revealed the arrangement of individual proteins within the spore coat layers. In this study we examined the interactions between the proteins localized to the outer coat and crust using a bacterial two hybrid system. These two layers are composed of at least 25 components. Self-interactions were observed for most proteins and numerous novel interactions were identified. The most interesting contacts are those made with the morphogenetic proteins CotE, CotY and CotZ; these could serve as a basis for understanding the specific roles of particular proteins in spore coat morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Special zone territory decontamination

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Specialized science.

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  11. Special geometry

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  12. Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinism.

    Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Cooper, Robert F; Dubis, Adam M; Patitucci, Teresa N; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L; Stepien, Kimberly E; Costakos, Deborah M; Connor, Thomas B; Wirostko, William J; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A; Brilliant, Murray H; Summers, C Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-05-20

    Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  14. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  15. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  16. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  17. New configuration for efficient and durable copper coating on the outer surface of a tube

    Irfan Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A well-adhered copper coating on stainless steel power coupler parts is required in superconducting radio frequency (SRF accelerators. Radio frequency power coupler parts are complex, tubelike stainless steel structures, which require copper coating on their outer and inner surfaces. Conventional copper electroplating sometimes produces films with inadequate adhesion strength for SRF applications. Electroplating also requires a thin nickel strike layer under the copper coating, whose magnetic properties can be detrimental to SRF applications. Coaxial energetic deposition (CED and sputtering methods have demonstrated efficient conformal coating on the inner surfaces of tubes but coating the outer surface of a tube is challenging because these coating methods are line of sight. When the substrate is off axis and the plasma source is on axis, only a small section of the substrate’s outer surface is exposed to the source cathode. The conventional approach is to rotate the tube to achieve uniformity across the outer surface. This method results in poor film thickness uniformity and wastes most of the source plasma. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC has developed a novel configuration called hollow external cathode CED (HEC-CED to overcome these issues. HEC-CED produces a film with uniform thickness and efficiently uses all eroded source material. The Cu film deposited on the outside of a stainless steel tube using the new HEC-CED configuration survived a high pressure water rinse adhesion test. HEC-CED can be used to coat the outside of any cylindrical structure.

  18. AC losses for the various voltage-leads in a semi-triple layer BSCCO conductor

    Li, Z.; Ryu, K.; Hwang, S.D.; Cha, G.; Song, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer. Voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses. In order to investigate the AC loss of the multilayer conductor in a high temperature superconductor cable, a voltage-lead was generally attached to the outermost layer of the conductor. But the conductor's AC loss has not been completely cleared due to the various contact positions and arrangements of the voltage-lead. In this paper, we prepared a semi-triple layer conductor consisting of an inner layer and an outer layer with double layer structure. To measure the AC loss of the conductor, two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer and arranged along their surfaces, as well as another voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The results show that the AC losses for each layer measured from the inner-lead and the outer-lead, respectively, are identical to the sum of the wire losses. The AC losses in the semi-triple layer conductor measured from the total-lead and the outer-lead are identical for the uniform layer current density, and similar to the sum of the wire losses in both layers. However, the losses measured for the non-uniform layer current density from three voltage-leads are unequal to each other, and the loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses.

  19. Specialized languages

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  20. Linear stability of resistive MHD modes: axisymmetric toroidal computation of the outer region matching data

    Pletzer, A.; Bondeson, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The quest to determine accurately the stability of tearing and resistive interchange modes in two-dimensional toroidal geometry led to the development of the PEST-3 code, which is based on solving the singular, zero-frequency ideal MHD equation in the plasma bulk and determining the outer data Δ', Γ' and A' needed to match the outer region solutions to those arising in the inner layers. No assumption regarding the aspect ratio, the number of rational surfaces or the pressure are made a priori. This approach is numerically less demanding than solving the full set of resistive equations, and has the major advantage of non-MHD theories of the non-ideal layers. Good convergence is ensured by the variational Galerkin scheme used to compute the outer matching data. To validate the code, we focus on the growth rate calculations of resistive kink modes which are reproduced in good agreement with those obtained by the full resistive MHD code MARS. (author) 11 figs., 27 refs

  1. Restoration of outer segments of foveal photoreceptors after resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Ojima, Yumiko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ooto, Sotaro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    To study morphologically and functionally the prognosis of damaged outer segments of the foveal photoreceptor layer in eyes with resolved central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We studied retrospectively the medical records of 70 patients (74 eyes) with resolved CSC. Optical coherence tomography was used to detect the junctions between inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors (IS/OS) as a hallmark of the integrity of the outer photoreceptor layer. In 53 eyes (71.6%), the IS/OS line was clearly detected beneath the fovea immediately after resolution of the retinal detachment, with good visual acuity (VA). In the remaining 21 eyes (28.4%), however, the foveal IS/OS line could not be detected shortly after resolution of CSC, and VA was variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 (median, 0.9). Of these 21 eyes, 15 had a follow-up examination with OCT, and in four the foveal IS/OS line was not detected at the follow-up and vision in these eyes remained poor. However, nine eyes showed recovery of the foveal IS/OS line during follow-up, and these eyes had substantial visual recovery. Immediately after resolution of active CSC, although the IS/OS line cannot be detected beneath the fovea, it often shows restoration over time, with visual recovery, though in some eyes no restoration takes place and the prognosis remains poor.

  2. Relaxation of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

    Gurta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion-tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Crocco variables, and a time-similar solution is presented in terms of the dimensionless distance-time variable alpha and the dimensionless velocity variable beta. An eddy-viscosity model, similar to that of time-steady boundary layers, is applied to the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer. A turbulent Prandtl number equal to the molecular Prandtl number is used to relate the turbulent heat flux to the eddy viscosity. The numerical results, obtained by using the Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method, indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin friction than a laminar boundary layer. The results also give a fairly good estimate of the local skin friction and heat transfer for near steady-flow conditions.

  3. Direct force-reflecting two-layer approach for passive bilateral teleoperation with time delays

    Heck, D.; Saccon, A.; Beerens, R.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (inner) performance layer and an (outer) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. The

  4. A two-layer architecture for force-reflecting bilateral teleoperation with time delays

    Heck, D.J.F.; Saccon, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (outer) performance layer and an (inner) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. In

  5. Will Outer Tropical Cyclone Size Change due to Anthropogenic Warming?

    Schenkel, B. A.; Lin, N.; Chavas, D. R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown significant interbasin and intrabasin variability in outer tropical cyclone (TC) size. Moreover, outer TC size has even been shown to vary substantially over the lifetime of the majority of TCs. However, the factors responsible for both setting initial outer TC size and determining its evolution throughout the TC lifetime remain uncertain. Given these gaps in our physical understanding, there remains uncertainty in how outer TC size will change, if at all, due to anthropogenic warming. The present study seeks to quantify whether outer TC size will change significantly in response to anthropogenic warming using data from a high-resolution global climate model and a regional hurricane model. Similar to prior work, the outer TC size metric used in this study is the radius in which the azimuthal-mean surface azimuthal wind equals 8 m/s. The initial results from the high-resolution global climate model data suggest that the distribution of outer TC size shifts significantly towards larger values in each global TC basin during future climates, as revealed by 1) statistically significant increase of the median outer TC size by 5-10% (p<0.05) according to a 1,000-sample bootstrap resampling approach with replacement and 2) statistically significant differences between distributions of outer TC size from current and future climate simulations as shown using two-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov testing (p<<0.01). Additional analysis of the high-resolution global climate model data reveals that outer TC size does not uniformly increase within each basin in future climates, but rather shows substantial locational dependence. Future work will incorporate the regional mesoscale hurricane model data to help focus on identifying the source of the spatial variability in outer TC size increases within each basin during future climates and, more importantly, why outer TC size changes in response to anthropogenic warming.

  6. Outer personal marketing as the element of the holistic orientation of organization

    Agnieszka Izabela Baruk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems related to outer personal marketing as the fundamental element of the holistic marketing orientation were presented. The essence of holistic attitude was shown and its role in the effective marketing activities directed to employees of a scientific organization was underlined. The special attention was paid to the key role of potential empoyees’ knowledge about this approach. On the base of the results of the empirical researches one can state that its level is very low. It is one of the main barriers in the process of outer personal marketing implementing in the case of a scientific organization as well as in the case of others organizations.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide biogenesis and transport at the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Sperandeo, Paola; Martorana, Alessandra M; Polissi, Alessandra

    2017-11-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric lipid bilayer containing a unique glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in its outer leaflet. LPS molecules confer to the OM peculiar permeability barrier properties enabling Gram-negative bacteria to exclude many toxic compounds, including clinically useful antibiotics, and to survive harsh environments. Transport of LPS poses several problems to the cells due to the amphipatic nature of this molecule. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the LPS transport machinery, discuss the challenges associated with this process and present the solutions that bacterial cells have evolved to address the problem of LPS transport and assembly at the cell surface. Finally, we discuss how knowledge on LPS biogenesis can be translated for the development of novel antimicrobial therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  9. Interplay between edge and outer core fluctuations in the tokamak Tore Supra

    Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Capes, H.; Devynck, P.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the tokamak Tore Supra, when a poloidally and toroidally localized limiter, called a modular limiter, is introduced into the lower part of the scrape-off layer, density fluctuations located in the vicinity of this limiter present a specific feature with the appearance of a new spectral pattern in the associated frequency spectrum. This leads to a strong up-down asymmetry observed in both the plasma edge and the plasma outer core, with a maximum level of turbulence at the bottom of the plasma. The observed asymmetry characteristics show that magnetic connection lengths play a critical role here and that the limiter configuration has some effect on the outer core turbulence. (author)

  10. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Special relativity

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  12. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    1979-01-01

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  13. The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD

    Haarmann, Raimund; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Stevanovic, Mara; Bredemeier, Rolf; Schleiff, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall including the outer membrane. The outer membrane is composed of two distinct monolayers where the outer layer contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with the non-phospholipid Lipid A as the core. The synthesis of Lipid A is initiated in the cytosol and thereby the molecule has to be transported across the inner and outer membranes. The β-barrel lipopolysaccharide-assembly protein D (LptD) was discovered to be involved in the transfer of Lipid A into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. At present the molecular procedure of lipid transfer across the outer membrane remains unknown. Here we approached the functionality of the transfer system by an electrophysiological analysis of the outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli named ecLptD. In vitro the protein shows cation selectivity and has an estimated pore diameter of about 1.8 nm. Addition of Lipid A induces a transition of the open state to a sub-conductance state with two independent off-rates, which might suggest that LptD is able to bind and transport the molecule in vitro. To generalize our findings with respect to the Lipid A transport system of other Gram-negative bacteria we have explored the existence of the proteins involved in this pathway by bioinformatic means. We were able to identify the membrane-inserted components of the Lipid A transport system in all Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the periplasmic components appear to be species-specific. The LptD proteins of different bacteria are characterized by their periplasmic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal barrel region. The latter shows distinct sequence properties, particularly in LptD proteins of cyanobacteria, and this specific domain can be found in plant proteins as well. By electrophysiological experiments on LptD from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 we are able to confirm the functional relation of anaLptD to Lipid A transport.

  14. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  15. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  16. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  17. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  18. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Thomas Kieselbach

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT and leukotoxin (LtxA into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.

  19. Reinforcement of Bacillus subtilis spores by cross-linking of outer coat proteins during maturation.

    Abhyankar, Wishwas; Pandey, Rachna; Ter Beek, Alexander; Brul, Stanley; de Koning, Leo J; de Koster, Chris G

    2015-02-01

    Resistance characteristics of bacterial endospores towards various environmental stresses such as chemicals and heat are in part attributed to their coat proteins. Heat resistance is developed in a late stage of sporulation and during maturation of released spores. Using our gel-free proteomic approach and LC-FT-ICR-MS/MS analysis we have monitored the efficiency of the tryptic digestion of proteins in the coat during spore maturation over a period of eight days, using metabolically (15)N labeled mature spores as reference. The results showed that during spore maturation the loss of digestion efficiency of outer coat and crust proteins synchronized with the increase in heat resistance. This implicates that spore maturation involves chemical cross-linking of outer coat and crust layer proteins leaving the inner coat layer proteins unmodified. It appears that digestion efficiencies of spore surface proteins can be linked to their location within the coat and crust layers. We also attempted to study a possible link between spore maturation and the observed heterogeneity in spore germination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Excited waves in shear layers

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  1. Atmospheric chemistry and transport modeling in the outer solar system

    Lee, Yuan-Tai (Anthony)

    2001-11-01

    This thesis consists of 1-D and 2-D photochemical- dynamical modeling in the upper atmospheres of outer planets. For 1-D modeling, a unified hydrocarbon photochemical model has been studied in Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, by comparing with the Voyager observations, and the recent measurements of methyl radicals by ISO in Saturn and Neptune. The CH3 observation implies a kinetically sensitive test to the measured and estimated hydrocarbon rate constants at low temperatures. We identify the key reactions that control the concentrations of CH3 in the model, such as the three-body recombination reaction, CH3 + CH3 + M --> C 2H6 + M, and the recycling reaction H + CH3 + M --> CH4 + M. The results show reasonable agreement with ISO values. In Chapter 4, the detection of PH3 in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere of Jupiter has provided a photochemical- dynamical coupling model to derive the eddy diffusion coefficient in the upper troposphere of Jupiter. Using a two-layers photochemical model with updated photodissociation cross-sections and chemical rate constants for NH3 and PH 3, we find that the upper tropospheric eddy diffusion coefficient 106 cm2 sec-1, are required to match the derived PH3 vertical profile by the observation. The best-fit functional form derivation of eddy diffusion coefficient in the upper troposphere of Jupiter above 400 mbar is K = 2.0 × 104 (n/2.2 × 1019)-0.5 cm 2 sec-1. On the other hand, Chapter 5 demonstrates a dynamical-only 2-D model of C2H6 providing a complete test for the current 2-D transport models in Jovian lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (270 to 0.1 mbar pressure levels). Different combinations of residual advection, horizontal eddy dispersion, and vertical eddy mixing are examined at different latitudes.

  2. Fabrication and preliminary study of a biomimetic tri-layer tubular graft based on fibers and fiber yarns for vascular tissue engineering.

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Jialing; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Dandan; Sun, Binbin; El-Hamshary, Hany; Yin, Meng; Mo, Xiumei

    2018-01-01

    Designing a biomimetic and functional tissue-engineered vascular graft has been urgently needed for repairing and regenerating defected vascular tissues. Utilizing a multi-layered vascular scaffold is commonly considered an effective way, because multi-layered scaffolds can easily simulate the structure and function of natural blood vessels. Herein, we developed a novel tri-layer tubular graft consisted of Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/collagen (PLCL/COL) fibers and Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/silk fibroin (PLGA/SF) yarns via a three-step electrospinning method. The tri-layer vascular graft consisted of PLCL/COL aligned fibers in inner layer, PLGA/SF yarns in middle layer, and PLCL/COL random fibers in outer layer. Each layer possessed tensile mechanical strength and elongation, and the entire tubular structure provided tensile and compressive supports. Furthermore, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferated well on the materials. Fluorescence staining images demonstrated that the axially aligned PLCL/COL fibers prearranged endothelium morphology in lumen and the circumferential oriented PLGA/SF yarns regulated SMCs organization along the single yarns. The outside PLCL/COL random fibers performed as the fixed layer to hold the entire tubular structure. The in vivo results showed that the tri-layer vascular graft supported cell infiltration, scaffold biodegradation and abundant collagen production after subcutaneous implantation for 10weeks, revealing the optimal biocompatibility and tissue regenerative capability of the tri-layer graft. Therefore, the specially designed tri-layer vascular graft will be beneficial to vascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. International Specialization

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  4. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  5. Special lecture

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  6. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  7. Special effects.

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  8. Prevention of an arms race in outer space

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The space age may be the to have begun in 1957, when for the first time a man-made object was lofted into orbit round the Earth. Since that date, the new problems of outer space have been discussed in the United Nations, particularly in the General Assembly, in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies, and in the Conference on Disarmament. The discussions have contributed to the conclusion of a number of international agreements concerning both military and peaceful aspects of the use of outer space. This paper reports that according to the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, known as the outer space Treaty, outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means (article II), and the parties undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of ass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner (article IV). Detailed norms for States' actions in this environment are included in the 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies to ensure that the Moon and other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than Earth, are used exclusively for peaceful purposes

  9. Defects in the outer limiting membrane are associated with rosette development in the Nrl-/- retina.

    Michael W Stuck

    Full Text Available The neural retinal leucine zipper (Nrl knockout mouse is a widely used model to study cone photoreceptor development, physiology, and molecular biology in the absence of rods. In the Nrl(-/- retina, rods are converted into functional cone-like cells. The Nrl(-/- retina is characterized by large undulations of the outer nuclear layer (ONL commonly known as rosettes. Here we explore the mechanism of rosette development in the Nrl(-/- retina. We report that rosettes first appear at postnatal day (P8, and that the structure of nascent rosettes is morphologically distinct from what is seen in the adult retina. The lumen of these nascent rosettes contains a population of aberrant cells protruding into the subretinal space that induce infolding of the ONL. Morphologically adult rosettes do not contain any cell bodies and are first detected at P15. The cells found in nascent rosettes are photoreceptors in origin but lack inner and outer segments. We show that the adherens junctions between photoreceptors and Müller glia which comprise the retinal outer limiting membrane (OLM are not uniformly formed in the Nrl(-/- retina and thus allow protrusion of a population of developing photoreceptors into the subretinal space where their maturation becomes delayed. These data suggest that the rosettes of the Nrl(-/- retina arise due to defects in the OLM and delayed maturation of a subset of photoreceptors, and that rods may play an important role in the proper formation of the OLM.

  10. The outer tracker detector of the HERA-B experiment. Pt. 3. Operation and performance

    Albrecht, H.; Bauer, T.S.; Utrecht Univ.; Beck, M.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and performance of the HERA-B Outer Tracker, a 112674 channel system of planar drift tube layers. The performance of the HERA-B Outer Tracker system fullfilled all requirements for stable and efficient operation in a hadronic environment, thus confirming the adequacy of the honeycomb drift tube technology and of the front-end readout system. The detector was stably operated with a gas gain of 3 . 10 4 in an Ar/CF 4 /CO 2 (65:35:5) gas mixture, yielding a good efficiency for triggering and track reconstruction, larger than 95 % for tracks with momenta above 5 GeV/c. The hit resolution of the drift cells was 300 to 320 μm and the relative momentum resolution can be described as: σ(p)/p(%) = (1.61 ± 0.02) + (0.0051 ± 0.0006) . p. At the end of the HERA-B running no aging effects in the Outer Tracker cells were observed. (orig.)

  11. Spherical phantom for research of radiation situation in outer space. Design-structural special features

    Kartsev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.; Polenov, B.V.; Yudin, V.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Petrov, V.M.; Shurshakov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The design-structural features of the updated spherical phantom applied within the frameworks of the space experiment Matreshka-R at the Russian segment of International space station during ISS-8 and ISS-9 expeditions are described. The replacement of 48 polyethylene containers with TLD and STD assemblies by 16 cases installed from external side of the phantom and 4 tissue-equivalent caps of the central disk by 4 cases with detector assemblies is carried out. The updated tissue-equivalent phantom contains the active dosemeter based on 5 MOS detectors. The phantom cover is made from the non-flammable material NT-7. The basic characteristics of the flight specimen of the phantom are presented. The results of its on-Earth testing and real space flights are analyzed [ru

  12. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  13. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  14. Electromagnetic field analyses of two-layer power transmission cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates and AC losses in their superconductor layers

    Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable

  15. Retinal single-layer analysis with optical coherence tomography shows inner retinal layer thinning in Huntington's disease as a potential biomarker.

    Gulmez Sevim, Duygu; Unlu, Metin; Gultekin, Murat; Karaca, Cagatay

    2018-02-12

    There have been ongoing clinical trials of therapeutic agents in Huntington's disease (HD) which requires development of reliable biomarkers of disease progression. There have been studies in the literature with conflicting results on the involvement of retina in HD, and up to date there is not a study evaluating the single retinal layers in HD. We aimed to evaluate the specific retinal changes in HD and their usability as potential disease progression markers. This cross-sectional study used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with automatic segmentation to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and the thickness and volume of retinal layers in foveal scans of 15 patients with HD and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Genetic testing results, disease duration, HD disease burden scores and Unified HD Rating Scales motor scores were acquired for the patients. Temporal pRNFL, macular RNFL (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer thicknesses and IPL, retinal pigment epithelium and outer macular volume were found lower in HD compared to controls, while outer nuclear layer and outer retinal layer thickness were increased (p layer thicknesses, most significantly with mRNFL and GCL and disease progression markers. The outcomes of this study points out that retinal layers, most significantly mRNFL and GCL, are strongly correlated with the disease progression in HD and could serve as useful biomarkers for disease progression.

  16. Special energies and special frequencies

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.

    1987-01-01

    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  17. Phase characterization of Re-based diffusion barrier layer on Nb substrate

    Sugiarti, Eni; Wang, Youngmin; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei; Narita, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    An electron microscopy phase characterization was carried out for a Re-based diffusion barrier layer, which was deposited on the Nb substrate used as an ultra high temperature material. The coating process produced three layers; an outer Cr(Re) layer, an intermediate Cr-Nb-Re layer, and an inner Nb(Re) layer. The Cr-Nb-Re layer is considered to act as a diffusion barrier layer between the substrate and the outer Cr(Re) reservoir layer. The Cr(Re) and Nb(Re) layers are in single phase with a similar bcc structures, but they are different in structure from the intermediate layer, which is composed of a dual phase of Re 63 Cr 20 Nb 17 with a cubic structure and Nb 42 Re 33 Cr 25 with a hexagonal structure determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in this study. (author)

  18. Special offers

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  19. Special Offers

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  20. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  1. Special graphites

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  2. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  3. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior.

    Weitzel, Erik K; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  4. Inner and Outer Recursive Neural Networks for Chemoinformatics Applications.

    Urban, Gregor; Subrahmanya, Niranjan; Baldi, Pierre

    2018-02-26

    Deep learning methods applied to problems in chemoinformatics often require the use of recursive neural networks to handle data with graphical structure and variable size. We present a useful classification of recursive neural network approaches into two classes, the inner and outer approach. The inner approach uses recursion inside the underlying graph, to essentially "crawl" the edges of the graph, while the outer approach uses recursion outside the underlying graph, to aggregate information over progressively longer distances in an orthogonal direction. We illustrate the inner and outer approaches on several examples. More importantly, we provide open-source implementations [available at www.github.com/Chemoinformatics/InnerOuterRNN and cdb.ics.uci.edu ] for both approaches in Tensorflow which can be used in combination with training data to produce efficient models for predicting the physical, chemical, and biological properties of small molecules.

  5. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods: Three patients with a normal ophthalmoscopic fundus appearance, a history of photopsia, and visual field loss compatible with AZOOR were examined using optical coherence tomography, automated perimetry...

  6. Proposal for the LHCb outer tracker front-end electronics

    Deppe, H; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Srowig, A; Stange, U; Hommels, B; Sluijk, T

    2001-01-01

    A market survey on available TDCs for reading out the LHCb Outer Tracker has left over only one TDC, which is not optimal for this purpose. Hence, a new readout architecture which is based on a TDC to be developed anew has been defined. This system fits optimal the requirements of the LHCb Outer Tracker and also should be much cheaper. The system and its main issues are described in this paper.

  7. Inner and outer cylinders of the CMS vacuum tank.

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the already installed outer cylinder, through which this photo was taken.

  8. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  9. Outer-selective thin film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-01-14

    The pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process is a green technique for power generation to respond the world\\'s need of energy sustainability. In this study, we have developed the vital component of the process, i.e. membrane, in the configuration of the outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber, which is more practical than other configurations in the real applications. The support layer morphology and the formation of the selective polyamide layer have been optimized for a good PRO performance. The results show that the bore fluid with higher amount of the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone leads to full finger-like hollow fibers, which provide higher flux but lower pressure tolerance. The addition of higher amount of diethylene glycol into the dope solution, improves the pore formation and suppresses the macrovoid formation, while properly lowering the take-up speed increases their wall thickness and pressure tolerance. A simple alcohol-pre-wetting approach on the fiber support leads to a smooth and thin polyamide layer, which is favorable for a high water flux and power density. Its efficiency follows this order: n-propanol>ethanol>methanol>water. The n-propanol pre-wetted TFC membrane can tolerate 17 bar with a peak power density of 9.59 W/m2 at room temperature, using 1 M NaCl solution as the draw solution and DI water as feed. This work demonstrates the potential of outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for energy conversion via PRO process, provides useful database to fabricate suitable support morphology and raise a simple technique to practically form a thin and smooth polyamide layer.

  10. THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF PATHOGENIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEPTOSPIRA GENIUS

    A. N. Vaganova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenic leptospires can infect wide spectrum of hosts and they can survive in the environment long time. The outer membrane is the cellular component participated in interaction of microorganisms and environment. In present time several proteins located in the outer membrane of leptospires which are responsible for colonization of host organism, protection from influence of immune system of host, transport of substances in to the cell and other processes have been described. The outer membrane contains proteins and lipopolysaccharide molecules which have citotoxic effect. It was shown that regulation of protein composition of membranes depends on several factors of environment such as temperature, osmolarity, presence of certain substances in environment. Lipopolysaccharide and protein molecules of outer membranes have antigenic properties. These molecules can be used in practice as the components of vaccine against leptospiroses and diagnostic tools. Current review summarize information concerning structural organization of the outer membrane of leptospires, diversities of incoming parts of molecules and regulation of their synthesis. Moreover, perspectives of practical using of the outer membrane components in diagnostics and prevention of leptospiroses are presented.

  11. Controlling Laser Spot Size in Outer Space

    Bennett, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Three documents discuss a method of controlling the diameter of a laser beam projected from Earth to any altitude ranging from low orbit around the Earth to geosynchronous orbit. Such laser beams are under consideration as means of supplying power to orbiting spacecraft at levels of the order of tens of kilowatts apiece. Each such beam would be projected by use of a special purpose telescope having an aperture diameter of 15 m or more. Expanding the laser beam to such a large diameter at low altitude would prevent air breakdown and render the laser beam eyesafe. Typically, the telescope would include an adaptive-optics concave primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror. The laser beam transmitted out to the satellite would remain in the near field on the telescope side of the beam waist, so that the telescope focal point would remain effective in controlling the beam width. By use of positioning stages having submicron resolution and repeatability, the relative positions of the primary and secondary mirrors would be adjusted to change the nominal telescope object and image distances to obtain the desired beam diameter (typically about 6 m) at the altitude of the satellite. The limiting distance D(sub L) at which a constant beam diameter can be maintained is determined by the focal range of the telescope 4 lambda f(sup 2) where lambda is the wavelength and f the f/number of the primary mirror. The shorter the wavelength and the faster the mirror, the longer D(sub L) becomes.

  12. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomographic findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy.

    Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Imamura, Yutaka; Giovinazzo, Vincent J; Spaide, Richard F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). A retrospective observational case series of the fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with AZOOR. There were 19 eyes of 11 patients (10 women), who had a mean age of 49.1 +/- 13.9 years. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities were seen in 17 of the 19 eyes, were more common in the peripapillary area, and were smaller in extent than the optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Nine eyes showed progression of hypoautofluorescence area during the mean follow-up of 69.7 months. The mean thickness of the photoreceptor layer at fovea was 177 microm in eyes with AZOOR, which was significantly thinner than controls (193 microm, P = 0.049). Abnormal retinal laminations were found in 12 eyes and were located over areas of loss of the photoreceptors. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was 243 microm, which is normal. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities in AZOOR showed distinct patterns of retinal pigment epithelial involvement, which may be progressive. Thinning of photoreceptor cell layer with loss of the outer segments and abnormal inner retinal lamination in the context of a normal choroid are commonly found in AZOOR.

  13. Polar spacecraft observations of the turbulent outer cusp/magnetopause boundary layer of Earth

    J. S. Pickett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 RE. The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfvén waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.

  14. Polar Spacecraft Observations of the Turbulent Outer Cusp/Magnetopause Boundary Layer of Earth

    Pickett, J. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Dowell, J. H.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scudder, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 R(sub E). The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfven waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.

  15. Monolithic pixel development in 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    Kugathasan, Thanushan; Buttar, Craig; Berdalovic, Ivan; Blochet, Bastien; Cardella, Roberto Calogero; Dalla, Marco; Egidos Plaja, Nuria; Hemperek, Tomasz; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Maneuski, Dima; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Mugnier, Herve; Musa, Luciano; Pernegger, Heinz; Riedler, Petra; Riegel, Christian; Rousset, Jerome; Sbarra, Carla; Schaefer, Douglas Michael; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Sharma, Abhishek; Snoeys, Walter; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Wang, Tianyang; Wermes, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN plans to upgrade its Inner Tracking System for the High-Luminosity LHC in 2026. After the ALPIDE monolithic sensor for the ALICE ITS was successfully implemented in a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor technology, the process was modified to combine full sensor depletion with a low sensor capacitance (≈ 2.5fF), for increased radiation tolerance and low analog power consumption. Efficiency and charge collection time were measured with comparisons before and after irradiation. This paper summarises the measurements and the ATLAS-specific development towards full-reticle size CMOS sensors and modules in this modified technology.

  16. Analysis of Boundary Layer Meteorological Data Collected at the White Sands Missile Range

    O'Brien, Sean; Tofsted, David; Yarbrough, Jimmy; Elliott, D. S; Quintis, David

    2007-01-01

    ... Sands Missile Range (WSMR). Our primary motivation for collecting these measurements is to refine the accuracy of outer and inner scale effects models for optical, thermal, and absolute humidity turbulence for the desert boundary layer...

  17. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  18. Special Offers

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  19. Special Offers

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  20. Special relativity

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  1. Special relativity

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  2. REDESIGN OF OUTER HOOD PANEL OF ESEMKA R2 CAR TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are terrible scourge that occur in many countries, specially for developing countries where transportation affairs like tangled yarn. Besides functioning as an engine compartment cover, the hood of modern compact SUV can also help to manage the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head in a vehicle-pedestrian impact. This paper presents outer hood design of Esemka R2 that has a potential to improve hood’s ability and also to absorb the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head. The developed method for the design of an outer hood configuration aims to provide a robust design and homogeneous of Head Injury Criterion (HIC for impact position at WAD 1000 and three different thicknesses (1.25 mm, 1.35 mm & 1.50 mm of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 compact SUV, taking into consideration the limited space available for deformation. The non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA software (Explicit Dynamics was used in this research to simulate the testing procedurs of head impact for child pedestrian. The results show that the average of comparison dimensional of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 was 4.89 mm. The minimum of deformation space meet the requirement for HIC value which required obtaining robust and homogeneous head impact performance. Outer hood thickness and materials were identified as the factors to influence the stress and HIC value of the hood. By comparing all outer hood panels, aluminium alloy as the best selected material which has the lowest value is 32.78% for the pedestrian protection.

  3. Layered materials

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  4. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Special offers

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  6. The Effects of Urethane on Rat Outer Hair Cells

    Mingyu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of outer hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined. To deduce the possible mechanism underlying the urethane-induced decrease in cochlear sensitivity, we examined the electrical response properties of isolated outer hair cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that urethane hyperpolarizes the outer hair cell membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and elicits larger outward current. This urethane-induced outward current was blocked by strychnine, an antagonist of the α9 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Meanwhile, the function of the outer hair cell motor protein, prestin, was not affected. These results suggest that urethane anesthesia is expected to decrease the responses of outer hair cells, whereas the frequency selectivity of cochlea remains unchanged.

  7. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-04-21

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 {mu}m) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10{sup -2} - 10{sup -1} mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within {proportional_to} 90 {mu}m. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  8. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  9. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 μm) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10 -2 - 10 -1 mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within ∝ 90 μm. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  10. Multi-layer casing of a steam turbine for high steam pressures and temperatures

    Remberg, A.

    1978-01-01

    In previous turbine casings there is no sealing provided between the inner layer and the outer layer, so that the steam pressure acts fully on the casing top and on the shaft seal housing situated there. To reduce the displacement which occurs there due to pressure differences in the various steam spaces, the normal inner casing is made with the shaft sealing housing in an inner layer, which cannot be divided in the axial direction. The inner layer can be inserted from the high pressure side into the unit outer casing. A horizontal section through the turbine in the attached drawing makes the construction and operation of the invention clear. (GL) [de

  11. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  12. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  13. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  14. Knitted outer gloves in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Tanner, J; Wraighte, P; Howard, P

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the rate of perforation to inner gloves when comparing latex with knitted gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty. Members of the surgical team were randomised to wear either two pairs of latex gloves (standard double gloving) or a knitted glove on top of a latex glove. In addition, participants completed a visual analogue assessment of their overall satisfaction with the gloves. A total of 406 inner gloves were tested for perforations over a four-month period: 23% of inner gloves were perforated when latex outer gloves were used and 6% of inner gloves were perforated when knitted outer gloves were used. In total, there were 64 perforations to the inner gloves; only one of these perforations was detected by the glove wearer. Wearing knitted outer gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty statistically significantly reduces the risk of perforation to inner latex gloves (p<0.0001).

  15. Outer Planet Missions with Electric Propulsion Systems—Part I

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For interplanetary missions, efficient electric propulsion systems can be used to increase the mass delivered to the destination. Outer planet exploration has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and New Horizons Missions. At the present, new technologies are studied for better use of electric propulsion systems in missions to the outer planets. This paper presents low-thrust trajectories using the method of the transporting trajectory to Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. They use nuclear and radio isotopic electric propulsion. These direct transfers have continuous electric propulsion of low power along the entire trajectory. The main goal of the paper is to optimize the transfers, that is, to provide maximum mass to be delivered to the outer planets.

  16. The outer magnetosphere. [composition and comparison with earth

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  17. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  18. Colors of Outer Solar System Objects Measured with VATT

    Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 7 years, we have measured optical B-V and V-R colors for about 40 minor outer solar system objects using the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) located on Mt. Graham in southeast Arizona. We will present these colors and use them to update the discussion of colors of minor bodies in the outer solar system. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to Northern Arizona University and the U. of Oklahoma which helped support this work.

  19. Stability of marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc, E-mail: acf@usal.e, E-mail: marc@usal.e [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-09-07

    We study the properties of stable, strictly stable and locally outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in spacelike hypersurfaces of spacetimes possessing certain symmetries such as isometries, homotheties and conformal Killings. We first obtain results for general diffeomorphisms in terms of the so-called metric deformation tensor and then particularize to different types of symmetries. In particular, we find restrictions at the surfaces on the vector field generating the symmetry. Some consequences are discussed. As an application, we present a result on non-existence of stable marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of FLRW.

  20. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1990-07-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account.

  1. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account. PMID:16667612

  2. TFG facilitates outer coat disassembly on COPII transport carriers to promote tethering and fusion with ER-Golgi intermediate compartments.

    Hanna, Michael G; Block, Samuel; Frankel, E B; Hou, Feng; Johnson, Adam; Yuan, Lin; Knight, Gavin; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Ashton, Randolph; Schekman, Randy; Tong, Yufeng; Audhya, Anjon

    2017-09-12

    The conserved coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the initial steps of secretory protein trafficking by assembling onto subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in two layers to generate cargo-laden transport carriers that ultimately fuse with an adjacent ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Here, we demonstrate that Trk-fused gene (TFG) binds directly to the inner layer of the COPII coat. Specifically, the TFG C terminus interacts with Sec23 through a shared interface with the outer COPII coat and the cargo receptor Tango1/cTAGE5. Our findings indicate that TFG binding to Sec23 outcompetes these other associations in a concentration-dependent manner and ultimately promotes outer coat dissociation. Additionally, we demonstrate that TFG tethers vesicles harboring the inner COPII coat, which contributes to their clustering between the ER and ERGIC in cells. Together, our studies define a mechanism by which COPII transport carriers are retained locally at the ER/ERGIC interface after outer coat disassembly, which is a prerequisite for fusion with ERGIC membranes.

  3. Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel

    Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.

    2017-06-01

    The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.

  4. Investigating the outer-bulb discharge as ignition aid for automotive-HID lamps

    Bergner, A; Groeger, S; Hoebing, T; Ruhrmann, C; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Hechtfischer, U; Tochadse, G

    2014-01-01

    This work considers the ignition process of mercury-free high-intensity discharge lamps used for car headlights. These lamps have to run-up fast. This is achieved with a high xenon pressure of about 15 bar (cold) in the inner bulb. The high filling-gas pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with lower-pressure lamps used in general-lighting applications. In this paper the possibility is investigated to reduce the ignition voltage by optimizing a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) in the outer bulb working as ignition aid. A special outer bulb was built up allowing gas exchange and adjustment of the gas pressure. For diagnostic purposes different electrical and optical methods are used, namely the recording of ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission by a photo-diode signal on nanosecond time scale as well as short-time photography by a intensified charge-coupled device camera. It was found that the DBD mainly generates a potential distribution within the lamp which supports ignition by an increase in the E-field in front of the electrodes and the wall. It is shown that this effect is distinctly more effective than UV radiation potentially emitted by the DBD. (paper)

  5. Thermographic studies of outer target heat fluxes on KSTAR

    H.H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new infra-red (IR thermography system with high spatial resolution has been installed on KSTAR and is now mainly applied to measure the outer divertor heat load profile. The first measurement results of the outer divertor heat load profiles between ELMs have been applied to characterize the inter-ELMs outer divertor heat loads in KSTAR H-mode plasmas. In particular, the power decay length (λq of the divertor heat load profile has been determined by fitting the profile to a convolution of an exponential decay and a Gaussian function. The analysis on the power decay length shows a good agreement with the recent multi-machine λq scaling, which predicts λq of the inter-ELMs divertor heat load to be ∼1 mm under the standard H-mode scenario in ITER. The divertor IR thermography system has also successfully measured the strike point splitting of the outer divertor heat flux during the application of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP fields. In addition, it has provided a clear evidence that the strike point splitting pattern depends on the RMP fields configuration.

  6. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  7. Detergent organisation in crystals of monomeric outer membrane phospholipase A

    Snijder, HJ; Timmins, PA; Kalk, KH; Dijkstra, BW

    The structure of the detergent in crystals of outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) has been determined using neutron diffraction contrast variation. Large crystals were soaked in stabilising solutions, each containing a different H2O/D2O contrast. From the neutron diffraction at five contrasts,

  8. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs.

    Ghai, Ishan; Ghai, Shashank

    2017-01-01

    One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels.

  9. Outer casing of the AA antiproton production target

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling.

  10. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  11. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    Stader, J; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  12. Ethane Ices in the Outer Solar System: Spectroscopy and Chemistry

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Raines, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report recent experiments on ethane ices made at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System. New near- and mid-infrared data for crystalline and amorphous ethane, including new spectra for a seldom-studied solid phase that exists at 35-55 K, are presented along with radiation-chemical experiments showing the formation of more-complex hydrocarbons

  13. The outer membrane protein assembly machinery of Neisseria meningitidis

    Volokhina, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837202

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by a cell envelope consisting of an inner membrane (IM) and an outer membrane (OM), which are separated by the peptidoglycan-containing periplasm. While the integral IM proteins are alpha-helical, all but one known integral OM proteins (OMPs) are

  14. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  15. The VP7 Outer Capsid Protein of Rotavirus Induces Polyclonal B-Cell Activation

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    The early response to a homologous rotavirus infection in mice includes a T-cell-independent increase in the number of activated B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches. The mechanism of this activation has not been previously determined. Since rotavirus has a repetitively arranged triple-layered capsid and repetitively arranged antigens can induce activation of B cells, one or more of the capsid proteins could be responsible for the initial activation of B cells during infection. To address this question, we assessed the ability of rotavirus and virus-like particles to induce B-cell activation in vivo and in vitro. Using infectious rotavirus, inactivated rotavirus, noninfectious but replication-competent virus, and virus-like particles, we determined that neither infectivity nor RNA was necessary for B-cell activation but the presence of the rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7, was sufficient for murine B-cell activation. Preincubation of the virus with neutralizing VP7 antibodies inhibited B-cell activation. Polymyxin B treatment and boiling of the virus preparation were performed, which ruled out possible lipopolysaccharide contamination as the source of activation and confirmed that the structural conformation of VP7 is important for B-cell activation. These findings indicate that the structure and conformation of the outer capsid protein, VP7, initiate intestinal B-cell activation during rotavirus infection. PMID:15194774

  16. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  17. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2017-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  18. Effect of enzyme location on activity and stability of trypsin and urease immobilized on porous membranes by using layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte

    Guedidi, Sadika; Yürekli, Yılmaz; Deratani, André; Déjardin, Philippe; Innocent, Christophe; Altınkaya, Sacide; Roudesli, Sadok; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of polyelectrolyte is one of the simplest ways to immobilize enzyme on membrane. In this paper, the immobilization of trypsin (TRY) and urease (URE) on polyacrylonitrile based membranes using the LbL assembly technique was presented. The studied systems consisted in bilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the outer layer and trilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the inner sandwiched layer. The membrane pore size was chosen so that the smal...

  19. Wisps in the outer edge of the Keeler Gap

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Arnault, Ethan G.

    2015-11-01

    Superposed upon the relatively smooth outer edge of the Keeler Gap are a system of "wisps," which appear to be ring material protruding inward into the gap, usually with a sharp trailing edge and a smooth gradation back to the background edge location on the leading side (Porco et al. 2005, Science). The radial amplitude of wisps is usually 0.5 to 1 km, and their azimuthal extent is approximately a degree of longitude (~2400 km). Wisps are likely caused by an interplay between Daphnis (and perhaps other moons) and embedded moonlets within the ring, though the details remain unclear.Aside from the wisps, the Keeler Gap outer edge is the only one of the five sharp edges in the outer part of Saturn's A ring that is reasonably smooth in appearance (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), with occultations indicating residuals less than 1 km upon a possibly non-zero eccentricity (R.G. French, personal communication, 2014). The other four (the inner and outer edges of the Encke Gap, the inner edge of the Keeler Gap, and the outer edge of the A ring itself) are characterized by wavy structure at moderate to high spatial frequencies, with amplitudes ranging from 2 to 30 km (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS).We will present a catalogue of wisp detections in Cassini images. We carry out repeated gaussian fits of the radial edge location in order to characterize edge structure and visually scan those fitted edges in order to detect wisps. With extensive coverage in longitude and in time, we will report on how wisps evolve and move, both within an orbit period and on longer timescales. We will also report on the frequency and interpretation of wisps that deviate from the standard morphology. We will discuss the implications of our results for the origin and nature of wisps, and for the larger picture of how masses interact within Saturn's rings.

  20. LHCb: The Performance and Radiation Hardness of the Outer Tracker Detector for LHCb

    Färber, C

    2012-01-01

    The LHC bexperiment is designed to study B-decays at the LHC. It is crucial to accurately and efficiently detect the charged decay particles in the high-density particle environment of the LHC. For this, the Outer Tracker (OT) has been constructed, consisting of 53,760 straw tubes, covering in total an area of 360 m2 of double layers. At the time of the conference, the detector will have operated under nominal LHC conditions for a period of about 2 years, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.5 fb$^{-1}$ . The performance of the detector will be discussed in terms of high voltage stability, noise rate, single hit efficiency and resolution. Finally, first results on the radiation tolerance of this sensitive gas detector will be shown, after having received a total dose corresponding to about 100 mC/cm in the hottest region.

  1. Time travel and chemical evolution - a look at the outer solar system

    Owen, T.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the chemical conditions today on the planets and moons of the outer solar system are similar to conditions on earth soon after it formed. If this is so, much can be learned about the chemistry that led to life on earth. While Jupiter is a poor terrestrial analog, its satellite Europa has a smooth icy surface that may cover a layer of liquid water tens of kilometers deep. It is possible that sunlight could filter through cracks in the ice, providing energy to drive chemical reactions in the water below the ice. It is noted that the surface of Titan may include lakes or oceans of ethane and that Triton may also have liquids on its surface. Studies of cometary nuclei will be undertaken during the Comet Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby mission

  2. Plasticity and fracture modeling of three-layer steel composite Tribond® 1200 for crash simulation

    Eller, Tom; Ramaker, Kenny; Greve, Lars; Andres, M.T.; Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2017-01-01

    A constitutive model is presented for the three-layer steel composite Tribond® 1200. Tribond® is a hot forming steel which consists of three layers: a high strength steel core between two outer layers of ductile low strength steel. The model is designed to provide an accurate prediction of the

  3. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  4. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium.

  5. Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow

    Christopher Foley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble. Each of these different configurations, in turn, has different thermoacoustic sensitivities and influences on combustor emissions, nozzle durability, and liner heating. This paper presents findings on the sensitivities of the outer shear layer- stabilized flames to a range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bulkhead temperature, flow velocity, and preheat temperature. There is significant hysteresis for flame attachment/detachment from the outer shear layer and this hysteresis is also described. Results are also correlated with extinction stretch rate calculations based on detailed kinetic simulations. In addition, we show that the bulkhead temperature near the flame attachment point has significant impact on outer shear layer detachment. This indicates that understanding the heat transfer between the edge flame stabilized in the shear layer and the nozzle hardware is needed in order to predict shear layer flame stabilization limits. Moreover, it shows that simulations cannot simply assume adiabatic boundary conditions if they are to capture these transitions. We also show that the reference temperature for correlating these transitions is quite different for attachment and local blow off. Finally, these results highlight the deficiencies in current understanding of the influence of fluid mechanic parameters (e.g. velocity, swirl number on shear layer flame attachment. For example, they show that the seemingly simple matter of scaling flame transition points with changes in flow velocities is not understood.

  6. Directed paths in a layered environment

    Alvarez, J; Janse van Rensburg, E J

    2008-01-01

    A polymer in a layered environment is modeled as a directed path in a layered square lattice composed of alternating A-layers of width w a and B-layers of width w b . In this paper we consider general cases of this model, where edges in the path interact with the layers, and vertices in the path interact with interfaces between adjacent layers. The phase diagram exhibits different regimes. In particular, we found that the path may be localized to one layer, be adsorbed on an interface between two layers or be delocalized across layers. We examine special aspects of the model in detail: the asymptotic regimes of the models are examined, and entropic forces on the interfaces are determined. We focus on several different cases, including models with layers of equal or similar width. More general models of layers with different but finite widths, or with one layer of infinite width, are also examined in detail. Several of these models exhibit phase behavior which relate to well-studied polymer phase behavior such as adsorption at an impenetrable wall, pinning at an interface between two immiscible solvents, steric stabilization of colloidal particles and sensitized flocculation of colloidal particles by polymers

  7. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula

    Simonelli, D.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Mckay, C.P.; Reynolds, R.T.; Summers, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The compositional contrast between the giant-planet satellites and the significantly rockier Pluto/Charon system is indicative of different formation mechanisms; cosmic abundance calculations, in conjunction with an assumption of the Pluto/Charon system's direct formation from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that most of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in CO form, in keeping with both the inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, and/or the Lewis and Prinn (1980) kinetic-inhibition model of solar nebula chemistry. Laboratory studies of carbonaceous chondrites and Comet Halley flyby studies suggest that condensed organic material, rather than elemental carbon, is the most likely candidate for the small percentage of the carbon-bearing solid in the outer solar nebula. 71 refs

  8. LO2/LH2 propulsion for outer planet orbiter spacecraft

    Garrison, P. W.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Galileo class orbiter missions (750-1500 kg) to the outer planets require a large postinjection delta-V for improved propulsion performance. The present investigation shows that a pump-fed low thrust LO2/LH2 propulsion system can provide a significantly larger net on-orbit mass for a given delta-V than a state-of-the-art earth storable, N2O4/monomethylhydrazine pressure-fed propulsion system. A description is given of a conceptual design for a LO2/LH2 pump-fed propulsion system developed for a Galileo class mission to the outer planets. Attention is given to spacecraft configuration, details regarding the propulsion system, the thermal control of the cryogenic propellants, and aspects of mission performance.

  9. Defining the limits of outer space for regulatory purposes

    Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliviera

    2015-01-01

    With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international Law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best ...

  10. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

    Simon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  11. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Ono, Tomohiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku, E-mail: ono.t@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  13. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  14. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  16. Growth behavior of surface oxide layer on SUS316L stainless steel at the early stage of exposure to 288degC water

    Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Surface oxide layer on SUS316L stainless steels exposed to 288degC pure water with 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) for 1-100 h were analyzed using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) technique to understand the early stage of surface oxide layer formation. In order to analyze the multi layered surface oxide, the interfaces between the outer and the inner oxide layers and that between the inner oxide layer and SUS316L substrate were determined from Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) line profiles. At 1 h exposure, double oxide layer which is composed of compact inner oxide layer and outer oxide layer with Fe-rich and Ni-rich oxide particles was formed. At the outermost region of the SUS316L substrate, Ni and Cr were enriched. At 100 h exposure, growth of the inner oxide layer was suppressed and the Ni and Cr enriched region at the alloy substrate was preserved underneath the Ni-rich outer oxide particles. At 1 h exposure, most of the outer oxide particles were composed of Fe-rich ones, at 10 h exposure, another Ni-rich outer oxide particles were nucleated and grew faster than Fe-rich ones. Consequently, a part of pre-formed Fe-rich outer oxide particles were covered with Ni-rich ones. (author)

  17. Imaging Shock Fronts in the Outer Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    Smith, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    Although Eta Car has been imaged many times with HST to monitor the central star and the bright Homunculus Nebula, we propose the first WFC3 imaging of Eta Car to study the more extended Outer Ejecta from previous eruptions. WFC3 has two key filters that have not been used before to image Eta Car, which will provide critical physical information about its eruptive history: (1) F280N with WFC3/UVIS will produce the first Mg II 2800 image of Eta Car, the sharpest image of its complex Outer Ejecta, and will unambiguously trace shock fronts, and (2) F126N with WFC3/IR will sample [Fe II] 12567 arising in the densest post-shock gas. Eta Car is surrounded by a bright, soft X-ray shell seen in Chandra images, which arises from the fastest 1840s ejecta overtaking slower older material. Our recent proper motion measurements show that the outer knots were ejected in two outbursts several hundred years before the 1840s eruption, and spectroscopy of light echoes has recently revealed extremely fast ejecta during the 1840s that indicate an explosive event. Were those previous eruptions explosive as well? If so, were they as energetic, did they also have such fast ejecta, and did they have the same geometry? The structure and excitation of the Outer Ejecta hold unique clues for reconstructing Eta Car's violent mass loss history. The locations of shock fronts in circumstellar material provide critical information, because they identify past discontinuities in the mass loss. This is one of the only ways to investigate the long term (i.e. centuries) evolution and duty cycle of eruptive mass loss in the most massive stars.

  18. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and immunosuppressive therapy in myasthenia gravis.

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  19. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    Solène Coisy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report: A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion: VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  20. Spheres of influence: Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles.

    Gui, M J; Dashper, S G; Slakeski, N; Chen, Y-Y; Reynolds, E C

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are asymmetrical single bilayer membranous nanostructures produced by Gram-negative bacteria important for bacterial interaction with the environment. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces OMVs that act as a virulence factor secretion system contributing to its pathogenicity. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The ~14 times more curvature of the OMV membrane than cell outer membrane (OM) indicates that OMV biogenesis requires energy expenditure for significant curvature of the OMV membrane. In P. gingivalis, we propose that this may be achieved by upregulating the production of certain inner or outer leaflet lipids, which causes localized outward curvature of the OM. This results in selection of anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and associated C-terminal domain (CTD) -family proteins on the outer surface due to their ability to accommodate the curvature. Deacylation of A-LPS may further enable increased curvature leading to OMV formation. Porphyromonas gingivalis OMVs that are selectively enriched in CTD-family proteins, largely the gingipains, can support bacterial coaggregation, promote biofilm development and act as an intercessor for the transport of non-motile bacteria by motile bacteria. The P. gingivalis OMVs are also believed to contribute to host interaction and colonization, evasion of immune defense mechanisms, and destruction of periodontal tissues. They may be crucial for both micro- and macronutrient capture, especially heme and probably other assimilable compounds for its own benefit and that of the wider biofilm community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  3. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    Mondt, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A 100-kW reactor power system with a specific mass of 15 to 30 kg/kW/sub e/ and an electric thrust system with a specific mass of 5 to 10 kg/kW/sub e/ can be combined into a nuclear electric propulsion system. The system can be used for outer planet missions as well as earth orbital transfer vehicle missions. 5 refs

  4. Living among giants exploring and settling the outer solar system

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outer Solar System is rich in resources and may be the best region in which to search for life beyond Earth. In fact, it may ultimately be the best place for Earthlings to set up permanent abodes. This book surveys the feasibility of that prospect, covering the fascinating history of exploration that kicks off our adventure into the outer Solar System.   Although other books provide surveys of the outer planets, Carroll approaches it from the perspective of potential future human exploration, exploitation and settlement, using insights from today’s leading scientists in the field. These experts take us to targets such as the moons Titan, Triton, Enceladus, Iapetus and Europa, and within the atmospheres of the gas and ice giants. In these pages you will experience the thrill of discovery awaiting those who journey through the giant worlds and their moons.   All the latest research is included, as are numerous illustrations, among them original paintings by the author, a renowned prize-winning space art...

  5. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  6. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  7. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  8. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  9. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  10. Distribution of flexural deflection in the worldwide outer rise area

    Lin, Zi-Jun; Lin, Jing-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Chen, Yen-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The outer rise on the fringe of a subduction system is caused by an accreted load on the flexed oceanic lithosphere. The magnitude of the deflection is usually linked to the stress state beard by the oceanic plate. In a coupled subduction zone, the stress is abundantly accumulated across the plate boundary which should affect the flexural properties of the subducted plate. Thus, the variation of the outer rise in shape may reflect the seismogenic characteristics of the subduction system. In this study, we intent to find the correlation between the flexure deflection (Wb) of the outer rise and the subduction zone properties by comparing several slab parameters and the Wb distribution. The estimation of Wb is performed based on the available bathymetry data and the statistic analysis of earthquakes is from the global ISC earthquake catalog for the period of 1900-2015. Our result shows a progressive change of Wb in space, suggesting a robust calculation. The average Wb of worldwise subduction system spreads from 348 to 682 m. No visible distinction in the ranging of Wb was observed for different subduction zones. However, in a weak coupling subduction system, the standard variation of Wb has generally larger value. Relatively large Wb generally occurs in the center of the trench system, whereas small Wb for the two ends of trench. The comparison of Wb and several slab parameters shows that the Wb may be correlated with the maximal magnitude and the number of earthquakes. Otherwise, no clear relationship with other parameters can be obtained.

  11. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  12. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula.

    Simonelli, D P; Pollack, J B; McKay, C P; Reynolds, R T; Summers, A L

    1989-01-01

    Detailed models of the internal structures of Pluto and Charon, assuming rock and water ice as the only constituents, indicate that the mean silicate mass fraction of this two-body system is on the order of 0.7; thus the Pluto/Charon system is significantly "rockier" than the satellites of the giant planets (silicate mass fraction approximately 0.55). This compositional contrast reflects different formation mechanisms: it is likely that Pluto and Charon formed directly from the solar nebula, while the circumplanetary nebulae that produced the giant planet satellites were derived from envelopes that surrounded the forming giant planets (envelopes in which icy planetesimals dissolved more readily than rocky planetesimals). Simple cosmic abundance calculations, and the assumption that the Pluto/Charon system formed directly from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of carbon monoxide; these results are consistent with (1) inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium (where CH4/CO nebula chemistry. Theoretical predictions of the C/H enhancements in the atmospheres of the giant planets, when compared to the actual observed enhancements, suggest that 10%, or slightly more, of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of condensed materials (although the amount of condensed C may have dropped slightly with increasing heliocentric distance). Strict compositional limits computed for the Pluto/Charon system using the densities of CH4 and CO ices indicate that these pure ices are at best minor components in the interiors of these bodies, and imply that CH4 and CO ices were not the dominant C-bearing solids in the outer nebula. Clathrate-hydrates could not have appropriated enough CH4 or CO to be the major form of condensed carbon, although such clathrates may be necessary to explain the presence of methane on Pluto after its formation from a CO-rich nebula

  13. Dispersion properties of three-layered orthotropic shells

    Markus, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic wave propagation in thick, cylindrical, three-layered shells of infinite length. Both the outer layers and the core are composites made of short strand fiberglass and polyester resin. The randomly oriented fibers were approximately in parallel planes to constitute a transversely isotropic fibre composite. The planes of isotropy in the outer layers are orthogonal to the plane of isotropy at the core. A closed form solution of the exact linear equations of elasticity in sought in terms of a Frobenius series. The influence of the core thickness on the dynamics of the wave motion is estimated from numerically computed dispersion curves. Asymmetric wave motion is given prime consideration and the different types of waves which can occur are identified over a wide range of wave numbers

  14. Nitrite reduction on a multimetallic porphyrin/polyoxotungstate layer-by-layer modified electrodes

    García, Macarena; Honores, Jessica; Quezada, Diego; Díaz, Carlos; Dreyse, Paulina; Celis, Freddy; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Canzi, Gabriele; Guzmán, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Electro and photoelectrochemical reduction of nitrite in aqueous solution was studied using a multielectrocatalysts modified ITO electrode. ITO modification was carried out using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method, where sequential electrostatic assemblies were formed using a μ-(meso-5,10,15,20-tetra(pirydil)porphyrin)tetrakis{bis(bipyridine)chloride ruthenium (II)} [MTRP] n+ , coordinated in its central cavity with Mn(III), Zn(II) or Ni(II) as a cationic layer, and polyoxotungstate [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− as the anionic layer. Electrochemical measurements and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to monitor the modification process. Optimal results were obtained when three layers were deposited onto the ITO surface and were stable in aqueous solution. The order of the multilayer formation was explored by comparing a modified electrode where [Zn(II)TRP] 4+ was the outermost layer with an electrode where [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− was the outer layer. Results show that the best performing electrode is one with [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− as the outer layer. Nitrite reduction on these electrode surfaces was studied in dark conditions and under light irradiation. Potential controlled electrolysis experiments were also performed, finding hydroxylamine, hydrazine and ammonia as the reduction products in dark conditions. Under light irradiation, only hydrazine and ammonia were found and, we observed an increase in the amount of obtained product. In this case, the electrolysis was carried out 150 mV less and half of time than in dark conditions. These results show that the combination of light and potential give rise to an improvement in the electrocatalytic properties of the modified electrodes. Continuous photolysis and IR spectroelectrochemical experiments were carried out to determinate the nature of this phenomena, evidencing the formation of an intermediary species between nitrite and [Mn(III)TRP] 5+.

  15. Correlation of Optical Coherence Tomography and Autofluorescence in the Outer Retina and Choroid of Patients With Choroideremia.

    Xue, Kanmin; Oldani, Marta; Jolly, Jasleen K; Edwards, Thomas L; Groppe, Markus; Downes, Susan M; MacLaren, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between RPE, photoreceptor, and choroidal degeneration in choroideremia. Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and autofluorescence (AF) were performed on 39 patients (78 eyes) with choroideremia. The edges of surviving outer retina on OCT and residual AF were aligned. The distribution of outer retinal tubulations was mapped over a range of ages (16-71 years), and comparison made between pre- and postsubretinal gene therapy. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was compared between 23 choroideremia patients (42 eyes) and 20 age- and refraction-matched male controls (40 eyes). The edges of RPE AF aligned with a reduction in outer nuclear layer thickness (Spearman's rho = 0.9992). Correlation was also found between the quality of AF and integrity of ellipsoid zone within islands of surviving retina. Tubulations existed in 71 of 78 (91%) eyes with choroideremia and remained stable following gene therapy. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was reduced at baseline in choroideremia (179.7 ± 17.2 μm) compared with controls (302.0 ± 4.8 μm; P retina and hence being potentially light responsive (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01461213).

  16. Deposition of silver layer on different substrates

    Krzemiński, J.; Kiełbasiński, K.; Szałapak, J.; Jakubowska, M.; MłoŻniak, A.; Zwierkowska, E.

    2015-09-01

    The hole process of producing continuous layer with silver nanoparticles is presented in this paper. First the ink preparation and then the spray process is shown and discussed. The silver layers were obtained on sodium glass substrate. Three different ink carriers were considered and the best one has been chosen. Spray coating process was carried out using special spray can. After obtaining sprayed layers the samples were sintered in several temperatures to investigate the lowest suitable sintering temperature. After that layers resistivity were measured. Then the silver layers were cracked to produce breakthrough fracture that was investigated by a scanning electron microscope. In this paper, the authors investigated the spray coating technique as an alternative to electroplating and other techniques, considering layer resistivity, thickness and production process.

  17. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  18. Tailoring of the morphology and chemical composition of thin organosilane microwave plasma polymer layers on metal substrates

    Grundmeier, G.; Thiemann, P.; Carpentier, J.; Shirtcliffe, N.; Stratmann, M

    2004-01-01

    The growth of thin microwave organosilicon plasma polymers on model zinc surfaces was investigated as a function of the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure during film deposition. The evolution of the topology of the film was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nano- and micro-roughness was investigated at the inner and the outer surfaces of the plasma polymers. A special etching procedure was developed to reveal the underside of the plasma polymer and thereby its inner surface. Rough films contained voids at the interface, which reduced the polymer/metal contact area. The increase in oxygen partial pressure led to a smoother film growth with a perfect imitation of the substrate topography at the interface. The chemical structure of the films was determined by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). ToF-SIMS at the outer and the inner surface of the plasma polymers showed that the density of methylsilyl groups increases in the outer surface layer of the plasma polymer and depends on the oxygen partial pressure. The chemical composition of the films could be altered to pure SiO{sub 2} without changing the morphology by using oxygen-plasma post-treatment. This was proved by means of IRRAS and AFM. Chemistry and topology of the films were correlated with the apparent water contact angle. It was found that a linear relationship exists between the nanoscopic roughness of the plasma polymer and the static contact angle of water. Superposition of a nanoscopic roughness of the metal surface and the nanoscopic roughness of methylsilyl-rich films led to ultra-hydrophobic films with water contact angles up to 160 deg.

  19. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  20. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  1. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  2. Some special techniques related to XAFS

    Ma Lidun; Kang Litao; Shi Guoshun

    2001-01-01

    Some special techniques related to XAFS are simply introduced. Atomic XAFS is produced by the photoelectron scattering by the outer valance electrons of the absorption atoms, which can be used for studying the outer electron structure of the absorption atoms and the relationship between electron structure and the local structure. NEXAFS-STXM is an image technique by the combination of NEXAFS and STXM. The image is produced by the difference of the absorption of the different matters consisted by the same elements in the range of NEXAFS. In addition, NEXAFS-STXM can quantitatively map the organic and inorganic components of biological tissue. Photoacoustic XAFS is obtained by the measurements of the photoacoustic signal on the both sides of the absorption edge. The film thickness can be measured by the phase delay of the photoacoustic signal. DAFS technique is a complex of XAFS and XRD. The local structure of the atom with special site and appointed valence can be determined by DAFS. Furthermore, the XAFS can be complexed with X-ray Raman scattering, XRD, XPS and FTIR for structural studies, respectively

  3. Analysis of the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Melnik, R. E.; Grossman, B.

    1974-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to analyze the interaction of a normal shock wave with an unseparated turbulent boundary layer on a flat surface at transonic speeds. The theory leads to a three-layer description of the interaction in the double limit of Reynolds number approaching infinity and Mach number approaching unity. The interaction involves an outer, inviscid rotational layer, a constant shear-stress wall layer, and a blending region between them. The pressure distribution is obtained from a numerical solution of the outer-layer equations by a mixed-flow relaxation procedure. An analytic solution for the skin friction is determined from the inner-layer equations. The significance of the mathematical model is discussed with reference to existing experimental data.

  4. Legal Implications of Military Uses of Outer Space

    Catena, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of Space Weapons, the Legal, Political and Military Impact for International Peace and At the dawn of a new century an immediate danger is upon us: The weaponization of outer space, including potential cost implications upon the prospect of ushering an era of peace and prosperity. But, can such statements be explained as pure sentimentality for hopes of a new era? Or is the danger misplaced that the threat to peace and security is an ever more ominous? By militarising outer space one could monitor crisis areas that could become a potential threat and this would in turn build confidence and security amongst nations. However the Outer Space Treaty prohibits placing in orbit nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. This does not include other military systems. Many countries feel the prohibition should be extended in the Treaty. Other military systems may involve anti-satellite weapons, (ASATS), emitting or simply placing technologies in space using laser and /or particle beams from space to intercept presently specific military targets such as ballistic missiles and hostile satellites, but in the future this may extend to destroying a target on earth. Military presence in space however, is not founded on weapons alone, but also through military surveillance systems and seen by some countries as an effective measure in verification on arms control. It is also seen as intensifying an arms race. At the forefront of the debate for space weapons is the possibility of countries deploying a National Missile Defence system. How does one reconcile such a system with present treaties? There has always been a direct relationship between weapons and space exploration, particularly if traced through the history of the late nineteenth century to the era of the space race. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857 - 1935), was one of the founders to astronautics. Robert Goddard, (1882-1945) an Englishman, developed Tsiolkovskys' work further. He built the first liquid

  5. HYDROGEN IN THE EARTH’S OUTER CORE, AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEEP EARTH GEODYNAMICS

    V. N. Rumyantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of hydrogen in the outer core of the Earth is roughly quantified from the dependence of the density of iron (viewed as the main component of the core on the amount of hydrogen dissolved in the core, with account of the most likely presence of iron hydrogen in the outer core, and the matter’s density jumps at the boundaries between the outer liquid core and the internal solid core (that is devoid of hydrogen and the mantle. Estimations for the outer liquid core show that the hydrogen content varies from 0.67 wt. % at the boundary with the solid inner core to 3.04 wt. % at the boundary with the mantle.Iron occlusion is viewed as the most likely mechanism for the iron–nickel core to capture such a significant amount of hydrogen. Iron occlusion took place at the stage of the young sun when the metallic core emerged in the cooling protoplanetary cloud containing hydrogen in high amounts, and non-volatile hydrogen was accumulated. Absorption (occlusion of molecular hydrogen was preceded by dissociation of molecules into atoms and ionization of the atoms, as proved by results of studies focused on Fe–H2 system, and hydrogen dissipation was thus prevented. The core matter was subject to gravitational compression at high pressures that contributed to the forced rapprochement of protons and electrons which interaction resulted by the formation of hydrogen atoms. Highly active hydrogen atoms reacted with metals and produced hydrides of iron and nickel, FeH and NiH. While the metallic core and then the silicate mantle were growing and consolidating, the stability of FeH and NiH was maintained due to pressures that were steadily increasing. Later on, due to the impacts of external forces on the Earth, marginal layers at the mantle–core boundary were detached and displaced, pressures decreased in the system, and iron and nickel hydrides were decomposed to produce molecular hydrogen. Consequences of the hydrides transformation into

  6. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  7. 78 FR 29091 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    2013-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the... vessels from a portion of Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display...

  8. Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey: An Update

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Bannister, Michele T.; Marsset, Michaël; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey C.; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Thirouin, Audrey; Nesvorný, David

    2018-01-01

    The vast majority of the known dwarf-planet sized bodies are bright enough to be studied through optical and infrared spectroscopy. As a result, we have an understanding of the surface properties for the largest Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) which retain their primordial inventory of volatile ices. For the typically smaller > 22 mag KBO, we must rely instead on what colors reveal by proxy; yet this picture remains incomplete. Most KBO physical property studies examine the hodgepodge set of objects discovered by various surveys with different and varying detection biases that make it difficult if not impossible to reliably estimate the sizes of the different surface color groupings (compositional classes) residing in the modern-day Kuiper belt.The Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS) probes the surface properties within the Kuiper belt primarily through near simultaneous g,r and J colors with the Gemini North Telescope and u-band with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The project aims to target ~100 KBOs brighter than 23.6 r‧ mag found by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), a survey with a well-measured detection efficiency. Thus, Col-OSSOS provides the first brightness-complete, compositional-dynamical map of the Outer Solar System, probing in a new light the radial color distribution in the primordial planetesimal disk from which KBOs originated. We will provide an update on the current status of the program highlighting results from the first two years of the survey; including size estimates of the two color KBO subgroups (the red and neutral surfaces) within the dynamically excited Kuiper belt and implications for the early planetesimal disk composition based on neutral-colored binaries found in the cold classical Kuiper belt.

  9. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  10. Outer Sphere Adsorption of Pb(II)EDTA on Goethite

    Bargar, John R

    1999-07-16

    FTIR and EXAFS spectroscopic measurements were performed on Pb(II)EDTA adsorbed on goethite as functions of pH (4-6), Pb(II)EDTA concentration (0.11 {micro}M - 72 {micro}M), and ionic strength (16 {micro}M - 0.5M). FTIR measurements show no evidence for carboxylate-Fe(III) bonding or protonation of EDTA at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Both FTIR and EXAFS measurements suggest that EDTA acts as a hexadentate ligand, with all four of its carboxylate and both amine groups bonded to Pb(II). No evidence was observed for inner-sphere Pb(II)-goethite bonding at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Hence, the adsorbed complexes should have composition Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}}. Since substantial uptake of PbEDTA(II){sup 2{minus}} occurred in the samples, we infer that Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}} adsorbed as outer-sphere complexes and/or as complexes that lose part of their solvation shells and hydrogen bond directly to goethite surface sites. We propose the term ''hydration-sphere'' for the latter type of complexes because they should occupy space in the primary hydration spheres of goethite surface functional groups, and to distinguish this mode of sorption from common structural definitions of inner- and outer-sphere complexes. The similarity of Pb(II) uptake isotherms to those of other divalent metal ions complexed by EDTA suggests that they too adsorb by these mechanisms. The lack of evidence for inner-sphere EDTA-Fe(III) bonding suggests that previously proposed metal-ligand - promoted dissolution mechanisms should be modified, specifically to account for the presence of outer-sphere precursor species.

  11. Frames and outer frames for Hilbert C^*-modules

    Arambašić, Ljiljana; Bakić, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to extend the theory of frames for countably generated Hilbert $C^*$-modules over arbitrary $C^*$-algebras. In investigating the non-unital case we introduce the concept of outer frame as a sequence in the multiplier module $M(X)$ that has the standard frame property when applied to elements of the ambient module $X$. Given a Hilbert $\\A$-module $X$, we prove that there is a bijective correspondence of the set of all adjointable surjections from the generalize...

  12. Dynamically hot Super-Earths from outer giant planet scattering

    Huang, Chelsea X.; Petrovich, Cristobal; Deibert, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The hundreds of multiple planetary systems discovered by the \\textit{Kepler} mission are typically observed to reside in close-in ($\\lesssim0.5$ AU), low-eccentricity, and low-inclination orbits. We run N-body experiments to study the effect that unstable outer ($\\gtrsim1$ AU) giant planets, whose end orbital configurations resemble those in the Radial Velocity population, have on these close-in multiple super-Earth systems. Our experiments show that the giant planets greatly reduce the multi...

  13. Design of a Bearingless Outer Rotor Induction Motor

    Yuxin Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A bearingless induction (BI motor with an outer rotor for flywheel energy storage systems is proposed due to the perceived advantages of simple rotor structure, non-contact support and high speed operation. Firstly, the configuration and operation principle of the proposed motor are described. Then several leading dimensional parameters are optimally calculated for achieving the maximum average values and the minimum ripples of torque output and suspension force. Finally, by using the finite element method, the characteristics and performance of the proposed machine are analyzed and verified.

  14. Aircraft crash upon outer containment of nuclear power plant

    Abbas, H.; Paul, D.K.; Godbole, P.N.; Nayak, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of an aircraft crash upon an outer containment of a nuclear power plant is presented. The effect of target yielding is considered simultaneously by calculating the reaction time in a time marching scheme. The concrete model employed is capable of predicting the cracking and yielding. The response for different cracking strains and different locations of aircraft strike for different aircraft has been studied. Critical location of aircraft strike for the containment has been investigated. The analytical procedure and the material model used are found to be capable of representing the aircraft impact response of the containment structure. (orig.)

  15. Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy

    Mohit Dogra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA, being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA. However, they may predispose the patient to serious complications like viral infections, including PORN.

  16. Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy.

    Dogra, Mohit; Bajgai, Priya; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Aman

    2018-04-01

    We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA), being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA. However, they may predispose the patient to serious complications like viral infections, including PORN.

  17. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, most lipoproteins synthesized in the inner membrane (IM) are trafficked to the outer membrane (OM). The Lol pathway is the trafficking paradigm: LolCDE releases lipoproteins from the IM; LolA shuttles them between membranes to LolB in the OM. Several OM lipoproteins are essential for viability. In apparent concordance, the Lol proteins are each essential in wild-type cells. However, we show that Escherichia coli grows well without LolA and LolB in the absence of one...

  18. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and the outer solar system

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Unlike all the planets closer to the Sun, known since antiquity, the farthest reaches are the discoveries of the modern world. Uranus was discovered in 1781, Neptune in 1846, Pluto in 1930, the Kuiper belt group of objects in 1992, and though the Oort cloud has been theorized since 1950, its first member was found in 2004. The discovery of the outer planets made such an impression on the minds of mankind that they were immortalized in the names of the newly discovered elements: uranium, neptunium, and plutonium, an astonishingly deadly constituent of atomic bombs. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and t

  19. The straw tube technology for the LHCb outer tracking system

    Bachmann, S; Bagaturia, I; Deppe, H; Eisele, F; Haas, T; Hajduk, L; Langenegger, U; Michalowski, J; Nawrot, A; Polok, G; Pellegrino, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schwierz, R; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J

    2004-01-01

    For the outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer 53.760 straws of 2.5 m length will be used. They are arranged in detector modules of 5 m length and 0.34 m width. The envisaged spatial resolution over the entire active area is 200$mu$m resulting in stringent requirements on the accuracy for the module construction. In this paper we discuss the optimisation of the straws, design and construction of detector modules. The long term operation properties of straws in two different counting g...

  20. Thermo-fluid-dynamics of turbulent boundary layer over a moving continuous flat sheet in a parallel free stream

    Afzal, Bushra; Noor Afzal Team; Bushra Afzal Team

    2014-11-01

    The momentum and thermal turbulent boundary layers over a continuous moving sheet subjected to a free stream have been analyzed in two layers (inner wall and outer wake) theory at large Reynolds number. The present work is based on open Reynolds equations of momentum and heat transfer without any closure model say, like eddy viscosity or mixing length etc. The matching of inner and outer layers has been carried out by Izakson-Millikan-Kolmogorov hypothesis. The matching for velocity and temperature profiles yields the logarithmic laws and power laws in overlap region of inner and outer layers, along with friction factor and heat transfer laws. The uniformly valid solution for velocity, Reynolds shear stress, temperature and thermal Reynolds heat flux have been proposed by introducing the outer wake functions due to momentum and thermal boundary layers. The comparison with experimental data for velocity profile, temperature profile, skin friction and heat transfer are presented. In outer non-linear layers, the lowest order momentum and thermal boundary layer equations have also been analyses by using eddy viscosity closure model, and results are compared with experimental data. Retired Professor, Embassy Hotel, Rasal Ganj, Aligarh 202001 India.

  1. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Outer Retinal Changes Including the Ellipsoid Zone Band in Usher Syndrome 1B due to MYO7A Mutations.

    Sumaroka, Alexander; Matsui, Rodrigo; Cideciyan, Artur V; McGuigan, David B; Sheplock, Rebecca; Schwartz, Sharon B; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2016-07-01

    To study transition zones from normal to abnormal retina in Usher syndrome IB (USH1B) caused by myosin 7A (MYO7A) mutations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scattering layers in outer retina were segmented in patients (n = 16, ages 2-42; eight patients had serial data, average interval 4.5 years) to quantify outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer segments (OS) as well as the locus of EZ (ellipsoid zone) edge and its extent from the fovea. Static perimetry was measured under dark-adapted (DA) and light-adapted (LA) conditions. Ellipsoid zone edge in USH1B-MYO7A could be located up to 23° from the fovea. Ellipsoid zone extent constricted at a rate of 0.51°/year with slower rates at smaller eccentricities. A well-defined EZ line could be associated with normal or abnormal ONL and/or OS thickness; detectable ONL extended well beyond EZ edge. At the EZ edge, the local slope of LA sensitivity loss was 2.6 (±1.7) dB/deg for central transition zones. At greater eccentricities, the local slope of cone sensitivity loss was shallower (1.1 ± 0.4 dB/deg for LA) than that of rod sensitivity loss (2.8 ± 1.2 dB/deg for DA). In USH1B-MYO7A, constriction rate of EZ extent depends on the initial eccentricity of the transition. Ellipsoid zone edges in the macula correspond to large local changes in cone vision, but extramacular EZ edges show more pronounced losses on rod-based vision tests. It is advisable to use not only the EZ line but also other structural and functional parameters for estimating natural history of disease and possible therapeutic effects in future clinical trials of USH1B-MYO7A.

  3. Pull out Strength of Dual Outer Diameter Pedicle Screws Compared to Uncemented and Cemented Standard Pedicle Screws: A Biomechanical in vitro Study.

    Lorenz, Andrea; Leichtle, Carmen I; Frantz, Sandra; Bumann, Marte; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Shiozawa, Thomas; Leichtle, Ulf G

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the potential of the dual outer diameter screw and systematically evaluate the pull-out force of the dual outer diameter screw compared to the uncemented and cemented standard pedicle screws with special regard to the pedicle diameter and the vertebra level. Sixty vertebrae of five human spines (T 6 -L 5 ) were sorted into three study groups for pairwise comparison of the uncemented dual outer diameter screw, the uncemented standard screw, and the cemented standard screw, and randomized with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebra level. The vertebrae were instrumented, insertion torque was determined, and pull-out testing was performed using a material testing machine. Failure load was evaluated in pairwise comparison within each study group. The screw-to-pedicle diameter ratio was determined and the uncemented dual outer diameter and standard screws were compared for different ratios as well as vertebra levels. Significantly increased pull-out forces were measured for the cemented standard screw compared to the uncemented standard screw (+689 N, P dual outer diameter screw (+403 N, P dual outer diameter screw to the uncemented standard screw in the total study group, a distinct but not significant increase was measured (+149 N, P = 0.114). Further analysis of these two screws, however, revealed a significant increase of pull-out force for the dual outer diameter screw in the lumbar region (+247 N, P = 0.040), as well as for a screw-to-pedicle diameter ratio between 0.6 and 1 (+ 488 N, P = 0.028). For clinical application, cement augmentation remains the gold standard for increasing screw stability. According to our results, the use of a dual outer diameter screw is an interesting option to increase screw stability in the lumbar region without cement augmentation. For the thoracic region, however, the screw-to-pedicle diameter should be checked and attention should be paid to screw cut out, if the dual outer diameter screw is considered.

  4. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  5. Tomographic Structural Changes of Retinal Layers after Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Macular Hole Surgery.

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno P; Cristóvao, Diana M; Mano, Sofia; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Monteiro-Grillo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To highlight tomographic structural changes of retinal layers after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole surgery. Nonrandomized prospective, interventional study in 38 eyes (34 patients) subjected to pars plana vitrectomy and ILM peeling for idiopathic macular hole. Retinal layers were assessed in nasal and temporal regions before and 6 months after surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Total retinal thickness increased in the nasal region and decreased in the temporal region. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) showed thinning on both nasal and temporal sides of the fovea. The thickness of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) increased. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer retinal layers (ORL) increased in thickness after surgery in both nasal and temporal regions. ILM peeling is associated with important alterations in the inner retinal layer architecture, with thinning of the RNFL-GCL-IPL complex and thickening of OPL, ONL, and ORL. These structural alterations can help explain functional outcome and could give indications regarding the extent of ILM peeling, even though peeling seems important for higher rate of hole closure. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Effects of Earth's Outer Core's Viscosity on Geodynamo Models

    Dong, C.; Jiao, L.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamo process is controlled by mathematic equations and input parameters. To study effects of parameters on geodynamo system, MoSST model has been used to simulate geodynamo outputs under different outer core's viscosity ν. With spanning ν for nearly three orders when other parameters fixed, we studied the variation of each physical field and its typical length scale. We find that variation of ν affects the velocity field intensely. The magnetic field almost decreases monotonically with increasing of ν, while the variation is no larger than 30%. The temperature perturbation increases monotonically with ν, but by a very small magnitude (6%). The averaged velocity field (u) of the liquid core increases with ν as a simple fitted scaling relation: u∝ν0.49. The phenomenon that u increases with ν is essentially that increasing of ν breaks the Taylor-Proudman constraint and drops the critical Rayleigh number, and thus u increases under the same thermal driving force. Forces balance is analyzed and balance mode shifts with variation of ν. When compared with former studies of scaling laws, this study supports the conclusion that in a certain parameter range, the magnetic field strength doesn't vary much with the viscosity, but opposes to the assumption that the velocity field has nothing to do with the outer core viscosity.

  7. Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power sources (NPS) for use in outer space have been developed and used in space applications where unique mission requirements and constraints on electrical power and thermal management precluded the use of non-nuclear power sources. Such missions have included interplanetary missions to the outer limits of the Solar System, for which solar panels were not suitable as a source of electrical power because of the long duration of these missions at great distances from the Sun. According to current knowledge and capabilities, space NPS are the only viable energy option to power some space missions and significantly enhance others. Several ongoing and foreseeable missions would not be possible without the use of space NPS. Past, present and foreseeable space NPS applications include radioisotope power systems (for example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units) and nuclear reactor systems for power and propulsion. The presence of radioactive materials or nuclear fuels in space NPS and their consequent potential for harm to people and the environment in Earth's biosphere due to an accident require that safety should always be an inherent part of the design and application of space NPS. NPS applications in outer space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Unlike many terrestrial nuclear applications, space applications tend to be used infrequently and their requirements can vary significantly depending upon the specific mission. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. For some applications, space NPS must operate autonomously at great distances from Earth in harsh environments. Potential accident conditions resulting from launch failures and inadvertent re-entry could expose NPS to extreme physical conditions. These and other unique safety considerations for the use of

  8. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs

  9. Fields and plasmas in the outer solar system. [Review

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Wolfe, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center

    1979-04-01

    The most significant information about fields and plasmas in the outer solar system, based on observations by Pioneer 10 and 11 investigations, is reviewed. The characteristic evolution of solar wind streams beyond 1 AU has been observed. The region within which the velocity increases continuously near 1 AU is replaced at larger distances by a thick interaction region with abrupt jumps in the solar wind speed at the leading and trailing edges. These abrupt increases, accompanied by corresponding jumps in the field magnitude and in the solar wind density and temperature, consist typically of a forward and a reverse shock. The existance of two distinct corotating regions, separated by sharp boundaries, is a characteristic feature of the interplanetary medium in the outer solar system. Within the interaction regions, compression effects are dominant and the field strength, plasma density, plasma temperature and the level of fluctuations are enhanced. Within the intervening quiet regions, rarefaction effects dominante and the field magnitude, solar wind density and fluctuation level are very low. These changes in the structure of interplanetary space have significant consequences for the many energetic particles propagating through the medium.

  10. The CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann

    2018-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program, which will bring the luminosity to about $5-7\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with a goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to cope with the HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new Tracker in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Outer Tracker system is designed to provide robust tracking as well as Level-1 trigger capabilities using closely spaced modules composed of silicon macro-pixel and/or strip sensors. Research and development activities are ongoing to explore options and develop module components and designs for the HL-LHC environment. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade are discussed along with some highlig...

  11. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    Lau, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement 'orthogonal' T p (B) of the tangent space T p (B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hyperbolic system as the evolution equations for our numerical simulation of the model

  12. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    Lau, Stephen R.

    2002-06-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement ⊥Tp(B) of the tangent space Tp(B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hyperbolic system as the evolution equations for our numerical simulation of the model.

  13. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    Lau, S

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement 'orthogonal' T sub p (B) of the tangent space T sub p (B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hy...

  14. Solar wind velocity and temperature in the outer heliosphere

    Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of 1992, the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft were at heliocentric distances of 56.0, 37.3, and 39.0 AU and heliographic latitudes of 3.3 deg N, 17.4 deg N, and 8.6 deg S, respectively. Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 are at similar celestial longitudes, while Pioneer 10 is on the opposite side of the Sun. All three spacecraft have working plasma analyzers, so intercomparison of data from these spacecraft provides important information about the global character of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. The averaged solar wind speed continued to exhibit its well-known variation with solar cycle: Even at heliocentric distances greater than 50 AU, the average speed is highest during the declining phase of the solar cycle and lowest near solar minimum. There was a strong latitudinal gradient in solar wind speed between 3 deg and 17 deg N during the last solar minimum, but this gradient has since disappeared. The solar wind temperature declined with increasing heliocentric distance out to a heliocentric distance of at least 20 AU; this decline appeared to continue at larger heliocentric distances, but temperatures in the outer heliosphere were suprisingly high. While Pioneer 10 and Voyager 2 observed comparable solar wind temperatures, the temperature at Pioneer 11 was significantly higher, which suggests the existence of a large-scale variation of temperature with heliographic longitude. There was also some suggestion that solar wind temperatures were higher near solar minimum.

  15. Upgrades of the CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067159

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 5×1034cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ around 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{−1}$ in the following decade. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 upgrade. The current CMS Outer Tracker, already running close to its design limits, will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions and CMS will need a completely new device, in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also L1 trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D; activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D; activities.

  16. Functional Architecture of the Outer Arm Dynein Conformational Switch*

    King, Stephen M.; Patel-King, Ramila S.

    2012-01-01

    Dynein light chain 1 (LC1/DNAL1) is one of the most highly conserved components of ciliary axonemal outer arm dyneins, and it associates with both a heavy chain motor unit and tubulin located within the A-tubule of the axonemal outer doublet microtubules. In a variety of model systems, lack of LC1 or expression of mutant forms leads to profound defects in ciliary motility, including the failure of the hydrodynamic coupling needed for ciliary metachronal synchrony, random stalling during the power/recovery stroke transition, an aberrant response to imposed viscous load, and in some cases partial failure of motor assembly. These phenotypes have led to the proposal that LC1 acts as part of a mechanical switch to control motor function in response to alterations in axonemal curvature. Here we have used NMR chemical shift mapping to define the regions perturbed by a series of mutations in the C-terminal domain that yield a range of phenotypic effects on motility. In addition, we have identified the subdomain of LC1 involved in binding microtubules and characterized the consequences of an Asn → Ser alteration within the terminal leucine-rich repeat that in humans causes primary ciliary dyskinesia. Together, these data define a series of functional subdomains within LC1 and allow us to propose a structural model for the organization of the dynein heavy chain-LC1-microtubule ternary complex that is required for the coordinated activity of dynein motors in cilia. PMID:22157010

  17. Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C n under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C n . This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C n , which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R C is much larger than the atomic radius r A and the thickness Δ C of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C n photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors

  18. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.

    1999-01-01

    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  19. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  20. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  1. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... characterized by historically developed specialization, a special geographical location ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... product, service or technology providing economic and/or public benefit, additional in ...... the region's competitiveness // International Business Management.

  3. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.

    2015-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... the detonation drive directly across the 2-30 Rʘ at speed reach ... detrimental to the humans as lower the lower energy radiation from nuclear explosion. .... inner structure of the Sun, its broad outer atmosphere and the origin.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... ing science in the format of aerial imaging within two large scie .... The data analysis method is based on the survey of the points where the ... perspective, the geographical information system is a collection of the tools for ... to the degree 1outer-city road network into freeway, highway and carriageway.

  6. Autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space: hypothesis and review.

    Spaide, Richard

    2008-01-01

    To review the pathophysiologic principles underlying increased autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space using selected diseases as examples. The ocular imaging information and histopathologic features, when known, were integrated for diseases causing increased autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space. Inferences were taken from this information and used to create a classification scheme. These diseases are principally those that cause separation of the outer retina from the retinal pigment epithelium, thereby preventing proper phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. The separation can arise from increased exudation into the subretinal space or inadequate removal of fluid from the subretinal space. Lack of normal outer segment processing initially leads to increased accumulation of outer segments on the outer retina and subretinal space. Over time, this material is visible as an increasingly thick coating on the outer retina, is yellow, and is autofluorescent. Over time, atrophy develops with thinning of the deposited material and decreasing autofluorescence. The accumulated material is ultimately capable of inducing damage to the retinal pigment epithelium. Diseases causing accumulation of the material include central serous chorioretinopathy, vitelliform macular dystrophy, acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy, choroidal tumors, and vitreomacular traction syndrome. The physical separation of the retinal outer segments from the retinal pigment epithelium hinders proper phagocytosis of the outer segments. Accumulation of the shed but not phagocytized outer segments plays a role in disease manifestations for a number of macular diseases.

  7. Single-layer versus double-layer laparoscopic intracorporeally sutured gastrointestinal anastomoses in the canine model.

    Tavakoli, Azine; Bakhtiari, Jalal; Khalaj, Ali Reza; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Veshkini, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the gross and histopathologic changes following 1- versus 2-layer hand-sewn suture techniques in laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis in dogs. This was an experimental prospective study of 16 healthy mixed breed male and female dogs. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. Two-layer side-to-side hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrojejunostomies were performed in group A, so that simple interrupted sutures were placed in the outer layer and simple continuous suture was used in the inner layer. The 1-layer simple continuous anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum was done in group B precisely. Specimen were collected from the sites of anastomosis, and H&E statining was performed for light microscopic studies. All animals survived the surgery. There was no gross inflammation, ischemia, apparent granulation tissue, abscess or fistula formation, leakage or stricture formation, and all sites of anastomosis were patent. Several adhesion formations were found in the abdomen with the higher incidence in the control group. Mean scores of leukocyte infiltration and granulation tissue formation at the sites of anastomosis were statistically insignificant between groups (P>0.05). Gross and histopathologic findings revealed that hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis with the 1-layer suture technique is comparable to the 2-layer suture technique.

  8. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Second is the media space model where indicates what parameters can be adapted. Lastly, is ... ontology. Runtime Layer. Storage Layer. Educational resources ... is an estimation based on the learner level of knowledge. 3.

  10. Nanocomposites from polymers and layered minerals

    Fischer, H.R.; Gielgens, L.H.; Koster, T.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Composites consisting of polymer matrix materials and natural or synthetic layered minerals e.g. clays were prepared by using special compatibilizing agents betsveen these two intrinsically non-miscible components. Block or graft copolymers combining one part of the polymer that is identically

  11. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet In-Space Bases and Moon Bases for Resource Processing

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. The propulsion and transportation requirements for all of the major moons of Uranus and Neptune are presented. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, factories, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) low gravity processing factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. Several artificial gravity in-space base designs and orbital sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  12. Developments in special geometry

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  13. Methane Group Ions in Saturn’s Outer Magnetosphere?

    Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H.; Shappirio, M.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Yelle et al. [2008] have estimated from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements that methane is escaping from Titan’s upper atmosphere at the rate of 2.5-3.0×109 mol/cm2/s and in order to explain this loss rate Strobel [2008] has proposed a hydrodynamic escape model to explain such high loss rates. This translates to loss of 2.8×1027 methane mol/s. The consequence of this work is the formation of a methane torus around Saturn which will dissociate to CH3 and other fragments of methane. The CH3 will then become ionized to form CH3+ with pickup energies ≈ keV after which it can be detected by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). Up till now the ion composition within Saturn’s outer magnetosphere in the vicinity of Titan’s orbit have yielded negative results with water group ions W+ dominating. The water group ions probably result from the emission of fast neutrals from the Enceladus torus via charge exchange reactions but still gravitationally bound to Saturn [see Johnson et al., 2005 and Sittler et al. 2006] and then become ionized in the outer magnetosphere as ~≈keV pickup ions. The CAPS IMS produces two ion composition data products, one called Straight Through (ST) and the other Linear Electric Field (LEF). The first has a higher sensitivity, while the latter has a greater discrimination in time-of-flight (TOF). For ST data O+ and CH4+ have similar TOF with the primary discriminator being the O- fragment which appears at a different TOF than for mass 16 ions. One can also look for other discriminators called ghost peaks. In case of LEF W+ ions produce TOF peak close to that for atomic O+ and the methane will produce TOF close to that for atomic C+ which has a significantly different(shorter) TOF than O+. We will be reporting on our continual search for methane ions within Saturn’s outer magnetosphere. References: 1. Yelle, R. V., J. Cui and I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, JGR, 2008. 2. Strobel, D. F., Icarus

  14. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  15. Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer

    Kocourek, L.; Dohnal, M.; Klinga, J.; Matal, O.; Holy, F.

    1989-01-01

    The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs

  16. Multicenter reliability of semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation using OCT

    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Traber, Ghislaine L.; Lukas, Sebastian; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Nolan, Rachel; Songster, Christopher; Balk, Lisanne; Petzold, Axel; Paul, Friedemann; Villoslada, Pablo; Brandt, Alexander U.; Green, Ari J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of semiautomated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular volume scans. Methods Macular OCT volume scans of left eyes from 17 subjects (8 patients with MS and 9 healthy controls) were automatically segmented by Heidelberg Eye Explorer (v1.9.3.0) beta-software (Spectralis Viewing Module v6.0.0.7), followed by manual correction by 5 experienced operators from 5 different academic centers. The mean thicknesses within a 6-mm area around the fovea were computed for the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer (OPL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for mean layer thickness values. Spatial distribution of ICC values for the segmented volume scans was investigated using heat maps. Results Agreement between raters was good (ICC > 0.84) for all retinal layers, particularly inner retinal layers showed excellent agreement across raters (ICC > 0.96). Spatial distribution of ICC showed highest values in the perimacular area, whereas the ICCs were poorer for the foveola and the more peripheral macular area. The automated segmentation of the OPL and ONL required the most correction and showed the least agreement, whereas differences were less prominent for the remaining layers. Conclusions Automated segmentation with manual correction of macular OCT scans is highly reliable when performed by experienced raters and can thus be applied in multicenter settings. Reliability can be improved by restricting analysis to the perimacular area and compound segmentation of GCL and IPL. PMID:29552598

  17. Giant magneto-impedance effect on nanocrystalline microwires with conductive layer deposit

    Wang, R.L.; Zhao, Z.J.; Liu, L.P.; Yuan, W.Z.; Yang, X.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the giant magneto-impedance effect on Fe-based glass-coated nanocrystalline microwires with and without an additional outer copper layer was investigated. Experiment results showed that the magneto-impedance ratio of the wires with a layer of deposited copper is higher at low frequencies and lower at high frequencies (above 50 MHz), as compared to that of the microwires without an outer copper layer. The peak MI magnetic field, corresponding to the maximum of the magneto-impedance ratio shifts towards higher field values with increasing coating thickness of copper layer. The results are explained in terms of electro-magnetic interactions between the conductive layer and the ferromagnetic core

  18. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.

  19. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  20. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  1. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Jang, Heesuk; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Kyung-In; Lim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report a test operation of an Er-doped fibre femtosecond laser which was conducted for the first time in outer space. The fibre-based ultrashort pulse laser payload was designed to meet space-use requirements, undergone through ground qualification tests and finally launched into a low-earth orbit early in 2013. Test results obtained during a one-year mission lifetime confirmed stable mode-locking all the way through although the radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in the Er-doped gain fibre caused an 8.6% reduction in the output power. This successful test operation would help facilitate diverse scientific and technological applications of femtosecond lasers in space and earth atmosphere in the near future. PMID:24875665

  4. Microbial Morphology and Motility as Biosignatures for Outer Planet Missions

    Nadeau, Jay; Lindensmith, Chris; Deming, Jody W.; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Stocker, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Meaningful motion is an unambiguous biosignature, but because life in the Solar System is most likely to be microbial, the question is whether such motion may be detected effectively on the micrometer scale. Recent results on microbial motility in various Earth environments have provided insight into the physics and biology that determine whether and how microorganisms as small as bacteria and archaea swim, under which conditions, and at which speeds. These discoveries have not yet been reviewed in an astrobiological context. This paper discusses these findings in the context of Earth analog environments and environments expected to be encountered in the outer Solar System, particularly the jovian and saturnian moons. We also review the imaging technologies capable of recording motility of submicrometer-sized organisms and discuss how an instrument would interface with several types of sample-collection strategies.

  5. The CMS Outer HCAL SiPM Upgrade

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) is the first large scale hadron collider detector to use SiPMs. By late January 2014 the installation of 1656 of 2376 channels was completed. The HO readout system provides for active temperature stabilisation of the SiPMs to less than 0.1$^\\circ$C using Peltier coolers, temperature measurement, and software feedback. Each channel has independently controlled bias voltage with a resolution of 25mV. Each SiPM is read out by 40MHz QIE ADCs. We report on the system design, schedule and progress. The next phase for the detector is commissioning during 2014 before the 2015 LHC run. We report on the status of commissioning and plans for operation. We discuss the calibration strategy with local cosmic ray runs using the HO's self trigger ability.

  6. The CMS Outer HCAL SiPM Upgrade

    Lobanov, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) is the first large scale hadron collider detector to use SiPMs. By late January 2014 the installation of 1656 of 2376 channels was completed. The HO readout system provides for active temperature stabilization of the SiPMs to less than 0.1$^\\circ$C using Peltier coolers, temperature measurement, and software feedback. Each channel has independently controlled bias voltage with a resolution of 25~mV. Each SiPM is read out by 40~MHz QIE ADCs. We report on the system design, schedule and progress. The next phase for the detector is commissioning during 2014 before the 2015 LHC run. We report on the status of commissioning and plans for operation. We discuss the calibration strategy with local cosmic ray runs using the HO's self trigger ability. We discuss the plans for a global CMS operations run in November 2014.

  7. Biogenesis and function of Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles

    Xie, H

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the keystone pathogens associated with chronic periodontitis. All P. gingivalis strains examined thus far produce outer membrane vesicles. Recent studies have found that vesicles possess some well-known virulence factors of P. gingivalis such as adhesins, toxins and proteolytic enzymes. Carrying most of the characteristic features of their parent P. gingivalis cells, vesicles communicate with host cells and other members of microbial biofilms, resulting in the transmission of virulence factors into these host cells and the formation of pathogenic bacteria-dominated microbial communities. An in-depth understanding of both the nature and role of vesicles in the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis is both important and timely, particularly when speaking of periodontitis and its related systemic effects. PMID:26343879

  8. COOL DUST IN THE OUTER RING OF NGC 1291

    Hinz, J. L.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Skibba, R.; Montiel, E.; Crocker, A.; Calzetti, D.; Donovan Meyer, J.; Sandstrom, K.; Walter, F.; Groves, B.; Meidt, S. E.; Johnson, B. D.; Hunt, L.; Aniano, G.; Draine, B.; Murphy, E. J.; Armus, L.; Dale, D. A.; Galametz, M.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine Herschel Space Observatory images of one nearby prototypical outer ring galaxy, NGC 1291, and show that the ring becomes more prominent at wavelengths longer than 160 μm. The mass of cool dust in the ring dominates the total dust mass of the galaxy, accounting for at least 70% of it. The temperature of the emitting dust in the ring (T = 19.5 ± 0.3 K) is cooler than that of the inner galaxy (T = 25.7 ± 0.7 K). We discuss several explanations for the difference in dust temperature, including age and density differences in the stellar populations of the ring versus the bulge.

  9. Large-scale density structures in the outer heliosphere

    Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Gordon, G. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Science experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft has measured the solar wind density from 1 to 38 AU. Over this distance, the solar wind density decreases as the inverse square of the heliocentric distance. However, there are large variations in this density at a given radius. Such changes in density are the dominant cause of changes in the solar wind ram pressure in the outer heliosphere and can cause large perturbations in the location of the termination shock of the solar wind. Following a simple model suggested by Suess, we study the non-equilibrium, dynamic location of the termination shock as it responds to these pressure changes. The results of this study suggest that the termination shock is rarely if ever at its equilibrium distance and may depart from that distance by as much as 50 AU at times.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis

    Yuichi Matsuo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system.

  11. Tick in the outer ear canal: Two case reports

    Özalkan Özkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious systemic diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease, tularemia, typhus and Q fever can be transmitted by ticks. An 8-year-old boy and a 34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains. No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggest CCHF were present. The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and INR were normal. The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.

  12. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  13. Using Stem Cells to Model Diseases of the Outer Retina

    Camille Yvon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal degeneration arises from the loss of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide with limited effective treatment options. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC-derived retinal cells and tissues from individuals with retinal degeneration is a rapidly evolving technology that holds a great potential for its use in disease modelling. IPSCs provide an ideal platform to investigate normal and pathological retinogenesis, but also deliver a valuable source of retinal cell types for drug screening and cell therapy. In this review, we will provide some examples of the ways in which IPSCs have been used to model diseases of the outer retina including retinitis pigmentosa (RP, Usher syndrome (USH, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, gyrate atrophy (GA, juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL, Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD and age related macular degeneration (AMD.

  14. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...

  15. The CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The era of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will pose unprecedented challenges for detector design and operation. The planned luminosity of the upgraded machine is $5$x$10^{34} $ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, reaching an integrated luminosity of more than 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. The CMS Tracker detector will have to be replaced in order to fully exploit the delivered luminosity and cope with the demanding operating conditions. The new detector will provide robust tracking as well as input for the first level trigger. This report is focusing on the replacement of the CMS Outer Tracker system, describing the new layout and technological choices together with some highlights of research and development activities.

  16. Forbush decreases and particle acceleration in the outer heliosphere

    Van Allen, J.A.; Mihalov, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major solar flare activity in 1989 has provided examples of the local acceleration of protons at 28 AU (Pioneer 11) and of the propagation of Forbush decreases in galactic cosmic ray intensity to a heliocentric radial distance of 47 AU (Pioneer 10). The combination of these and previous data at lesser distances shows (a) that Forbush decreases propagate with essentially constant magnitude to (at least) 47 AU and with similar magnitude at widely different ecliptic longitudes and (b) that the times for recovery from such decreases become progressively greater as the radial distance increases, being of the order of months in the outer heliosphere. A phenomenological scheme for (b) is proposed and fresh support is given to the hypothesis that the solar cycle modulation of the galactic cosmic ray intensity is attributable primarily to overlapping Forbush decreases which are more frequent and of greater magnitude near times of maximum solar activity than at times of lesser activity

  17. A thermal study of pipes with outer transverse fins

    S. Gil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of thermal investigations on pipes with outer transverse fins produced by placing a strip, being a form of helical spring which functions as a radiator, on the basis pipe. The investigations were carried out at the facility that enables measurements with respect to both natural and forced convection. Performance of the investigated pipes was assessed in relation to a non-finned pipe and a pipe welded with the use of Metal Active Gas (MAG technology. The experiments have shown that the finned pipe welding technology does not markedly affect their thermal efficiency, which has been confirmed by performed model calculations, while the welding technology has a crucial impact on their operating performance.

  18. Using Stem Cells to Model Diseases of the Outer Retina.

    Yvon, Camille; Ramsden, Conor M; Lane, Amelia; Powner, Michael B; da Cruz, Lyndon; Coffey, Peter J; Carr, Amanda-Jayne F

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degeneration arises from the loss of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide with limited effective treatment options. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC)-derived retinal cells and tissues from individuals with retinal degeneration is a rapidly evolving technology that holds a great potential for its use in disease modelling. IPSCs provide an ideal platform to investigate normal and pathological retinogenesis, but also deliver a valuable source of retinal cell types for drug screening and cell therapy. In this review, we will provide some examples of the ways in which IPSCs have been used to model diseases of the outer retina including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Usher syndrome (USH), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), gyrate atrophy (GA), juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) and age related macular degeneration (AMD).

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic Convection in the Outer Core and its Geodynamic Consequences

    Kuang, Weijia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2004-01-01

    The Earth's fluid outer core is in vigorous convection through much of the Earth's history. In addition to generating and maintaining Earth s time-varying magnetic field (geodynamo), the core convection also generates mass redistribution in the core and a dynamical pressure field on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). All these shall result in various core-mantle interactions, and contribute to surface geodynamic observables. For example, electromagnetic core-mantle coupling arises from finite electrically conducting lower mantle; gravitational interaction occurs between the cores and the heterogeneous mantle; mechanical coupling may also occur when the CMB topography is aspherical. Besides changing the mantle rotation via the coupling torques, the mass-redistribution in the core shall produce a spatial-temporal gravity anomaly. Numerical modeling of the core dynamical processes contributes in several geophysical disciplines. It helps explain the physical causes of surface geodynamic observables via space geodetic techniques and other means, e.g. Earth's rotation variation on decadal time scales, and secular time-variable gravity. Conversely, identification of the sources of the observables can provide additional insights on the dynamics of the fluid core, leading to better constraints on the physics in the numerical modeling. In the past few years, our core dynamics modeling efforts, with respect to our MoSST model, have made significant progress in understanding individual geophysical consequences. However, integrated studies are desirable, not only because of more mature numerical core dynamics models, but also because of inter-correlation among the geophysical phenomena, e.g. mass redistribution in the outer core produces not only time-variable gravity, but also gravitational core-mantle coupling and thus the Earth's rotation variation. They are expected to further facilitate multidisciplinary studies of core dynamics and interactions of the core with other

  20. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  1. Characterization of southern yellow pine bark layers by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2009-01-01

    The outer bark (rhytidome) of the southern yellow pines is a complex structure comprised of alternating layers of obliterated phloem and periderm tissues, with the latter comprised of three layers, those being phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer,...

  2. The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient

    Mazzolini, Monica

    2015-05-04

    Rod photoreceptors consist of an outer segment (OS) and an inner segment. Inside the OS a biochemical machinery transforms the rhodopsin photoisomerization into electrical signal. This machinery has been treated as and is thought to be homogenous with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this assumption, we developed a methodology based on special tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to deliver highly localized light stimulations. By using these TOFs, specific regions of the rod OS could be stimulated with spots of light highly confined in space. As the TOF is moved from the OS base toward its tip, the amplitude of saturating and single photon responses decreases, demonstrating that the efficacy of the transduction machinery is not uniform and is 5-10 times higher at the base than at the tip. This gradient of efficacy of the transduction machinery is attributed to a progressive depletion of the phosphodiesterase along the rod OS. Moreover we demonstrate that, using restricted spots of light, the duration of the photoresponse along the OS does not increase linearly with the light intensity as with diffuse light. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  3. Getting to the Outer Leaflet: Physiology of Phosphatidylserine Exposure at the Plasma Membrane.

    Bevers, Edouard M; Williamson, Patrick L

    2016-04-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a major component of membrane bilayers whose change in distribution between inner and outer leaflets is an important physiological signal. Normally, members of the type IV P-type ATPases spend metabolic energy to create an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids between the two leaflets, with PS confined to the cytoplasmic membrane leaflet. On occasion, membrane enzymes, known as scramblases, are activated to facilitate transbilayer migration of lipids, including PS. Recently, two proteins required for such randomization have been identified: TMEM16F, a scramblase regulated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+), and XKR8, a caspase-sensitive protein required for PS exposure in apoptotic cells. Once exposed at the cell surface, PS regulates biochemical reactions involved in blood coagulation, and bone mineralization, and also regulates a variety of cell-cell interactions. Exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, PS controls their recognition and engulfment by other cells. This process is exploited by parasites to invade their host, and in specialized form is used to maintain photoreceptors in the eye and modify synaptic connections in the brain. This review discusses what is known about the mechanism of PS exposure at the surface of the plasma membrane of cells, how actors in the extracellular milieu sense surface exposed PS, and how this recognition is translated to downstream consequences of PS exposure. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Profiling the outer membrane proteome during growth and development of the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus by selective biotinylation and analyses of outer membrane vesicles.

    Kahnt, Jörg; Aguiluz, Kryssia; Koch, Jürgen; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Konovalova, Anna; Huntley, Stuart; Hoppert, Michael; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Hedderich, Reiner

    2010-10-01

    Social behavior in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus relies on contact-dependent activities involving cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. To identify outer membrane proteins that have a role in these activities, we profiled the outer membrane proteome of growing and starving cells using two strategies. First, outer membrane proteins were enriched by biotinylation of intact cells using the reagent NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide)-PEO(12) (polyethylene oxide)-biotin with subsequent membrane solubilization and affinity chromatography. Second, the proteome of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) was determined. Comparisons of detected proteins show that these methods have different detection profiles and together provide a comprehensive view of the outer membrane proteome. From 362 proteins identified, 274 (76%) were cell envelope proteins including 64 integral outer membrane proteins and 85 lipoproteins. The majority of these proteins were of unknown function. Among integral outer membrane proteins with homologues of known function, TonB-dependent transporters comprise the largest group. Our data suggest novel functions for these transporters. Among lipoproteins with homologues of known function, proteins with hydrolytic functions comprise the largest group. The luminal load of OMV was enriched for proteins with hydrolytic functions. Our data suggest that OMV have functions in predation and possibly in transfer of intercellular signaling molecules between cells.

  5. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Proteins in Adherence and Pathogenesis

    Oleastro, Mónica; Ménard, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most successful human pathogens, which colonizes the mucus layer of the gastric epithelium of more than 50% of the world’s population. This curved, microaerophilic, Gram-negative bacterium induces a chronic active gastritis, often asymptomatic, in all infected individuals. In some cases, this gastritis evolves to more severe diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori has developed a unique set of factors, actively supporting its successful survival and persistence in its natural hostile ecological niche, the human stomach, throughout the individual’s life, unless treated. In the human stomach, the vast majority of H. pylori cells are motile in the mucus layer lining, but a small percentage adheres to the epithelial cell surfaces. Adherence to the gastric epithelium is important for the ability of H. pylori to cause disease because this intimate attachment facilitates: (1) colonization and persistence, by preventing the bacteria from being eliminated from the stomach, by mucus turnover and gastric peristalsis; (2) evasion from the human immune system and (3) efficient delivery of proteins into the gastric cell, such as the CagA oncoprotein. Therefore, bacteria with better adherence properties colonize the host at higher densities. H. pylori is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial species known and is equipped with an extraordinarily large set of outer membrane proteins, whose role in the infection and persistence process will be discussed in this review, as well as the different receptor structures that have been so far described for mucosal adherence. PMID:24833057

  6. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Proteins in Adherence and Pathogenesis

    Armelle Ménard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is one of the most successful human pathogens, which colonizes the mucus layer of the gastric epithelium of more than 50% of the world’s population. This curved, microaerophilic, Gram-negative bacterium induces a chronic active gastritis, often asymptomatic, in all infected individuals. In some cases, this gastritis evolves to more severe diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori has developed a unique set of factors, actively supporting its successful survival and persistence in its natural hostile ecological niche, the human stomach, throughout the individual’s life, unless treated. In the human stomach, the vast majority of H. pylori cells are motile in the mucus layer lining, but a small percentage adheres to the epithelial cell surfaces. Adherence to the gastric epithelium is important for the ability of H. pylori to cause disease because this intimate attachment facilitates: (1 colonization and persistence, by preventing the bacteria from being eliminated from the stomach, by mucus turnover and gastric peristalsis; (2 evasion from the human immune system and (3 efficient delivery of proteins into the gastric cell, such as the CagA oncoprotein. Therefore, bacteria with better adherence properties colonize the host at higher densities. H. pylori is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial species known and is equipped with an extraordinarily large set of outer membrane proteins, whose role in the infection and persistence process will be discussed in this review, as well as the different receptor structures that have been so far described for mucosal adherence.

  7. Improved performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker in LHC Run 2

    d'Argent, P.; Dufour, L.; Grillo, L.; de Vries, J. A.; Ukleja, A.; Aaij, R.; Archilli, F.; Bachmann, S.; Berninghoff, D.; Birnkraut, A.; Blouw, J.; De Cian, M.; Ciezarek, G.; Färber, C.; Demmer, M.; Dettori, F.; Gersabeck, E.; Grabowski, J.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Khanji, B.; Kolpin, M.; Kucharczyk, M.; Malecki, B. P.; Merk, M.; Mulder, M.; Müller, J.; Mueller, V.; Pellegrino, A.; Pikies, M.; Rachwal, B.; Schmelzer, T.; Spaan, B.; Szczekowski, M.; van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The performance of the detector is presented based on data of the LHC Run 2 running period from 2015 and 2016. Occupancies and operational experience for data collected in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions are described. An updated study of the ageing effects is presented showing no signs of gain deterioration or other radiation damage effects. In addition several improvements with respect to LHC Run 1 data taking are introduced. A novel real-time calibration of the time-alignment of the detector and the alignment of the single monolayers composing detector modules are presented, improving the drift-time and position resolution of the detector by 20%. Finally, a potential use of the improved resolution for the timing of charged tracks is described, showing the possibility to identify low-momentum hadrons with their time-of-flight.

  8. Fast acoustic streaming in standing waves: generation of an additional outer streaming cell.

    Reyt, Ida; Daru, Virginie; Bailliet, Hélène; Moreau, Solène; Valière, Jean-Christophe; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Weisman, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Rayleigh streaming in a cylindrical acoustic standing waveguide is studied both experimentally and numerically for nonlinear Reynolds numbers from 1 to 30 [Re(NL)=(U0/c0)(2)(R/δν)(2), with U0 the acoustic velocity amplitude at the velocity antinode, c0 the speed of sound, R the tube radius, and δν the acoustic boundary layer thickness]. Streaming velocity is measured by means of laser Doppler velocimetry in a cylindrical resonator filled with air at atmospheric pressure at high intensity sound levels. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically with high resolution finite difference schemes. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency. Results of measurements and of numerical calculation are compared with results given in the literature and with each other. As expected, the axial streaming velocity measured and calculated agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming (ReNL>1). Both experimental and numerical results show that when ReNL is increased, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes.

  9. A Reduced-order NLTE Kinetic Model for Radiating Plasmas of Outer Envelopes of Stellar Atmospheres

    Munafò, Alessandro [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 206A Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, 94035 CA (United States); Panesi, Marco, E-mail: munafo@illinois.edu, E-mail: nagi.n.mansour@nasa.gov, E-mail: m.panesi@illinois.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The present work proposes a self-consistent reduced-order NLTE kinetic model for radiating plasmas found in the outer layers of stellar atmospheres. A detailed collisional-radiative kinetic mechanism is constructed by leveraging the most up-to-date set of ab initio and experimental data available in the literature. This constitutes the starting point for the derivation of a reduced-order model, obtained by lumping the bound energy states into groups. In order to determine the needed thermo-physical group properties, uniform and Maxwell–Boltzmann energy distributions are used to reconstruct the energy population of each group. Finally, the reduced set of governing equations for the material gas and the radiation field is obtained based on the moment method. Applications consider the steady flow across a shock wave in partially ionized hydrogen. The results clearly demonstrate that adopting a Maxwell–Boltzmann grouping allows, on the one hand, for a substantial reduction of the number of unknowns and, on the other, to maintain accuracy for both gas and radiation quantities. Also, it is observed that, when neglecting line radiation, the use of two groups already leads to a very accurate resolution of the photo-ionization precursor, internal relaxation, and radiative cooling regions. The inclusion of line radiation requires adopting just one additional group to account for optically thin losses in the α , β , and γ lines of the Balmer and Paschen series. This trend has been observed for a wide range of shock wave velocities.

  10. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  11. Precise seismic-wave velocity atop Earth's core: No evidence for outer-core stratification

    Alexandrakis, Catherine; Eaton, David W.

    2010-05-01

    Earth's outer core is composed of liquid Fe and Ni alloyed with a ˜10% fraction of light elements such as O, S, or Si. Secular cooling and compositional buoyancy drive vigorous convection that sustains the geodynamo, but critical details of light-element composition and thermal regime remain uncertain. Seismic velocities can provide important observational constraints on these parameters, but global reference models such as Preliminary Reference Earth Model ( PREM), IASP91 and AK135 exhibit significant discrepancies in the outermost ˜200 km of the core. Here, we apply an Empirical Transfer Function method to obtain precise arrival times for SmKS waves, a whispering-gallery mode that propagates near the underside of the core-mantle boundary. Models that fit our data are all characterized by seismic velocities and depth gradients in the outermost 200 km of the core that correspond best with PREM. This similarity to PREM, which has a smooth velocity profile that satisfies the adiabatic Adams and Williamson equation, argues against the presence of an anomalous layer of light material near the top of the core as suggested in some previous studies. A new model, AE09, is proposed as a slight modification to PREM for use as a reference model of the outermost core.

  12. LHCb : Performance, radiation resistance, and expectations of the Outer Tracker straw

    Tuning, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single arm spectrometer, designed to study CP violation in B-decays at the LHC. It is crucial to accurately and efficiently detect the charged decay particles, in the high-density particle environment of the LHC. For this, the Outer Tracker (OT) was constructed, consisting of 54,000 straw tubes, covering in total an area of 360 m2 of double layers. The detector operated in 2011/2012 under large particle rates, up to 100 kHz/cm per straw in the region closest to the beam. The performance of the OT detector during Run-I of the LHC has been studied in detail, in terms of efficiency, resolution and noise rate. Particular attention is devoted to the radiation hardness of this sensitive gaseous detector, that has shown to suffer from gain loss after mild irradiation in laboratory conditions. During the shutdown period of the LHC, extensive studies have been performed on subtle spatial alignment effects, and real-time calibration procedures have been prepared for run-II. In addition, expect...

  13. 75 FR 57830 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    2010-09-22

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... special permit Application No. Docket No. Applicant affected thereof 7951-M ConAgra Foods, 49 CFR To... outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14953-M Applied 49 CFR To modify the...

  14. Derivation of Zagarola-Smits scaling in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers

    Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This Rapid Communication derives the Zagarola-Smits scaling directly from the governing equations for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (ZPG TBLs). It has long been observed that the scaling of the mean streamwise velocity in turbulent boundary layer flows differs in the near surface region and in the outer layer. In the inner region of small-velocity-defect boundary layers, it is generally accepted that the proper velocity scale is the friction velocity, uτ, and the proper length scale is the viscous length scale, ν /uτ . In the outer region, the most generally used length scale is the boundary layer thickness, δ . However, there is no consensus on velocity scales in the outer layer. Zagarola and Smits [ASME Paper No. FEDSM98-4950 (1998)] proposed a velocity scale, U ZS=(δ1/δ ) U∞ , where δ1 is the displacement thickness and U∞ is the freestream velocity. However, there are some concerns about Zagarola-Smits scaling due to the lack of a theoretical base. In this paper, the Zagarola-Smits scaling is derived directly from a combination of integral, similarity, and order-of-magnitude analysis of the mean continuity equation. The analysis also reveals that V∞, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, is a proper scale for the mean wall-normal velocity V . Extending the analysis to the streamwise mean momentum equation, we find that the Reynolds shear stress in ZPG TBLs scales as U∞V∞ in the outer region. This paper also provides a detailed analysis of the mass and mean momentum balance in the outer region of ZPG TBLs.

  15. Other Special Waste

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  16. Legal Provisions Applicable to the Definition of Outer Space

    Thorin, T.

    2002-01-01

    Whether it be the adjective "spatial" or the definition "space", these two terms have, in many respects, a non-identifiable dimension, which serves as a reference point for all players in this field, without being concerned with the exact area of application. This is evident from the vast diversity of corporate names, acronyms, logos and other designations that we often use. Among some of the most worldwide common include: NASA, ISS, ESA, and so on. Without of course forgetting , a field which concerns all legal experts and should not be overlooked is "space law". Thus, it is apparent that although the "space" community (i.e. influential and space- minded governments and relevant international authorities) has been involved in this field over the last few decades, no specific and universally-accepted definition has been adopted to date. Apart from certain demands made or unilateral positions taken by a given state particularly concerned by the matter, it is important to underline that the international community has refrained from making legislation in this area, apart from some rather limited or symbolic provisions introduced. This vagueness, in legal terms, should clearly be taken as the assertion of nationalistic demands, but also shows divergence or even antagonism between states fuelled by hypothetical profits, as was the case when attempts were made to establish maritime boundaries. We can thus by now summarise this issue by asking the following question: "Where does outer space begin?" We shall begin by looking at the sketchy legal references that we have at our disposal, which as lawyers we must use to attempt to find a solution to practical commercial or scientific contingencies which we are increasingly confronted with. Such references include the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies of 10th October 1967, constituting the fundamental space charter

  17. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  18. Double layer -- a particle accelerator in the magnetosphere

    Fu, Xiangrong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    Slides present the material under the following topics: Introduction (What is a double layer (DL)? Why is it important? Key unsolved problems); Theory -- time-independent solutions of 1D Vlasov--Poisson system; Particle-in-cell simulations (Current-driven DLs); and Electron acceleration by DL (Betatron acceleration). Key problems include the generation mechanism, stability, and electron acceleration. In summary, recent observations by Van Allen Probes show large number of DLs in the outer radiation belt, associated with enhanced flux of relativistic electrons. Simulations show that ion acoustic double layers can be generated by field-aligned currents. Thermal electrons can gain energy via betatron acceleration in a dipole magnetic field.

  19. [Stress analysis on the acetabular side of bipolar hemiarthroplasty by the two-dimensional finite element method incorporating the boundary friction layer].

    Ichihashi, K; Imura, S; Oomori, H; Gesso, H

    1994-11-01

    We compared the biomechanical characteristics of bipolar and unipolar hemiarthroplasty on the proximal migration of the outer head by determining the von Mises stress distribution and acetabular (outer head) displacement with clinical assessment of hemiarthroplasty in 75 patients. This analysis used the two-dimensional finite element method, which incorporated boundary friction layers on both the inner and outer bearings of the prosthesis. Acetabular reaming increased stress within the pelvic bone and migration of the outer head. A combination of the acetabular reaming and bone transplantation increased the stress within the pelvic bone and grafted bone, and caused outer head migration. These findings were supported by clinical results. Although the bipolar endoprosthesis was biomechanically superior to the unipolar endoprosthesis, migration of the outer head still occurred. The bipolar endoprosthesis appeared to be indicated in cases of a femoral neck fracture or of avascular necrosis in the femoral head, but its use in cases of osteoarthritis in the hip required caution.

  20. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to

  1. Examining Relativistic Electron Loss in the Outer Radiation Belt

    Green, J. C.; Onsager, T. G.; O'Brien, P.

    2003-12-01

    Since the discovery of earth's radiation belts researchers have sought to identify the mechanisms that dictate the seemingly erratic relativistic electron flux levels in the outer belt. Contrary to intuition, relativistic electron flux levels do not always increase during geomagnetic storms even though these storms signify enhanced energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere [Reeves et al., 2003; O'Brien et al., 2001]. The fickle response of the radiation belt electrons to geomagnetic activity suggests that flux levels are determined by the outcome of a continuous competition between acceleration and loss. Some progress has been made developing and testing acceleration mechanisms but little is known about how relativistic electrons are lost. We examine relativistic electron losses in the outer belt focusing our attention on flux decrease events of the type first described by Onsager et al. [2002]. The study showed a sudden decrease of geosynchronous >2MeV electron flux occurring simultaneously with local stretching of the magnetic field. The decrease was first observed near 15:00 MLT and progressed to all local times after a period of ˜10 hours. Expanding on the work of Onsager et al. [2002], we have identified ˜ 51 such flux decrease events in the GOES and LANL data and present the results of a superposed epoch analysis of solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indicators, and locally measured magnetic field and plasma data. The analysis shows that flux decreases occur after 1-2 days of quiet condition. They begin when either the solar wind dynamic pressure increases or Bz turns southward pushing hot dense plasma earthward to form a partial ring current and stretched magnetic field at dusk. Adiabatic electron motion in response to the stretched magnetic field may explain the initial flux reduction; however, often the flux does not recover with the magnetic field recovery, indicating that true loss from the magnetosphere is occurring. Using Polar and

  2. Dialogue between the Inner and Outer Space of the Building

    Orchowska, Anita

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the issues connected with the creation of the flow of space and the dialogue between the inner and outer space of the existing architectural objects. While the building industry and contemporary architectural concepts are developing, a man constantly turns to nature. He expresses his incessant longing for being in touch with the natural landscape by using these mutual relations in his solutions. In many cases a building may absorb its closest surroundings to the interior creating the illusive impression of its integrity with nature. Such solutions are commonly used and justified especially in suburban areas, where the natural landscape is an inspiration for every kind of spatial solution. Functional and spatial analysis of the solutions for buildings of different purposes prove that the role of the space flow between the inner and outer space of architectural objects is of great significance in shaping the quality of space, living comfort and aesthetic attractiveness of an object. Another beneficial activity is using transparency in the designed objects, letting the natural light into the inside and taking advantage of open spaces such as patios or atriums. A big role in building the relation between the inside and the outside of an object has the use of adequate materials and material borrowings, which integrate these two separate surroundings and make them similar. Finally, the creation of the junctures and the panoramic views from the interior of the object, of the designed place, emphasizes the interaction between the object and its natural surroundings. Which of these solutions create the best microclimate? May the creation of the relationship between the inside and the outside make the architecture more human, bring a man closer to nature, pretend in an unrestrained way the naturalness of the not natural landscape? What role does the spatial dialogue play from the environmental psychology point of view? Is it a desired phenomenon in

  3. Ohmic losses in coaxial resonators with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation

    Shenyong Hou, A. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408001 (China); Sheng Yu, B.; Hongfu Li, C.; Qixiang Zhao, D. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang Li, E. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, a coaxial resonator with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation is introduced. Its eigen-equation and expression of ohmic losses are derived. Ohmic losses in the cavity are investigated. Results show that ohmic losses in the outer and inner conductors share a similar variation trend, while the former is larger than the later. What's more, changes of the inner and outer slot depth and width induce different variations of ohmic losses on the surface of the inner and outer conductors.

  4. Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers

    Eitel-Amor, G; Schlatter, P; Flores, O

    2014-01-01

    The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re τ = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re τ < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.

  5. Experimental study of boundary-layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake

    Jeon, W.P. [Center for Turbulence and Flow Control Research Institute of Advanced Machinery and Design, Seoul National University (Korea); Park, T.C.; Kang, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Hot-wire measurements are performed in boundary-layer flows developing on a NACA 0012 airfoil over which wakes pass periodically. The periodic wakes are generated by rotating circular cylinders clockwise or counterclockwise around the airfoil. The time- and phase-averaged mean streamwise velocities and turbulence fluctuations are measured to investigate the phenomena of wake-induced transition. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are evaluated using a computational Preston tube method. The passing wakes significantly change the pressure distribution on the airfoil, which has influence on the transition process of the boundary layer. The orientation of the passing wake alters the pressure distribution in a different manner. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patches are generated inside the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil, and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream at a speed smaller than the free-stream velocity and merge together further downstream. Relatively high values of phase-averaged turbulence fluctuations in the outer part of the boundary layer indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer away from the wall. It is confirmed that the phase-averaged mean velocity profile has two dips in the outer region of the transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. (orig.)

  6. Selected Legal Challenges Relating to the Military use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War the potential use of outer space for military purposes persisted to be intrinsically linked to the development of space technology and space flight. The launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the USSR in 1957 made Western states realise that a surprise attack from space was a real possibility, resulting in the so-called "space-race" between the USA and the USSR. During the Cold War space activities were intrinsically linked to the political objectives, priorities and national security concerns of the USA and the Soviet Union. After the Cold War the political relevance and benefits of space continued to be recognised by states. In view of the recent emergence of new major space powers such as China, the focus has again shifted to the military use of outer space and the potential that a state with advanced space technology may use it for military purposes in order to dominate other states. Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the installation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in outer space and determines that the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used for peaceful purposes only. Due to the dual-use character of many space assets, the distinction between military and non-military uses of outer space is becoming increasingly blurred. This article discusses a number of legal challenges presented by article IV of the Outer Space Treaty, relating specifically to the term peaceful, the distinction between the terms militarisation and weaponisation and the nature of a space weapon. It is concluded that article IV is in many respects outdated and that it cannot address the current legal issues relating to the military use of outer space. The legal vacuum in this area may have grave consequences not only for maintaining peace and security in outer space, but also on earth. Consequently, an international dialogue on the military uses of outer space should be

  7. Structure of gels layers with cells

    Pokusaev, B. G.; Karlov, S. P.; Vyazmin, A. V.; Nekrasov, D. A.; Zakharov, N. S.; Khramtsov, D. P.; Skladnev, D. A.; Tyupa, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of two-layer agarose gels containing yeast cells is investigated experimentally by spectrometry, to shed a light on the theoretical foundations for the development of bioreactors by the method of 3D bioprinting. Due to division, cells overcome the layer of the dispersion phase separating successively applied layers of the agarose gel. However a gel layer of 100 μm thick with a high concentration of silver nanoparticles completely excludes the infiltration of yeast cells through it. A special sort of agarose is suggested where the concentration of silver nanoparticles formed by cells from salt of silver can serve as an indicator of the state of the yeast cells in the volume of the gel.

  8. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation

    Sun, Shipeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m2, which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m2 of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Enhanced Visualization of Subtle Outer Retinal Pathology by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation with Multi-Modal Imaging.

    Danuta M Sampson

    Full Text Available To present en face optical coherence tomography (OCT images generated by graph-search theory algorithm-based custom software and examine correlation with other imaging modalities.En face OCT images derived from high density OCT volumetric scans of 3 healthy subjects and 4 patients using a custom algorithm (graph-search theory and commercial software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering were compared and correlated with near infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO and microperimetry.Commercial software was unable to generate accurate en face OCT images in eyes with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE pathology due to segmentation error at the level of Bruch's membrane (BM. Accurate segmentation of the basal RPE and BM was achieved using custom software. The en face OCT images from eyes with isolated interdigitation or ellipsoid zone pathology were of similar quality between custom software and Heidelberg Eye Explorer software in the absence of any other significant outer retinal pathology. En face OCT images demonstrated angioid streaks, lesions of acute macular neuroretinopathy, hydroxychloroquine toxicity and Bietti crystalline deposits that correlated with other imaging modalities.Graph-search theory algorithm helps to overcome the limitations of outer retinal segmentation inaccuracies in commercial software. En face OCT images can provide detailed topography of the reflectivity within a specific layer of the retina which correlates with other forms of fundus imaging. Our results highlight the need for standardization of image reflectivity to facilitate quantification of en face OCT images and longitudinal analysis.

  10. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation.

    Sun, Shi-Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m(2), which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m(2) of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation.

  11. METAMORPHOPSIA AND OUTER RETINAL MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES AFTER SUCCESSFUL VITRECTOMY SURGERY FOR MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Okuda, Tetsuhiko; Higashide, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between metamorphopsia and outer retinal morphologic changes after successful vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Forty eyes from 40 patients with macula-off (26 eyes) or macula-on (14 eyes) RRDs that underwent pars plana vitrectomy were included. Metamorphopsia was quantified with M-CHARTS. The relationship between the integrity of the outer retinal layers examined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and metamorphopsia at 6 and 12 months postoperatively was evaluated. Metamorphopsia was significantly more frequent in eyes with macula-off RRD (88%) than in eyes with macula-on RRD (21%) at 6 months postoperatively (P macula-off RRD eyes from 6 months to 12 months (64%) postoperatively (P = 0.041). Horizontal metamorphopsia scores in eyes with continuous interdigitation zone and ellipsoid zone bands were significantly smaller than in eyes with a disrupted interdigitation zone band and a continuous ellipsoid zone band or in eyes with disrupted ellipsoid zone and interdigitation zone bands (P = 0.003 and P macula-off RRD.

  12. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation

    Sun, Shipeng

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m2, which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m2 of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Tracking the evolution of a coherent magnetic flux rope continuously from the inner to the outer corona

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sun, J. Q.; Li, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Liu, Y. D.; Olmedo, O.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic flux rope (MFR) is believed to be the underlying magnetic structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it remains unclear how an MFR evolves into and forms the multi-component structure of a CME. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) MFR eruption on 2013 May 22 by tracking its morphological evolution, studying its kinematics, and quantifying its thermal property. As EUV brightenings begin, the MFR starts to rise slowly and shows helical threads winding around an axis. Meanwhile, cool filamentary materials descend spirally down to the chromosphere. These features provide direct observational evidence of intrinsically helical structure of the MFR. Through detailed kinematical analysis, we find that the MFR evolution has two distinct phases: a slow rise phase and an impulsive acceleration phase. We attribute the first phase to the magnetic reconnection within the quasi-separatrix layers surrounding the MFR, and the much more energetic second phase to the fast magnetic reconnection underneath the MFR. We suggest that the transition between these two phases is caused by the torus instability. Moreover, we identify that the MFR evolves smoothly into the outer corona and appears as a coherent structure within the white-light CME volume. The MFR in the outer corona was enveloped by bright fronts that originated from plasma pile-up in front of the expanding MFR. The fronts are also associated with the preceding sheath region followed by the outmost MFR-driven shock.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Eurostat and the Ministry of Economic Development. 4. .... regard to the application of special national schemes for small enterprises. ... 2013) mentions a two-year exemption from the tax on joint stock companies and local taxes. ... specialized support programs are developed, such as the introduction of the ...

  15. Special Education in Jordan

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  16. The Eccentric Kozai-Lidov Mechanism for Outer Test Particle

    Naoz, Smadar; Li, Gongjie; Zanardi, Macarena; de Elía, Gonzalo Carlos; Di Sisto, Romina P.

    2017-07-01

    The secular approximation of the hierarchical three body systems has been proven to be very useful in addressing many astrophysical systems, from planets to stars to black holes. In such a system, two objects are on a tight orbit and the tertiary is on a much wider orbit. Here, we study the dynamics of a system by taking the tertiary mass to zero and solve the hierarchical three body system up to the octupole level of approximation. We find a rich dynamics that the outer orbit undergoes due to gravitational perturbations from the inner binary. The nominal result of the precession of the nodes is mostly limited for the lowest order of approximation; however, when the octupole level of approximation is introduced, the system becomes chaotic, as expected, and the tertiary oscillates below and above 90°, similarly to the non-test particle flip behavior. We provide the Hamiltonian of the system and investigate the dynamics of the system from the quadrupole to the octupole level of approximations. We also analyze the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of sections. Furthermore, including general relativity, we showcase the long-term evolution of individual debris disk particles under the influence of a far-away interior eccentric planet. We show that this dynamics can naturally result in retrograde objects and a puffy disk after a long timescale evolution (a few Gyr) for initially aligned configuration.

  17. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Côté, P.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Fardal, M.; Lewis, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of ∼20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii ∼> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 ± 19 km s –1 . The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 ± 12 km s –1 , which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M M31 = (1.2-1.5) ± 0.2 × 10 12 M ☉ . This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  18. Geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    Abdelkader, M.A. (Alexandria, Egypt)

    1983-04-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal.

  19. A geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    Abdelkader, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal. (Auth.)

  20. The Eccentric Kozai–Lidov Mechanism for Outer Test Particle

    Naoz, Smadar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Gongjie [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zanardi, Macarena; De Elía, Gonzalo Carlos; Di Sisto, Romina P., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CCT La Plata-CONICET-UNLP Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-07-01

    The secular approximation of the hierarchical three body systems has been proven to be very useful in addressing many astrophysical systems, from planets to stars to black holes. In such a system, two objects are on a tight orbit and the tertiary is on a much wider orbit. Here, we study the dynamics of a system by taking the tertiary mass to zero and solve the hierarchical three body system up to the octupole level of approximation. We find a rich dynamics that the outer orbit undergoes due to gravitational perturbations from the inner binary. The nominal result of the precession of the nodes is mostly limited for the lowest order of approximation; however, when the octupole level of approximation is introduced, the system becomes chaotic, as expected, and the tertiary oscillates below and above 90°, similarly to the non-test particle flip behavior. We provide the Hamiltonian of the system and investigate the dynamics of the system from the quadrupole to the octupole level of approximations. We also analyze the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of sections. Furthermore, including general relativity, we showcase the long-term evolution of individual debris disk particles under the influence of a far-away interior eccentric planet. We show that this dynamics can naturally result in retrograde objects and a puffy disk after a long timescale evolution (a few Gyr) for initially aligned configuration.

  1. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end.

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2015-10-05

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins’ key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins. PMID:28416660

  3. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    Conrath, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions

  4. Fluorescence spectral properties of outer antenna LHC II

    He Jun Fang; Zhang, Shu; He Fang Tao; Ren Zhao You; Li Liang Bi; Kuang Ting Yun

    2002-01-01

    Outer antenna LHC II acts to absorb and transfer energy for photosynthesis. The authors studied the fluorescence properties of LHC II of spinach with scanning imaging fluorescence spectroscopy. After it had been excited by 514.5 nm laser, the integral fluorescence spectrum of LHC II was detected. It was shown that energy transfer existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll. Seven bands of LHC II fluorescence emission were resolved by Gauss combination, viz. 656.7, 664.6, 671.5, 677.2, 683.5, 689.6, 695.3 nm, and the percentages of them were 3.0%, 13.1%,13.3%, 21.1%, 13.2%, 33.3%, 3.0% respectively. The emission of 658.7 nm was attributed to chlorophyll b, the other emission bands were produced by chlorophyll a molecules with the maximum absorption 662, 670/671, 676, 680 nm and over 690 nm. The band 656.7 nm, whose percentage was 3.0%, shows that the most energy was absorbed by chlorophyll a. The percentage of band 689.6 nm was the most, which was possibly correlated with one type of self protective mechanism o...

  5. Solar wind temperature observations in the outer heliosphere

    Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft are now at heliocentric distances of 50, 32 and 33 AU, and heliographic latitudes of 3.5 deg N, 17 deg N, and 0 deg N, respectively. Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 are at similar celestial longitudes, while Pioneer l0 is on the opposite side of the sun. The baselines defined by these spacecraft make it possible to resolve radial, longitudinal, and latitudinal variations of solar wind parameters. The solar wind temperature decreases with increasing heliocentric distance out to a distance of 10-15 AU. At larger heliocentric distances, this gradient disappears. These high solar wind temperatures in the outer heliosphere have persisted for at least 10 years, which suggests that they are not a solar cycle effect. The solar wind temperature varied with heliographic latitude during the most recent solar minimum. The solar wind temperature at Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 was higher than that seen at Pioneer 10 for an extended period of time, which suggests the existence of a large-scale variation of temperature with celestial longitude, but the contribution of transient phenomena is yet to be clarified.

  6. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins.

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2017-05-02

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins' key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins.

  7. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  8. Storm/substorm signatures in the outer belt

    Korth, A.; Friedel, R.H.W.; Mouikis, C.; Fennell, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the ring current region is compared for periods of storm and substorm activity, with an attempt to isolate the contributions of both processes. The authors investigate CRRES particle data in an overview format that allows the display of long-term variations of the outer radiation belt. They compare the evolution of the ring current population to indicators of storm (Dst) and substorm (AE) activity and examine compositional changes. Substorm activity leads to the intensification of the ring current at higher L (L ∼ 6) and lower ring current energies compared to storms (L ∼ 4). The O + /H + ratio during substorms remains low, near 10%, but is much enhanced during storms (can exceed 100%). They conclude that repeated substorms with an AE ∼ 900 nT lead to a ΔDst of ∼ 30 nT, but do not contribute to Dst during storm main phase as substorm injections do not form a symmetric ring current during such disturbed times

  9. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  10. Statistical studies of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Johnstone, A.D.; Rodgers, D.J.; Jones, G.H. E-mail: g.h.jones@ic.ac.uk

    1999-10-01

    The medium electron A (MEA) instrument aboard the CRRES spacecraft provided data on terrestrial radiation belt electrons in the energy range from 153 to 1582 keV, during 1990-91. These data have previously been used to produce an empirical model of the radiation belts from L=1.1 to 8.9, ordered according to 17 energy bands, 18 pitch angle bins, and 5 Kp ranges. Empirical models such as this are very valuable, but are prone to statistical fluctuations and gaps in coverage. In this study, in order to smooth the data and make it more easy to interpolate within data gaps, the pitch angle distribution at each energy in the model was fitted with a Bessel function. This provided a way to characterize the pitch angle in terms of only two parameters for each energy. It was not possible to model fluxes reliably within the loss cone because of poor statistics. The fitted distributions give an indication of the way in which pitch angle diffusion varies in the outer radiation belts. The two parameters of the Bessel function were found to vary systematically with L value, energy and Kp. Through the fitting of a simple function to these systematic variations, the number of parameters required to describe the model could be reduced drastically.

  11. MARG1D: One dimensional outer region matching data code

    Tokuda, Shinji; Watanabe, Tomoko.

    1995-08-01

    A code MARG1D has been developed which computes outer region matching data of the one dimensional Newcomb equation. Matching data play an important role in the resistive (and non ideal) Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in a tokamak plasma. The MARG1D code computes matching data by using the boundary value method or by the eigenvalue method. Variational principles are derived for the problems to be solved and a finite element method is applied. Except for the case of marginal stability, the eigenvalue method is equivalent to the boundary value method. However, the eigenvalue method has the several advantages: it is a new method of ideal MHD stability analysis for which the marginally stable state can be identified, and it guarantees numerical stability in computing matching data close to marginal stability. We perform detailed numerical experiments for a model equation with analytical solutions and for the Newcomb equation in the m=1 mode theory. Numerical experiments show that MARG1D code gives the matching data with numerical stability and high accuracy. (author)

  12. On finitely subadditive outer measures and modularity properties

    Charles Traina

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Let ν be a finite, finitely subadditive outer measure on P(X. Define ρ (E=ν (X−ν (E′ for E⊂X. The measurable sets Sν and Sρ and the set S={E⊂X/ν (E=ρ (E} are investigated in general, and in the presence of regularity or modularity assumptions on ν. This is also done for ν0(E=inf{ν (M/E⊂M∈Sν }. General properties of ν are derived when ν is weakly submodular. Applications and numerous examples are given.

  13. Drive mechanisms to the inner and outer hair cell stereocilia

    Maftoon, Nima; Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Guinan, John J.; Puria, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    It has been long believed that inner hair cell (IHC) stimulation can be gleaned from the classic ter-Kuile shear motion between the reticular lamina (RL) and tectorial membrane (TM). The present study explores this and other IHC stimulation mechanisms using a finite-element-model representation of an organ of Corti (OoC) cross section with fluid-structure interaction. A 3-D model of a cross section of the OoC including soft tissue and the fluid in the sub-tectorial space, tunnel of Corti and above the TM was formulated based on anatomical measurements from the gerbil apical turn. The outer hair cells (OHCs), Deiter's cells and their phalangeal processes are represented as Y-shaped building-block elements. Each of the IHC and OHC bundles is represented by a single sterocilium. Linearized Navier-Stokes equations coupled with linear-elastic equations discretized with tetrahedral elements are solved in the frequency domain. We evaluated the dynamic changes in the OoC motion including sub-tectorial gap dimensions for 0.1 to 10 kHz input frequencies. Calculations show the classic ter-Kuile motion but more importantly they show that the gap-height changes which produce oscillatory radial flow in the subtectorial space. Phase changes in the stereocilia across OHC rows and the IHC are also observed.

  14. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  15. Outer membrane vesicles enhance the carcinogenic potential of Helicobacter pylori.

    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Hampton, Mark B; Keenan, Jacqueline I

    2008-12-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinogenesis. These non-invasive bacteria colonize the gastric mucosa and constitutively shed small outer membrane vesicles (OMV). In this study, we investigated the direct effect of H.pylori OMV on cellular events associated with carcinogenesis. We observed increased micronuclei formation in AGS human gastric epithelial cells treated with OMV isolated from a toxigenic H.pylori strain (60190). This effect was absent in OMV from strain 60190v:1 that has a mutant vacA, indicating VacA-dependent micronuclei formation. VacA induces intracellular vacuolation, and reduced acridine orange staining indicated disruption in the integrity of these vacuoles. This was accompanied by an alteration in iron metabolism and glutathione (GSH) loss, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in genomic damage. Increasing intracellular GSH levels with a GSH ester abrogated the VacA-mediated increase in micronuclei formation. In conclusion, OMV-mediated delivery of VacA to the gastric epithelium may constitute a new mechanism for H.pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  16. Multi-layered pallet and production method and device therefor

    Sudo, Shigeru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns the production of a solid tritium pellet for use in a thermonuclear reactor. A first pellet constituent material constituting an outer layer of the pellet is solidified under cooling to form a solidification product for the pellet. A cave is formed on one end face of the pellet solidification product. A second pellet constituent material constituting an inner layer of the pellet is supplied and solidified under cooling. After scraping a predetermined amount of the other end face of the pellet solidification material, the first pellet constituent material is additionally supplied and solidified under cooling. The size and the relative position of each of layers can be determined definitely and the inner layer can be formed reliably while fuels can be accurately supplied with no loss to a required portion in plasma. (N.H.)

  17. Hydrodynamics of layer structured targets impinged by intense ion beams

    Davila, J.; Barrero, A.

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the energy loss in the corona outflow, a layer structured spherical hollow shell has been proposed to be used as target in inertial confinement fusion. For ion beam drivers, the major part of the beam energy is absorbed in the middle layer, which is called either absorber or pusher. The outer layer, called tamper, slows down the outward expansion of the absorbed low density region. The materials of the tamper and pusher are usually in the inner layer. The knowledge of the hydrodynamics of the interaction of an intense beam with a structured target is then an essential point in order to achieve break-even conditions in ion-beam fusion. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs

  18. Corrosion behaviour in saline environments of single-layer titanium and aluminium coatings, and of Ti/Al alternated multi-layers elaborated by a multi-beam PVD technique

    Merati, Abdenacer

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the characterization of anti-corrosion titanium and aluminium coatings deposited on a 35CD4 steel under the form of mono-metallic layers or alternated Ti/Al multi-layers, and obtained by a multibeam PVD technique. The influence of different parameters is studied: single-layer thickness (5, 15 or 30 micro-metres), multi-layer distribution (5 to 6) and substrate (smooth or threaded). Layer nature and microstructure are studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as corrosion toughness in aqueous saline environments. Coated threaded samples have been studied after tightening tests. It appears that titanium layers are denser and more uniform than aluminium layers, and that multi-layer coatings provide a better protection than single-layer coatings. The best behaviour is obtained when titanium is in contact with steel, and aluminium is the outer layer in contact with the corroding environment [fr

  19. Charge and softness of the outer part of the cell wall of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in the low ionic strength medium

    Škvarla Jiří

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface charge and surface potential are parameters influencing the microbial adhesion phenomenon through the electrostatic interaction between bacteria and substrates. The Smoluchowski equation, originally developed for estimating the above parameters from the experimentally accessible electrophoretic mobility of rigid colloid particles, is however inapplicable to the elastic bacterial cells. The problem is that the outer cell wall of bacteria is a layer with a complex polyelectrolyte structure. In this article, the OhshimaLs model of the gsofth particle is applied to describe the surface electrostatics of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cells by measuring their electrophoretic mobility in distilled water as a function of a (low ionic strength and pH. In this model, the rigid core is considered to be covered with a charged ion-penetrable layer of polyelectrolytes. Two model parameters have been determined by the curve fitting at pH from 3.2 to 5.8, namely the number density of the dissociated groups N and the softness parameter 1/ƒÉ of the polyelectrolyte layer of the bacterium. A disagreement of the best fit parameters (evaluated by the correlation coefficient with the analogous parameters determined for other colloids (including bacterial cells in aqueous solutions of a high ionic strength is discussed.

  20. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  1. How many Layers has the Adventitia? - Structure of the Arterial Tunica Externa Revisited.

    Witter, K; Tonar, Z; Schöpper, H

    2017-04-01

    Tunica adventitia or tunica externa is the outer layer of the blood vessel wall. It consists of connective tissue with vasa and nervi vasorum and plays a key role in vascular health. The aim of our study was to compare the wall layers beyond tunica media in arteries of different type and location. The following arteries of pig, dog and cat were processed histologically and analysed by light microscopy: aorta ascendens, arcus aortae, aorta thoracica, aorta abdominalis, arteria (a.) femoralis, a. tibialis cranialis, a. carotis communis, a. lingualis, a. basilaris, a. cerebralis media, a. testicularis and aa. jejunales. We found two layers of connective tissue outside the media: (1) a compact layer with many elastic fibres in muscular and few in elastic arteries and (2) an outer layer of loose connective tissue. The compact layer was missing in aorta ascendens, arcus aortae and intracranial vessels. Adventitial stripping removed only the loose connective tissue layer. In spite of the still present compact layer, stripped arteries were very flimsy. We suggest using the term 'tunica externa' for the compact connective tissue layer and 'tunica adventitia' for the outermost loose connective tissue layer as in other organs. The presence of the tunica externa differs between species, arteries and arterial side, as well as the removability of tunica adventitia and tunica externa by anatomical dissection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Outer Retinal and Choroidal Evaluation in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Fiore, Tito; Iaccheri, Barbara; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Lupidi, Marco; Torroni, Giovanni; Fruttini, Daniela; Cagini, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    To perform an analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities in patients with MEWDS, during the acute and recovery stages, using enhanced depth imaging-OCT (EDI-OCT). A retrospective case series of five patients with MEWDS was included. EDI-OCT imaging was evaluated to detect retinal and choroidal features. In the acute phase, focal impairment of the ellipsoid zone and external limiting membrane, hyperreflective dots in the inner choroid, and full-thickness increase of the choroidal profile were observed in the affected eye; disappearance of these findings and restoration of the choroidal thickness (p = 0.046) was appreciated in the recovery phase. No OCT abnormalities were assessed in the unaffected eye. EDI-OCT revealed transient outer retinal layer changes and inner choroidal hyperreflective dots. A transient increased thickness of the whole choroid was also identified. This might confirm a short-lasting inflammatory involvement of the whole choroidal tissue in the active phase of MEWDS.

  3. Investigation of linearity of the ITER outer vessel steady-state magnetic field sensors at high temperature

    Entler, S.; Duran, I.; Kocan, M.; Vayakis, G.

    2017-07-01

    Three vacuum vessel sectors in ITER will be instrumented by the outer vessel steady-state magnetic field sensors. Each sensor unit features a pair of metallic Hall sensors with a sensing layer made of bismuth to measure tangential and normal components of the local magnetic field. The influence of temperature and magnetic field on the Hall coefficient was tested for the temperature range from 25 to 250 oC and the magnetic field range from 0 to 0.5 T. A fit of the Hall coefficient normalized temperature function independent of magnetic field was found, and a model of the Hall coefficient functional dependence at a wide range of temperature and magnetic field was built with the purpose to simplify the calibration procedure.

  4. Turbulence characteristics of the Bödewadt layer in a large enclosed rotor-stator system

    Randriamampianina, Anthony; Poncet, Sébastien

    2006-05-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulation is combined with a laboratory study to describe the turbulent flow in an enclosed annular rotor-stator cavity characterized by a large aspect ratio G =(b-a)/h=18.32 and a small radius ratio a /b=0.152, where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. The rotation rate Ω under consideration is equivalent to the rotational Reynolds number Re =Ωb2/ν=9.5×104, where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. This corresponds to a value at which an experiment carried out at the laboratory has shown that the stator boundary layer is turbulent, whereas the rotor boundary layer is still laminar. Comparisons of the 3D computed solution with velocity measurements have given good agreement for the mean and turbulent fields. The results enhance evidence of weak turbulence at this Reynolds number, by comparing the turbulence properties with available data in the literature [M. Lygren and H. I. Andersson, J. Fluid Mech. 426, 297 (2001)]. An approximately self-similar boundary layer behavior is observed along the stator side. The reduction of the structural parameter a1 under the typical value 0.15 and the variation in the wall-normal direction of the different characteristic angles show that this boundary layer is three-dimensional. A quadrant analysis [H. S. Kang, H. Choi, and J. Y. Yoo, Phys. Fluids 10, 2315 (1998)] of conditionally averaged velocities is performed to identify the contributions of different events (ejections and sweeps) on the Reynolds shear stress producing vortical structures. The asymmetries observed in the conditionally averaged quadrant analysis are dominated by Reynolds stress-producing events in this Bödewadt layer. Moreover, case 1 vortices (with a positive wall induced velocity) are found to be the major source of generation of special strong events, in agreement with the conclusions of Lygren and Andersson [J. Fluid Mech. 426, 297 (2001)].

  5. Special issue on network coding

    Monteiro, Francisco A.; Burr, Alister; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Hollanti, Camilla; Krikidis, Ioannis; Seferoglu, Hulya; Skachek, Vitaly

    2017-12-01

    Future networks are expected to depart from traditional routing schemes in order to embrace network coding (NC)-based schemes. These have created a lot of interest both in academia and industry in recent years. Under the NC paradigm, symbols are transported through the network by combining several information streams originating from the same or different sources. This special issue contains thirteen papers, some dealing with design aspects of NC and related concepts (e.g., fountain codes) and some showcasing the application of NC to new services and technologies, such as data multi-view streaming of video or underwater sensor networks. One can find papers that show how NC turns data transmission more robust to packet losses, faster to decode, and more resilient to network changes, such as dynamic topologies and different user options, and how NC can improve the overall throughput. This issue also includes papers showing that NC principles can be used at different layers of the networks (including the physical layer) and how the same fundamental principles can lead to new distributed storage systems. Some of the papers in this issue have a theoretical nature, including code design, while others describe hardware testbeds and prototypes.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... STUDY BETWEEN INTERMETALLIC LAYER AND DROP TEST .... ore solder balls. Dropped lymer core solder ball. On. SAC solder ball. Figure 2. 144 hours. IMC layer for. AC solder ball from 24 to to AC stress test. .... International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications, 2010, pp.

  7. Financial Brownian Particle in the Layered Order-Book Fluid and Fluctuation-Dissipation Relations

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.

  8. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  9. Oxide thickness measurement technique for duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 cladding

    McClelland, R.G.; O'Leary, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP) is investigating the use of duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 tubing to improve the waterside corrosion resistance of cladding for high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel designs. Standard SNP PWR cladding is typically 0.762-mm (0.030-in.)-thick Zircaloy-4. The SNP duplex cladding is nominally 0.660-mm (0.026-in.)-thick Zircalloy-4 with an ∼0.102-mm (0.004-in.) outer layer of another, more corrosion-resistant, zirconium-based alloy. It is common industry practice to monitor the in-reactor corrosion behavior of Zircaloy cladding by using an eddy-current 'lift-off' technique to measure the oxide thickness on the outer surface of the fuel cladding. The test program evaluated three different cladding samples, all with the same outer diameter and wall thickness: Zircaloy-4 and duplex clad types D2 and D4

  10. Towards a super-strainable paper using the Layer-by-Layer technique.

    Marais, Andrew; Utsel, Simon; Gustafsson, Emil; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-01-16

    The Layer-by-Layer technique was used to build a polyelectrolyte multilayer on the surface of pulp fibres. The treated fibres were then used to prepare paper sheets and the mechanical properties of these sheets were evaluated as a function of the number of bi-layers on the fibres. Two different systems were studied: polyethyleneimine (PEI)/nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH)/hyaluronic acid (HA). Model experiments using dual polarization interferometry and SiO₂ surfaces showed that the two systems gave different thicknesses for a given number of layers. The outer layer was found to be a key parameter in the PEI/NFC system, whereas it was less important in the PAH/HA system. The mechanical properties of the sheets made from the PAH/HA treated fibres were significantly greater than those made from untreated fibres, reaching 70 Nm/g in tensile index and 6.5% in strain at break. Such a modification could be very useful for 3D forming of paper, opening new perspectives in for example the packaging industry, with a renewable and biodegradable product as a potential substitute for some of the traditional oil-based plastics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential gene expression of the intermediate and outer interzone layers of developing articular cartilage in murine embryos

    Jenner, Florien; IJpma, Arne; Cleary, Mairead; Heijsman, Daphne; Narcisi, Roberto; van der Spek, Peter J; Kremer, Andreas; van Weeren, René; Brama, Pieter; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2014-01-01

    Nascent embryonic joints, interzones, contain a distinct cohort of progenitor cells responsible for the formation of the majority of articular tissues. However, to date the interzone has largely been studied using in situ analysis for candidate genes in the context of the embryo rather than using an

  12. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanotubes as Biomimetic Nanoreactors for Calcium Carbonate Deposition.

    He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Li, Junbai

    2009-09-17

    Enzyme-loaded magnetic polyelectrolyte multilayer nanotubes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly combined with the porous template could be used as biomimetic nanoreactors. It is demonstrated that calcium carbonate can be biomimetically synthesized inside the cavities of the polyelectrolyte nanotubes by the catalysis of urease, and the size of the calcium carbonate precipitates was controlled by the cavity dimensions. The metastable structure of the calcium carbonate precipitates inside the nanotubes was protected by the outer shell of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. These features may allow polyelectrolyte nanotubes to be applied in the fields of nanomaterials synthesis, controlled release, and drug delivery. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Inner- and outer-sphere complexation of ions at the goethite-solution interface

    Rahnemaie, R.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of inner- and outer-sphere complexes of environmentally important divalent ions on the goethite surface was examined by applying the charge distribution CD model for inner- and outer-sphere complexation. The model assumes spatial charge distribution between the surface (0-plane) and the

  14. 78 FR 40394 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards... Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  15. Fatigue Analysis of an Outer Bearing Bush of a Kaplan Turbine

    Doina Frunzaverde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the fatigue analysis of an outer bearing bush of aKaplan turbine. This outer bush, together with an inner one, bear thepin lever - trunion - blade subassembly of the runner blade operatingmechanism. For modeling and simulation, SolidWorks software is used.

  16. Selective imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with diminished outer membrane permeability.

    Studemeister, A E; Quinn, J P

    1988-01-01

    The permeability of the outer membranes of imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated by the liposome swelling assay. Sugars and cephaloridine penetrated rapidly, whereas imipenem penetrated poorly into liposomes constructed from porin-rich outer membrane fractions of the resistant isolates.

  17. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  18. Expression and distribution of leptospiral outer membrane components during renal infection of hamsters

    Barnett, J. K.; Barnett, D.; Bolin, C. A.; Summers, T. A.; Wagar, E. A.; Cheville, N. F.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Haake, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The outer membrane of pathogenic Leptospira species grown in culture media contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a porin (OmpL1), and several lipoproteins, including LipL36 and LipL41. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression and distribution of these outer membrane antigens during

  19. Outer Measures on a Commutative Ring Induced by Measures on Its Spectrum

    Dudzik Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On a commutative ring R we study outer measures induced by measures on Spec(R. The focus is on examples of such outer measures and on subsets of R that satisfy the Carathéodory condition.

  20. Fine tuning the ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surface using ion mixtures.

    Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Fearn, Sarah; Ismail, Nur L; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).

  1. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP

  2. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    F. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, μ, and σ) are present in

  3. Apparent resistivity for transient electromagnetic induction logging and its correction in radial layer identification

    Meng, Qingxin; Hu, Xiangyun; Pan, Heping; Xi, Yufei

    2018-04-01

    We propose an algorithm for calculating all-time apparent resistivity from transient electromagnetic induction logging. The algorithm is based on the whole-space transient electric field expression of the uniform model and Halley's optimisation. In trial calculations for uniform models, the all-time algorithm is shown to have high accuracy. We use the finite-difference time-domain method to simulate the transient electromagnetic field in radial two-layer models without wall rock and convert the simulation results to apparent resistivity using the all-time algorithm. The time-varying apparent resistivity reflects the radially layered geoelectrical structure of the models and the apparent resistivity of the earliest time channel follows the true resistivity of the inner layer; however, the apparent resistivity at larger times reflects the comprehensive electrical characteristics of the inner and outer layers. To accurately identify the outer layer resistivity based on the series relationship model of the layered resistance, the apparent resistivity and diffusion depth of the different time channels are approximately replaced by related model parameters; that is, we propose an apparent resistivity correction algorithm. By correcting the time-varying apparent resistivity of radial two-layer models, we show that the correction results reflect the radially layered electrical structure and the corrected resistivities of the larger time channels follow the outer layer resistivity. The transient electromagnetic fields of radially layered models with wall rock are simulated to obtain the 2D time-varying profiles of the apparent resistivity and corrections. The results suggest that the time-varying apparent resistivity and correction results reflect the vertical and radial geoelectrical structures. For models with small wall-rock effect, the correction removes the effect of the low-resistance inner layer on the apparent resistivity of the larger time channels.

  4. Turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces detected in DNS of incompressible turbulent boundary layers

    Watanabe, T.; Zhang, X.; Nagata, K.

    2018-03-01

    The turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) detected in direct numerical simulations is studied for incompressible, temporally developing turbulent boundary layers at momentum thickness Reynolds number Reθ ≈ 2000. The outer edge of the TNTI layer is detected as an isosurface of the vorticity magnitude with the threshold determined with the dependence of the turbulent volume on a threshold level. The spanwise vorticity magnitude and passive scalar are shown to be good markers of turbulent fluids, where the conditional statistics on a distance from the outer edge of the TNTI layer are almost identical to the ones obtained with the vorticity magnitude. Significant differences are observed for the conditional statistics between the TNTI detected by the kinetic energy and vorticity magnitude. A widely used grid setting determined solely from the wall unit results in an insufficient resolution in a streamwise direction in the outer region, whose influence is found for the geometry of the TNTI and vorticity jump across the TNTI layer. The present results suggest that the grid spacing should be similar for the streamwise and spanwise directions. Comparison of the TNTI layer among different flows requires appropriate normalization of the conditional statistics. Reference quantities of the turbulence near the TNTI layer are obtained with the average of turbulent fluids in the intermittent region. The conditional statistics normalized by the reference turbulence characteristics show good quantitative agreement for the turbulent boundary layer and planar jet when they are plotted against the distance from the outer edge of the TNTI layer divided by the Kolmogorov scale defined for turbulent fluids in the intermittent region.

  5. Free-Space Squeezing Assists Perfectly Matched Layers in Simulations on a Tight Domain

    Shyroki, Dzmitry; Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    outside the object, as in simulations of eigenmodes or scattering at a wavelength comparable to or larger than the object itself. Here, we show how, in addition to applying the perfectly matched layers (PMLs), outer free space can be squeezed to avoid cutting the evanescent field tails by the PMLs...... or computational domain borders. Adding the squeeze-transform layers to the standard PMLs requires no changes to the finite-difference algorithms....

  6. Collisional alignment and orientation of atomic outer shells. Pt. 1

    Andersen, N.; Gallagher, J.W.; Hertel, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The study of polarization of atomic radiation emitted after impact excitation has yielded an enormous wealth of detailed information on the mechanism and dynamics of collisional excitation and energy transfer, both in electron and heavy particle impact studies. In these studies, the beam of electrons, ions or fast atoms used to excite the target atoms provides a suitable quantization axis with respect to which the polarization of the fluorescent light of the excited atoms is detected. From these data information on the cross sections for the different magnetic substates of the excited atom is extracted, imparting a great deal of insight into impact mechanisms for both outer and inner shell excitation. It is our aim to provide a comprehensive review including all data available in the literature presented in a standardized and easily accessible fashion. In this review we include only alignment and orientation studies, which have a well-defined planar symmetry, i.e., in which the initial and final relative momentum of the interacting particles are well defined by differential scattering techniques. We do not make a major distinction between heavy-particle and electron impact excitation: In fact, one of our aims is to demonstrate similarities between the two fields from a technical as well as from a conceptual point of view. The review is divided into three parts: This first part (I) deals with direct excitation of atoms by electrons and fast atoms or ions. Section 2 gives an introduction to the general concepts and ideas behind this kind of study and a description of typical experimental setups. Section 3 deals with electron impact excitation of atoms, starting with the simplest case of electron-helium collisions which may be fully described by two parameters, followed by more complex cases such as electron impact excitation of hydrogen and the heavy rare gases. Section 4 describes the results for direct excitation by atomic impact. (orig./AH)

  7. An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.

    Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.

  8. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  10. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Design of the outer poloidal field coils for ITER

    Sborchia, C.; Mitchell, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER poloidal field (PF) system consists of a central solenoid (CS or PF-1), which is not subject of this paper, and six ring coils using a 40 kA forced flow cooled superconductor. The coils, placed around the toroidal field (TF) system, are used to start-up the plasma with typical ramp-up times of 100 s and burn duration of 1000 s. They also provide control and shaping of the plasma, with small, frequent current variations on a 1-5 s time scale. The magnetic field produced by the coils ranges from about 4.5 to 8 T and the AC losses in the conductor are significant: the largest coils require cooling path lengths up to 1000 m as well as the use of 2 in-hand winding. The field level and high thermal loads make the use of Nb 3 Sn strand attractive. This paper describes the basic design of the six ring (outer) coils developed by the ITER Joint Central Team in collaboration with the four Home Teams. The coil structural material is provided by a thick conductor jacket and by a bonded insulation system. The forces acting on the coils during typical operational scenarios and plasma disruption/vertical instabilities have been evaluated: radial forces are self-reacted by hoop stresses in the ring coil, with tensile stresses up to 300 MPa in the conductor jacket, and the vertical forces are resisted by a discrete support system, with shear stresses up to 10 MPa in the insulation. (orig./WL)

  12. Special theory of relativity

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  13. Special Issue to publish

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  14. Double layers in space

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  15. Double layers in space

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  16. An interactive boundary layer modeling methodology for aerodynamic flows[Presentation

    Smith, L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available the Goldstein singularity without the need to solve the entire flow domain simultaneously. In this work the incompressible Navier- Stokes equations will be used for the outer flow. In the majority of previous studies the boundary layer thickness is simulated...

  17. Control of electronic properties of 2D carbides (MXenes) by manipulating their transition metal layers

    Anasori, Babak; Shi, Chenyang; Moon, Eun Ju; Xie, Yu; Voigt, Cooper A.; Kent, Paul R. C.; May, Steven J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    M′′–C layers. Using X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis on Mo2TiC2 and Mo2Ti2C3 MXenes, we present the first quantitative analysis of structures of these novel materials and experimentally confirm that Mo atoms are in the outer

  18. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Coaggregation and Piggybacking of Treponema denticola and Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum

    Daniel Grenier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis sheds outer membrane vesicles that contain several virulence factors, including adhesins. In this study, we investigated the ability of P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles to mediate the coaggregation and piggybacking of Treponema denticola and Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum. Marked coaggregation between T. denticola and L. saburreum occurred in the presence of P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles. Sucrose was an effective chemoattractant for the motile species T. denticola. The addition of outer membrane vesicles to a mixture of T. denticola and L. saburreum significantly increased the number of nonmotile bacteria that migrated into a sucrose-filled capillary tube immersed in the bacterial mixture. Under optimal conditions, the number of nonmotile L. saburreum in the capillary tube increased approximately 5-fold, whereas no increase occurred when boiled vesicles were used. This study showed that P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles mediate coaggregation between T. denticola and L. saburreum and that nonmotile bacteria can be translocated by piggybacking on spirochetes.

  20. Effect of Gas Velocity on the Dust Sediment Layer in the Coupled Field of Corona Plasma and Cyclone

    Wei Mingshan; Ma Chaochen; Li Minghua; Danish, S N

    2006-01-01

    A dust sediment layer was found on the outer tube wall when the ESCP (electrostatic centrifugal precipitator) trapped diesel particulates or ganister sand. The Compton back scatter method was used to measure the sediment thickness during the experiment. The effect of the inlet gas velocity on the dust sediment layer was investigated. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used to measure the velocity field between the inner barb tube wall and the outer tube wall. Experiments showed that the thickness of the sediment increased with time, and the sediment layer at the lower end was much thicker than that at the upper end. The agglomeration on the outer tube wall could be removed when the inlet gas velocity was increased to a certain value

  1. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... In this research, two questionnaires of knowledge management and employees' ... development, human resources are the most important tool and capital of ... foster talent, to improve public and specialized awareness, and to ...

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... delivery system which are primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, ..... services are usually delivered by nurse practitioners, medical assistants, ... The quaternary care is a highly specialized care with a target to cure.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... quantitative method used, data analysis and findings of Telehealth ... The users' acceptance of wireless sensor devise (Motes) for ..... access to specialized health care: the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulletin ...

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-09-10

    . Special ... is 4000 pps, in 1 ms there are 4 sampling intervals. Fig. .... Although this type of radar is simple, generally it is not very sensitive because of increased ... processing) to determine the true sign of Doppler frequency.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  7. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  8. Israeli Special Libraries

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... special experience of urban environments in the development process. ... Internet and social networking, and eventually poor performance of the police .... was shown that different regions have different levels of fear of crime.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    Published online: 1 May 2018. ABSTRACT ... CMOS technology with many special features that can overcome all the limitations in CMOS. QCA is of high speed, small size ... is done depending on position of single electrons. This shows that ...

  11. de Sitter special relativity

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... and 1340s, centralization and organizational unity in the early 1350s, ... appropriate productivity in specialized costs of welfare and social ..... and finally the lack of compliance with commitments by the government to the social.

  13. Experimental study of boundary layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake (II)

    Park, T.C. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, W.P.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the phenomena of wake-induced transition of the boundary layers on a NACA0012 airfoil using measured phase-averaged data. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are reasonably evaluated using the principle of Computational Preston Tube Method. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patch is generated in the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream with less speed than free-stream velocity and merge with each other at further downstream station, and the boundary layer becomes more transitional. The generation of turbulent patch at the leading edge of the airfoil mainly depends on velocity defects and turbulent intensity profiles of passing wakes. However, the growth and merging of turbulent patches depend on local streamwise pressure gradients as well as characteristics of turbulent patches. In this transition process, the present experimental data show very similar features to the previous numerical and experimental studies. It is confirmed that the two phase-averaged mean velocity dips appear in the outer region of transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. Relatively high values of the phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations in the outer region indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer not near the wall. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong, E-mail: weicando@ipbcams.ac.cn; Jin, Qi, E-mail: zdsys@vip.sina.com

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria

  16. Space headache on Earth: head-down-tilted bed rest studies simulating outer-space microgravity.

    van Oosterhout, W P J; Terwindt, G M; Vein, A A; Ferrari, M D

    2015-04-01

    Headache is a common symptom during space travel, both isolated and as part of space motion syndrome. Head-down-tilted bed rest (HDTBR) studies are used to simulate outer space microgravity on Earth, and allow countermeasure interventions such as artificial gravity and training protocols, aimed at restoring microgravity-induced physiological changes. The objectives of this article are to assess headache incidence and characteristics during HDTBR, and to evaluate the effects of countermeasures. In a randomized cross-over design by the European Space Agency (ESA), 22 healthy male subjects, without primary headache history, underwent three periods of -6-degree HDTBR. In two of these episodes countermeasure protocols were added, with either centrifugation or aerobic exercise training protocols. Headache occurrence and characteristics were daily assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. In total 14/22 (63.6%) subjects reported a headache during ≥1 of the three HDTBR periods, in 12/14 (85.7%) non-specific, and two of 14 (14.4%) migraine. The occurrence of headache did not differ between HDTBR with and without countermeasures: 12/22 (54.5%) subjects vs. eight of 22 (36.4%) subjects; p = 0.20; 13/109 (11.9%) headache days vs. 36/213 (16.9%) headache days; p = 0.24). During countermeasures headaches were, however, more often mild (p = 0.03) and had fewer associated symptoms (p = 0.008). Simulated microgravity during HDTBR induces headache episodes, mostly on the first day. Countermeasures are useful in reducing headache severity and associated symptoms. Reversible, microgravity-induced cephalic fluid shift may cause headache, also on Earth. HDTBR can be used to study space headache on Earth. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  18. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  19. The Online Specialization Problem

    Ed Hong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  20. Nonlinear Stability and Structure of Compressible Reacting Mixing Layers

    Day, M. J.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used to investigate issues of nonlinear flow development and mixing in compressible reacting shear layers. Particular interest is placed on investigating the change in flow structure that occurs when compressibility and heat release are added to the flow. These conditions allow the 'outer' instability modes- one associated with each of the fast and slow streams-to dominate over the 'central', Kelvin-Helmholtz mode that unaccompanied in incompressible nonreacting mixing layers. Analysis of scalar probability density functions in flows with dominant outer modes demonstrates the ineffective, one-sided nature of mixing that accompany these flow structures. Colayer conditions, where two modes have equal growth rate and the mixing layer is formed by two sets of vortices, offer some opportunity for mixing enhancement. Their extent, however, is found to be limited in the mixing layer's parameter space. Extensive validation of the PSE technique also provides a unique perspective on central- mode vortex pairing, further supporting the view that pairing is primarily governed perspective sheds insight on how linear stability theory is able to provide such an accurate prediction of experimentally-observed, fully nonlinear flow phenomenon.

  1. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress.

    Arredondo Zamarripa, David; Díaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Meléndez García, Rodrigo; Chávez Balderas, Jesús; Adán, Norma; Ledesma-Colunga, Maria G; Arnold, Edith; Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK) production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB) in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC) monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19) cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  2. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress

    David eArredondo Zamarripa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  3. Study on residual stress across the pipes' thickness using outer surface rapid heating. Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Terasaki, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression plastic strain generates near the outer surface and the tensile plastic strain generates near the inner surface of pipes. The compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes by the plastic deformation. In this paper, the theoretical equation which calculates residual stress distribution from the inherent strain distribution in the thickness of pipes is derived. And, the relation between the distribution of temperature and the residual stress in the thickness is examined for various pipes size. (1) By rapidly heating from the outer surface, the residual stress near the inner surface of the pipe is improved to the compression stress. (2) Pipes size hardly affects the distribution of the residual stress in the stainless steel pipes for piping (JISG3459). (3) The temperature rising area from the outside is smaller, the area of the compression residual stress near the inner surface becomes wider. (author)

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... second processing unit does noise filtering and filtered signal extraction ... Artificial Intelligence as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”. ... The input layer has neurons or nodes (white) responsible for ...

  5. Study on the development of coating technology for UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellet and the microstructural observation of the coated layer

    Choi, Yong; Song, Moon Sup; Cho, In Sik; Kim Yu Sin; Lim Young Kyun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance inherent safety of UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellet and develop future nuclear fuel technology, a coating method for the preparation multi-layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide on the fuel was developed. Inner pyrolytic carbon layer and outer silicon layer were prepared by thermal decomposition of propane in a fluidized bed type CVD unit and silane in ECR PECVD, respectively. Combustion reaction between two layers resulted in forming silicon carbide layer. The morphology depended on the initial carbon shape. Phase identification and microstructural analysis of the combustion product with XRD, AES, SEM and TEM showed that final products of inner layer and outer layer were pyrolytic carbon with isotropic structure and fine crystalline {beta}-SiC, respectively. This coating process is very useful for the fabrication of coated UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellet an future nuclear fuel fabrication technology. (author). 45 refs., 47 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A X-ray diffraction analysis on constituent distribution of heavy rust layer formed on weathering steel using synchrotron radiation

    Hara, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    A local structural analysis of heavy rust layers with large swelling and laminated layers formed on weathering steel bridges using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) in SPring-8 have been performed. The main constituent in average composition of the whole layer was spinel-type iron oxide [mainly Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 )] and the mass ratio was 30-40 mass%. In contrast the mass ratio of spinel in its local parts, i.e., outer layer, inter-layer and inner layer position was not higher in common but the mass ratio of β-FeOOH was higher. Therefore it indicates that these heavy rust layers have been composed of many layers of spinel poor, rich and poor - cell (SPRaP-cell). Thus SR-XRD is useful for the analysis of the constituent distribution in the rust layer. (author)

  7. A novel pulsed drug-delivery system: polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coating of chitosan–alginate microgels

    Zhou GC

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Guichen Zhou,1,2,* Ying Lu,1,* He Zhang,1,* Yan Chen,1 Yuan Yu,1 Jing Gao,1 Duxin Sun,3 Guoqing Zhang,2 Hao Zou,1 Yanqiang Zhong1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, East Hospital of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The aim of this report was to introduce a novel “core-membrane” microgel drug-delivery device for spontaneously pulsed release without any external trigger.Methods: The microgel core was prepared with alginate and chitosan. The semipermeable membrane outside the microgel was made of polyelectrolytes including polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride and sodium polystyrene sulfonate. The drug release of this novel system was governed by the swelling pressure of the core and the rupture of the outer membrane.Results: The size of the core-membrane microgel drug-delivery device was 452.90 ± 2.71 µm. The surface charge depended on the layer-by-layer coating of polyelectrolytes, with zeta potential of 38.6 ± 1.4 mV. The confocal microscope exhibited the layer-by-layer outer membrane and inner core. The in vitro release profile showed that the content release remained low during the first 2.67 hours. After this lag time, the cumulative release increased to 80% in the next 0.95 hours, which suggested a pulsed drug release. The in vivo drug release in mice showed that the outer membrane was ruptured at approximately 3 to 4 hours, as drug was explosively released.Conclusion: These data suggest that the encapsulated substance in the core-membrane microgel delivery device can achieve a massive drug release after outer membrane rupture. This device was an effective system for pulsed drug delivery.Keywords: polyelectrolyte, chitosan–alginate, microgels, layer-by-layer, pulsed

  8. Multi-layers castings

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  9. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane.

  10. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  11. A double layer review

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  12. Two layer powder pressing

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  13. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  14. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  15. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  16. Robust outer-selective thin-film composite polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes with low reverse salt flux for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation

    Cheng, Zhen Lei; Li, Xue; Liu, Ying Da; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.

  17. Robust outer-selective thin-film composite polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes with low reverse salt flux for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation

    Cheng, Zhen Lei

    2016-01-08

    This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.

  18. Upper Pleistocene turbidite sand beds and chaotic silt beds in the channelized, distal, outer-fan lobes of the Mississippi fan

    Nelson, C.H.; Twichell, D.C.; Schwab, W.C.; Lee, H.J.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1992-01-01

    Cores from a Mississippi outer-fan depositional lobe demonstrate that sublobes at the distal edge contain a complex local network of channelized-turbidite beds of graded sand and debris-flow beds of chaotic silt. Off-lobe basin plains lack siliciclastic coarse-grained beds. The basin-plain mud facies exhibit low acoustic backscatter on SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images, whereas high acoustic backscatter characteristic of the lobe sand and silt facies. The depth of the first sand-silt layer correlates with relative backscatter intensity and stratigraphic age of the distal sublobes (i.e., shallowest sand = highest backscatter and youngest sublobe). The high proportion (>50%) of chaotic silt compared to graded sand in the distal, outer-fan sublobes may be related to the unstable, muddy, canyon-wall source areas of the extensive Mississippi delta-fed basin slope. A predominace of chaotic silt in cores or outcrops from outer-fan lobes thus may predict similar settings for ancient fans.

  19. Formation of double layers

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  20. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.