WorldWideScience

Sample records for special subdivisions of the atmosphere

  1. Key Technical Aspects Influencing the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2017-05-01

    Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.

  2. Divided Spheres Geodesics and the Orderly Subdivision of the Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Popko, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    This well-illustrated book-in color throughout-presents a thorough introduction to the mathematics of Buckminster Fuller's invention of the geodesic dome, which paved the way for a flood of practical applications as diverse as weather forecasting and fish farms. The author explains the principles of spherical design and the three main categories of subdivision based on geometric solids (polyhedra). He illustrates how basic and advanced CAD techniques apply to spherical subdivision and covers modern applications in product design, engineering, science, games, and sports balls.

  3. Special aspects of motivation of the structural subdivisions of the state emergency service of Ukraine in terms of physical self-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko A.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the motivation of employees of structural subdivisions of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine to improve their level of professional competence by means of physical training. Material: questionnaire survey of 130 rescue workers aged 25 to 40 years. Results: the main motives of rescue team personnel for physical culture and sports activities are gain in physical health and professional competence, while performing rescue missions. It was established that, when on duty, most of the firefighters and rescue workers are not engaged in physical exercise at all; household chores and poor state of health in case of men prevent rescue team employees from doing exercises outside of working hours. It was found that fire-rescue specialists give preference to the development of muscle strength during professional physical trainings and would like to perform power exercises. Conclusions: the low level of motivation of current fire-rescue workers for physical self-improvement requires optimization of control over professional physical education in departments of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.

  4. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2009-01-01

    Tree shrews are small mammals that bear some semblance to squirrels, but are actually close relatives of primates. Thus, they have been extensively studied as a model for the early stages of primate evolution. In the present study, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal or horizontal planes, and processed for parvalbumin (PV), SMI-32 immunopositive neurofilament protein epitopes, vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), free ionic zinc, mye...

  5. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. CONTEXT: Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation...

  6. The impacts of population subdivision on the viability of Brachyteles hypoxanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Anderson A; Brito, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation turn continuous large populations into metapopulations of smaller populations, more prone to the negative effects of stochastic processes. We modeled scenarios simulating the subdivision of Brachyteles hypoxanthus populations under different dispersal rates. Results show the existence of a population subdivision threshold, below which subdivision causes the metapopulation structure to collapse. Management should target first the increase in local populations through habitat restoration/protection, and only after populations are sufficiently large, connectivity strategies should take place. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. About the Subdivision of Indoor Spaces in Indoorgml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakité, A. A.; Zlatanova, S.; Li, K.-J.

    2017-10-01

    Boosted by the dynamic urbanization of cities, indoor environments are getting more and more complex in order to be able to host people properly. While most of our time is spent inside buildings, the need of GIS tools to assist our daily activities that can become tedious, such as indoor navigation or facility management, became more and more urgent. In that perspective, the IndoorGML standard is aiming to address the gaps left by other standards regarding the spatial modelling for indoor navigation. It includes several concepts such as the organization of the spaces into cells along with their network representation and the possibility to represent multiple connected layers. However, being at its first stage, several concepts of the standard could be improved. One of these is the cell subspacing that is not enough discussed in the current version of the standard. In this paper, we explore all the aspects involved in the subdivision process, from the identification of the navigable and non-navigable space cells to the generation of a navigation graph. We propose several criteria on which the indoor sub-spacing can rely to be automatically performed and and illustrate them on a 3D indoor model.

  8. ABOUT THE SUBDIVISION OF INDOOR SPACES IN INDOORGML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Diakité

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Boosted by the dynamic urbanization of cities, indoor environments are getting more and more complex in order to be able to host people properly. While most of our time is spent inside buildings, the need of GIS tools to assist our daily activities that can become tedious, such as indoor navigation or facility management, became more and more urgent. In that perspective, the IndoorGML standard is aiming to address the gaps left by other standards regarding the spatial modelling for indoor navigation. It includes several concepts such as the organization of the spaces into cells along with their network representation and the possibility to represent multiple connected layers. However, being at its first stage, several concepts of the standard could be improved. One of these is the cell subspacing that is not enough discussed in the current version of the standard. In this paper, we explore all the aspects involved in the subdivision process, from the identification of the navigable and non-navigable space cells to the generation of a navigation graph. We propose several criteria on which the indoor sub-spacing can rely to be automatically performed and and illustrate them on a 3D indoor model.

  9. Subdivision of Texas watersheds for hydrologic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of findings and examples for subdivision of watersheds for hydrologic modeling. Three approaches were used to examine the impact of watershed subdivision on modeled hydrologic response: (1) An equal-area...

  10. Architectonic subdivisions of the amygdalar complex of a primitive marsupial (Didelphis aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rego, V; Canteras, N S; Anomal, R F; Volchan, E; Franca, J G

    2008-05-15

    The architecture of the amygdaloid complex of a marsupial, the opossum Didelphis aurita, was analyzed using classical stains like Nissl staining and myelin (Gallyas) staining, and enzyme histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase and NADPH-diaphorase. Most of the subdivisions of the amygdaloid complex described in eutherian mammals were identified in the opossum brain. NADPH-diaphorase revealed reactivity in the neuropil of nearly all amygdaloid subdivisions with different intensities, allowing the identification of the medial and lateral subdivisions of the cortical posterior nucleus and the lateral subdivision of the lateral nucleus. The lateral, central, basolateral and basomedial nuclei exhibited acetylcholinesterase positivity, which provided a useful chemoarchitectural criterion for the identification of the anterior basolateral nucleus. Myelin stain allowed the identification of the medial subdivision of the lateral nucleus, and resulted in intense staining of the medial subdivisions of the central nucleus. The medial, posterior, and cortical nuclei, as well as the amygdalopiriform area did not exhibit positivity for myelin staining. On the basis of cyto- and chemoarchitectural criteria, the present study highlights that the opossum amygdaloid complex shares similarities with that of other species, thus supporting the idea that the organization of the amygdala is part of a basic plan conserved through mammalian evolution.

  11. Electromyographic analysis of the three subdivisions of gluteus medius during weight-bearing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Kieran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluteus medius (GM dysfunction is associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. Rehabilitation exercises aimed at strengthening GM appear to improve lower limb kinematics and reduce pain. However, there is a lack of evidence to identify which exercises best activate GM. In particular, as GM consists of three distinct subdivisions, it is unclear if GM activation is consistent across these subdivisions during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the activation of the anterior, middle and posterior subdivisions of GM during weight-bearing exercises. Methods A single session, repeated-measures design. The activity of each GM subdivision was measured in 15 pain-free subjects using surface electromyography (sEMG during three weight-bearing exercises; wall squat (WS, pelvic drop (PD and wall press (WP. Muscle activity was expressed relative to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Differences in muscle activation were determined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results The activation of each GM subdivision during the exercises was significantly different (interaction effect; p Discussion Posterior GM displayed higher activation across all three exercises than both anterior and middle GM. The WP produced the highest %MVIC activation for all GM subdivisions, and this was most pronounced for posterior GM. Clinicians may use these results to effectively progress strengthening exercises for GM in the rehabilitation of lower extremity injuries.

  12. 20 CFR 1002.39 - Are States (and their political subdivisions), the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are States (and their political subdivisions... REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Eligibility For Reemployment Coverage of Employers and Positions § 1002.39 Are States (and their political subdivisions), the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and...

  13. Manûtu ša Bābili = the Babylonian subdivision of the mina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, R.J.

    A new interpretation of the term Manûtu ša Bābili is presented here. It is not the exchange rate between shekels and drachmas, as was generally assumed, but it is the Babylonian subdivision ("counting") of the mina as opposed to the Greek mina. A Babylonian mina counts 30 staters, a Greek mina 25

  14. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  15. A New Subdivision Of The Rat Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Based On Its Myeloarchitecture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.; Gerrits, P.O.; Croon, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    A new subdivision of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) based on its myelin content is described. Using a methacrylate-resin embedding technique for high resolution light microscopy, a myeloarchitectonic map of the normal rat PAG was made. Six main columns were distinguished. Column I is the central thin

  16. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  17. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  18. Effect of Watertight Subdivision on Subdivision Index for Medium Size Ro–Ro Passenger Ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ro-pax vessels should fulfil the requirements of the current harmonised SOLAS Convention. The study analyses the effect of various ro-pax vessel subdivision arrangements on the subdivision index. A Polish ferry was chosen as a generic ship to perform the study. For illustration of damage survivability, the attained subdivision index A was calculated for a number of modified configurations. The arrangements included single and double sides above and below the car deck, with and without a double buoyant car deck. The conclusions of the study can be used in the design of new ro-pax vessels.

  19. Study on the integration of layered water injection technology and subdivision adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancui

    2018-06-01

    With oil many infillings, thin and poor reservoir exploitation changes gradually to low permeability, thin and poor reservoir development characteristics of multiple layers thickness, low permeability, in the actual development process, the General Department of oil layers of encryption perforation long thin and poor mining, interlayer contradiction more prominent, by conventional layered water injection that can alleviate the contradiction between layers to a certain extent, by the injection interval and other factors can not fundamentally solve the problem, leading to the potential well area key strata or layers is difficult to determine, the layering test and slicing technology is difficult to adapt to the need of tap water control block. This paper through numerical simulation using the conceptual model and the actual block, it has a great influence on the low permeability reservoir of different stratified water permeability combination of permeability technology and application limits, profit and loss balance principle, low oil prices on the lower series of subdivision technical and economic limit, so the reservoir subdivision reorganization, narrow wells mining, reduce the interference between layers, from the maximum fundamental improvement of layered water injection efficiency. At the same time, in order to meet the needs of reservoir subdivision adjustment, subdividing distance with water, a small interlayer wells subdivision technology for further research in the pickup, solved using two ordinary bridge eccentric water regulator with injection of two layers, by throwing exercise distance limit card from the larger problem, the water distribution card size from 7.0m to 1.0m, and the testing efficiency is improved, and provide technical support for further subdivision water injection wells.

  20. Investigating the mixture and subdivision of perceptual and conceptual processing in Japanese memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabeza, R

    1995-03-01

    The dual nature of the Japanese writing system was used to investigate two assumptions of the processing view of memory transfer: (1) that both perceptual and conceptual processing can contribute to the same memory test (mixture assumption) and (2) that both can be broken into more specific processes (subdivision assumption). Supporting the mixture assumption, a word fragment completion test based on ideographic kanji characters (kanji fragment completion test) was affected by both perceptual (hiragana/kanji script shift) and conceptual (levels-of-processing) study manipulations kanji fragments, because it did not occur with the use of meaningless hiragana fragments. The mixture assumption is also supported by an effect of study script on an implicit conceptual test (sentence completion), and the subdivision assumption is supported by a crossover dissociation between hiragana and kanji fragment completion as a function of study script.

  1. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    OpenAIRE

    Rege Sugárka Papp; Rege Sugárka Papp; Miklos ePalkovits; Miklos ePalkovits

    2014-01-01

    The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH) to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area), and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribu...

  2. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area—an anterograde tract-tracing study

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Rege S.; Palkovits, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH) to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area), and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribu...

  3. Application of information technology in the process analysis of structural subdivisions of light industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тарана Тахир кызы Мусаева

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems of application of information technologies in the process analysis of structural subdivisions of the enterprises of light industry enterprises are considered. For the functional cost analysis in the company it was prepared a computerized structure of the workplace and its principle of operation is described. The functionality of the computerized workplace is tested for textile enterprises. The results showed that the use of information technology has good prospects at the implementation of the quality management system at the textile enterprises

  4. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the galago (Otolemur garnetti)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, galago brains were sectioned in the coronal, sagittal or horizontal planes, and sections were processed with several different histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures to reveal the architectonic characteristics of the various cortical areas. The histochemical methods used included the traditional Nissl, cytochrome oxidase and myelin stains, as well as a zinc stain, which reveals free ionic zinc in the axon terminals of neurons. Immunohistochemical methods includ...

  5. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

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    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  6. Geologic and geotechnical investigation of the Windsor Park subdivision North Las Vegas, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnert, L.M.; Werle, J.L.; Stilley, A.N.; Olsen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Windsor Park subdivision in North Las Vegas, Nevada has received widespread attention for damage to the homes and infrastructure from fissures, land subsidence and adverse soil conditions. Between March and July, 1992, Converse Consultants Southwest, Inc. conducted a geologic and geotechnical investigation for the Windsor Park Revitalization Project. The purpose of the work was to investigate the probable factors contributing to the reported damage and distress in the area, evaluate the potential for future damage, and assess the feasibility of possible mitigation and repair. The site is constructed on the juncture of at least two subsidence-related fault scarps, and earth fissures have been extensively mapped in the Windsor Park and surrounding area. A total of twenty-one trenches and fifteen borings were located within the subdivision and around the perimeter to observe subsurface geologic features and to collect samples for laboratory testing. The primary causes of damage within the development were found to be (1) earth fissuring and (2) expansive clays. The risk of future damage to structures at the Windsor Park site was also evaluated. A high potential for fissuring was found at the site, and future structural distress in the area will likely be similar to past damage. Although engineering upgrades will reduce the risk posed by underlying expansive clays, they cannot totally eliminate the risk from fissuring. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. A contribution to the subdivision of the precambrian in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Neves, B.B. de; Teixeira, W.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    On the shield areas of the South America continent (about 5,000,000 km 2 large) there are about 17,000 geochronological determinations available. More than 75% of this amount has been carried out in the Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, CPGeo-USP, in the last 25 years. The majority of these data were accomplished through Rb-Sr (ca.60%) and K-Ar (ca.40%) methods. The author tried to work this amount of data on a coherent way according to the progress observed in the geologic and geotectonic knowledge during the last two decades. One of the fundamental goals was to outline an up-to-date subdivision for the Precambrian of this continent, having in mind a contribution to the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), Subcommission of Precambrian Stratigraphy (SPS) of the IUGS. (author)

  8. Differential reward coding in the subdivisions of the primate caudate during an oculomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kae; Santos, Gustavo S; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-07

    The basal ganglia play a pivotal role in reward-oriented behavior. The striatum, an input channel of the basal ganglia, is composed of subdivisions that are topographically connected with different cortical and subcortical areas. To test whether reward information is differentially processed in the different parts of the striatum, we compared reward-related neuronal activity along the dorsolateral-ventromedial axis in the caudate nucleus of monkeys performing an asymmetrically rewarded oculomotor task. In a given block, a target in one position was associated with a large reward, whereas the other target was associated with a small reward. The target position-reward value contingency was switched between blocks. We found the following: (1) activity that reflected the block-wise reward contingency emerged before the appearance of a visual target, and it was more prevalent in the dorsal, rather than central and ventral, caudate; (2) activity that was positively related to the reward size of the current trial was evident, especially after reward delivery, and it was more prevalent in the ventral and central, rather than dorsal, caudate; and (3) activity that was modulated by the memory of the outcomes of the previous trials was evident in the dorsal and central caudate. This multiple reward information, together with the target-direction information, was represented primarily by individual caudate neurons, and the different reward information was represented in caudate subpopulations with distinct electrophysiological properties, e.g., baseline firing and spike width. These results suggest parallel processing of different reward information by the basal ganglia subdivisions defined by extrinsic connections and intrinsic properties.

  9. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  10. Special report, a brief history of data and theory pertaining to the atmosphere of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A brief historical account of data and theory pertaining to the lunar atmosphere prior to the Apollo program is presented. It consists of a summary of the most important pre-Apollo research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographical study, and constitutes a supporting analytical study for the Apollo 17 UV Spectrometer Experiment.

  11. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

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    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC. The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Ukraine for the period up to 2020. The existing tools are divided into direct and indirect action tools. As of 2016, the tasks that were relevant to the corresponding targeted programs have not been implemented on any item, except for the milk productivity of cows. Still the productivity indicator of 4500 kg/year of milk from a cow is low enough and does not correspond to the general world-wide tendencies. This suggests the need for further assessment of the existing list of tools with a view to adjusting them and defining priorities for the State support of the DPS of AIC.

  12. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Caspers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD often show impairments in executive function (EF like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON. We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC and left dorsal premotor region (PMd in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part.

  13. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege Sugárka Papp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area, and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribution patterns of BDA-positive fibers were mapped on serial sections between the hypothalamus and spinal cord in 22 rats. BDA-labeled fibers were observable over 100 different brainstem areas, nuclei or subdivisions. Injections into the 8 DLH subdivisions established distinct topographical patterns. In general, the density of labeled fibers was low in the lower brainstem. High density of fibers was seen only 4 of the 116 areas: in the lateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, the Barrington’s and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei. All of the biogenic amine cell groups in the lower brainstem (9 noradrenaline, 3 adrenaline and 9 serotonin cell groups received labeled fibers, some of them from all, or at least 7 DLH subdivisions, mainly from perifornical and ventral lateral hypothalamic neurons. Some of the tegmental nuclei and nuclei of the reticular formation were widely innervated, although the density of the BDA-labeled fibers was generally low. No definitive descending BDA-positive pathway, but long-run solitaire BDA-labeled fibers were seen in the lower brainstem. These descending fibers joined some of the large tracts or fasciculi in the brainstem. The distribution pattern of BDA-positive fibers of DLH origin throughout the lower brainstem was comparable to patterns of previously published orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive fibers with somewhat differences.

  14. Effects of Worldwide Population Subdivision on ALDH2 Linkage Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Raymond J.; Goldman, David; Long, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of human population subdivision on linkage disequilibrium has previously been studied for unlinked genes. However, no study has focused on closely linked polymorphisms or formally partitioned linkage disequilibrium within and among worldwide populations. With an emphasis on population subdivision, the goal of this paper is to investigate the causes of linkage disequilibrium in ALDH2, the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. Haplotypes for 756 people from 17 populations acros...

  15. Land Subdivision in Peri-Urban Areas of Sub-Saharan African Cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    , ... development costs substantially, making it difficult in particular for the urban poor ... data and case studies detailing informal land subdivision largely drawn from ..... in a partnership for the unified planning, servicing and subdivision of their ...

  16. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  17. Comparison of different interpolation operators including nonlinear subdivision schemes in the simulation of particle trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensiali, Bouchra; Bodi, Kowsik; Ciraolo, Guido; Ghendrih, Philippe; Liandrat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we compare different interpolation operators in the context of particle tracking with an emphasis on situations involving velocity field with steep gradients. Since, in this case, most classical methods give rise to the Gibbs phenomenon (generation of oscillations near discontinuities), we present new methods for particle tracking based on subdivision schemes and especially on the Piecewise Parabolic Harmonic (PPH) scheme which has shown its advantage in image processing in presence of strong contrasts. First an analytic univariate case with a discontinuous velocity field is considered in order to highlight the effect of the Gibbs phenomenon on trajectory calculation. Theoretical results are provided. Then, we show, regardless of the interpolation method, the need to use a conservative approach when integrating a conservative problem with a velocity field deriving from a potential. Finally, the PPH scheme is applied in a more realistic case of a time-dependent potential encountered in the edge turbulence of magnetically confined plasmas, to compare the propagation of density structures (turbulence bursts) with the dynamics of test particles. This study highlights the difference between particle transport and density transport in turbulent fields

  18. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  19. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral, and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Novejarque, Amparo; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behavior in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (AOB), as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioral role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA), posterodorsal (MePD) and posteroventral (MePV) subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines. The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the AOB, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The Me (especially the MeA) has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex (Pir). The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus), although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviors [medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus], although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  20. The generation of chromosomal deletions to provide extensive coverage and subdivision of the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Christensen, Stacey J; Deal, Jennifer A; Coburn, Rachel A; Deal, Megan E; Gresens, Jill M; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions are used extensively in Drosophila melanogaster genetics research. Deletion mapping is the primary method used for fine-scale gene localization. Effective and efficient deletion mapping requires both extensive genomic coverage and a high density of molecularly defined breakpoints across the genome. A large-scale resource development project at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center has improved the choice of deletions beyond that provided by previous projects. FLP-mediated recombination between FRT-bearing transposon insertions was used to generate deletions, because it is efficient and provides single-nucleotide resolution in planning deletion screens. The 793 deletions generated pushed coverage of the euchromatic genome to 98.4%. Gaps in coverage contain haplolethal and haplosterile genes, but the sizes of these gaps were minimized by flanking these genes as closely as possible with deletions. In improving coverage, a complete inventory of haplolethal and haplosterile genes was generated and extensive information on other haploinsufficient genes was compiled. To aid mapping experiments, a subset of deletions was organized into a Deficiency Kit to provide maximal coverage efficiently. To improve the resolution of deletion mapping, screens were planned to distribute deletion breakpoints evenly across the genome. The median chromosomal interval between breakpoints now contains only nine genes and 377 intervals contain only single genes. Drosophila melanogaster now has the most extensive genomic deletion coverage and breakpoint subdivision as well as the most comprehensive inventory of haploinsufficient genes of any multicellular organism. The improved selection of chromosomal deletion strains will be useful to nearly all Drosophila researchers.

  1. Adaptive subdivision and the length and energy of Bézier curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    It is an often used fact that the control polygon of a Bézier curve approximates the curve and that the approximation gets better when the curve is subdivided. In particular, if a Bézier curve is subdivided into some number of pieces, then the arc-length of the original curve is greater than...... the sum of the chord-lengths of the pieces, and less than the sum of the polygon-lengths of the pieces. Under repeated subdivisions, the difference between this lower and upper bound gets arbitrarily small.If $L_c$ denotes the total chord-length of the pieces and $L_p$ denotes the total polygon...... combination, and it forms the basis for a fast adaptive algorithm, which determines the arc-length of a Bézier curve.The energy of a curve is half the square of the curvature integrated with respect to arc-length. Like in the case of the arc-length, it is possible to use the chord-length and polygon...

  2. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Jenny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp. and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.. Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Results Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Conclusion Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may

  3. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-01-01

    In subdivisions, house orientations are largely determined by street layout. The resulting house orientations affect energy consumption (annual and on-peak) for heating and cooling, depending on window area distributions and shading from neighboring houses. House orientations also affect energy production (annual and on-peak) from solar thermal and photovoltaic systems, depending on available roof surfaces. Therefore, house orientations fundamentally influence both energy consumption and production, and an appropriate street layout is a prerequisite for taking full advantage of energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities. The potential influence of street layout on solar performance is often acknowledged, but solar and energy issues must compete with many other criteria and constraints that influence subdivision street layout. When only general guidelines regarding energy are available, these factors may be ignored or have limited effect. Also, typical guidelines are often not site-specific and do not account for local parameters such as climate and the time value of energy. For energy to be given its due consideration in subdivision design, energy impacts need to be accurately quantified and displayed interactively to facilitate analysis of design alternatives. This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  4. A filled duration illusion in music: Effects of metrical subdivision on the perception and production of beat tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H; Bruttomesso, Meijin

    2010-01-13

    This study replicates and extends previous findings suggesting that metrical subdivision slows the perceived beat tempo (Repp, 2008). Here, musically trained participants produced the subdivisions themselves and were found to speed up, thus compensating for the perceived slowing. This was shown in a synchronization-continuation paradigm (Experiment 1) and in a reproduction task (Experiment 2a). Participants also judged the tempo of a subdivided sequence as being slower than that of a preceding simple beat sequence (Experiment 2b). Experiment 2 also included nonmusician participants, with similar results. Tempo measurements of famous pianists' recordings of two variation movements from Beethoven sonatas revealed a strong tendency to play the first variation (subdivided beats) faster than the theme (mostly simple beats). A similar tendency was found in musicians' laboratory performances of a simple theme and variations, despite instruc-tions to keep the tempo constant (Experiment 3a). When playing melodic sequences in which only one of three beats per measure was subdivided, musicians tended to play these beats faster and to perceive them as longer than adjacent beats, and they played the whole sequence faster than a sequence without any subdivisions (Experiments 3b and 3c). The results amply demonstrate a filled duration illusion in rhythm perception and music performance: Intervals containing events seem longer than empty intervals and thus must be shortened to be perceived as equal in duration.

  5. An overview of computer models for pollutant transfer through the atmosphere, with special consideration for radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanovic, M.; Djukanovic, J.; Davidovic, M.; Cekerevac, D.; Stankovic, S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern society is intrinsically connected with usage and production of radioisotopes, both for military and civilian applications. During the march of 2007, there were 443 active nuclear plants, unknown quantity of nuclear weapons and a huge number of industrial, medical and other facilities that possess and use radioisotopes for various purposes. With the widespread usage of radioisotopes, there comes a danger of accidental or planed release into the biosphere. This paper gives an overview of the models that can be used for prognosis or reconstruction of radioisotope transfer through the atmosphere in case of accidental or planned release [sr

  6. Waterspout as a special type of atmospheric aerosol dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsev-Kartinov, Valentin A.

    2004-11-01

    An analysis of databases of photographic images of oceanic surface revealed the presence of oceanic skeletal structures (OSS) [1] Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Preprint . The OSSs presumably differ from the formerly found skeletal structures (SS) (Phys. Lett. A 306 (2002) 175) only by the fact that OSS are filled in with the closely packed blocks of a smaller size, up to thin, tens of microns-sized capillaries. The SSs in the Earth atmosphere were suggested [1] to be produced during atmospheric electricity activity by the volcanic-born dust. The fall-out of such SSs on the oceanic surface is a material source of OSS. Here we suggest that an OSS block [1] in the form of vertically oriented floating cylinder may be a stimulator of waterspout (WS). The main body of WS may be interpreted as a special type of atmospheric aerosol dusty plasma, and WS column - as a long-lived filament, being formed in the process of electric breakdown between the cloud and oceanic surface. The charged water drops aerosol may behave similar to microdust and lift upward to the cloud by the electrostatic force. With such a capillary&;electrostatic model of WS, it appears possible to interpret many effects related to WS.

  7. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Long Solenoids with Coil Sub-division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Guo, XingLong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how a passive quench protection system can be applied to long superconducting solenoid magnets. When a solenoid coil is long compared to its thickness, the magnet quench process will be dominated by the time needed for uench propagation along the magnet length. Quench-back will permit a long magnet to quench more rapidly in a passive way. Quenchback from a conductive (low resistivity) mandrel is essential for spreading the quench along the length of a magnet. The andrel must be inductively coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. Current induced in the mandrel by di/dt in the magnet produces heat in the mandrel, which in turn causes the superconducting coil wound on the mandrel to quench. Sub-divisions often employed to reduce the voltages to ground within the coil. This paper explores when it is possible for quench-back to be employed for passive quench protection. The role of sub-division of the coil is discussed for long magnets.

  8. A new subdivision of the central Sesia Zone (Aosta Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Engi, Martin; Manzotti, Paola; Ballèvre, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Sesia Zone in the Western Alps is a continental terrane probably derived from the NW-Adriatic margin and polydeformed at HP conditions during Alpine convergence. Subdivisions of the Sesia Zone classically have been based on the dominant lithotypes: Eclogitic Micaschist Complex, Seconda Zona Diorito-Kinzigitica, and Gneiss Minuti Complex. However, recent work (Regis et al., 2014) on what was considered a single internal unit has revealed that it comprises two or more tectonic slices that experienced substantially different PTDt-evolutions. Therefore, detailed regional petrographic and structural mapping (1:3k to 1:10k) was undertaken and combined with extensive sampling for petrochronological analysis. Results allow us to propose a first tectonic scheme for the Sesia Zone between the Aosta Valley and Val d'Ayas. A set of field criteria was developed and applied, aiming to recognize and delimit the first order tectonic units in this complex structural and metamorphic context. The approach rests on three criteria used in the field: (1) Discontinuously visible metasedimentary trails (mostly carbonates) considered to be monocyclic (Permo-Mesozoic protoliths); (2) mappable high-strain zones; and (3) visible differences in the metamorphic imprint. None of these key features used are sufficient by themselves, but in combination they allow us to propose a new map that delimits main units. We propose an Internal Complex with three eclogitic sheets, each 0.5-3 km thick. Dominant lithotypes include micaschists associated with mafic rocks and minor orthogneiss. The main foliation is of HP, dipping moderately NW. Each of these sheets is bounded by (most likely monometamorphic) sediments, <10-50 m thick. HP-relics (of eclogite facies) are widespread, but a greenschist facies overprint locally is strong close to the tectonic contact to neighbouring sheets. An Intermediate Complex lies NW of the Internal Complex and comprises two thinner, wedge-shaped units termed slices. These

  9. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  10. Geographic information systems based demarcation of risk zones: the case of the Limbe Sub-Division – Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh Wung Gaston

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Limbe Subdivision of Cameroon, landslides and flooding are frequent threats. The worst recorded event occurred in June 2001, when floods and landslides took the lives of some 30 persons, left over 2000 people homeless, and destroyed property and social amenities including roads and telephone lines worth hundred of thousands of US Dollars. The objective of this project was to assist local administrative officers, other decision makers and planners to understand which areas to concentrate their efforts on in order to develop mitigation actions to protect the lives of the population in these zones that are affected by flooding and associated landslides. To meet this objective the project made extensive use of geospatial tools and existing digital spatial datasets. Series of field data collection exercises constituted an integral part of the project. The project focused on the Limbe subdivision in the south-western part of Cameroon. Areas with high (greater than 60% probability of sliding to occur, occupy 23% while areas with medium (greater than 40% and less than 60% probability of sliding to occur occupy 44% and areas with low (less than 40% probability of sliding occupy 33%. Settlements along the Atlantic coast all lie less than ~50m above sea level. These settlements (villages are susceptible to flooding. Again settlements in the town of Llimbe along the Djenguele river, i.e., Animal Farms, Cassava Farms, Lumpsum areas, Church Street, New Town and Down Beach, are more susceptible to inundation during raining periods and therefore have experienced persistent flooding over the years.

  11. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  12. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the chalk group in the Netherlands North Sea area - A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to Maastrichtian Ommelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphic subdivision for

  13. Novitates Gabonenses 83. Two new species of Cola (Sterculiaceae s.str.) from Gabon with an introductory note on the subdivision of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The existing subdivisions of the large genus Cola of the Sterculiaceae s.str. are briefly presented and their usefulness as regards the identification of newly acquired material is discussed. Material and methods Normal practices of herbarium taxonomy have been applied to study

  14. 12 CFR 1.110 - Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... impact of any possible limitations regarding the State's or political subdivision's taxing powers, as... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision. 1.110 Section 1.110 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. New techniques for subdivision modelling

    OpenAIRE

    BEETS, Koen

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation, several tools and techniques for modelling with subdivision surfaces are presented. Based on the huge amount of theoretical knowledge about subdivision surfaces, we present techniques to facilitate practical 3D modelling which make subdivision surfaces even more useful. Subdivision surfaces have reclaimed attention several years ago after their application in full-featured 3D animation movies, such as Toy Story. Since then and due to their attractive properties an ever i...

  16. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  17. RESEARCH OF APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT SUBDIVISIONS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern transport systems are not stable and can not stand up to the destabilizing factors. Global track record in the economic and commercial management systems is the use of the concept of sustainable development. It is necessary on the basis of analysis of literary sources to define the directions of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions from the point of view of sustainable development. Methodology. To achieve the purpose the features of the use of sustainable development conception and its realization were investigated at a management of the complex systems. The existent models were also analyzed in the field of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions. Findings. On the basis of literary sources analysis, keeping up the conceptual essence of the sustainable development, the main directions of efficiency increase of subdivisions functioning were selected. They take into account the basic requirements of steady development and should be considered as a complex. Originality. New directions to consider the efficiency increase issues from position of sustainable development were offered by the author. Three components of conceptions of sustainable development (economic, ecological and social should be examined in a balanced way. Thus, the above mentioned theoretical studies can promote the forming of new economy model corresponding to the purposes and principles of sustainable development. Practical value. The conducted analysis development confirms the necessity of researches on perspective directions of development of railway transport subdivisions, which are marked by the guidance of Ukrzaliznytsia. It enables to select basic directions for further research in the area of efficiency increase.

  18. Management system for the budgetary exercise of the subdivision of technology and professional development (STDP) of Petroleos Mexicanos; Sistema de administracion para el ejercicio presupuestal de la subdivision de tecnologia y desarrollo profesional (STDP) de Petroleos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava Lara, Eric Rafael; Santos Dominguez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Herrera Lavin, Jesus Xavier [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Management System for the Budgetary Exercise (SAEP) arises from the necessity of supporting the programming processes for the budget allocation to the technological projects of the Subdivision of Technology and Profesional Development (STPD). This system allows recovering the budget partial or complete information facilitating the adjustments to this same one before integrating them to the budget assignation system (SAP). It also allows to control the expenses of the projects as well as of the exercise of the budget, and orchestrates an internal control for the technical and financial approval of the countable commitments and the budget expenses before taking the proceeding through the mechanisms of registry with the SAP. [Spanish] El Sistema de Administracion para el Ejercicio Presupuestal (SAEP) surge de la necesidad de apoyar los procesos de programacion para la asignacion del presupuesto a los proyectos tecnologicos de la Subdireccion de Tecnologia y Desarrollo Profesional (STPD). Este sistema permite recuperar la informacion parcial o completa del presupuesto facilitando las adecuaciones a este mismo antes de integrarlas al Sistema de Asignacion de Presupuesto (SAP). Tambien permite controlar los gastos, tanto de los proyectos como de los ejercicios del presupuesto e instrumenta un control interno para la aprobacion tecnica y financiera de los compromisos contables y las erogaciones del presupuesto antes de llevar el tramite a traves de los mecanismos de registro con el (SAP).

  19. Overview on theAtmospheric Emissions from Volcanoes’ Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Mackie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The session ‘Atmospheric Emissions from Volcanoes’ formed part of the 2014 General Assembly of the Europe-an Geosciences Union (EGU, held in Vienna from 27 April to 2 May. This special issue presents some of the work that was discussed during the session. [...

  20. A technical assistance on data collection on subdivision of wet-system apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    In the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, development on subdivision engineering system for abolition of nuclear fuel facilities has been promoted. However, data on subdivision of instruments and apparatuses to be carried out as a part of the abolition was insufficient. Therefore, here was intended to investigate data collections so as to use subdivision of a wet-system apparatuses of the smelting conversion facility begun on June, 2000, as a field of data collection as effectively as possible, on construction of the system rationally supporting abolition of nuclear fuel facility promoted at the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center. This subdivision of the wet-system apparatuses of the facility is programmed to carry out the subdivision for two years of 2000 and 2001 fiscal years. Its working procedure is begun from non-polluted matters (electrics, instruments, and utility pipings) at every rooms to carry out appliances using uranium. Here were reported on present states survey of the subdivision, kinds and frequencies of data at the subdivision, data collection manual, and rationalization of data recording method. (G.K.)

  1. Bioindication of atmospheric trace metals - With special references to megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Bernd; Wuenschmann, Simone; Fraenzle, Stefan; Graciana Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Wang Meie

    2011-01-01

    After considering the particular problems of atmospheric pollution in megacities, i.e. agglomerations larger than 5 mio. inhabitants, with urbanization of World's population going on steadily, possibilities of active biomonitoring by means of green plants are discussed. Based on specific definitions of active and passive bioindication the chances of monitoring heavy metals in Sao Paulo megacity were demonstrated (first results published before). This is to show that there is need for increased use of bioindication to tackle the particular problems of megacities concerning environmental 'health', the data to be processed according to the Multi-Markered-Bioindication-Concept (MMBC). Comparison to other work shows this approach to be reasonable. - Highlights: → Chemical Pollution. → Bioindication. → Multi-Markered-Bioindication-Concept (MMBC). → Mega cities. - Bioindication is a relevant technique for observing the atmospheric deposition of chemical elements of the environment in megacities.

  2. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the β Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalchuk, George A.; Naoumenko, Zinaida S.; Derikx, Piet J. L.; Felske, Andreas; Stephen, John R.; Arkhipchenko, Irina A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is an essential step in nitrogen cycling. Therefore, the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing members of the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in a variety of composting materials was assessed by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 16S rRNA by PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The PCR and RT-PCR products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and were identified by hybridization with a hierarchical set of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect ammonia oxidizer-like sequence clusters in the genera Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. Ammonia oxidizer-like 16S rDNA was detected in almost all of the materials tested, including industrial and experimental composts, manure, and commercial biofertilizers. A comparison of the DGGE and hybridization results after specific PCR and RT-PCR suggested that not all of the different ammonia oxidizer groups detected in compost are equally active. amoA, the gene encoding the active-site-containing subunit of ammonia monooxygenase, was also targeted by PCR, and template concentrations were estimated by competitive PCR. Detection of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the composts tested suggested that such materials may not be biologically inert with respect to nitrification and that the fate of nitrogen during composting and compost storage may be affected by the presence of these organisms. PMID:9925559

  3. ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS FOR ASSESSING THE EFFICIENCY OF STRUCTURAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana N. Romashkova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of the authors was to rank the factors that are used to assess the rating of the structural units of the University. The authors define and describe the stages of ranking. The statistical analysis of data structural units, Moscow Сity University and Рeople's Friendship University of Russia in 2017. Significant factors were selected on the basis of the data of the Moscow State Pedagogical University and the PFUR separately, and then they were compared. The resulting numerical index of structural units evaluation is proposed. With the help of correlation analysis, the data were first systematized and internal connections were revealed. Next, an analysis of the multicollinearity of vectors was carried out using the correlation matrix. As a result of the study, significant factors affecting the rating of the structural unit were selected. The interpretation of the parameters of the model showed that an increase by one such parameter as "the ratio of the number of protected applicants and graduate students to the number of graduates" leads to an increase in the "rating of the relevant Department of the University" by an average of 0,696 units. Such analysis is carried out for each indicator of work of divisions which participate in the General assessment of activity of University. The average of the Hirsch index has the greatest impact on the rating of the division. Verification of the model was carried out with the help of indicators of structural divisions of PFUR. The most significant contribution to the model is given by the parameter "Number of publications in journals included in the WAC list". This factor is comparable to the significant factor of the regression model in terms of MCU ("average Hirsch index". Comparing the results of the analysis of structural divisions of different universities, it can be concluded that the factors that have the greatest and least impact are the same. Built standard was applied to split the

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, Series Information for the Current County Subdivision State-based Shapefiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — County subdivisions are the primary divisions of counties and their equivalent entities for the reporting of Census Bureau data. They include legally-recognized...

  5. Defining the Reference Condition for Wadeable Streams in the Sand Hills Subdivision of the Southeastern Plains Ecoregion, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnicki, Ely; Sefick, Stephen A.; Paller, Michael H.; Jarrell, Miller S.; Prusha, Blair A.; Sterrett, Sean C.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2014-09-01

    The Sand Hills subdivision of the Southeastern Plains ecoregion has been impacted by historical land uses over the past two centuries and, with the additive effects of contemporary land use, determining reference condition for streams in this region is a challenge. We identified reference condition based on the combined use of 3 independent selection methods. Method 1 involved use of a multivariate disturbance gradient derived from several stressors, method 2 was based on variation in channel morphology, and method 3 was based on passing 6 of 7 environmental criteria. Sites selected as reference from all 3 methods were considered primary reference, whereas those selected by 2 or 1 methods were considered secondary or tertiary reference, respectively. Sites not selected by any of the methods were considered non-reference. In addition, best professional judgment (BPJ) was used to exclude some sites from any reference class, and comparisons were made to examine the utility of BPJ. Non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that use of BPJ may help designate non-reference sites when unidentified stressors are present. The macroinvertebrate community measures Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera richness and North Carolina Biotic Index showed no differences between primary and secondary reference sites when BPJ was ignored. However, there was no significant difference among primary, secondary, and tertiary reference sites when BPJ was used. We underscore the importance of classifying reference conditions, especially in regions that have endured significant anthropogenic activity. We suggest that the use of secondary reference sites may enable construction of models that target a broader set of management interests.

  6. Census County Subdivisions for the United States Virgin Islands (CENSUS.COUNTY_SUBDIV_USVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — County subdivisions are the primary divisions of counties and statistically equivalent entities for the reporting of decennial census data. They include census...

  7. Special Analysis: Atmospheric Dose Resulting from the Release of C14 from Reactor Moderator Deionizers in a Disposal Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, Robert A.; Swingle, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The proposed action of disposing of 52 moderator deionizer vessels within the ILV was evaluated in this SA. In particular, a detailed analysis of the release of 14 C via the atmospheric pathway was conducted for these vessels since the major concern has been the nearly 20 Ci of 14 C that is associated with each vessel. The more rigorous evaluation of the atmospheric pathway for 14 C included incorporation of new information about the chemical availability of 14 C when disposed in a grout/cement encapsulation environment, as will be the case in the ILV. This information was utilized to establish the source term for a 1-D numerical model to simulate the diffusion of 14 CO 2 from the ILV Waste Zone to the land surface. The results indicate a peak surface emanation rate from the entire ILV of 1.42E-08 Ci/yr with an associated dose of only 3.83E-05 mrem/yr to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at 100m. The fact that the atmospheric pathway exposure for 14 C is controlled by chemical solubility limits for 14 C between the solid waste, pore water and pore vapor within the disposal environment rather than the absolute inventory suggests that the establishment of specific facility limits is inappropriate. With the relaxation of the atmospheric pathway restriction, the groundwater pathway becomes the more restrictive in terms of disposing 14 C or 14 C KB within the ILV. Since the resin-based 14 C of the 52 moderator deionizer vessels is highly similar to the 14 C KB waste form, the inventory from the 52 deionizer vessels is compared against the groundwater limits for that waste form. The small groundwater pathway fraction (1.14E-05) calculated for the proposed inventory of the 52 moderator deionizer vessels indicates that the proposed action will have an insignificant impact with respect to possible exposures via the groundwater pathway. This investigation recommends that there be no ILV Atmospheric pathway limit for 14 C and 14 C KB . Further, in the absence of an

  8. Anatomical subdivisions of the stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Lan, G; Wang, G X; Li, H Y; Xie, Z M

    2000-08-01

    Twenty stomachs of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) were studied by gross dissection. Based on the configuration of the stomach and the structure of the mucous membrane, the stomach was divided into three ventricles that differ from the arrangement described for ox and sheep. The first and second ventricles of the proventriculus of camel form one stomach rather than two different stomachs. These ventricles of the proventriculus do not correspond to the rumen and reticulum of ox and sheep. The third ventricle appears to be the abomasum. One part of the abomasum has reticular mucosal folds that indicate it is not the reticulum. A second part of the abomasum has longitudinal mucosal folds suggesting it is not the omasum. Three glandular sac areas associated with the preventriculus and abomasum are also described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Preface to the special issue of PSS on "Surfaces, atmospheres and magnetospheres of the outer planets, their satellites and ring systems: Part XII″

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.; Spilker, L.; Strazzulla, G.

    2018-06-01

    This issue contains six articles on original research and review papers presented in the past year in sessions organized during several international meetings and congresses including the European Geosciences Union (EGU), European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and others. The manuscripts cover recent observations and models of the atmospheres, magnetospheres and surfaces of the giant planets and their satellites based on ongoing and recent planetary missions. Concepts of architecture and payload for future space missions are also presented. The six articles in this special issue cover a variety of objects in the outer solar system ranging from Jupiter to Neptune and the possibilities for their exploration. A brief introductory summary of their findings follows.

  10. Models for positional signalling, the threefold subdivision of segments and the pigmentation pattern of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, H

    1984-11-01

    Models of biological pattern formation are discussed. The regulatory features expected from the models are compared to those observed experimentally. It will be shown that: (i) Stable gradients appropriate to supply positional information can be produced by local autocatalysis and long-range inhibition. (ii) Spatially ordered sequences of differentiated cell states can emerge if these cell states mutually activate each other on long range but exclude each other locally. Segmentation results from the repetition of three such cell states, S, A and P (and not of only two, as is usually assumed). With a repetition of three states, each segment has a defined polarity. The confrontation of P cells and S cells lead to the formation of a segment border (...P/SAP/SAP/S...) while the A-P confrontation is a prerequisite for appendage formation. Mutations of Drosophila affecting larval segmentation are discussed in terms of this model. (iii) The two models for the generation of sequences of structures in space (positional information including interpretation versus mutual activation) lead to different predictions with respect to intercalary regeneration. This allows a distinction between the two models on the basis of experiments. (iv) The pigmentation patterns of certain molluscs emerge from a coupled oscillation of cells (that is, a lateral inhibition in time, instead of space). The oblique lines result from a chain of triggering events.

  11. Crossover from normal (N) Ohmic subdivision to superconducting (S) equipartition of current in parallel conductors at the N-S transition: Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, N.

    2007-01-01

    The recently observed (1) equipartition of current in parallel at and below the Normal-Superconducting (N-S) transition can be understood in terms of a Landau-Ginzburg order-parameter phenomenology. This complements the explanation proposed earlier (1) based on the flux-flow resistance providing a nonlinear negative current feedback towards equipartition when the transition is approached from above. The present treatment also unifies the usual textbook inductive subdivision expected much belo...

  12. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, S?rgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  13. A Method of Vector Map Multi-scale Representation Considering User Interest on Subdivision Gird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Tong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the traditional spatial data model and method, global subdivision grid show a great advantage in the organization and expression of massive spatial data. In view of this, a method of vector map multi-scale representation considering user interest on subdivision gird is proposed. First, the spatial interest field is built using a large number POI data to describe the spatial distribution of the user interest in geographic information. Second, spatial factor is classified and graded, and its representation scale range can be determined. Finally, different levels of subdivision surfaces are divided based on GeoSOT subdivision theory, and the corresponding relation of subdivision level and scale is established. According to the user interest of subdivision surfaces, the spatial feature can be expressed in different degree of detail. It can realize multi-scale representation of spatial data based on user interest. The experimental results show that this method can not only satisfy general-to-detail and important-to-secondary space cognitive demands of users, but also achieve better multi-scale representation effect.

  14. GLOBAL GRIDS FROM RECURSIVE DIAMOND SUBDIVISIONS OF THE SURFACE OF AN OCTAHEDRON OR ICOSAHEDRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years a number of methods have been developed for subdividing the surface of the earth to meet the needs of applications in dynamic modeling, survey sampling, and information storage and display. One set of methods uses the surfaces of Platonic solids, or regular polyhe...

  15. Learning-based automated segmentation of the carotid artery vessel wall in dual-sequence MRI using subdivision surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; van 't Klooster, Ronald; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Coolen, Bram F; van den Berg, Alexandra M; Smits, Loek P; Shahzad, Rahil; Shamonin, Denis P; de Koning, Patrick J H; Nederveen, Aart J; van der Geest, Rob J

    2017-10-01

    The quantification of vessel wall morphology and plaque burden requires vessel segmentation, which is generally performed by manual delineations. The purpose of our work is to develop and evaluate a new 3D model-based approach for carotid artery wall segmentation from dual-sequence MRI. The proposed method segments the lumen and outer wall surfaces including the bifurcation region by fitting a subdivision surface constructed hierarchical-tree model to the image data. In particular, a hybrid segmentation which combines deformable model fitting with boundary classification was applied to extract the lumen surface. The 3D model ensures the correct shape and topology of the carotid artery, while the boundary classification uses combined image information of 3D TOF-MRA and 3D BB-MRI to promote accurate delineation of the lumen boundaries. The proposed algorithm was validated on 25 subjects (48 arteries) including both healthy volunteers and atherosclerotic patients with 30% to 70% carotid stenosis. For both lumen and outer wall border detection, our result shows good agreement between manually and automatically determined contours, with contour-to-contour distance less than 1 pixel as well as Dice overlap greater than 0.87 at all different carotid artery sections. The presented 3D segmentation technique has demonstrated the capability of providing vessel wall delineation for 3D carotid MRI data with high accuracy and limited user interaction. This brings benefits to large-scale patient studies for assessing the effect of pharmacological treatment of atherosclerosis by reducing image analysis time and bias between human observers. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  17. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  18. A model for atmospheric brightness temperatures observed by the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    A closed-form mathematical model for the atmospheric contribution to microwave the absorption and emission at the SSM/I frequencies is developed in order to improve quantitative interpretation of microwave imagery from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The model is intended to accurately predict upwelling and downwelling atmospheric brightness temperatures at SSM/I frequencies, as functions of eight input parameters: the zenith (nadir) angle, the integrated water vapor and vapor scale height, the integrated cloud water and cloud height, the effective surface temperature, atmospheric lapse rate, and surface pressure. It is shown that the model accurately reproduces clear-sky brightness temperatures computed by explicit integration of a large number of radiosonde soundings representing all maritime climate zones and seasons.

  19. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution...

  20. The influences of mesh subdivision on nonlinear fracture analysis for surface cracked structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, T.

    1991-01-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) concept can be expected to be applied not only to safety assessment, but also to the rationalization of nuclear power plants. The development of a method to evaluate fracture characteristics is required to establish this concept. The finite element method (FEM) is one of the most useful tools for this evaluation. However, the influence of various factors on the solution is not well understood and the reliability has not been fully verified. In this study, elastic-plastic 3D analyses are performed for two kinds of surface cracked structure, and the influence of mesh design is discussed. The first problem is surface crack growth in a carbon steel plate subjected to tension loading. A crack extension analysis is performed under a generation phase simulation using the crack release technique. Numerical instability of the J-integral solution is observed when the number of elements in the thickness direction of the ligament is reduced to three. The influence of mesh design in the ligament on the solution is discussed. The second problem is a circumferential part-through crack in a carbon steel pipe subjected to a bending moment. Two kinds of mesh design are employed, and a comparison between two sets of results shows that the number of elements on the crack surface also affects the solution as well as the number of elements in the ligament. (author)

  1. Prediction and error growth in the daily forecast of precipitation from the NCEP CFSv2 over the subdivisions of Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhruva Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Shahi, N. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the forecast skill and predictability of various indices of south Asian monsoon as well as the subdivisions of the Indian subcontinent during JJAS season for the time domain of 2001-2013 using NCEP CFSv2 output. It has been observed that the daily mean climatology of precipitation over the land points of India is underestimated in the model forecast as compared to observation. The monthly model bias of precipitation shows the dry bias over the land points of India and also over the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Himalayan and Arabian Sea regions show the wet bias. We have divided the Indian landmass into five subdivisions namely central India, southern India, Western Ghat, northeast and southern Bay of Bengal regions based on the spatial variation of observed mean precipitation in JJAS season. The underestimation over the land points of India during mature phase was originated from the central India, southern Bay of Bengal, southern India and Western Ghat regions. The error growth in June forecast is slower as compared to July forecast in all the regions. The predictability error also grows slowly in June forecast as compared to July forecast in most of the regions. The doubling time of predictability error was estimated to be in the range of 3-5 days for all the regions. Southern India and Western Ghats are more predictable in the July forecast as compared to June forecast, whereas IMR, northeast, central India and southern Bay of Bengal regions have the opposite nature.

  2. The application of ground source heat pumps to a subdivision-wide district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciavaglia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Design guidelines for economic ground source heat pumps (GSHP) in district energy systems were presented. The broad economics of using central GSHP in a community district energy system were examined. Design parameters needed to utilize GSHP in district energy system were outlined. The sensitivity of energy prices and the costs of major capital were reviewed. District heating load duration curves were outlined. It was suggested that varying GSHP capacity from 0 to 100 per cent of load was advisable. In addition, capacity should be balanced with gas boiler technology. The amortizing of capital within energy costs was recommended. It was suggested that the best scenario was a minimum of 50 per cent ground energy. Details of pipings and heat exchanger costs were presented, along with costs for gas boilers and gas costs for the district energy system. Charts of current costing and reduction of piping capital were included. It was concluded that GSHP can be a viable component of a district energy system, as a GSHP based district energy system can provide more stable energy prices than conventional fossil fuel systems. It was suggested that sizing of GSHP at, or near, 40 per cent of peak demand provided optimal conditions with respect to energy cost and use of earth energy. tabs., figs

  3. 75 FR 76038 - Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La..., including on-site leased workers from Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, Texas. The Department's... investigation revealed that Zach System Corporation is a subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA, not Zach System SPA...

  4. The origin of atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gy.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether the pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied. (Sz.Z.)

  5. Aboveground biomass subdivisions in woody species of the savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rutherford, MC

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground peak season biomass is given for 11 woody species in each of five belt transects under study. Mean aerial biomass for all species was 16 273 kg ha, made up of 14 937 kg ha wood, 236 kg ha current season's twigs and 1 100 kg ha leaves...

  6. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  7. Prospective relations between resting-state connectivity of parietal subdivisions and arithmetic competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence. In contrast, rsFC between the left hIP1 and the right medial temporal lobe, and rsFC between the left AG and left superior frontal gyrus, were negatively correlated with arithmetic competence. These results suggest that strong inter-hemispheric IPS connectivity is important for math development, reflecting either neurocognitive mechanisms specific to arithmetic processing, domain-general mechanisms that are particularly relevant to arithmetic competence, or structural 'cortical maturity'. Stronger connectivity between IPS, and AG, subdivisions and frontal and temporal cortices, however, appears to be negatively associated with math development, possibly reflecting the ability to disengage suboptimal problem-solving strategies during mathematical processing, or to flexibly reorient task-based networks. Importantly, the reported results pertain even when controlling for reading, spatial attention, and working memory, suggesting that the observed rsFC-behavior relations are specific to arithmetic competence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Introduction to the special issue on recent advances and developments in atmospheric electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ling Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The special issue highlights the state of research efforts on the atmospheric electricity in Asia, particularly in Taiwan, China and Japan. In some ways, this can also be viewed as a commemorative issue for the ISUAL/FORMOSAT2 experiment, which officially ended its mission in July 2016. The first breakthrough on atmospheric electricity research in Taiwan was achieved through ground campaigns, including the investigations of transient luminous events (TLEs near the vicinity of Taiwan (Su et al. 2002; Hsu et al. 2003 and gigantic jet (Su et al. 2003. From 2004 - 2016, the satellite mission of ISUAL (Imager of Sprite/Upper Atmospheric Lightning onboard the FORMOSAT2 satellite was conducted, and a few important results are reported in (Hsu et al. 2017; this issue. The ISUAL mission is a successful international cooperation between Taiwan, USA and Japan (Chern et al. 2003; Su et al. 2005; Chen et al. 2008. The past and current TLE scientific missions include the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX sprite campaign onboard the space shuttle Columbia in 2003 (Yair et al. 2003, a Japanese micro satellite SPRITE-SAT (2010- (Takahashi et al. 2010, the Japan mission Global Lightning and Sprite Measurements on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-GLIMS on the International Space Station (ISS from 2011 (Sato et al. 2015, 2017, NASA Crew Earth Observation program (2011 - 2012 (Jehl et al. 2013, and the Iriss mission by Denmark’s first astronaut, Andreas Mogensen on the ISS (Chanrion et al. 2017. The upcoming orbit missions including ASIM (Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor (Neubert 2009 and TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites (Farges et al. 2017. The ISUAL mission besides being a pioneer atmospheric electricity program, also is a historic space platform dedicating to the study of TLEs in the middle atmosphere (Hsu et al. 2017; this issue.

  9. Subdivision of the Lochkovian Stage based on conodont faunas from the stratotype area (Prague Synform, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Ladislav; Carls, P.; Hladil, Jindřich; Koptíková, Leona

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2012), s. 616-631 ISSN 0072-1050 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Lochkovian subdivision * conodont biostratigraphy * Lower Devonian * stratigraphic correlation * Barrandian area * conodont zonation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2012

  10. Statistical and Geometrical Way of Model Selection for a Family of Subdivision Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam MUSTAFA

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to introduce a generalized algorithm to produce the m-point n-ary approximating subdivision schemes (for any integer m,n ≥ 2).The proposed algorithm has been derived from uniform B-spline blending functions.In particular,we study statistical and geometrical/traditional methods for the model selection and assessment for selecting a subdivision curve from the proposed family of schemes to model noisy and noisy free data.Moreover,we also discuss the deviation of subdivision curves generated by proposed family of schemes from convex polygonal curve.Furthermore,visual performances of the schemes have been presented to compare numerically the Gibbs oscillations with the existing family of schemes.

  11. ACR BI-RADS Assessment Category 4 Subdivisions in Diagnostic Mammography: Utilization and Outcomes in the National Mammography Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezaby, Mai; Li, Geng; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Burnside, Elizabeth S; DeMartini, Wendy B

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To determine the utilization and positive predictive value (PPV) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Data and Reporting System (BI-RADS) category 4 subdivisions in diagnostic mammography in the National Mammography Database (NMD). Materials and Methods This study involved retrospective review of diagnostic mammography data submitted to the NMD from January 1, 2008 to December 30, 2014. Utilization rates of BI-RADS category 4 subdivisions were compared by year, facility (type, location, census region), and examination (indication, finding type) characteristics. PPV3 (positive predictive value for biopsies performed) was calculated overall and according to category 4 subdivision. The χ 2 test was used to test for significant associations. Results Of 1 309 950 diagnostic mammograms, 125 447 (9.6%) were category 4, of which 33.3% (41 841 of 125 447) were subdivided. Subdivision utilization rates were higher (P use, subdivisions were utilized in the minority (33.3% [41 841 of 125 447]) of category 4 diagnostic mammograms, with variability based on facility and examination characteristics. When subdivisions were used, PPV3s were in BI-RADS-specified malignancy ranges. This analysis supports the use of subdivisions in broad practice and, given benefits for patient care, should motivate increased utilization. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. On the Response of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager to the Marine Environment: Implications for Atmospheric Parameter Retrievals. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.

    1990-01-01

    A reasonably rigorous basis for understanding and extracting the physical information content of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) satellite images of the marine environment is provided. To this end, a comprehensive algebraic parameterization is developed for the response of the SSM/I to a set of nine atmospheric and ocean surface parameters. The brightness temperature model includes a closed-form approximation to microwave radiative transfer in a non-scattering atmosphere and fitted models for surface emission and scattering based on geometric optics calculations for the roughened sea surface. The combined model is empirically tuned using suitable sets of SSM/I data and coincident surface observations. The brightness temperature model is then used to examine the sensitivity of the SSM/I to realistic variations in the scene being observed and to evaluate the theoretical maximum precision of global SSM/I retrievals of integrated water vapor, integrated cloud liquid water, and surface wind speed. A general minimum-variance method for optimally retrieving geophysical parameters from multichannel brightness temperature measurements is outlined, and several global statistical constraints of the type required by this method are computed. Finally, a unified set of efficient statistical and semi-physical algorithms is presented for obtaining fields of surface wind speed, integrated water vapor, cloud liquid water, and precipitation from SSM/I brightness temperature data. Features include: a semi-physical method for retrieving integrated cloud liquid water at 15 km resolution and with rms errors as small as approximately 0.02 kg/sq m; a 3-channel statistical algorithm for integrated water vapor which was constructed so as to have improved linear response to water vapor and reduced sensitivity to precipitation; and two complementary indices of precipitation activity (based on 37 GHz attenuation and 85 GHz scattering, respectively), each of which are relatively

  13. Organization of development of plans of a production association and participation of enterprises and their subdivisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubenko, I V

    1982-01-01

    Experimental development of plans with participation of enterprises and their subdivisions is presented. The method of determining the intensity of the plans of the drilling enterprises is revealed. Data are presented on the use of a computer to develop a technical-industrial financial plan of the enterprise and association.

  14. Afferent projections to the different medial amygdala subdivisions: a retrograde tracing study in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Otero-García, Marcos; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key node in the socio-sexual brain, composed of anterior (MeA), posteroventral (MePV) and posterodorsal (MePD) subdivisions. These subdivisions have been suggested to play a different role in reproductive and defensive behaviours. In the present work we analyse the afferents of the three Me subdivisions using restricted injections of fluorogold in female outbred CD1 mice. The results reveal that the MeA, MePV and MePD share a common pattern of afferents, with some differences in the density of retrograde labelling in several nuclei. Common afferents to Me subdivisions include: the accessory olfactory bulbs, piriform cortex and endopiriform nucleus, chemosensory amygdala (receiving direct inputs from the olfactory bulbs), posterior part of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM), CA1 in the ventral hippocampus and posterior intralaminar thalamus. Minor projections originate from the basolateral amygdala and amygdalo-hippocampal area, septum, ventral striatum, several allocortical and periallocortical areas, claustrum, several hypothalamic structures, raphe and parabrachial complex. MeA and MePV share minor inputs from the frontal cortex (medial orbital, prelimbic, infralimbic and dorsal peduncular cortices), but differ in the lack of main olfactory projections to the MePV. By contrast, the MePD receives preferential projections from the rostral accessory olfactory bulb, the posteromedial BSTM and the ventral premammillary nucleus. In summary, the common pattern of afferents to the Me subdivisions and their interconnections suggest that they play cooperative instead of differential roles in the various behaviours (e.g., sociosexual, defensive) in which the Me has been shown to be involved.

  15. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  16. Special Issue: Recent Progress in the Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pancheva, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Knížová, Petra; Wan, W.

    90-91, Special Issue (2012), s. 5-6 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * neutral atmosphere * atmospheric waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612002581?via%3Dihub

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information File for the Current County Subdivision State-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — County subdivisions are the primary divisions of counties and their equivalent entities for the reporting of Census Bureau data. They include legally-recognized...

  18. Land Subdivision in Peri-Urban Areas of Sub-Saharan African Cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The review of literature on urban land subdivision provides us with useful ... The second section is the methodology detailing the literature review approach ... problem of shortages of urban land, and to increase access to land for the ..... gradual integration of the informal sector into political decision-making process and.

  19. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  20. The accuracy, precision and sustainability of different techniques for tablet subdivision: breaking by hand and the use of tablet splitters or a kitchen knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Doeve, Myrthe E; Nicia, Agnes E; Teerenstra, Steven; Notenboom, Kim; Hekster, Yechiel A; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2014-05-15

    Tablets are frequently subdivided to lower the dose, to facilitate swallowing by e.g. children or older people or to save costs. Splitting devices are commonly used when hand breaking is difficult or painful. Three techniques for tablet subdivision were investigated: hand breaking, tablet splitter, kitchen knife. A best case drug (paracetamol), tablet (round, flat, uncoated, 500 mg) and operator (24-year student) were applied. Hundred tablets were subdivided by hand and by three devices of each of the following types: Fit & Healthy, Health Care Logistics, Lifetime, PillAid, PillTool, Pilomat tablet splitter; Blokker kitchen knife. The intra and inter device accuracy, precision and sustainability were investigated. The compliance to (adapted) regulatory requirements was investigated also. The accuracy and precision of hand broken tablets was 104/97% resp. 2.8/3.2% (one part per tablet considered; parts right/left side operator). The right/left accuracies of the splitting devices varied between 60 and 133%; the precisions 4.0 and 29.6%. The devices did not deteriorate over 100-fold use. Only hand broken tablets complied with all regulatory requirements. Health care professionals should realize that tablet splitting may result in inaccurate dosing. Authorities should undertake appropriate measures to assure good function of tablet splitters and, where feasible, to reduce the need for their use. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of grain subdivision at very low plastic strains in a magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, X. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Godfrey, A., E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, C.L.; Liu, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chapuis, A. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-05-02

    In-situ tensile loading combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements has been used to investigate the plastic deformation of a magnesium alloy. A novel EBSD mapping is presented, based on construction of maps showing the rotation axis component in the sample coordinate frame of the misorientation from each pixel to the average grain orientation in the deformed sample. Using this mapping it is shown that the pattern of grain subdivision, even at very low plastic strains, can be revealed simultaneously in a large number of grains. In addition, it is demonstrated how maps of the rotation axis corresponding to the misorientation between each pixel and the initial grain orientation provide complimentary information directly useful for crystal plasticity analysis. A detailed slip system analysis shows that the grain subdivision can be accounted for according to the low energy dislocation structures (LEDS) model of work-hardening by differences in the slip amplitudes within different parts of each grain.

  2. Guide for subdivision of spent fuel pool. Project UNESA MAAP5-SFP; Guia para subdivision de la piscina de combustible gastado. Proyecto UNESA MAAP5-SFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Barrios, M.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Martin, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of the UNESA MAAP5-SFP project is to analyze the capabilities of MAAP5 code and, particularly, the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) module in order to tackle its modeling and facilitate the development of specific SFP models of Spanish NPPs. Within the project, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is the responsible for the development of the Guide for the subdivision of the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP). This Guide includes a theoretical description of the model that is used by the code and a sequence of practical cases with the aim to evaluate the influence of specific parameters.

  3. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2 and subunit-5 (ND5 genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05, corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01. Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  4. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  5. Shape Preserving Interpolatory Subdivision Schemes for Nonuniform Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, F.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with a class of shape preserving four-point subdivision schemes which are stationary and which interpolate nonuniform univariate data {(xi, fi)}. These data are functional data, i.e., xi≠xj if i≠j. Subdivision for the strictly monotone x-values is performed by a subdivision

  6. A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.

  7. Algicidal Effects of a Novel Marine Pseudoalteromonas Isolate (Class Proteobacteria, Gamma Subdivision) on Harmful Algal Bloom Species of the Genera Chattonella, Gymnodinium, and Heterosigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Connie; Bowman, John P.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.

    1998-01-01

    During a bacterial survey of the Huon Estuary in southern Tasmania, Australia, we isolated a yellow-pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strain (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision), designated strain Y, that had potent algicidal effects on harmful algal bloom species. This organism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as a strain with close affinities to Pseudoalteromonas peptidysin. This bacterium caused rapid cell lysis and death (within 3 h) of gymnodinoids (including Gymnodinium catenatum) and raphidophytes (Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo). It caused ecdysis of armored dinoflagellates (e.g., Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum, and Prorocentrum mexicanum), but the algal cultures then recovered over the subsequent 24 h. Strain Y had no effect on a cryptomonad (Chroomonas sp.), a diatom (Skeletonema sp.), a cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria sp.), and two aplastidic protozoans. The algicidal principle of strain Y was excreted into the seawater medium and lost its efficacy after heating. Another common bacterial species, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, was isolated at the same time and did not have these algicidal effects. The minimum concentrations of strain Y required to kill G. catenatum were higher than the mean concentrations found in nature under nonbloom conditions. However, the new bacterium showed a chemotactic, swarming behavior that resulted in localized high concentrations around target organisms. These observations imply that certain bacteria could play an important role in regulating the onset and development of harmful algal blooms. PMID:9687434

  8. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, Sérgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes were measured on the dental casts obtained before (T1) and after treatment (T2) and at a mean of 6.9 years after the end of treatment (T3). The groups were matching regarding sex distribution, pretreatment, posttreatment and long-term posttreatment ages, and treatment and long-term posttreatment times. They were also comparable concerning the initial malocclusion severity and the occlusal results at the end of treatment. Stability evaluation was calculated by subtracting the posttreatment from the long-term posttreatment index values (T3 - T2). T tests were used to compare the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. There were no intergroup differences regarding the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. Treatment of class II subdivision malocclusion with 3 and 4 premolar extractions have a similar long-term posttreatment occlusal stability.

  9. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  10. Performance improvement of haptic collision detection using subdivision surface and sphere clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ram Choi

    Full Text Available Haptics applications such as surgery simulations require collision detections that are more precise than others. An efficient collision detection method based on the clustering of bounding spheres was proposed in our prior study. This paper analyzes and compares the applied effects of the five most common subdivision surface methods on some 3D models for haptic collision detection. The five methods are Butterfly, Catmull-Clark, Mid-point, Loop, and LS3 (Least Squares Subdivision Surface. After performing a number of experiments, we have concluded that LS3 method is the most appropriate for haptic simulations. The more we applied surface subdivision, the more the collision detection results became precise. However, it is observed that the performance becomes better until a certain threshold and degrades afterward. In order to reduce the performance degradation, we adopted our prior work, which was the fast and precise collision detection method based on adaptive clustering. As a result, we obtained a notable improvement of the speed of collision detection.

  11. Exposure to high- and low-light conditions in an open-field test of anxiety increases c-Fos expression in specific subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Bouwknecht, J Adriaan; Spiga, Francesca; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2006-12-11

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of forebrain structures including the basolateral amygdaloid complex (basolateral amygdala). Despite a wealth of research examining the role of the basolateral amygdala in anxiety-related behaviors and anxiety states, the specific subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that are involved in responses to anxiogenic stimuli have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a novel open-field environment, with either low- or high-levels of illumination, on expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-Fos in subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdala. The subdivisions studied included the lateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, the anterior, posterior and ventral parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the anterior and posterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. Small increases in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in several, but not all, of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala studied following exposure of rats to either the high- or low-light conditions, compared to home cage or handled control groups. Open-field exposure in both the high- and low-light conditions resulted in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus compared to either home cage or handled control groups. These findings point toward anatomical and functional heterogeneity within the basolateral amygdaloid complex and an important role of the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus in the neural mechanisms underlying physiological or behavioral responses to this anxiety-related stimulus.

  12. Special software for computing the special functions of wave catastrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Kryukovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of ordinary differential equations in the context of calculating the special functions of wave catastrophes is considered. Complementary numerical methods and algorithms are described. The paper shows approaches to accelerate such calculations using capabilities of modern computing systems. Methods for calculating the special functions of wave catastrophes are considered in the framework of parallel computing and distributed systems. The paper covers the development process of special software for calculating of special functions, questions of portability, extensibility and interoperability.

  13. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Middle Jurassic of western and northern Europe: its subdivisions, geochronology and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callomon, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic settings of Denmark and East Greenland during the Middle Jurassic are outlined. They lay in the widespread epicontinental seas that covered much of Europe in the post-Triassic transgression. It was a period of continuing eustatic sea-level rise, with only distant connections to world oceans: to the Pacific, via the narrow Viking Straits between Greenland and Norway and hence the arctic Boreal Sea to the north; and to the subtropical Tethys, via some 1200 km of shelf-seas to the south. The sedimentary history of the region was strongly influenced by two factors: tectonism and climate. Two modes of tectonic movement governed basinal evolution: crustal extension leading to subsidence through rifting, such as in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea; and subcrustal thermal upwelling, leading to domal uplift and the partition of marine basins through emergent physical barriers, as exemplified by the Central North Sea Dome with its associated volcanics. The climatic gradient across the 30º of temperate latitude spanned by the European seas governed biotic diversity and biogeography, finding expression in rock-forming biogenic carbonates that dominate sediments in the south and give way to largely siliciclastic sediments in the north. Geochronology of unrivalled finesse is provided by standard chronostratigraphy based on the biostratigraphy of ammonites. The Middle Jurassic saw the onset of considerable bioprovincial endemisms in these guide-fossils, making it necessary to construct parallel standard zonations for Boreal, Subboreal or NW European and Submediterranean Provinces, of which the NW European zonation provides the primary international standard. The current versions of these zonations are presented and reviewed.

  14. Anthropogenous modifications of the atmosphere. The atmospheric ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimedieu, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone role and atmospheric chemistry are first reviewed: chemical reactions and vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere. The origins of chlorofluorocarbon air pollution and the role of the various types of CFC on ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, cancer, etc. are then discussed. The political and environmental discussions concerning these phenomena are also reviewed

  15. Hydrogeologic subdivision of the Wolfcamp series and Pennsylvanian system of the Swisher Study Area, Texas: Revision 1: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siminitz, P.C.; Warman, E.A.

    1987-08-01

    The Pennsylvanian-Wolfcamp section in the Palo Duro Basin includes brine aquifers that are considered to be the most important ground- water flow paths in the deep-basin system. This report provides summary documentation of studies that subdivide the section into hydrogeologic units based on their judged relative capacities for transmitting water. This particular study area comprises eight counties in Texas, including Swisher County. Underground patterns of rock distribution are delineated from a hydrologic perspective and at a level of detail appropriate for numerical modeling of regional ground-water flow. Hydrogeologic units are defined and characterized so that appropriate porosity and permeability values can be assigned to each during construction of the numerical models and so that modelers can combine units where necessary. Hydrogeologic units have been defined as mappable, physically continuous rock bodies that function in bulk as water-transmitting or water-retarding units relative to adjacent rocks. Interpretations are made primarily from geophysical logs. Hydrologic characteristics are assessed on the basis of properties typically associated with certain lithologies (e.g., sandstones are more pervious than shales) and on the basis of gross variations in effective porosity (particularly in carbonate sequences). 15 refs., 52 figs., 1 tab

  16. Hydrogeologic subdivision of the Wolfcamp Series and Pennsylvanian System of the Deaf Smith study area, Texas: Revision 1, Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siminitz, P.C.; Warman, E.A.

    1987-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian-Wolfcamp section in the Palo Duro Basin includes brine aquifers that are considered to be the most important ground-water flow paths in the deep-basin system. This particular study area comprises eight counties in Texas, centered in Potter County (and including Deaf Smith County). Underground patterns of rock distribution are delineated from a hydrologic perspective and at a level of detail appropriate for numerical modeling of regional ground-water flow. In this study, hydrogeologic units have been defined as mappable, physically continuous rock bodies that function in bulk as water-transmitting or water-retarding units relative to adjacent rocks. Interpretations are made primarily from geophysical logs. Hydrologic characteristics are assessed on the basis of properties typically associated with certain lithologies (e.g., sandstones are more pervious than shales) and on the basis of gross variations in effective porosity (particularly in carbonate sequences). In this report, the Pennsylvanian-Wolfcamp section is subdivided into 41 hydrogeologic units. These units do not constitute a classical or definitive breakdown of the Pennyslvanian-Wolfcamp section. 12 refs., 87 figs., 1 tab

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Contains parcels, subdivisions, CSMs, Condominiums, Rights of Way and supporting annotation. Data within the City of West Bend are maintained by the City. Some areas are mapped at 1:1200, Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2013. Contains parcels, subdivisions, CSMs, Condominiums, Rights of Way and supporting annotation. Data within the...

  18. Genetic variation among the Golla pastoral caste subdivisions of Andhra Pradesh, India, according to the HLA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Reddy, B M; Martinez-Laso, J; Mack, S J; Erlich, H A

    2001-09-01

    The HLA allele frequency distributions have been characterized for the HLA class I and class II loci of the Golla pastoral caste, from Southeast India, subdivided into the subcastes (Puja, Punugu, Kurava, Pokanati, Karnam, and Doddi). Genetic distances, neighbor-joining, correspondence, and haplotype analyses all indicate that the subcastes exhibit a high haplotype variability and that their genetic substratum may be the result of European-Middle East/Asian admixture with the autochthonous populations. The Karnam subcaste seems to be the one that has undergone a higher degree of admixture, when compared with the other subcastes. The Golla speak an old Indian Dravidian language and should theoretically represent the basic Indian substratum that existed before the postulated "Aryan" invasion.

  19. Atmospheres of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelson, M.G.; Schubert, G.

    1986-01-01

    Properties of the planets are identified - such as size, spin rate, and distance from the sun - that are important in understanding the characteristics of their atmospheres. Venus, earth and Mars have surface-temperature differences only partly explained by the decrease of solar radiation flux with distance from the sun. More significant effects arise from the variations in the degree to which the atmospheres act as absorbers of planetary thermal reradiation. Atmospheric circulation on a global scale also varies markedly among the three planets. 5 references

  20. In search of the functional neuroanatomy of sociality: MRI subdivisions of orbital frontal cortex and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Thompson, Elizabeth; Levitt, James J; Choate, Victoria; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    We examined social cognition in a sample of healthy participants who had prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) that was parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus and lateral orbital gyrus. These subjects also completed a self-report measure of Machiavelli personality traits, along with psychometric tests of social comprehension and declarative episodic memory, all of which we used as proxy measures to examine various features of social cognition. The data pointed to distinct functional-anatomical relationships highlighted by strong correlations of left lateral orbital gyrus and Machiavellian scores and right middle orbital gyrus with social comprehension and declarative episodic memory. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses revealed statistical evidence of a double dissociation between Machiavellian scores and left lateral orbital gyrus on one hand, and social comprehension with right middle orbital gyrus, on the other hand. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to show evidence linking normal variation in OFC subregions and different aspects of social cognition.

  1. Evaluation of atmospheric corrections on hyperspectral data with special reference to mineral mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral images have wide applications in the fields of geology, mineral exploration, agriculture, forestry and environmental studies etc. due to their narrow band width with numerous channels. However, these images commonly suffer from atmospheric effects, thereby limiting their use. In such a situation, atmospheric correction becomes a necessary pre-requisite for any further processing and accurate interpretation of spectra of different surface materials/objects. In the present study, two very advance atmospheric approaches i.e. QUAC and FLAASH have been applied on the hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. The spectra of vegetation, man-made structure and different minerals from the Gadag area of Karnataka, were extracted from the raw image and also from the QUAC and FLAASH corrected images. These spectra were compared among themselves and also with the existing USGS and JHU spectral library. FLAASH is rigorous atmospheric algorithm and requires various parameters to perform but it has capability to compensate the effects of atmospheric absorption. These absorption curves in any spectra play an important role in identification of the compositions. Therefore, the presence of unwanted absorption features can lead to wrong interpretation and identification of mineral composition. FLAASH also has an advantage of spectral polishing which provides smooth spectral curves which helps in accurate identification of composition of minerals. Therefore, this study recommends that FLAASH is better than QUAC for atmospheric correction and correct interpretation and identification of composition of any object or minerals.

  2. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Deal, Megan E; Deal, Jennifer A; Garton, Russell D; Brown, C Adam; Ward, Megan E; Andrade, Rachel S; Spana, Eric P; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2010-12-01

    Interchromosomal duplications are especially important for the study of X-linked genes. Males inheriting a mutation in a vital X-linked gene cannot survive unless there is a wild-type copy of the gene duplicated elsewhere in the genome. Rescuing the lethality of an X-linked mutation with a duplication allows the mutation to be used experimentally in complementation tests and other genetic crosses and it maps the mutated gene to a defined chromosomal region. Duplications can also be used to screen for dosage-dependent enhancers and suppressors of mutant phenotypes as a way to identify genes involved in the same biological process. We describe an ongoing project in Drosophila melanogaster to generate comprehensive coverage and extensive breakpoint subdivision of the X chromosome with megabase-scale X segments borne on Y chromosomes. The in vivo method involves the creation of X inversions on attached-XY chromosomes by FLP-FRT site-specific recombination technology followed by irradiation to induce large internal X deletions. The resulting chromosomes consist of the X tip, a medial X segment placed near the tip by an inversion, and a full Y. A nested set of medial duplicated segments is derived from each inversion precursor. We have constructed a set of inversions on attached-XY chromosomes that enable us to isolate nested duplicated segments from all X regions. To date, our screens have provided a minimum of 78% X coverage with duplication breakpoints spaced a median of nine genes apart. These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes.

  3. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  4. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Chalk Group in the Netherlands North Sea area – A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to MaastrichtianOmmelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphicsubdivision for

  5. Subdivision of the MDR superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases through iterative hidden Markov model refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Bengt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medium-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases (MDR form a protein superfamily whose size and complexity defeats traditional means of subclassification; it currently has over 15000 members in the databases, the pairwise sequence identity is typically around 25%, there are members from all kingdoms of life, the chain-lengths vary as does the oligomericity, and the members are partaking in a multitude of biological processes. There are profile hidden Markov models (HMMs available for detecting MDR superfamily members, but none for determining which MDR family each protein belongs to. The current torrential influx of new sequence data enables elucidation of more and more protein families, and at an increasingly fine granularity. However, gathering good quality training data usually requires manual attention by experts and has therefore been the rate limiting step for expanding the number of available models. Results We have developed an automated algorithm for HMM refinement that produces stable and reliable models for protein families. This algorithm uses relationships found in data to generate confident seed sets. Using this algorithm we have produced HMMs for 86 distinct MDR families and 34 of their subfamilies which can be used in automated annotation of new sequences. We find that MDR forms with 2 Zn2+ ions in general are dehydrogenases, while MDR forms with no Zn2+ in general are reductases. Furthermore, in Bacteria MDRs without Zn2+ are more frequent than those with Zn2+, while the opposite is true for eukaryotic MDRs, indicating that Zn2+ has been recruited into the MDR superfamily after the initial life kingdom separations. We have also developed a web site http://mdr-enzymes.org that provides textual and numeric search against various characterised MDR family properties, as well as sequence scan functions for reliable classification of novel MDR sequences. Conclusions Our method of refinement can be readily applied to

  6. Guide for subdivision of spent fuel pool. Project UNESA MAAP5-SFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Barrios, M.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Martin, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the UNESA MAAP5-SFP project is to analyze the capabilities of MAAP5 code and, particularly, the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) module in order to tackle its modeling and facilitate the development of specific SFP models of Spanish NPPs. Within the project, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is the responsible for the development of the Guide for the subdivision of the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP). This Guide includes a theoretical description of the model that is used by the code and a sequence of practical cases with the aim to evaluate the influence of specific parameters

  7. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dignon, J.

    1993-03-01

    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet's atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate

  8. The bibliometrics of atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    Bibliometric analysis is an important tool in the management of a journal. SCOPUS output is used to assess the increase in the quantity of material in Atmospheric Environment and stylistic changes in the way authors choose words and punctuation in titles and assemble their reference lists. Citation analysis is used to consider the impact factor of the journal, but perhaps more importantly the way in which it reflects the importance authors give to papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The impact factor of Atmospheric Environment (2.549 for 2007) from the Journal Citation Reports suggests it performs well within the atmospheric sciences, but it conceals the long term value authors place on papers appearing in the journal. Reference lists show that a fifth come through citing papers more than a decade old.

  9. Geothermal development and land use/energy planning by the State of California and its political subdivisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-30

    California law contains several vehicles for the implementation of geothermal planning. These mechanisms and their impact are examined. First, at the State level upon the California Energy Commission and the Division of Oil and Gas in the Department of Conservation. After some background on county planning in California, the unique situation in the counties of greatest geothermal potential is presented: Imperial County and the four Geysers counties as well as their joint powers agency. Conclusions and recommendations are included. (MHR)

  10. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences: Preface to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Feingold, Graham; Ghan, Steven; Ogren, John; Schmid, Beat; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Sheridan, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical properties and their ability to serve as cloud condensation nuclei at given supersaturations (indirect effects). This paper introduces a special section that reports on a field campaign conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in North Central Oklahoma in May, 2003, examining these relations using in situ airborne measurements and surface-, airborne-, and space-based remote sensing.

  11. High genetic diversity and geographic subdivision of three lance nematode species (Hoplolaimus spp.) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Claudia M; Baeza, Juan A; Mueller, John D; Agudelo, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus spp.) feed on the roots of a wide range of plants, some of which are agronomic crops. Morphometric values of amphimictic lance nematode species overlap considerably, and useful morphological characters for their discrimination require high magnification and significant diagnostic time. Given their morphological similarity, these Hoplolaimus species provide an interesting model to investigate hidden diversity in crop agroecosystems. In this scenario, H. galeatus may have been over-reported and the related species that are morphologically similar could be more widespread in the United States that has been recognized thus far. The main objectives of this study were to delimit Hoplolaimus galeatus and morphologically similar species using morphology, phylogeny, and a barcoding approach, and to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of the species found. Molecular analyses were performed using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) on 23 populations. Four morphospecies were identified: H. galeatus, H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, and H. stephanus, along with a currently undescribed species. Pronounced genetic structure correlated with geographic origin was found for all species, except for H. galeatus. Hoplolaimus galeatus also exhibited low genetic diversity and the shortest genetic distances among populations. In contrast, H. stephanus, the species with the fewest reports from agricultural soils, was the most common and diverse species found. Results of this project may lead to better delimitation of lance nematode species in the United States by contributing to the understanding the diversity within this group.

  12. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.

  13. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-06-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation. (author)

  14. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Concepcion; Maltoni, Michele; Rojo, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation

  15. Functional subdivision of group-ICA results of fMRI data collected during cinema viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siina Pamilo

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA can unravel functional brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. The number of the estimated components affects both the spatial pattern of the identified networks and their time-course estimates. Here group-ICA was applied at four dimensionalities (10, 20, 40, and 58 components to fMRI data collected from 15 subjects who viewed a 15-min silent film ("At land" by Maya Deren. We focused on the dorsal attention network, the default-mode network, and the sensorimotor network. The lowest dimensionalities demonstrated most prominent activity within the dorsal attention network, combined with the visual areas, and in the default-mode network; the sensorimotor network only appeared with ICA comprising at least 20 components. The results suggest that even very low-dimensional ICA can unravel the most prominent functionally-connected brain networks. However, increasing the number of components gives a more detailed picture and functionally feasible subdivision of the major networks. These results improve our understanding of the hierarchical subdivision of brain networks during viewing of a movie that provides continuous stimulation embedded in an attention-directing narrative.

  16. Functional subdivision of group-ICA results of fMRI data collected during cinema viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamilo, Siina; Malinen, Sanna; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Seppä, Mika; Tikka, Pia; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) can unravel functional brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The number of the estimated components affects both the spatial pattern of the identified networks and their time-course estimates. Here group-ICA was applied at four dimensionalities (10, 20, 40, and 58 components) to fMRI data collected from 15 subjects who viewed a 15-min silent film ("At land" by Maya Deren). We focused on the dorsal attention network, the default-mode network, and the sensorimotor network. The lowest dimensionalities demonstrated most prominent activity within the dorsal attention network, combined with the visual areas, and in the default-mode network; the sensorimotor network only appeared with ICA comprising at least 20 components. The results suggest that even very low-dimensional ICA can unravel the most prominent functionally-connected brain networks. However, increasing the number of components gives a more detailed picture and functionally feasible subdivision of the major networks. These results improve our understanding of the hierarchical subdivision of brain networks during viewing of a movie that provides continuous stimulation embedded in an attention-directing narrative.

  17. Functional Subdivision of Group-ICA Results of fMRI Data Collected during Cinema Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamilo, Siina; Malinen, Sanna; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Seppä, Mika; Tikka, Pia; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) can unravel functional brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The number of the estimated components affects both the spatial pattern of the identified networks and their time-course estimates. Here group-ICA was applied at four dimensionalities (10, 20, 40, and 58 components) to fMRI data collected from 15 subjects who viewed a 15-min silent film (“At land” by Maya Deren). We focused on the dorsal attention network, the default-mode network, and the sensorimotor network. The lowest dimensionalities demonstrated most prominent activity within the dorsal attention network, combined with the visual areas, and in the default-mode network; the sensorimotor network only appeared with ICA comprising at least 20 components. The results suggest that even very low-dimensional ICA can unravel the most prominent functionally-connected brain networks. However, increasing the number of components gives a more detailed picture and functionally feasible subdivision of the major networks. These results improve our understanding of the hierarchical subdivision of brain networks during viewing of a movie that provides continuous stimulation embedded in an attention-directing narrative. PMID:22860044

  18. The Power of Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to define the psychological basis of architecture, Heinrich Wölfflin explored the lawfulness of space in relation to its effects, drawing on the argument that “every building produces a specific impression within a whole range of moods” (1994 (1886): 149). His observations, although...... a “lawscape” where “every surface, smell, colour, taste is regulated by some form of law” (2013: 35). Lawscape calls, however, for exploring law beyond merely contractual agreements and verbal regulations, as it directs attention towards its material, spatial and corporeal dimensions. It also invites...... and Society 7, 35-44. Thibaud, J-P. (2011). The Sensory Fabric of Urban Ambiances, in The Senses & Society. Vol. 6, 2, 203-215 Wölfflin, H. (1994 (1886)). Prolegomena to a Psychology of Architecture, in Mallgrave, H. (Ed.) Empathy, Form, and Space: Problems in German Aesthetics, 1873-1893. Santa Monica...

  19. Variational reconstruction using subdivision surfaces with continuous sharpness control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqun Wu; Jianmin Zheng; Yiyu Cai; Haisheng Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a variational method for subdivision surface reconstruction from a noisy dense mesh.A new set of subdivision rules with continuous sharpness control is introduced into Loop subdivision for better modeling subdivision surface features such as semi-sharp creases,creases,and corners.The key idea is to assign a sharpness value to each edge of the control mesh to continuously control the surface features.Based on the new subdivision rules,a variational model with L1 norm is formulated to find the control mesh and the corresponding sharpness values of the subdivision surface that best fits the input mesh.An iterative solver based on the augmented Lagrangian method and particle swarm optimization is used to solve the resulting non-linear,non-differentiable optimization problem.Our experimental results show that our method can handle meshes well with sharp/semi-sharp features and noise.

  20. The geometry of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This book for students in mathematics or physics shows the interest of geometry to understand special relativity as a consequence of invariance of Maxwell equations and of constancy of the speed of light. Space-time is actually provided with a geometrical structure and a physical interpretation: at each observer are associated his own time and his own physical space in which occur events he is concerned with. This leads to a natural approach to special relativity. The Lorentz group and its algebra are then studied by using matrices and the Pauli algebra. Quaternions are also addressed

  1. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  2. The atmospheric extinction of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Stephen W; Powell, Sean; Carroll, Joshua; Cowley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    An experiment is described that enables students to understand the properties of atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering. The experiment requires the use of red, green and blue lasers attached to a travelling microscope or similar device. The laser beams are passed through an artificial atmosphere, made from milky water, at varying depths, before impinging on either a light meter or a photodiode integral to a Picotech Dr. DAQ ADC. A plot of measured spectral intensity verses depth reveals the contribution Rayleigh scattering has to the extinction coefficient. For the experiment with the light meter, the extinction coefficients for red, green and blue light in the milky sample of water were 0.27, 0.36 and 0.47 cm −1 respectively and 0.032, 0.037 and 0.092 cm −1 for the Picotech Dr. DAQ ADC. (paper)

  3. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  4. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  5. Atmospheric chemistry of polycyclic aromatic compounds with special emphasis on nitro derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feilberg, A.

    2000-04-01

    Field measurements of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have been carried out at a semi-rural site and at an urban site. Correlation analyses, PAC indicators, and PAC ratios have been used to evaluate the importance of various sources of nitro-PAHs. A major source of nitro-PAHs is atmospheric transformation of PAHs initiated by OH radicals. Especially during long-range transport (LRT) of air pollution from Central Europe, the nitro-PAH composition in Denmark is dominated by nitro-PAHs formed in the atmosphere. Locally emitted nitro-PAHs are primarily from diesel vehicles. Levels of unsubstituted PAHs can also be strongly elevated in connection with LRT episodes. The ratio of 2-nitrofluoranthene relative to 1-nitropyrene is proposed as a measure of the relative photochemical age of particulate matter. Using this ratio, the relative mutagenicity of particle extracts appears to increase with increasing photochemical age. In connection with the field measurements, a method for measuring nitro-PAHs in particle extracts based on MS-MS detection has been developed. The atmospheric chemistry of nitronaphthalenes has been investigated with a smog chamber system combined with simulation with photochemical kinetics software. A methodology to implement gas-particle partitioning in a model based on chemical kinetics is described. Equilibrium constants (KP) for gas-particle partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene have been determined. Mass transfer between the two phases appears to occur on a very short timescale. The gas phase photolysis of the nitronaphthalenes depends upon the molecular conformation. Significantly faster photolysis of 1-nitronaphthalene than of 2-nitronaphthalene is observed. The photochemistry of nitro-PAHs, and to some extent other PAC, associated with organic aerosols, has been studied with model systems simulating organic aerosol material. A number of aerosol constituents, including substituted phenols, benzaldehydes, and oxy-PAHs, are demonstrated to

  6. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

  7. Theatre for Change: An Analysis of Two Performances by Women in Mundemba Sub-Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyi-Tang, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Contends that theatre has the power to induce oppressors to change their attitudes permanently towards the groups they oppress. Describes theatrical performances by women in Mundemba Sub-Division, Cameroon, which created lasting changes in men's attitudes. Concludes that theatre calls for sociocultural and economic changes and it has the power to…

  8. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions. 303.52 Section 303.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES...

  9. The special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Devanathan, V

    2015-01-01

    THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions

  10. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  11. About the specialized myocardial conducting tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli Serra, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro; Aranda Fraustro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The chronological succession of discoveries on the location and structure of the atrio-ventricular conducting system are described. The starting point of this system is located in the sinus atrial node, identified by the English scientists A. Keith and M. W. Flack in 1907. The atrioventricular conducting system was pointed out by the Swiss physician Wilhelm His Jr. in 1893. The atrioventricular node (AV) was first identified by the Japanese pathologist Sumao Tawara and his German professor Ludwig Aschoff in 1906. Likewise the structure and routes of the three internodal bundles are described. These bundles include: Bachmann's bundle (1916) connecting the right with the left atrium and the AV node; the middle Wenckebach's bundle (1910) and the posterior or Thörel's bundle (1910), extending from the region of the sinus atrial node towards the posterior margin of the AV node. Lastly, the ventricular left and right conduction systems are detailed. These include the main trunk and their peripheral subdivisions with respective networks. Regarding the controversial existence of the left middle subdivision, it can exist in animal and human hearts. Nevertheless, an intermediate left septal network of specialized fibers seems to act as a functional equivalent of this subdivision. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. The hidden cost of specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landini, Fabio; Nicoló, Antonio; Piovesan, Marco

    Given the advantages of specialization, employers encourage their employees to acquire distinct expertise to better satisfy clients’ needs. However, when the client is unaware of the employees’ expertise and cannot be sorted out to the most competent employee by means of a gatekeeper, a mismatch ...... to improve their expertise. Thus, we provide a new rationale for the use of team bonuses even when the production function depends on a single employee’s effort.......Given the advantages of specialization, employers encourage their employees to acquire distinct expertise to better satisfy clients’ needs. However, when the client is unaware of the employees’ expertise and cannot be sorted out to the most competent employee by means of a gatekeeper, a mismatch...... can occur. In this paper we attempt to identify the optimal condition so an employer can eliminate this mismatch and offer a team bonus that provides the first-contacted employee with an incentive to refer the client to the correct expert. We show that the profitability of this referral contract...

  13. Production of secondary Deuterium in the atmosphere at various latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    Secondary deuterium in the atmosphere are produced in interactions by primary cosmic rays. The shape of their energy spectrum depends on the primary cosmic ray spectrum incident at the top of the atmosphere. At high energies, the spectral shape depends on the primary spectrum of helium and heavy nuclei. However, at very low energies, specially below the geomagnetic cut-off, the spectral shape depends on the evaporation and recoil processes and hence almost independent of the spectral shape of the primary radiation. It is undertaken a calculation of the secondary deuterium spectrum at small atmospheric depths at various latitudes and the results will be presented.

  14. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  15. Prototype design based on NX subdivision modeling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianghui; Li, Xiaoda

    2018-04-01

    Prototype design is an important part of the product design, through a quick and easy way to draw a three-dimensional product prototype. Combined with the actual production, the prototype could be modified several times, resulting in a highly efficient and reasonable design before the formal design. Subdivision modeling is a common method of modeling product prototypes. Through Subdivision modeling, people can in a short time with a simple operation to get the product prototype of the three-dimensional model. This paper discusses the operation method of Subdivision modeling for geometry. Take a vacuum cleaner as an example, the NX Subdivision modeling functions are applied. Finally, the development of Subdivision modeling is forecasted.

  16. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István

    2016-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  17. Functional specialization of the primate frontal cortex during decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeol; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Walton, Mark E; Watanabe, Masataka; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2007-08-01

    Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a given environment. In contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be primarily involved in encoding and updating the utilities associated with different sensory stimuli and alternative actions, respectively. These cortical areas are also likely to contribute to decision making in a social context.

  18. The atmospheric temperature structure of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, J. B.; Courtin, Regis; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of various factors to the thermal structure of Titan's past and present atmosphere are discussed. A one dimensional model of Titan's thermal structure is summarized. The greenhouse effect of Titan's atmosphere, caused primarily by pressure induced opacity of N2, CH4, and H2, is discussed together with the antigreenhouse effect dominated by the haze which absorbs incident sunlight. The implications for the atmosphere of the presence of an ocean on Titan are also discussed.

  19. Innovative measurement within the atmosphere of Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekonomov, Alexey; Linkin, Vyacheslav; Manukin, Anatoly; Makarov, Vladislav; Lipatov, Alexander

    The results of Vega project experiments with two balloons flew in the cloud layer of the atmosphere of Venus are analyzed as to the superrotation nature and local dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the atmosphere. These balloons in conjunction with measurements of temperature profiles defined by the Fourier spectrometer measurements from the spacecraft Venera 15 allow us to offer a mechanism accelerating the atmosphere to high zonal velocities and supporting these speeds, the atmosphere superrotation in general. Spectral measurements with balloons confirm the possibility of imaging the planet's surface from a height of not more than 55 km. Promising experiments with balloons in the atmosphere of Venus are considered. In particular, we discuss the possibility of measuring the geopotential height, as Venus no seas and oceans to vertical positioning of the temperature profiles. As an innovative research facilities within the atmosphere overpressure balloon with a lifetime longer than 14 Earth days and vertical profile microprobes are considered.

  20. Preface to the Special Issue on Climate-Chemistry Interactions: Atmospheric Ozone, Aerosols, and Clouds over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chyung Wang and Jen-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric radiatively-important chemical constituents (e.g., O3 and aerosols are important to maintain the radiation balance of the Earth-atmosphere climate system, and changes in their concentration due to both natural causes and anthropogenic activities will induce climate changes. The distribution of these constituents is sensitive to the state of the climate (e.g., temperature, moisture, wind, and clouds. Therefore, rises in atmospheric temperature and water vapor, and changes in circulation and clouds in global warming can directly affect atmospheric chemistry with subsequent implications for these constituents. Although many coupling mechanisms are identified, the net effect of all these impacts on climate change is not well understood. In particular, changes in water vapor and clouds associated with the hydrologic cycle contain significant uncertainties.

  1. Buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios subdivision, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a plan for water quality monitoring at the Dos Rios subdivision (Units 2, 3, and the Island Unit) that is intended to satisfy the informational needs of residents who live southwest (downgradient) of the former Gunnison processing site. Water quality monitoring activities described in this report are designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of previous uranium milling operations. Requirements presented in this monitoring plan are also included in the water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) for the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The Gunnison WSAP is a site-specific document prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that provides background, guidance, and justification for future ground water sampling and analysis activities for the UMTRA Project Gunnison processing and disposal sites. The WSAP will be updated annually, as additional water quality data are collected and interpreted, to provide ongoing protection for public health and the environment

  2. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  3. Thermal Conductivity of the Multicomponent Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Approximate expressions for the thermal conductivity coefficient of the multicomponent neutral atmosphere consisting of N2, O2, O, He, and H are analyzed and evaluated for the atmospheric conditions by comparing them with that given by the rigorous hydrodynamic theory. The new approximations of the thermal conductivity coefficients of simple gases N2, O2, O, He, and H are derived and used. It is proved that the modified Mason and Saxena approximation of the atmospheric thermal conductivity coefficient is more accurate in reproducing the atmospheric values of the rigorous hydrodynamic thermal conductivity coefficient in comparison with those that are generally accepted in atmospheric studies. This approximation of the thermal conductivity coefficient is recommended to use in calculations of the neutral temperature of the atmosphere.

  4. Technology change and energy consumption: A comparison of residential subdivisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    The energy savings in residential buildings likely to result from implementation of the building energy performance standards (BEPS) were assessed. The goals were to: compare energy use in new homes designed to meet or exceed BEPS levels of energy efficiency with that in similar but older homes designed to meet conventional building codes, and to survey the home owners regarding their energy conservation attitudes and behaviors and to ascertain the degree to which conservation attitudes and behaviors are related to residential energy use. The consumer demand theory which provides the framework for the empirical analysis is presented. The sample residences are described and the data collection method discussed. The definition and measurement of major variables are presented.

  5. Consistency of the postulates of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.; Nicola, M.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated

  6. Hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic responses of Brewery Creek to construction of a residential subdivision, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Jopke, Peter L.; Marhshall, David W.; Sorge, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Dane County Land Conservation Department (LCD) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), investigated the instream effects from construction of a residential subdivision on Brewery Creek in Dane County, Wisconsin. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether a variety of storm-runoff and erosion-control best-management practices (BMPs) would effectively control the overall sediment load, as well as minimize any hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic stresses to Brewery Creek.

  7. [The coordination of the forensic medical service with the medical criminology subdivisions of internal affairs organs in the personal identification of unidentified corpses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinian, G A; Tuchik, E S

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the cooperation between medical criminology departments of the organs of home affairs and forensic medical service in personality identification of unidentified corpses, the authors propose amendments to the routine procedure regulated by documents of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Russian Federation, for these documents are in need of serious correction and revision, so that they conform to the judicial legislation and other documents.

  8. The sources of atmospheric gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, O.P.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity wave theory has been very successful in the interpretation of various upper atmospheric phenomena. This article offers a review of the present state of knowledge about the various sources of atmospheric gravity waves, particularly those which give rise to different types of travelling ionospheric disturbance. Some specific case studies are discussed. (author)

  9. Geographical Assessment of Sacred Groves in Bolpur Sub-division ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    area). Methodology. A total 41 different Sacred Groves in Bolpur sub- division area were randomly ... as breeding sites for some animals and recreational facilities. Groves of Bolpur ..... Cockroach(Periplaneta anericane),Black bee. Reptiles.

  10. 13,16-Dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (iso-diabolic acid), a common membrane-spanning lipid of Acidobacteria subdivisions 1 and 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Foesel, B.U.; Overmann, J.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of membrane lipids of 17 different strains representing 13 species of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum of the Bacteria, were examined by hydrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and…

  12. In situ detection, isolation, and physiological properties of a thin filamentous microorganism abundant in methanogenic granular sludges: a novel isolate affiliated with a clone cluster, the green non-sulfur bacteria, subdivision I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Y; Takahashi, H; Kamagata, Y; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2001-12-01

    We previously showed that very thin filamentous bacteria affiliated with the division green non-sulfur bacteria were abundant in the outermost layer of thermophilic methanogenic sludge granules fed with sucrose and several low-molecular-weight fatty acids (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Nakamura, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1280-1288, 1999). Further 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cloning-based analysis revealed that the microbes were classified within a unique clade, green non-sulfur bacteria (GNSB) subdivision I, which contains a number of 16S rDNA clone sequences from various environmental samples but no cultured representatives. To investigate their function in the community and physiological traits, we attempted to isolate the yet-to-be-cultured microbes from the original granular sludge. The first attempt at isolation from the granules was, however, not successful. In the other thermophilic reactor that had been treating fried soybean curd-manufacturing wastewater, we found filamentous microorganisms to outgrow, resulting in the formation of projection-like structures on the surface of granules, making the granules look like sea urchins. 16S rDNA-cloning analysis combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the projections were comprised of the uncultured filamentous cells affiliated with the GNSB subdivision I and Methanothermobacter-like cells and the very ends of the projections were comprised solely of the filamentous cells. By using the tip of the projection as the inoculum for primary enrichment, a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacterium, designated strain UNI-1, was successfully isolated with a medium supplemented with sucrose and yeast extract. The strain was a very slow growing bacterium which is capable of utilizing only a limited range of carbohydrates in the presence of yeast extract and produced hydrogen from these substrates. The growth was found to be significantly stimulated when the strain was

  13. Palynological subdivision of the Dinantian to Westphalian deposits of northwest Europe and the Donetz Basin of the U. S. S. R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, B.

    1978-01-01

    During the last 10 years the activities of the CIMI working group concerned with Stratigraphical Palynology have been in part directed to the compilation of data relating to the stratigraphical distribution of miospores within the Carboniferous. During the same period comparable studies have been carried out in the USSR in the area of the Donetz basin and in the area west of the Urals from which broadly comparable results have been obtained. The opportunity for a detailed comparison of these results was taken in 1975 during the CIMP meeting held in Moscow, and the present paper is based on the conclusions reached at the meeting.

  14. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  15. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  16. Radioecological substantiation of specialization of the farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.S.; Baranov, A.A.; Zhuchenko, Yu.M.; Kalinichenko, S.A.; Osipenko, A.N.; Timofeev, S.F.; Tsurankov, Eh.N.; Tsygvintsev, P.N.

    2004-01-01

    Actual point that determines socio-economic development of region is production that should correspond to the radiation protection laws. One of the possible ways to solve the problem is specialization of farms. (Authors)

  17. Atmospheric radiative transfer in the UV: special emphasis on photolysis frequencies J(O1D) and J(NO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, G.

    2000-11-01

    The amount of solar UV-radiation penetrating to the lower atmosphere and the Earth's surface is of special interest for biological as well as photochemical processes. The present work deals with theoretical (modeling) as well as experimental methods for investigating the interaction between solar radiation and the atmosphere. Two international model intercomparisons showed, that for cloudless conditions and provided that atmospheric and surface conditions are known, simulations agree to within about 5-10 % among one another as well as with measurements. Differences are strongly dependent on the wavelength and the solar zenith angle. The radiative transfer model was not only used for comprehensive sensitivity studies, but also for investigating and analyzing measurement methods as well as measured data. Two techniques, which were applied in frame of two aircraft campaigns, are dealt with in more detail in this work: filter radiometry and spectro radiometry. Analysis of the airborne measurements mainly concentrated on the influence of clouds on the radiation field in the atmosphere. (author)

  18. ``Stacked reservoirs`` in the Zechstein 2 carbonate (Ca2): inversion tectonics in the pre-Zechstein subdivision-saline base of the Lower Saxony basin (Germany); ``Stacked Reservoirs`` im Zechstein 2 Karbonat (Ca2): Inversionstektonik im prae-Zechstein-salinaren Sockel des Niedersaechsischen Beckens (NW-Deutschland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbauch, K.; Brauckmann, F.; Schaefer, H.G.; Utermoehlen, S. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This article looks at areas in the Lower Saxony basis of North-West Germany where the carbonate of the 2nd Zechstein subdivision cycle (Ca2) was tectonically removed from its stratigraphic compound and is found in several stacks elsewhere. Modern 3D seismology and deep drillings were evaluated and tectonic models were developed which could be compared with examples from other saline provinces. This revealed new aspects of exploration for sour natural gas in the Zechstein subdivision (orig.). [Deutsch] Der Artikel behandelt Bereiche innerhalb des Niedersaechsischen Beckens von Nordwestdeutschland, wo das Karbonat des 2. Zechstein-Zyklus (Ca2) tektonisch aus seinem stratigraphischen Verband geloest wurde und an anderer Stelle mehrfach uebereinander gestapelt anzutreffen ist. Hierzu wurden moderne 3D Seismik sowie Tiefbohrungen ausgewertet und tektonische Modelle entwickelt, die mit Beispielen aus anderen Salinarprovinzen verglichen wurden. Hinsichtlich der Exploration auf Sauergas im Zechstein ergeben sich daraus neue Aspekte und Moeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  19. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  20. The Structure and Composition of Io's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W. H.; Marconi, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Io's atmosphere is thought to be generated principally by sublimation on the dayside and by multiple volcanoes scattered throughout its surface and more concentrated near the equator. While SO2 seems to be the principle product of these sources, many other chemical species are placed into the atmosphere by these sources, including substantial amounts of SO and S2 as well as smaller but observationally significant amounts of Na bearing molecules. These species in turn interact strongly with the torus plasma generating additional species such as O2, S, O, and Na. The strong interaction of the torus plasma with the neutral atmosphere not only exerts a profound effect on the composition of Io's atmosphere but also strongly affects the dynamics and thermodynamics of Io's atmosphere, particularly at higher altitudes. In addition, as Io orbits Jupiter, the change in location of the sublimation region and the eclipse of Io as it passes through Jupiter's shadow result in substantial variation in the atmosphere. A complex time-dependent three-dimensional atmosphere with strong spatial compositional variation is created. Here we extend the two-dimensional multispecies Navier-Stokes model of Smyth and Wong (2004) to three-dimensions, include two volcanic sources similar to Pele and Loki, and include the effect of Io's movement around Jupiter on sublimation. The effects of the torus plasma are also included as in Smyth and Wong. We will present the overall composition and structure of the atmosphere, O to S ratios in the upper atmosphere, and discuss a potential issue with the O2 abundance. Smyth, W.H. and M.C. Wong, Icarus 171, 171-182, 2004.

  1. Modeling the atmospheric chemistry of TICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Michael V.; Burns, Douglas S.; Chynwat, Veeradej; Moore, William; Plitz, Angela; Rottmann, Shawn; Hearn, John

    2009-05-01

    An atmospheric chemistry model that describes the behavior and disposition of environmentally hazardous compounds discharged into the atmosphere was coupled with the transport and diffusion model, SCIPUFF. The atmospheric chemistry model was developed by reducing a detailed atmospheric chemistry mechanism to a simple empirical effective degradation rate term (keff) that is a function of important meteorological parameters such as solar flux, temperature, and cloud cover. Empirically derived keff functions that describe the degradation of target toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) were derived by statistically analyzing data generated from the detailed chemistry mechanism run over a wide range of (typical) atmospheric conditions. To assess and identify areas to improve the developed atmospheric chemistry model, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to (1) quantify the sensitivity of the model output (TIC concentrations) with respect to changes in the input parameters and (2) improve, where necessary, the quality of the input data based on sensitivity results. The model predictions were evaluated against experimental data. Chamber data were used to remove the complexities of dispersion in the atmosphere.

  2. Population subdivision of hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana across equatorial and Easter Microplate boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sook-Jin; Park, Eunji; Lee, Won-Kyung; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-10-28

    The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. Multi-locus genotypes inferred from these sequences clustered the individual worms into three metapopulation segments - the northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR), southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR), and northeastern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR) - separated by the Equator and Easter Microplate boundaries. Genetic diversity estimators were negatively correlated with tectonic spreading rates. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IMa2) model provided information about divergence times and demographic parameters. The PAR and NEPR metapopulation segments were estimated to have split roughly 4.20 million years ago (Mya) (2.42-33.42 Mya, 95 % highest posterior density, (HPD)), followed by splitting of the SEPR and NEPR segments about 0.79 Mya (0.07-6.67 Mya, 95 % HPD). Estimates of gene flow between the neighboring regions were mostly low (2 Nm  SEPR > PAR. Highly effective dispersal capabilities allow A. pompejana to overcome the temporal instability and intermittent distribution of active hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Consequently, the species exhibits very high levels of genetic diversity compared with many co-distributed vent annelids and mollusks. Nonetheless, its levels of genetic diversity in partially isolated populations are inversely correlated with tectonic spreading rates. As for many other vent taxa, this pioneering colonizer is

  3. The Pedagogic Signature of Special Needs Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Sabine; Kollmannsberger, Markus; Lerche, Thomas; Oubaid, Viktor; Kiel, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the following study is to identify a pedagogic signature, according to LS Shulman, for working with students who have special educational needs. Special educational needs are defined as significant limitations in personal development and learning which require particular educational measures beyond regular education. The development of…

  4. Activation of opioid μ-receptors in the commissural subdivision of the nucleus tractus solitarius abolishes the ventilatory response to hypoxia in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2011-08-01

    : The commissural subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarius (comNTS) is a key region in the brainstem responsible for the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) because it contains the input terminals of the carotid chemoreceptor. Because opioids inhibit the HVR via activating central μ-receptors that are expressed abundantly in the comNTS, the authors of the current study asked whether activating local μ-receptors attenuated the carotid body-mediated HVR. : To primarily stimulate the carotid body, brief hypoxia (100% N2) and hypercapnia (15% CO2) for 10 s and/or intracarotid injection of NaCN (10 μg/100 μl) were performed in anesthetized and spontaneously breathing rats. These stimulations were repeated after: (1) microinjecting three doses of μ-receptor agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO) (approximately 3.5 nl) into the comNTS; (2) carotid body denervation; and (3) systemic administration of DAMGO (300 μg/kg) without and with previous intracomNTS injection of d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2, a μ-receptor antagonist. : Study results showed that DAMGO at 0.25 and 2.5, but not 0.025 mM, caused a similar decrease in baseline ventilation (approximately 12%). DAMGO at 0.25 mM largely reduced (64%) the HVR, whereas DAMGO at 2.5 mM abolished the HVR (and the VE response to NaCN) and moderately attenuated (31%) the hypercapnic ventilatory response. Interestingly, similar HVR abolition and depression of the hypercapnic ventilatory response were observed after carotid body denervation. Blocking comNTS μ-receptors by d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 significantly attenuated the HVR depression by systemic DAMGO with little change in the DAMGO modulatory effects on baseline ventilation and the hypercapnic ventilatory response. : The data suggest that opioids within the comNTS, via acting on μ-receptors, are able to abolish the HVR by affecting the afferent pathway of the carotid chemoreceptor.

  5. Sex, subdivision, and domestic dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Llewellyn, Martin S; Costales, Jaime A; Miles, Michael A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2010-12-14

    Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province). This kinetoplastid parasite has traditionally been a paradigm for clonal population structure in pathogenic organisms. However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma. Eighty-one parasite isolates from domiciliary, peridomiciliary, and sylvatic triatomines and mammals were genotyped across 10 variable microsatellite loci. Two discrete parasite populations were defined: one predominantly composed of isolates from domestic and peridomestic foci, and another predominantly composed of isolates from sylvatic foci. Spatial genetic variation was absent from the former, suggesting rapid parasite dispersal across our study area. Furthermore, linkage equilibrium between loci, Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies at individual loci, and a lack of repeated genotypes are indicative of frequent genetic exchange among individuals in the domestic/peridomestic population. These data represent novel population-level evidence of an extant capacity for sex among natural cycles of T. cruzi transmission. As such they have dramatic implications for our understanding of the fundamental genetics of this parasite. Our data also elucidate local disease transmission, whereby passive anthropogenic domestic mammal and triatomine dispersal across our study area is likely to account for the rapid domestic/peridomestic spread of the parasite. Finally we discuss how this, and the observed subdivision between sympatric sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic foci, can inform efforts at Chagas disease control in Ecuador.

  6. Sex, subdivision, and domestic dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I in southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province. This kinetoplastid parasite has traditionally been a paradigm for clonal population structure in pathogenic organisms. However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma.Eighty-one parasite isolates from domiciliary, peridomiciliary, and sylvatic triatomines and mammals were genotyped across 10 variable microsatellite loci. Two discrete parasite populations were defined: one predominantly composed of isolates from domestic and peridomestic foci, and another predominantly composed of isolates from sylvatic foci. Spatial genetic variation was absent from the former, suggesting rapid parasite dispersal across our study area. Furthermore, linkage equilibrium between loci, Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies at individual loci, and a lack of repeated genotypes are indicative of frequent genetic exchange among individuals in the domestic/peridomestic population.These data represent novel population-level evidence of an extant capacity for sex among natural cycles of T. cruzi transmission. As such they have dramatic implications for our understanding of the fundamental genetics of this parasite. Our data also elucidate local disease transmission, whereby passive anthropogenic domestic mammal and triatomine dispersal across our study area is likely to account for the rapid domestic/peridomestic spread of the parasite. Finally we discuss how this, and the observed subdivision between sympatric sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic foci, can inform efforts at Chagas disease control in Ecuador.

  7. The estimation of the atmospheric longwave radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, H.; Wit, de M.H.; Schellen, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a review of some models to calculate the intensity of the atmospheric longwave radiation upon horizontal plane. This radiation (called also thermal or infrared radiation) may have significant influence on the radiative balance and subseuquently on the thermal balance of the

  8. The Atmosphere and Climate of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, M. A.; Grinspoon, D. H.

    Venus lies just sunward of the inner edge of the Sun's habitable zone. Liquid water is not stable. Like Earth and Mars, Venus probably accreted at least an ocean's worth of water, although there are alternative scenarios. The loss of this water led to the massive, dry CO2 atmosphere, extensive H2SO4 clouds (at least some of the time), and an intense CO2 greenhouse effect. This chapter describes the current understanding of Venus' atmosphere, established from the data of dozens of spacecraft and atmospheric probe missions since 1962, and by telescopic observations since the nineteenth century. Theoretical work to model the temperature, chemistry, and circulation of Venus' atmosphere is largely based on analogous models developed in the Earth sciences. We discuss the data and modeling used to understand the temperature structure of the atmosphere, as well as its composition, cloud structure, and general circulation. We address what is known and theorized about the origin and early evolution of Venus' atmosphere. It is widely understood that Venus' dense CO2 atmosphere is the ultimate result of the loss of an ocean to space, but the timing of major transitions in Venus' climate is very poorly constrained by the available data. At present, the bright clouds allow only 20% of the sunlight to drive the energy balance and therefore determine conditions at Venus' surface. Like Earth and Mars, differential heating between the equator and poles drives the atmospheric circulation. Condensable species in the atmosphere create clouds and hazes that drive feedbacks that alter radiative forcing. Also in common with Earth and Mars, the loss of light, volatile elements to space produces long-term changes in composition and chemistry. As on Earth, geologic processes are most likely modifying the atmosphere and clouds by injecting gases from volcanos as well as directly through chemical reactions with the surface. The sensitivity of Venus' atmospheric energy balance is quantified in

  9. Origin of the atmospheres of the earth and the planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z M

    1978-06-01

    From a systematic analysis of the whole history of the protoplanetary cloud and the observational facts of the earth's atmosphere, new theory is proposed on the origin of the atmospheres of the earth and the planets. For the earth-like planets, there were profound primordial atmospheres originated from the protoplanetary cloud by the accretion of the embryoes of planets. These primordial atmospheres has existed in a time scale of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ years and were composed of chemically reducing gases. The presence of such a reducing atmosphere may be of great significance to the theories of cosmogony and the origin of life. The contents are as follows: the escape of the nebulae and the planetary atmospheres, the blowing-off of the atmospheres and the disspiation of gases driven by the solar wind, the accretion of gases by the planetary embryoes, the primordial atmospheres.

  10. Special Needs Assistants--The Special Characteristic and Strength of the School System of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäensivu, Kati-Tuulia; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of special needs assistants (SNA) is becoming increasingly important in inclusive and special classrooms. However, the profession itself has remained unexplored. The purpose of this article is to describe special needs assistants' perceptions on their education, professional competence, the content and significance of their work…

  11. Crystallization sequence of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion: Revised subdivision and implications for Chamber-Scale Magma Homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    from the roof of the magma chamber, differs from that in the Layered Series formed at the floor. The proposed deviation would require chemical stratification of the magma, and a reexamination of the crystallization sequence therefore has important implications for understanding the dynamics...... of the crystallization sequences and the anorthite contents of plagioclase cores in the three series imply that the Skaergaard magma chamber solidified by in situ crystallization along the floor, walls and roof from one, largely homogenous, convecting magma body....

  12. Research on Remote Sensing Image Template Processing Based on Global Subdivision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong Delan; Du Genyuan

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the questions of vast data, complex operation, and time consuming processing for remote sensing image, subdivision template was proposed based on global subdivision theory, which can set up high level of abstraction and generalization for remote sensing image. The paper emphatically discussed the model and structure of subdivision template, and put forward some new ideas for remote sensing image template processing, key technology and quickly applied demonstration. The research has ...

  13. A fast and accurate dihedral interpolation loop subdivision scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhuo; An, Yalei; Wang, Zhongshuai; Yu, Ke; Zhong, Si; Lan, Rushi; Luo, Xiaonan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate dihedral interpolation Loop subdivision scheme for subdivision surfaces based on triangular meshes. In order to solve the problem of surface shrinkage, we keep the limit condition unchanged, which is important. Extraordinary vertices are handled using modified Butterfly rules. Subdivision schemes are computationally costly as the number of faces grows exponentially at higher levels of subdivision. To address this problem, our approach is to use local surface information to adaptively refine the model. This is achieved simply by changing the threshold value of the dihedral angle parameter, i.e., the angle between the normals of a triangular face and its adjacent faces. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for various 3D graphic triangular meshes, and extensive experimental results show that it can match or exceed the expected results at lower computational cost.

  14. Affective Atmospheres in the House of Usher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intensities do not only pertain to the ‘inner life’ of individuals; they are also to be found, as the saying goes, ‘in the air,’ i.e. as shared atmospheres that envelope and affect us. Such affective atmospheres are omnipresent in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House...... of Usher” (1839). The house in the story is not only enshrouded in an atmosphere of its own; the entire plot is focused on the ways in which this atmosphere affects the characters. Informed by these recent theories on affect, the essay analyzes Poe’s short story and proposes a number of new concepts...

  15. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bremer, J.; Laštovička, Jan; Mikhailov, A. V.; Altadill, D.; Pal, B.; Burešová, Dalia; Franceschi de, G.; Jacobi, C.; Kouris, S. S.; Perrone, L.; Turunen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 273-299 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * trends * atmospheric waves * ionospheric variability * incoherent radar * space weather Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  16. Robust assessment of the transmural extent of myocardial infarction in late gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies using appropriate angular and circumferential subdivision of the myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenoura, Nadjia; Herment, Alain; Frouin, Frederique; Redheuil, Alban; Mousseaux, Elie

    2008-01-01

    A computer-assisted method is proposed to estimate transmural extent of myocardial infarction. In 40 patients with chronic myocardial infarction and 3 control subjects, late gadolinium enhancement images were acquired with magnetic resonance imaging. Segmental infarct transmural extent was visually assessed by two experts on a 5-point scale. A fuzzy c-means algorithm was applied on both the cavity and myocardium to estimate an enhancement index for 12 sub-regions of each segment. A threshold was defined on a training database (n=29) to establish the transmurality extent of each sub-segment and was applied to the validation database (n=14). Inter-observer reproducibility reached an absolute agreement (Aa) of 85% and a kappa value (κ) of 0.83 when considering the whole training database; Aa decreased to 62% and κ to 0.68 when excluding homogeneous segments. On the validation database, segments were subdivided into three angular sub-segments. Then, inter-observer visual reproducibility reached Aa of 93% and κ of 0.92. Moreover, the absolute comparison of each expert with the computer-assisted method yielded Aa higher than 88% and κ higher than 0.86. The computer-assisted method quantifies infarct transmurality without defining remote and infarcted regions, and the transmural extent is accurately characterized when dividing each segment into three angular sub-segments. (orig.)

  17. Analyzing alternative policy instruments for the irrigation sector : an assessment of the potential for water market development in the Chishtian Sub-division, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strosser, P.

    1997-01-01


    The increasing scarcity of water and financial resources has made the economic dimension of water an important element of irrigation sector policies. Water pricing is the means traditionally used to incorporate economic issues into irrigation sector policies. More recently, water markets

  18. Simplifying massive planar subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Truelsen, Jakob; Yang, Jungwoo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first I/O- and practically-efficient algorithm for simplifying a planar subdivision, such that no point is moved more than a given distance εxy and such that neighbor relations between faces (homotopy) are preserved. Under some practically realistic assumptions, our algorithm uses ....... For example, for the contour map simplification problem it is significantly faster than the previous algorithm, while obtaining approximately the same simplification factor. Read More: http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/1.9781611973198.3...

  19. Radar studies of the atmosphere using spatial and frequency diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-You

    This work provides results from a thorough investigation of atmospheric radar imaging including theory, numerical simulations, observational verification, and applications. The theory is generalized to include the existing imaging techniques of coherent radar imaging (CRI) and range imaging (RIM), which are shown to be special cases of three-dimensional imaging (3D Imaging). Mathematically, the problem of atmospheric radar imaging is posed as an inverse problem. In this study, the Fourier, Capon, and maximum entropy (MaxEnt) methods are proposed to solve the inverse problem. After the introduction of the theory, numerical simulations are used to test, validate, and exercise these techniques. Statistical comparisons of the three methods of atmospheric radar imaging are presented for various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), receiver configuration, and frequency sampling. The MaxEnt method is shown to generally possess the best performance for low SNR. The performance of the Capon method approaches the performance of the MaxEnt method for high SNR. In limited cases, the Capon method actually outperforms the MaxEnt method. The Fourier method generally tends to distort the model structure due to its limited resolution. Experimental justification of CRI and RIM is accomplished using the Middle and Upper (MU) Atmosphere Radar in Japan and the SOUnding SYstem (SOUSY) in Germany, respectively. A special application of CRI to the observation of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) is used to show direct evidence of wave steepening and possibly explain gravity wave variations associated with PMSE.

  20. The Business of Running a Special Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Helen J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper, a lecture to library school students, presents in detail four elements that make a special library special," as background for a discussion of suggested approaches to follow in managing a special library. (Author/AB)

  1. The greenhouse effect of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, K.Ya.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of the atmosphere is the main factor of possible climate changes of anthropogenic origin. The growing pollution of the atmosphere leads to an increase of the concentration of various gaseous components. Of great importance is also the consideration of the aerosols. All the gaseous components, as well as aerosols, have the absorption bands in the IR spectral range. The traditional attention to the problem of the CO 2 contribution to the greenhouse effect has somewhat overshadowed the significance of the different components. The data characterizing the significance of the different components of the greenhouse effect are considered. The results of studying the absorption spectra of methane, nitrous oxides, sulphuric gas, ammonia, nitric-acid vapours and other components are discussed. The assessments of their contribution to the greenhouse effect are given. The important role of the small-size fraction of the atmospheric aerosols as a factor of the greenhouse effect is discussed. Both the analysis of the causes of the Earth's climate variability and the relevant investigation of the atmospheric greenhouse effect determine the expediency of analysing the conditions of the greenhouse effect formation on other planets. Laboratory studies of the IR absorption spectra of synthetic CO 2 atmospheres were carried out. Some results from these studies are discussed. (author)

  2. A model of the primordial lunar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Elkins-Tanton, Lindy; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-09-01

    We create the first quantitative model for the early lunar atmosphere, coupled with a magma ocean crystallization model. Immediately after formation, the moon's surface was subject to a radiative environment that included contributions from the early Sun, a post-impact Earth that radiated like a mid-type M dwarf star, and a cooling global magma ocean. This radiative environment resulted in a largely Earth-side atmosphere on the Moon, ranging from ∼104 to ∼102 pascals, composed of heavy volatiles (Na and SiO). This atmosphere persisted through lid formation and was additionally characterized by supersonic winds that transported significant quantities of moderate volatiles and likely generated magma ocean waves. The existence of this atmosphere may have influenced the distribution of some moderate volatiles and created temperature asymmetries which influenced ocean flow and cooling. Such asymmetries may characterize young, tidally locked rocky bodies with global magma oceans and subject to intense irradiation.

  3. Overcoming the Frigidity of Special Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Patrick R.

    1971-01-01

    A general theory and taxonomy of human communication is discussed within which the information handling propensities of the special librarian can be evaluated for relevance to the axioms of library and information science. (Author)

  4. The atmosphere and ionosphere of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, M.B.; Yung, Y.L.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of models for Io's atmosphere, ionosphere, surface, and environment are developed and discussed in the context of recent observational data. The sodium emission detected by Brown appears to require a collisional excitation process in Io's atmosphere, and the extended sodium emission measured by Trafton et al. may require scattering of the planetary radiation by an extended sodium cloud. The sodium is presumably present initially in bound form on Io's surface and may be released by the sputtering mechanism suggested by Matson et al. The ionosphere detected by the radio occultation experiment on Pioneer 10 could be attributed to photoionization of atmospheric sodium if Io's atmosphere could sustain significant vertical motions, of order 1 s/sup -1/ directed up during the day, down at night. Vertical motions of this magnitude could be driven by condensation of atmospheric NH 3 . The total density of gas at Io's surface appears to lie in the range 10 10 -10 12 molecules cm/sup -3/. Corpuscular ionization could play an additional role for the ionosphere. In this case the sateSe should exhibit an exceedingly bright, approx.10 kR, airglow at Lα. The incomplete hydrogen torus observed by Judge and Carlson in the vicinity of Io requires a large supply of hydrogen from the satellite's atmosphere. The escape flux should be of order 10 11 cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ and could be maintained by photolysis of atmospheric NH 3 . The observed geometry of the hydrogen torus appears to require a surprisingly short lifetime, approx.10 5 s, for neutral hydrogen near Io's orbit, and may indicate the presence of a large flux, approx.10 9 cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/, of low-energy protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Implications of the hydrogen torus for the energy and mass balance of Jupiter's magnetosphere are discussed briefly, and observational programs are identified which might illuminate present uncertainties in our understanding of Io

  5. TWO SPECIES OF PROFUSULINELLA (P. ALJUTOVICA AND P. OVATA, EARLY MOSCOVIAN (PENNSYLVANIAN FUSULINES FROM SOUTHERN TURKEY AND SUBDIVISION OF PRIMITIVE GROUPS OF THE FAMILY FUSULINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUMIO KOBAYASHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Moscovian (Pennsylvanian fusulines, Profusulinella aljutovica and Profusulinella ovata, from the Hadim area, southern Turkey are described systematically. They are contained in the bedded limestone (algal fusuline grainstone of the Yaricak Formation of the Aladag Unit in the Tauride Block. Morphologic analysis of these and similar species suggests: (1 Aljutovella should be synonymous with Profusulinella; (2 Ovatella, Depratina, Staffellaeformes, Aljutovella (Elongatella, Tikhonovichiella, Skelnevatella, and Priscoidella proposed in 1980’s and 1990’s are also synonymous with Profusulinella; and (3 the families Profusulinellidae and Aljutovellidae are not necessary and Profusulinella is included in the subfamily Fusulinellinae placed under the family Fusulinidae. 

  6. Distribution, density and abundance of the western Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Sound (ICES Subdivision 23) in relation to hydrographical features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Jensen, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass and duration of the over-wintering period of the Rugen spring spawning herring stock (RHS) in the Sound (ICES Subdivison 23) were investigated as well as possible hydrographical factors affecting relative distribution and triggering southwards migration towards the spawning grounds. Monit....... Monitoring was performed during 27 surveys over a 6-year period (1993-1998). Abundance of 45-165 000 t in August-February, 560 000 t in March-May, and...

  7. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  8. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor in the environment. However, little is known about its distribution and transport in the atmosphere. Here, the concentrations of BPA in the atmospheric aerosols from urban, rural, marine, and the polar regions were measured using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of BPA (1-17,400 pg m -3 ) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude in the world with a declining trend from the continent (except for the Antarctica) to remote sites. A positive correlation was found between BPA and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, a tracer for plastic burning, in urban regions, indicating that the open burning of plastics in domestic waste should be a significant emission source of atmospheric BPA. Our results suggest that the ubiquity of BPA in the atmosphere may raise a requirement for the evaluation of health effects of BPA in order to control its emission sources, for example, from plastic burning. - This study gives first insight into the sources and global distributions of bisphenol A (BPA) in the atmosphere.

  9. From the Editors of the Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, Michael; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Vilhjálmsson, H.H.; Vilhjalmsson, Högni

    2010-01-01

    Welcome to the special issue on Intelligent Virtual Agents. Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are interactive characters that – in spite of being merely 2D or 3D computer graphics models – exhibit humanlike qualities and communicate with humans or with each other using natural human modalities such

  10. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.S.; Kajita, T.; Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have observed 277 fully contained events in the KAMIOKANDE detector. The number of electron-like single prong events is in good agreement with the predictions of a Monte Carlo calculation based on atmospheric neutrino interactions in the detector. On the other hand, the number of muon-like single prong events is 59 ± 7 %(statistical error) of the predicted number of the Monte Carlo calculation. We are unable to explain the data as the result of systematic detector effects or uncertainties in the atmospheric neutrino fluxes. (author)

  11. The functional subdivision of the visual brain: Is there a real illusion effect on action? A multi-lab replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiske, Karl K; Bruno, Nicola; Hesse, Constanze; Schenk, Thomas; Franz, Volker H

    2016-06-01

    It has often been suggested that visual illusions affect perception but not actions such as grasping, as predicted by the "two-visual-systems" hypothesis of Milner and Goodale (1995, The Visual Brain in Action, Oxford University press). However, at least for the Ebbinghaus illusion, relevant studies seem to reveal a consistent illusion effect on grasping (Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008. Grasping visual illusions: consistent data and no dissociation. Cognitive Neuropsychology). Two interpretations are possible: either grasping is not immune to illusions (arguing against dissociable processing mechanisms for vision-for-perception and vision-for-action), or some other factors modulate grasping in ways that mimic a vision-for perception effect in actions. It has been suggested that one such factor may be obstacle avoidance (Haffenden Schiff & Goodale, 2001. The dissociation between perception and action in the Ebbinghaus illusion: nonillusory effects of pictorial cues on grasp. Current Biology, 11, 177-181). In four different labs (total N = 144), we conducted an exact replication of previous studies suggesting obstacle avoidance mechanisms, implementing conditions that tested grasping as well as multiple perceptual tasks. This replication was supplemented by additional conditions to obtain more conclusive results. Our results confirm that grasping is affected by the Ebbinghaus illusion and demonstrate that this effect cannot be explained by obstacle avoidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The atmosphere and climate of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Clancy, R Todd; Forget, François; Smith, Michael D; Zurek, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.

  13. Report of the specialized detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherell, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Specialized Detector Group was assigned the task of studying the types of detectors, other than general purpose detectors, that might be suitable for the SSC. At the start of the Snowmass workshop, a number of physics topics were identified which could call for a specialized detector. The modest size of the specialized detector group dictated that we concentrate on a few of these detectors, and not try to consider all candidates. Subgroups were formed for each type of detector, and they worked completely independently on their very different problems. The members of a subgroup were also members of the corresponding group within the Physics area. Because of the wide variety of problems faced by the various subgroups, the detectors will be described in separate papers within these proceedings (some of them within the Physics group reports). Thus, this report gives a summary of these designs and discusses some general considerations

  14. A glossary of atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This book concentrates on the glossary of atmospheric science, which contains summary, for enactment and deliberation on choosing special glossary on atmospheric science in Korea, examiner for the glossary on atmospheric science, reference, explanatory notes and a lot of glossary on atmospheric science. It also has an appendix on commercial abbreviation, prefix, unit, wavelength and the number o vibrations of electromagnetic waves, ICAO classified catalogue on cloud, list of varietal cloud and list of local wind. It has explanation of the glossary in English, Korea, China and Japan.

  15. The Radiation Environment of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Linsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exoplanets are born and evolve in the radiation and particle environment created by their host star. The host star’s optical and infrared radiation heats the exoplanet’s lower atmosphere and surface, while the ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and X-radiation control the photochemistry and mass loss from the exoplanet’s upper atmosphere. Stellar radiation, especially at the shorter wavelengths, changes dramatically as a host star evolves leading to changes in the planet’s atmosphere and habitability. This paper reviews the present state of our knowledge concerning the time-dependent radiation emitted by stars with convective zones, that is stars with spectral types F, G, K, and M, which comprise nearly all of the host stars of detected exoplanets.

  16. The Special Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cial theory of relativity were published in the journal. Annalen der Physik, and were titled 'On the electro- dynamics of ... Historical Background. In order to set Einstein's work in proper perspective, re- call that, in ... ideas of absolute space and time firmly entrenched, most physicists thought that this speed was correct only in.

  17. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  18. Microlensing and the physics of stellar atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sackett, PD; Menzies, JW; Sackett, PD

    2001-01-01

    The simple physics of microlensing provides a well understood tool with which to probe the atmospheres of distant stars in the Galaxy and Local Group with high magnification and resolution. Recent results in measuring stellar surface structure through broad band photometry and spectroscopy of high

  19. Prospective Special Education Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions on the Concept of Special Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to define the perceptions of prospective special education teachers regarding special education teacher through metaphors. Phenomenology design was used in this research. The study group comprised 116 third year prospective special education teachers studying at Marmara University, Ataturk Faculty of Education, Special…

  20. The effect of specialization on operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Lueg, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    -methods approach that includes proprietary data from the management control system of the hospital, public documentation on the policy change, as well as interviews with key informants. These data suggest that operational deficiency is related to the fact that specialization was externally enforced through......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze how specialization in hospitals affects operational performance, measured by the length of stay and readmission rate. The authors assess a public policy change in the Danish healthcare sector from 2011 which required that some hospital services had...

  1. Multiangle lidar observations of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitkumar Prakash, Pawar; Choukiker, Yogesh Kumar; Raghunath, K.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric Lidars are used extensively to get aerosol parameters like backscatter coefficient, backscatter ratio etc. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13°N, 79°E), India has a powerful lidar which has alt-azimuth capability. Inversion method is applied to data from observations of lidar system at different azimuth and elevation angles. Data Analysis is described and Observations in 2D and 3D format are discussed. Presence of Cloud and the variation of backscatter parameters are seen in an interesting manner.

  2. Multiangle lidar observations of the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitkumar Prakash Pawar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Lidars are used extensively to get aerosol parameters like backscatter coefficient, backscatter ratio etc. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13°N, 79°E, India has a powerful lidar which has alt-azimuth capability. Inversion method is applied to data from observations of lidar system at different azimuth and elevation angles. Data Analysis is described and Observations in 2D and 3D format are discussed. Presence of Cloud and the variation of backscatter parameters are seen in an interesting manner.

  3. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor in the environment. However, little is known about its distribution and transport in the atmosphere. Here, the concentrations of BPA in the atmospheric aerosols from urban, rural, marine, and the polar regions were measured using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of BPA (1-17,400 pg m(-3)) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude in the world with a declining trend from the continent (except for the Antarctica) to remote sites. A positive correlation was found between BPA and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, a tracer for plastic burning, in urban regions, indicating that the open burning of plastics in domestic waste should be a significant emission source of atmospheric BPA. Our results suggest that the ubiquity of BPA in the atmosphere may raise a requirement for the evaluation of health effects of BPA in order to control its emission sources, for example, from plastic burning. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuyper, L

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging in combination with the addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms was investigated. A modified atmosphere which slowed down discolouration...

  5. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  6. Dioxin in the atmosphere of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoee, J.; Hovmand, M.F.; Andersen, Helle V.; Bossi, R.; Johansen, Elsebeth; Chrillesen, M.A.

    2006-03-15

    Occurrence and geographical distribution of dioxin was investigated in air and deposition at selected locations in Denmark, three forest sites in the background area, a city site in Copenhagen and a village site. At two sites simultaneously determination of dioxins concentrations in the ambient atmosphere and bulk precipitation were carried out during a period of three years. (au)

  7. The big book of special education resources

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, George

    2015-01-01

    There are abundant resource in the field of special education for professionals and parents of children with special needs. However, it can be a daunting task to navigate through this sea of organizations, Web sites, books, and other resources in order to find exactly what you need.Save time and take the guesswork out of your search for information and materials by turning to this definitive guide. Practical and easy to use, this ready-reference is borne out of extensive research and numerous interviews with parents and professionals to ensure selection of only the highest-caliber and most sou

  8. Composition, Chemistry, and Climate of the Atmosphere. 2: Mean properties of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B. (Editor); Salstein, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The atmosphere can be defined as the relatively thin gaseous envelope surrounding the entire planet Earth. It possesses a number of properties related to its physical state and chemical composition, and it undergoes a variety of internal processes and external interactions that can either maintain or alter these properties. Whereas descriptions of the atmosphere's chemical properties form much of the remaining chapters of this book, the present chapter will highlight the atmosphere's gases, and these define its temperature structure. In contrast, the larger-scale motions comprise the winds, the global organization of which is often referred to as the general circulation. The framework of the dynamical and thermodynamical laws, including the three principles of conversation of mass, momentum, and energy, are fundamental in describing both the internal processes of the atmosphere and its external interactions. The atmosphere is not a closed system, because it exchanges all three of these internally conservative quantities across the atmosphere's boundary below and receives input from regions outside it. Thus surface fluxes of moisture, momentum, and heat occur to and from the underlying ocean and land. The atmosphere exchanges very little mass and momentum with space, though it absorbs directly a portion of the solar radiational energy received from above.

  9. Urbanization, Specialization and the Future of Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Gene

    Magazine journalism is not dead, despite the demise of many giant publications, but is thriving in new forms on the threshold of a new era whose trademark is urbanism. New publications recently appearing are primarily special audience magazines designed to fill the specific information needs of new groupings of readers. Since most of these new…

  10. Both Isochronous and Non-Isochronous Metrical Subdivision Afford Precise and Stable Ensemble Entrainment: A Corpus Study of Malian Jembe Drumming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rainer; London, Justin; Jacoby, Nori

    2016-01-01

    Most approaches to musical rhythm, whether in music theory, music psychology, or musical neuroscience, presume that musical rhythms are based on isochronous (temporally equidistant) beats and/or beat subdivisions. However, rhythms that are based on non-isochronous, or unequal patterns of time are prominent in the music of Southeast Europe, the Near East and Southern Asia, and in the music of Africa and the African diaspora. The present study examines one such style found in contemporary Malian jembe percussion music. A corpus of 15 representative performances of three different pieces ("Manjanin," "Maraka," and "Woloso") containing ~43,000 data points was analyzed. Manjanin and Woloso are characterized by non-isochronous beat subdivisions (a short IOI followed by two longer IOIs), while Maraka subdivisions are quasi-isochronous. Analyses of onsets and asynchronies show no significant differences in timing precision and coordination between the isochronously timed Maraka vs. the non-isochronously timed Woloso performances, though both pieces were slightly less variable than non-isochronous Manjanin. Thus, the precision and stability of rhythm and entrainment in human music does not necessarily depend on metric isochrony, consistent with the hypothesis that isochrony is not a biologically-based constraint on human rhythmic behavior. Rather, it may represent a historically popular option within a variety of culturally contingent options for metric organization.

  11. Subdivision Error Analysis and Compensation for Photoelectric Angle Encoder in a Telescope Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrui Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the position sensor, photoelectric angle encoder affects the accuracy and stability of telescope control system (TCS. A TCS-based subdivision error compensation method for encoder is proposed. Six types of subdivision error sources are extracted through mathematical expressions of subdivision signals first. Then the period length relationships between subdivision signals and subdivision errors are deduced. And the error compensation algorithm only utilizing the shaft position of TCS is put forward, along with two control models; Model I is that the algorithm applies only to the speed loop of TCS and Model II is applied to both speed loop and position loop. Combined with actual project, elevation jittering phenomenon of the telescope is discussed to decide the necessity of DC-type subdivision error compensation. Low-speed elevation performance before and after error compensation is compared to help decide that Model II is preferred. In contrast to original performance, the maximum position error of the elevation with DC subdivision error compensation is reduced by approximately 47.9% from 1.42″ to 0.74″. The elevation gets a huge decrease in jitters. This method can compensate the encoder subdivision errors effectively and improve the stability of TCS.

  12. The Theory of Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-17

    Brigade. An avid boxer and rugby player, he earned the troops r-espect through hard work, discipline and a desir.! to make them the best commandos in the...34, 22nd September, 1943, B1 . 312 0 Figure 6-1. X-Craft ?zwpadng to Dock. (Couttusy Imperial Wair Museum) Figure6-2 Captain at Peuuowpe. 313 Figure 6-3

  13. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  14. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere.

  15. Characterizing the Atmosphere of a Young Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the young, directly imaged planet 51 Eri b, its emergent spectrum has proved challenging to interpret. The initial discovery paper (Macintosh et al. 2015) interpreted the spectrum as indicative of a low mass (few Jupiter masses), effective temperature near 700 degrees Kelvin, and partial cloudiness. Subsequent observations in the K band, however, seem to invalidate the early models. In addition, newly improved photochemical data point to the likely presence of exotic haze species in the atmosphere. In my presentation I will explore the photochemistry of the atmosphere and discuss whether disequilibrium chemistry, hazes, clouds, or non-solar abundances of heavy elements may be responsible for the unusual spectrum of this planet. The implications for the interpretation of other young Jupiters in this mass and effective temperature range will also be considered.

  16. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  17. Abnormal radioactivity of the atmosphere. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigue, H

    1952-01-01

    Further measurements on the radioactivity of the atmosphere near Puy de Dome are tabulated. The activity in April 1952 with a mean life of 25 hrs was ascribed to the complex particles A. In June 1952 an activity with a mean life of 100 to 400 hrs was attributed to the previously observed A'' particles. The activity associated with the A'' particles was also observed in the soil and air.

  18. Modification of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Combustion aerosols particles are released on large scale into the atmosphere in the industrialized regions as well as in the tropics (by wood fires). The particles are subjected to various aging processes which depend on the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles. The interaction of combustion particles with sunlight and humidity as well as adsorption and desorption of volatile material to or from the particles considerably changes their physical and chemical properties and thus their residence time in the atmosphere. This is of importance because combustion particles are known to have a variety of health effects on people. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol particles have an influence on climate, directly through the reflection and absorption of solar radiation and indirectly through modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. In a first step, a field experiment was carried out to study the sources and characteristics of combustion aerosols that are emitted from vehicles in a road tunnel. It was found that most of the fine particles were tail pipe emissions of diesel powered vehicles. The calculation shows that on an average these vehicles emit about 300 mg fine particulate matter per driven kilometer. This emission factor is at least 100 times higher than the mean emission factor estimated for gasoline powered vehicles. Furthermore, it is found that during their residence time in the tunnel, the particles undergo significant changes: The particles change towards a more compact structure. The conclusion is reached that this is mainly due to adsorption of volatile material from the gas phase to the particle surface. In the atmosphere, the life cycle as well as the radiative and chemical properties of an aerosol particle is strongly dependent on its response to humidity. Therefore the hygroscopic behavior of combustion particles emitted from single sources (i.e. from a gasoline and a diesel engine) were studied in laboratory experiments.

  19. The thermal structure of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1989-01-01

    The present radiative-convective model of the Titan atmosphere thermal structure obtains the solar and IR radiation in a series of spectral intervals with vertical resolution. Haze properties have been determined with a microphysics model encompassing a minimum of free parameters. It is determined that gas and haze opacity alone, using temperatures established by Voyager observations, yields a model that is within a few percent of the radiative convective balance throughout the Titan atmosphere. Model calculations of the surface temperature are generally colder than the observed value by 5-10 K; better agreement is obtained through adjustment of the model parameters. Sunlight absorption by stratospheric haze and pressure-induced gas opacity in the IR are the most important thermal structure-controlling factors.

  20. An Improved QTM Subdivision Model with Approximate Equal-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the defect of large area deformation in the traditional QTM subdivision model, an improved subdivision model is proposed which based on the “parallel method” and the thought of the equal area subdivision with changed-longitude-latitude. By adjusting the position of the parallel, this model ensures that the grid area between two adjacent parallels combined with no variation, so as to control area variation and variation accumulation of the QTM grid. The experimental results show that this improved model not only remains some advantages of the traditional QTM model(such as the simple calculation and the clear corresponding relationship with longitude/latitude grid, etc, but also has the following advantages: ①this improved model has a better convergence than the traditional one. The ratio of area_max/min finally converges to 1.38, far less than 1.73 of the “parallel method”; ②the grid units in middle and low latitude regions have small area variations and successive distributions; meanwhile, with the increase of subdivision level, the grid units with large variations gradually concentrate to the poles; ③the area variation of grid unit will not cumulate with the increasing of subdivision level.

  1. N -Ink Printer Characterization With Barycentric Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D

    2016-07-01

    Printing with a large number of inks, also called N -ink printing, is a challenging task. The challenges comprise spectral modeling of the printer, color separation, halftoning, and limitations of the amount of inks. Juxtaposed halftoning, a perfectly dot-off-dot halftoning method, has proved to be useful to address some of these challenges. However, for juxtaposed halftones, prediction of colors as a function of ink area coverages has not yet been fully investigated. The goal of this paper is to introduce a spectral prediction model for N -ink juxtaposed-halftone prints. As the area-coverage domain of juxtaposed inks forms a simplex, we propose a cellular subdivision of the area-coverage domain using the barycentric subdivision of simplexes. The barycentric subdivision provides algorithmically straightforward means to design and implement an N -ink color prediction model. Within the subdomain cells, the Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model is used for the spectral prediction. Our proposed model is highly accurate for prints with a large number of inks while requiring a relatively low number of calibration samples.

  2. Atmospheric Signature of the Agulhas Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwinkwa Njouodo, Arielle Stela; Koseki, Shunya; Keenlyside, Noel; Rouault, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Western boundary currents play an important role in the climate system by transporting heat poleward and releasing it to the atmosphere. While their influence on extratropical storms and oceanic rainfall is becoming appreciated, their coastal influence is less known. Using satellite and climate reanalysis data sets and a regional atmospheric model, we show that the Agulhas Current is a driver of the observed band of rainfall along the southeastern African coast and above the Agulhas Current. The Agulhas current's warm core is associated with sharp gradients in sea surface temperature and sea level pressure, a convergence of low-level winds, and a co-located band of precipitation. Correlations among wind convergence, sea level pressure, and sea surface temperature indicate that these features show high degree of similarity to those in the Gulf Stream region. Model experiments further indicate that the Agulhas Current mostly impacts convective rainfall.

  3. Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1998-10-01

    The Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA) is based on the Reading multi-level spectral model SGCM (Simple Global Circulation Model) described by Hoskins and Simmons (1975) and James and Gray (1986). Originally developed as a numerical prediction model, it was changed to perform as a circulation model. For example, James and Gray (1986) studied the influence of surface friction on the circulation of a baroclinic atmosphere, James and James (1992), and James et al. (1994) investigated ultra-low-frequency variability, and Mole and James (1990) analyzed the baroclinic adjustment in the context of a zonally varying flow. Frisius et al. (1998) simulated an idealized storm track by embedding a dipole structure in a zonally symmetric forcing field and Lunkeit et al. (1998) investigated the sensitivity of GCM (General Circulation Model) scenarios by an adaption technique applicapable to SGCMs. (orig.)

  4. The Specialized school in time of inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Albino dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective to investigate the meanings about school inclusion and disability, produced by a group of professionals engaged in a specialized school located in a city in the state of São Paulo. The metodology used was semi-structured and structured interviews with the director of the institution, two pedagogical coordinators and five teachers. Data were subjected to a descriptive-interpretative analysis. The results indicated that professionals attribute the responsibility for self development, only to students with intellectual disabilities . The emphasis of the speeches falls on the inability of the student and the immutability of disability. It is observed that the narratives do not reveal critical positioning of professional educational processes involving this population. The professionals who work in specialized institution still have a conception of disability based on the inability of the student and, despite defending the right of these students to school inclusion, these professionals still manifest fear of what they will find outside the walls of the institution, revealing attitudes and overprotection ignorance of the role of specialized institution in times of inclusion. We conclude that the conceptions about intellectual disability and inclusive education presented by professionals can contribute much more to the reiteration of school exclusion, historically focused on this population than for its actual inclusion in the school system of education.

  5. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  6. Special relativity - the foundation of macroscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    This book aims to show that an understanding of the basic laws of macroscopic systems can be gained more easily within relativistic physics than within Newtonian physics. The unity of dynamics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism under the umbrella of special relativity is examined under chapter headings entitled: the physics of space and time, affine spaces in mathematics and physics, foundations of dynamics, relativistic simple fluids, and, electrodynamics of polarizable fluids. (U.K.)

  7. The changing winds of atmospheric environment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Changes in atmosphere policies over several decades are analysed. ► Direct regulation is less effective and been complemented by other instruments. ► Policy approaches are more complex and integrated and the scale of the issues has evolved. ► The role of stakeholders has grown and the corporate sector has assumed increased responsibility. ► Governance arrangements have become more complex, multilevel and polycentric. -- Abstract: Atmospheric environmental policies have changed considerably over the last several decades. Clearly the relative importance of the various issues has changed over half a century, for example from smoke, sulphur dioxide and photochemical smog being the top priorities to greenhouse gases being the major priority. The traditional policy instrument to control emissions to the atmosphere has been command and control regulation. In many countries this was successful in reducing emissions from point sources, the first generation issues, and to a lesser extent, emissions from mobile and area sources, the second generation issues, although challenges remain in many jurisdictions. However once the simpler, easier, cheaper and obvious targets had been at least partially controlled this form of regulation became less effective. It has been complemented by other instruments including economic instruments, self-regulation, voluntarism and information instruments to address more complex issues including climate change, a third generation issue. Policy approaches to atmospheric environmental issues have become more complex. Policies that directly focus on atmospheric issues have been partially replaced by more integrated approaches that consider multimedia (water, land, etc.) and sustainability issues. Pressures from stakeholders for inclusion, greater transparency and better communication have grown and non-government stakeholders have become increasingly important participants in governance. The scale of the issues has evolved

  8. Retention and attrition factors for female certified athletic trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E; Mitchell, Murray F; Fritz, Stacy L

    2010-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Qualitative study. The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n = 12) or former full-time ATs (n = 11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered.

  9. Atmospheric Monitoring at the Site of the MAGIC Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The MAGIC telescopes in La Palma, Canary Islands, measure the Cherenkov light emitted by gamma ray-induced extended air showers in the atmosphere. The good knowledge of the atmospheric parameters is important, both for the correct and safe operations of the telescopes, but also for subsequent data analysis. A weather station measures the state variables of the atmosphere, temperature, humidity and wind, an elastic Lidar system and an infrared pyrometer determine the optical transmission of the atmosphere. Using an AllSky camera, the cloud cover can be estimated. The measured values are completed by data from global atmospheric models based on numeric weather forecasts.

  10. The Atmospheric Chemistry of Methyl Chavicol (Estragole)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Rickard, A. R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pereira, K. F.; Camredon, M.; Munoz, A.; Vazquez, M.; Alacreu, P.; Rodenas, M.; Vera, T.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leads to formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA), with consequences for health, air quality, crop yields, atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer. It is estimated that ca. 90 % of VOC emissions to the atmosphere originate from biogenic sources (BVOC); such emissions may increase under future climates. Recent field observations have identified Methyl Chavicol ("MC" hereafter, also known as Estragole; 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene, C10H12O) as a major BVOC above pine forests in the USA [Bouvier-Brown et al., 2009], and within an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo, where it was found that MC could represent the highest single floral contribution of reactive carbon to the atmosphere [Misztal et al., 2010]. Palm oil cultivation, and hence emissions of MC, may be expected to increase with societal food and biofuel demand. We present the results of a series of simulation chamber experiments to assess the atmospheric fate of MC. Experiments were performed in the EUPHORE (European Photoreactor) facility in Valencia, Spain (200 m3 outdoor smog chamber), investigating the degradation of MC by reaction with OH, O3 and NO3. An extensive range of measurement instrumentation was used to monitor precursor and product formation, including stable species (FTIR, PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS), radical intermediates (LIF), inorganic components (NOx, O3, HONO (LOPAP and aerosol production (SMPS) and composition (PILS and filters; analysed offline by LC-MS and FTICR-MS). Experiments were conducted at a range of NOx:VOC ratios, and in the presence and absence of radical (OH) scavenger compounds. This chamber dataset is used to determine the rate constants for reaction of MC with OH, O3 and NO3, the ozonolysis radical yields, and identify the primary degradation products for each initiation route, alongside the aerosol mass yields. Aerosol composition measurements are analysed to identify markers for MC contributions to

  11. The annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and deposition factor according to methods of atmospheric stability classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study analyzes the differences in the annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and ground deposition factor produced using two classification methods of atmospheric stability, which are based on a vertical temperature difference and the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. Daedeok and Wolsong nuclear sites were chosen for an assessment, and the meteorological data at 10 m were applied to the evaluation of atmospheric stability. The XOQDOQ software program was used to calculate atmospheric dispersion factors and ground deposition factors. The calculated distances were chosen at 400 m, 800 m, 1,200 m, 1,600 m, 2,400 m, and 3,200 m away from the radioactive material release points. All of the atmospheric dispersion factors generated using the atmospheric stability based on the vertical temperature difference were shown to be higher than those from the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. On the other hand, the ground deposition factors were shown to be same regardless of the classification method, as they were based on the graph obtained from empirical data presented in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.111, which is unrelated to the atmospheric stability for the ground level release. These results are based on the meteorological data collected over the course of one year at the specified sites; however, the classification method of atmospheric stability using the vertical temperature difference is expected to be more conservative.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.

  13. Factors associated with perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2014-01-01

    Since learners in secondary schools fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is obvious that these learners might be at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. However, little has been explored on the perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as framework. A quantitative, correlational design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 210 female learners selected through disproportional, stratified, simple random sampling technique, from three participating senior secondary schools. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Only 39.4% of the respondents perceived themselves to be at high risk of contracting HIV, though the majority, 54.0% were sexually active. Multinomial logistic regression analyses show that sexual risk behaviours (p=0.000) and the Integrated Value Mapping (IVM) of the perception components of the HBM are the most significant factors associated with perception of risk of contracting HIV at the level p<0.05. The findings of this study can play an instrumental role in the development of effective preventive and interventional messages for adolescents in Cameroon.

  14. Atmospheric transport of pollution to the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, T.

    1984-01-01

    If the atmospheric processes are assumed to be nearly adiabatic, the conclusion is that the possible source areas of Arctic air pollution detected at ground level have to be situated in areas with almost the same temperature as observed in the Arctic itself. Sources south of the polar front system can only contribute to high-altitude (or upper level) Arctic pollution. The amplitude and phase of long, planetary waves are important since they determine the position of the polar front, and provide conditions for meridional transport of air at certain longitudes

  15. Specialization can drive the evolution of modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa-Soto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Y2O3 in a specially designed atmospheric pressure radio frequency thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamale, G. D.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Ghorui, S.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in a specially designed radio frequency thermal plasma reactor is reported. Good crystallinity, narrow size distribution, low defect state concentration, high purity, good production rate, single-step synthesis, and simultaneous formation of nanocrystalline monoclinic and cubic phases are some of the interesting features observed. Synthesized particles are characterized through X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-luminescence (TL), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Polymorphism of the nanocrystalline yttria is addressed in detail. Synthesis mechanism is explored through in-situ emission spectroscopy. Post-synthesis environmental effects and possible methods to eliminate the undesired phases are probed. Defect states are investigated through the study of TL spectra

  17. Applications of ISES for the atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) will offer the opportunity for real-time access to measurements acquired aboard the Earth Observation System (Eos) satellite. These measurements can then be transmitted to remotely located ground based stations. The application of such measurements to issues related to atmospheric science which was presented to a workshop convened to review possible application of the ISES in earth sciences is summarized. The proposed protocol for Eos instruments requires that measurement results be available in a central data archive within 72 hours of acquiring data. Such a turnaround of raw satellite data to the final product will clearly enhance the timeliness of the results. Compared to the time that results from many current satellite programs, the 72 hour turnaround may be considered real time. Examples are discussed showing how real-time measurements from one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have been applied to the study of certain issues important to global atmospheric chemistry. Each of the examples discussed is based upon a field mission conducted during the past five years. Each of these examples will emphasize how real-time data could have been used to alter the course of a field experiment, thereby enhancing the scientific output. For the examples, brief overviews of the scientific rationale and objectives, the region of operation, the measurements aboard the aircraft, and finally how one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have provided data to enhance the productivity of the mission are discussed.

  18. Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.

  19. Present status and future prospects of the atmospheric neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2003-01-01

    During the last several years, the understanding of the neutrino masses and mixings has been improved significantly. In this paper, we discuss neutrino oscillation studies in atmospheric neutrino experiments. Prospects of future atmospheric neutrino experiments are also discussed

  20. Preface (of the second special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The primary aim of this special issue entitled Advances in Applied Sciences was to make some preparative steps by collecting state of the art research papers necessary in the beginning of the project entitled “Electronic Health Records for the Next Generation Medical Decision Support in Romanian and Bulgarian National Healthcare Systems” abbreviated as NextGenElectroMedSupport, a Bilateral Cooperation Research Project between Romania and Bulgaria having as directors from Bulgaria Prof. dr. Roumen Kountchev, Technical University of Sofia and from Romania Senior Lecturer dr. Barna Iantovics from Petru Maior University of Targu Mures. [...]

  1. Investigation of the influence of atmospheric stability and turbulence on land-atmosphere exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibanjo, O.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Surface energy fluxes are exchanged between the surface of the earth and the atmosphere and impact weather, climate, and air quality. The radiation from the sun triggers the surface-atmosphere interaction during the day as heat is transmitted to the surface and the surface heats the air directly above generating wind (i.e., thermal turbulence) that transports heat, moisture, and momentum in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This process is impacted by greenhouse gasses (i.e., water vapor, carbon dioxide and other trace gases) that absorb heat emitted by the earth's surface. The concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gasses are increasing leading to changes in ABL dynamics as a result of the changing surface energy balance. The ABL processes are important to characterize because they are difficult to parameterize in global and regional scale atmospheric models. Empirical data can be collected using eddy covariance micrometeorological methods to measure turbulent fluxes (e.g., sensible heat, moisture, and CO2) and quantify the exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The objective of this work is to calculate surface fluxes using observational data collected during one week in September 2014 from a monitoring site in Echo, Oregon. The site is located in the Columbia Basin with rolling terrain, irrigated farmland, and over 100 wind turbines. The 10m tower was placed in a small valley depression to isolate nighttime cold air pools. This work will present observations of momentum, sensible heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide fluxes from data collected at a sampling frequency of 10Hz at four heights. Atmospheric stability is determined using Monin-Obukov length and flux Richardson number, and the impact of stability on surface-atmosphere exchange is investigated. This work will provide a better understanding of surface fluxes and mixing, particularly during stable ABL periods, and the results can be used to compare with numerical models.

  2. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  3. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  4. Insular subdivisions functional connectivity dysfunction within major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaolong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Xiaoping; Gong, Ruxue; Yang, Rui; Wang, Jue

    2018-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD. Resting-state FC of insular subdivisions, including bilateral ventral/dorsal anterior insula and posterior insula, were estimated in 19 MDD patients and 19 healthy controls. Abnormal FC was quantified between groups. Additionally, we investigated the relationships between insular connectivity and depressive symptom severity. MDD patients demonstrated aberrant FC for insular subdivisions to superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal gyrus, amygdala and posterior parietal cortex. Moreover, depression symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scorers) were associated with the FC values of insular subdivisions. First, the sample size of our current study is relatively small, which may affect the statistic power. Second, using standardized insular subdivision seeds for FC analyses may neglect subtle natural differences in size and location of functional area across individuals and may thus affect connectivity maps. Abnormal FC of insular subdivisions to default network and central executive network may represent impaired intrinsic networks switching which may affect the underlying emotional and sensory disturbances in MDD. And our findings can help to understand the pathophysiology and underlying neural mechanisms of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Carmeliet, J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness

  6. The early evolution of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Raulin, François; Muller, Christian; Nixon, Conor; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings : Volume 35

    2013-01-01

    The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets” presents the main processes participating in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. A group of experts in the different fields provide an update of our current knowledge on this topic. Several papers in this book discuss the key role of nitrogen in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. The earliest setting and evolution of planetary atmospheres of terrestrial planets is directly associated with accretion, chemical differentiation, outgassing, stochastic impacts, and extremely high energy fluxes from their host stars. This book provides an overview of the present knowledge of the initial atmospheric composition of the terrestrial planets. Additionally it includes some papers about the current exoplanet discoveries and provides additional clues to our understanding of Earth’s transition from a hot accretionary phase into a habitable world. All papers included were reviewed by experts in their respective fields. We are ...

  7. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs

  8. A simulation of the OMEGA/Mars Express observations: Analysis of the atmospheric contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, R.; Drossart, P.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.; Forget, F.; Gendrin, A.; Bibring, J. P.; Manaud, N.; OMEGA Team; Berthé, M.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; Forni, O.; Gendrin, A.; Gondet, B.; Manaud, N.; Poulet, F.; Poulleau, G.; Soufflot, A.; Mangold, N.; Bonello, G.; Forget, F.; Bezard, B.; Combes, M.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Fouchet, T.; Melchiorri, R.; Erard, S.; Bellucci, G.; Altieri, F.; Formisano, V.; Fonti, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Kottsov, V.; Ignatiev, N.; Moroz, V.; Titov, D.; Zasova, L.; Pinet, P.; Schmitt, B.; Sotin, C.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Arvidson, R.; Mustard, J.; Duxbary, T.

    2006-08-01

    Spectral images of Mars obtained by the Mars Express/OMEGA experiment in the near infrared are the result of a complex combination of atmospheric, aerosol and ground features. Retrieving the atmospheric information from the data is important, not only to decorrelate mineralogical against atmospheric features, but also to retrieve the atmospheric variability. Once the illumination conditions have been taken into account, the main source of variation on the CO2 absorption is due to the altitude of the surface, which governs atmospheric pressure variation by more than an order of magnitude between the summit of Olympus Mons down to the bottom of Valles Marineris. In this article we present a simplified atmospheric spectral model without scattering, specially developed for the OMEGA observations, which is used to retrieve the local topography through the analysis of the 2.0μmCO2 band. OMEGA atmospheric observations increase the horizontal resolution compared to MOLA altimetry measurements, and therefore complement the mineralogical studies from the same instrument. Finally, residual variations of the pressure can be related to atmospheric structure variation.

  9. The biosphere as a driver of global atmospheric change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the biosphere on the evolution of atmospheric oxygen and ozone, and the consequences of that development for global atmospheric change, are discussed. Attention is given to the impact of oxygen and ozone on atmospheric photolysis rates, the effect of oxygen on the biogenic production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide, and the effects of the evolution of atmospheric oxygen on fires and biomass burning. The influence of the latter on atmospheric processes, particularly the production of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, is considered. 41 refs

  10. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied

  11. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrkov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 “Integrated Process Rate Analysis” option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment – calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  12. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  13. Reassessing the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuemeng; Zhao, Jun; Terazono, Hajime; Misawa, Kentaro; Levitt, Nicholas P.; Li, Yixin; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Wang, Yuan; Duan, Lian; Pan, Bowen; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Xidan; An, Taicheng; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Zhang, Annie L.; Shibuya, Kazuhiko; Molina, Mario J.; Zhang, Renyi

    2017-08-01

    Photochemical oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons leads to tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, with profound implications for air quality, human health, and climate. Toluene is the most abundant aromatic compound under urban environments, but its detailed chemical oxidation mechanism remains uncertain. From combined laboratory experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we show a toluene oxidation mechanism that is different from the one adopted in current atmospheric models. Our experimental work indicates a larger-than-expected branching ratio for cresols, but a negligible formation of ring-opening products (e.g., methylglyoxal). Quantum chemical calculations also demonstrate that cresols are much more stable than their corresponding peroxy radicals, and, for the most favorable OH (ortho) addition, the pathway of H extraction by O2 to form the cresol proceeds with a smaller barrier than O2 addition to form the peroxy radical. Our results reveal that phenolic (rather than peroxy radical) formation represents the dominant pathway for toluene oxidation, highlighting the necessity to reassess its role in ozone and SOA formation in the atmosphere.

  14. Work Planing Automation at Mechanical Subdivision

    OpenAIRE

    Dzindzelėta, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Work planing automation, installation possibilities and future outlook at mechanical subdivision. To study how the work planing has changed before and after automation process and to analyse automation process methodology.

  15. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  16. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  17. Industrial subdivisions in Aguascalientes State [Mexico]: Valley Region, potential spaces for development in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Daniel García Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planning policies of the Mexican urban development oriented to the industrial activities implemented regionally and locally, have responded in different ways. The commitment to the sector led to the need to regulate urban growth and development as a substantial factor in achieving government strategies in the search for equitable sharing of national wealth and potential. The publication in 1976 of the General Law of Human Settlements born with this fundamental purpose. Excessive administrative burden of the Mexican social property and the need to insert in an increasingly globalizing economic activities led, in 1992 and 1994, respectively, the amendments to the Land Act and the signing of the Free Trade Agreement between North America, Canada, United States and Mexico. In the West Central Region, consisting of the metropolitan areas of Guadalajara, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, spatial area in which a third of the country's inhabitants is based, and hosts the 100% extension territorial state of Aguascalientes, have been exploited discontinuously the natural and man-made resources available in the area. In the Valley of Aguascalientes, north-south strip of the state territory, have been authorized industrial subdivisions under plans and urban development programs that have accelerated or inhibited impulses, according to the vision and expectations of government power in turn; the different rhythms and changes of strategy applied to organize the disorder potential of the rural and urban environment express divergences in the reaches of consolidation and longed purposes. Research indicates and identifies the dynamics with which the last eight administrations of the Mexican State have acted in shaping the industrial potential of the Valley, which the south side hosts industrial city, Nissan I, Nissan II and Automotive Logistics Industrial Park, industrial settlements seeking to consolidate the region

  18. The influence of biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H -W [University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics

    1993-09-01

    The author reviews research so far into sulphur compounds occurring in the atmosphere, namely dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulphide (COS). He explains how the sulphate particles formed by oxidation of DMS with OH radicals act as cloud condensation nuclei which in turn leads to enhanced formation of precipitation. Increase of cloud droplet density leads also to an increase of cloud albedo. The hypothesis of carbonyl sulphide as a precursor for stratospheric sulphate particles is discussed, along with evidence of model calculations showing that the increase of COS flux in the stratosphere leads to an increase in density of stratospheric aerosols and to slight global cooling, particularly compensating for the warming caused by the greenhouse effect. Although the influence of biogenic sulphur gases on climate is still speculative due to lack of information of the source, strength and global trend of these gases, the author advocates they deserve special attention since they may contribute to the stabilization of our climate. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicosia, A; Piazza, M; Santachiara, G; Belosi, F

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of ice-nucleating aerosols in the atmosphere has a profound impact on the properties of clouds, and in turn, influences our understanding on weather and climate. Research on this topic has grown constantly over the last decades, driven by advances in online and offline instruments capable of measuring the characteristics of these cloud-modifying aerosol particles. This article presents different aspects to the understanding of how aerosol particles can trigger the nucleation of ice in clouds. In addition, we present some experimental results obtained with the Dynamic Filter Processing Chamber, an off-line instrument that has been applied extensively in the last years and that circumvents some of the problems related to the measurement of Ice Nucleating Particles properties. (paper)

  20. Virtual cascade impactors for the collection of radioactive atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, A.

    1988-01-01

    Starting from impaction theory, the properties of virtual impaction stages are discussed and compared to classical impactors. Virtual impaction stages offer the benefit of sampling coarse particles without bouncing and reentrainment, but turbulent mixing affects the performance of virtual stages. Future research should concentrate on special configurations for reducing the effects of turbulent mixing. Virtual impaction stages for sampling radioactive aerosols are to be designed in regard of the analytical requirements, the purpose of the measurements, and the aerosol. Therefore, the aerosol components expected in radioactive aerosols are discussed on the background of the multimodal model, which relates the size distribution to the genesis and the history of the aerosol. Reference is made to recent data of the radioactive atmospheric aerosol

  1. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  2. The intern structure of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierseaux, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The author presents the forgotten fact that in 1905 there were 2 restricted theories of relativity: that of Einstein and that of Poincare. These 2 theories were independently formulated, they are very close to each other but are fundamentally different when we consider their basic principles. Poincare's theory is based on a classical representation of the purely undulatory aspect of light, whereas Einstein stipulates for the quantum aspect of light. Poincare's theory implies the existence of the ether and asserts the primacy of continuity over discontinuity. The author has based his work on a thorough study of the scientific articles in which Poincare and Einstein explained their ideas. The comparison of these 2 theories sheds light on the evolution of concepts on which the whole modern physics is based. An extended bibliography of works published on special relativity or on related topics is given. (A.C.)

  3. SELF EVALUATION OF COMPETENCES OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATORS AND REHABILITATORS IN THE SPECIAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha M. CHICHEVSKA-JOVANOVA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this empirical research was to determinate how much has current education helped special educators and rehabilitators in forming separate competences, and if those competencies correspond to the desired ones, which are necessary for the work of the special educators and rehabilitators.The results have shown that one type of the competences in the program had been neglected up to now. Therefore, it is necessary for this fact to be taken into consideration when designing the new study programs.

  4. Temperature structure of the Uranian upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature structure of the upper atmosphere of Uranus at two locations on the planet was determined from observations of the occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus on 10 March 1977, carried out at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The temperature-pressure relationships obtained from the immersion and emersion data for 7280 A channel show peak-to-peak variations of 45 K for immersion and 35 K for emersion. The mean temperature for both immersion and emersion profiles is about 100 K, which shows that Uranus has a temperature inversion between 0.001 mbar and the 100 mbar level probed by IR measurements. Both profiles show wavelike temperature variations, which may be due to dynamical or photochemical processes.

  5. Effects of meteorite impacts on the atmospheric evolution of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lê Binh San; Karatekin, Ozgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Early in its history, Mars probably had a denser atmosphere with sufficient greenhouse gases to sustain the presence of stable liquid water at the surface. Impacts by asteroids and comets would have played a significant role in the evolution of the martian atmosphere, not only by causing atmospheric erosion but also by delivering material and volatiles to the planet. We investigate the atmospheric loss and the delivery of volatiles with an analytical model that takes into account the impact simulation results and the flux of impactors given in the literature. The atmospheric loss and the delivery of volatiles are calculated to obtain the atmospheric pressure evolution. Our results suggest that the impacts alone cannot satisfactorily explain the loss of significant atmospheric mass since the Late Noachian (approximately 3.7-4 Ga). A period with intense bombardment of meteorites could have increased the atmospheric loss; but to explain the loss of a speculative massive atmosphere in the Late Noachian, other factors of atmospheric erosion and replenishment also need to be taken into account.

  6. Deuterium content of the Venus atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaux, -J.-L.; Clarke, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance of deuterium in the atmosphere of Venus is an important clue to the planet's history, because ordinary and deuterated water escape at different rates. Using the high-resolution mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), we measured hydrogen Lyman-α-emission but found only an upper limit on deuterium Lyman-α-emission, from which we inferred a D/H ratio of less than 2-5 x 10 -3 . This is smaller by a factor of 3-8 than the D/H ratio derived from measurements by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe, and may indicate either a stratification of D/H ratio with altitude or a smaller overall ratio than previously thought. (author)

  7. Analysis on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-01-01

    JAEA has been developing a new prediction system of comprehensive movement, SPEEDI-MP (SPEEDI Multi-model Package), which can treat continuously and strictly with the migration behavior of radioactive materials at atmosphere, sea, and land region. JAEA has been further promoting the detail analysis of atmospheric migration of radioactive materials dispersed by an accident. Then, using a part of this system, the atmospheric-diversion prediction system, WSPEEDI-II, the atmospheric diversion mass and the atmospheric diffusion analysis were carried out. This issue reports the summary. (M.H.)

  8. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  9. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, P.; Grimani, C.; Stephens, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths

  10. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Workman, Jared, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu [Colorado Mesa University, 1260 Kennedy Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  11. The atmosphere of Pluto as observed by New Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G Randall; Stern, S Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B; Weaver, Harold A; Young, Leslie A; Summers, Michael E; Strobel, Darrell F; Hinson, David P; Kammer, Joshua A; Parker, Alex H; Steffl, Andrew J; Linscott, Ivan R; Parker, Joel Wm; Cheng, Andrew F; Slater, David C; Versteeg, Maarten H; Greathouse, Thomas K; Retherford, Kurt D; Throop, Henry; Cunningham, Nathaniel J; Woods, William W; Singer, Kelsi N; Tsang, Constantine C C; Schindhelm, Eric; Lisse, Carey M; Wong, Michael L; Yung, Yuk L; Zhu, Xun; Curdt, Werner; Lavvas, Panayotis; Young, Eliot F; Tyler, G Leonard

    2016-03-18

    Observations made during the New Horizons flyby provide a detailed snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. Whereas the lower atmosphere (at altitudes of less than 200 kilometers) is consistent with ground-based stellar occultations, the upper atmosphere is much colder and more compact than indicated by pre-encounter models. Molecular nitrogen (N2) dominates the atmosphere (at altitudes of less than 1800 kilometers or so), whereas methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), and ethane (C2H6) are abundant minor species and likely feed the production of an extensive haze that encompasses Pluto. The cold upper atmosphere shuts off the anticipated enhanced-Jeans, hydrodynamic-like escape of Pluto's atmosphere to space. It is unclear whether the current state of Pluto's atmosphere is representative of its average state--over seasonal or geologic time scales. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The Education of Children with Special Needs in Ghana: Policies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that some policies have been put in place in the country regarding the education of special needs children. The main facilities that exist for children with special needs are in the areas of visual impairment, hearing impairment and mental retardation. No special facilities or services exist for the gifted, the ...

  13. Physical analysis of multivariate measurements in the Atmospheric high-energy physics experiments within ADEI platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, K.; Chilingarian, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Chilingaryan, S.

    2017-01-01

    To make transformational scientific progress in Space science and geophysics, the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere and different layers of the atmosphere must be studied as a coupled system. Presented paper describes how information on complicated physical processes on Sun, in the heliosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere can be made immediately assessable for researchers via advanced multivariate visualization system with simple statistical analysis package. Research of the high-energy phenomena in the atmosphere and the atmospheric discharges is of special importance. The relationship between thundercloud electrification, lightning activity, wideband radio emission and particle fluxes have not been yet unambiguously established. One of most intriguing opportunities opening by observation of the high-energy processes in the atmosphere is their relation to lightning initiation. Investigations of the accelerated structures in the geospace plasmas can as well shed light on particle acceleration up to much higher energies in the similar structures of space plasmas in the distant objects of the Universe. (author)

  14. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stozhkov, Y I [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Leninsky Prospect, 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10{sup 8} times). But at altitudes of h {approx} 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h {approx} 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning.

  15. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhkov, Y I

    2003-01-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10 8 times). But at altitudes of h ∼ 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h ∼ 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning

  16. The arithmetic basis of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, D.

    1976-01-01

    Under relatively general particle and rocket frame motions, it is shown that, for special relativity, the basic concepts can be formulated and the basic properties deduced using only arithmetic. Particular attention is directed toward velocity, acceleration, proper time, momentum, energy, and 4-vectors in both space-time and Minkowski space, and to relativistic generalizations of Newton's second law. The resulting mathematical simplification is not only completely compatible with modern computer technology, but it yields dynamical equations that can be solved directly by such computers. Particular applications of the numerical equations, which are either Lorentz invariant or are directly related to Lorentz-invariant formulas, are made to the study of a relativistic harmonic oscillator and to the motion of an electric particle in a magnetic field. (author)

  17. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  18. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  19. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr...

  20. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, w...

  1. Modeling of particle mixing in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shupeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM), which is able to simulate the dynamics of externally-mixed particles in the atmosphere, and evaluates its performance in three-dimensional air-quality simulations. The main work is split into four parts. First, the research context of external mixing and aerosol modelling is introduced. Secondly, the development of the SCRAM box model is presented along with validation tests. Each particle composition is defined by the combination of mass-fraction sections of its chemical components or aggregates of components. The three main processes involved in aerosol dynamic (nucleation, coagulation, condensation/ evaporation) are included in SCRAM. The model is first validated by comparisons with published reference solutions for coagulation and condensation/evaporation of internally-mixed particles. The particle mixing state is investigated in a 0-D simulation using data representative of air pollution at a traffic site in Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (dynamic evolution or bulk equilibrium between particles and gas) is studied. Then, SCRAM is integrated into the Polyphemus air quality platform and used to conduct simulations over Greater Paris during the summer period of 2009. This evaluation showed that SCRAM gives satisfactory results for both PM2.5/PM10 concentrations and aerosol optical depths, as assessed from comparisons to observations. Besides, the model allows us to analyze the particle mixing state, as well as the impact of the mixing state assumption made in the modelling on particle formation, aerosols optical properties, and cloud condensation nuclei activation. Finally, two simulations are conducted during the winter campaign of MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for

  2. Formation and Evolution of the Atmosphere on Early Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marounina, N.; Tobie, G.; Carpy, S.; Monteux, J.; Charnay, B.; Grasset, O.

    2014-12-01

    The mass and composition of Titan's massive atmosphere, which is dominated by N2 and CH4 at present, have probably varied all along its history owing to a combination of exogenous and endogenous processes. In a recent study, we investigated its fate during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) by modeling the competitive loss and supply of volatiles by cometary impacts and their consequences on the atmospheric balance. We examine the emergence of an atmosphere as well as the evolution of a primitive atmosphere of various sizes and compositions. By considering an impactor population characteristic of the LHB, we showed that an atmosphere with a mass equivalent to the present-day one cannot be formed during the LHB era. Our calculations indicated that the high-velocity impacts during the LHB led to a strong atmospheric erosion, so that the pre-LHB atmosphere should be 5 to 7 times more massive than at present (depending mostly on the albedo), in order to sustain an atmosphere equivalent to the present-day one. This implies that either a massive atmosphere was formed on Titan during its accretion or that the nitrogen-rich atmosphere was generated after the LHB.To investigate the primitive atmosphere of the satellite, we consider chemical exchanges of volatils between a global water ocean at Titan's surface, generated by impact heating during the accretion and an atmosphere. We are currently developing a liquid-vapor equilibrium model for various initial oceanic composition to investigate how a massive atmosphere may be generated during the satellite growth and how it may evolve toward a composition dominated by N2. More generally, our model address how atmosphere may be generated in water-rich objects, which may be common around other stars.

  3. Inclusion of Religion and Spirituality in the Special Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Melinda Jones

    2010-01-01

    Although traditionally not an area of service delivered by special educators, the area of religion and spirituality for persons with disabilities is receiving more attention as a quality-of-life outcome. This literature review examined the special education literature to determine the extent to which special educators are exposed to literature…

  4. The Heating of the Solar Atmosphere: from the Bottom Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The heating of the solar atmosphere remains a mystery. Over the past several decades, scientists have examined the observational properties of structures in the solar atmosphere, notably their temperature, density, lifetime, and geometry, to determine the location, frequency, and duration of heating. In this talk, I will review these observational results, focusing on the wealth of information stored in the light curve of structures in different spectral lines or channels available in the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, Hinode's X-ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. I will discuss some recent results from combined data sets that support the heating of the solar atmosphere may be dominated by low, near-constant heating events.

  5. The Electrostatic Environments of Mars: Atmospheric Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Hogue, Michael D.; Phillips, James, III; Cox, Rachel E.

    2016-01-01

    The electrostatic environment on Mars is controlled by its ever present atmospheric dust. Dust devils and dust storms tribocharge this dust. Theoretical studies predict that lightning and/or glow discharges should be present on Mars, but none have been directly observed. Experiments are planned to shed light on this issue.

  6. Geodetic refraction effects of electromagnetic wave propagation through the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    With very few exceptions, geodetic measurements use electro­ magnetic radiation in order to measure directions, distances, time delays, and Doppler frequency shifts, to name the main ter­ restrial and space observables. Depending on the wavelength of the radiation and the purpose of the measurements, the follow­ ing parameters of the electromagnetic wave are measured: ampli­ tude, phase, angle-of-arrival, polarisation and frequency. Ac­ curate corrections have to be applied to the measurements in order to take into account the effects of the intervening medium between transmitter and receiver. The known solutions use at­ mospheric models, special observation programs, remote sensing techniques and instrumental methods. It has been shown that the effects of the earth's atmospheric envelope present a fundamental limitation to the accuracy and precision of geodetic measurements. This applies equally to ter­ restrial and space applications. Instrumental accuracies are al­ ready below the atmospherically i...

  7. Totally odd K-4-subdivisions in 4-chromatic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by Bjarne Toft in 1975 that every 4-chromatic graph contains a subdivision of K-4 in which each edge of K-4 corresponds to a path of odd length. As an auxiliary result we characterize completely the subspace of the cycle space generated by all cycles through two fixed...

  8. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  9. Satellite spectrophotometer for research of the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzov, P.; Mardirossian, G.; Stoyanov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ozone and its influence upon climate and life on Earth is undoubtedly one of the most pressing issues of present time. A mathematical model of an optical tract of a spectrophotometer has been designed. The paper presents the functional scheme of a satellite optoelectronic spectrophotometer for measuring the total content of atmospheric ozone and other gas components of the atmosphere, which has increased precision, smaller weight and energy consumption, increased space and time resolution, quickness of reaction and increased volume of useful information. The object of the paper is the design of an appliance which ensures research of ozone content in atmosphere from the board of a satellite

  10. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  11. The Preparation of Counseling Personnel to Serve Special Needs Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Linda G.; Stodden, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the elementary school counselor's role in providing affective education to special needs students. Explores the need for special education courses in counselor training. Results of a national survey indicated only two states required a course in special education for counselor certification. Suggests recommendations for updating…

  12. Nucleation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegg, D A; Baker, M B

    2009-01-01

    Small particles play major roles in modulating radiative and hydrological fluxes in the atmosphere and thus they impact both climate (IPCC 2007) and weather. Most atmospheric particles outside clouds are created in situ through nucleation from gas phase precursors and most ice particles within clouds are formed by nucleation, usually from the liquid. Thus, the nucleation process is of great significance in the Earth's atmosphere. The theoretical examination of nucleation in the atmosphere has been based mostly on classical nucleation theory. While diagnostically very useful, the prognostic skill demonstrated by this approach has been marginal. Microscopic approaches such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory have also proven useful in elucidating various aspects of the process but are not yet sufficiently refined to offer a significant prognostic advantage to the classical approach, due primarily to the heteromolecular nature of atmospheric nucleation. An important aspect of the nucleation process in the atmosphere is that the degree of metastability of the parent phase for the nucleation is modulated by a number of atmospheric processes such as condensation onto pre-existing particles, updraft velocities that are the main driving force for supersaturation of water (a major factor in all atmospheric nucleation), and photochemical production rates of nucleation precursors. Hence, atmospheric nucleation is both temporally and spatially inhomogeneous

  13. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  14. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J. [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  15. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1. [First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE); Special Observing Period (SOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    By examining the vertical structure of the low order spherical harmonics of the divergence and vorticity fields, the relative contribution of tropical and monsoonal circulations upon the global wind fields was estimated. This indicates that the overall flow over North America and the Pacific between January and February is quite distinct both in the lower and upper troposphere. In these longitudes there is a stronger tropical overturning and subtropical jet stream in January than February. The divergent flow reversed between 850 and 200 mb. Poleward rotational flow at upper levels is associated with an equatorward rotational flow at low levels. This suggests that the monsoon and other tropical circulations project more amplitude upon low order (global scale) representations of the flow than do the typical midlatitude circulations and that their structures show conspicuous changes on a time scale of a week or less.

  16. 24 CFR 1710.115 - Subdivision characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... erosion, sedimentation or periodic flooding throughout the subdivision? (2) If there is a program... seeding in areas of heavy grading or cut and fill along with the construction of diversion channels, ditches, outlet channels, waterway stabilizers and sediment control basins.) (f) Nuisances. Are there any...

  17. Spectroscopy of the earth's atmosphere and interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium focuses on the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere in the far-infrared and microwave regions. It discusses the modes of observation in field measurements and reviews the two techniques used in the spectral region. Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the effect of water-vapor absorption, followed by a discussion on the two frequently used method for deriving atmospheric parameters from high-resolution infrared atmospheric spectra, namely, the equivalent width

  18. Scaling of the atmosphere of self-avoiding walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owczarek, A L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Prellberg, T [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.owczarek@ms.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: t.prellberg@qmul.ac.uk

    2008-09-19

    The number of free sites next to the end of a self-avoiding walk is known as the atmosphere of the walk. The average atmosphere can be related to the number of configurations. Here we study the distribution of atmospheres as a function of length and how the number of walks of fixed atmosphere scale. Certain bounds on these numbers can be proved. We use Monte Carlo estimates to verify our conjectures in two dimensions. Of particular interest are walks that have zero atmosphere, which are known as trapped. We demonstrate that these walks scale in the same way as the full set of self-avoiding walks, barring an overall constant factor.

  19. Remote sensing of atmospheric chemistry; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1-3, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, James L.; McNeal, Robert J.

    The present volume on remote sensing of atmospheric chemistry discusses special remote sensing space observations and field experiments to study chemical change in the atmosphere, network monitoring for detection of stratospheric chemical change, stratospheric chemistry studies, and the combining of model, in situ, and remote sensing in atmospheric chemistry. Attention is given to the measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide using gas filter radiometers, long-path differential absorption measurements of tropospheric molecules, air quality monitoring with the differential optical absorption spectrometer, and a characterization of tropospheric methane through space-based remote sensing. Topics addressed include microwave limb sounder experiments for UARS and EOS, an overview of the spectroscopy of the atmosphere using an FIR emission experiment, the detection of stratospheric ozone trends by ground-based microwave observations, and a FIR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements. (For individual items see A93-31377 to A93-31412)

  20. Grounds for the Specialization of Courts and Judges in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terekhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon the different ways of specialization of courts and judges that exist under the legislation of the Russian Federation. The lack of a unified and circumspect approach is noted. The formation of specialized courts, according to the national legislation, takes the form of their establishing within the existing subsystems of regular and arbitration courts. As for the specialization of judges, it is more diversified and is presented by either creation of separate types of procedure (special proceedings, proceedings on cases arising from public relations and some other, or by introduction of special rules on jurisdiction that establish competence of specific courts to consider cases of a particular category: on the compensation for the excessive time taken to consider a case, on the adoption of a child by a foreign national and others.An analysis of existing literature on the issue in question shows that Russian scholars support the idea of judges’ specialization. Against specialization of courts the following arguments are brought: significant material costs, not being in accordance with the small number of cases decided by specialized courts; problems with access to justice; and the necessity to give special training to narrowly specialized judges.

  1. The Place of Love in the Special Religious Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwell, Kaye

    2016-01-01

    Special Religious Education is faith-based single tradition religious education taught in many Australian public schools by volunteer teachers who are adherents of the faith they are teaching. This paper derives from a qualitative study of the pedagogy of Christian Special Religious Education teachers that took place between 2010 and 2014. Love is…

  2. Dynamics of radioactive lead isotopes in the global environmental atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental information of radioactive lead isotopes, which used as the atmospheric tracer in the global environmental atmosphere, is reviewed. Emanation and exhalation of Rn and Tn, parent nuclide, is stated. Some reports on measurement and application of short-lived lead isotopes are reported. Transfer of radioactive lead isotopes in the atmosphere, vertical profiles of radon, thoron, and short-lived lead isotopes for different turbulent mixing conditions, deposition to aerosol, basic processes of Rn decay product behavior in air defining 'unattached' and 'aerosol-attached' activities, seasonal variation of atmospheric 210 Pb concentration at Beijing and Chengdu, seasonal variation of atmospheric 212 Pb concentration at several observation sites in Japan Islands, and variation in the atmospheric concentration of 212 Pb along with SO 2 are shown. (S.Y.)

  3. Distribution of temperature coefficient density for muons in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmenko V.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, several dozens of new muon detectors have been built. When studying cosmic-ray intensity variations with these detectors, located deep in the atmosphere, it is necessary to calculate all characteristics, including the distribution of temperature coefficient density for muons in the atmosphere, taking into account their specific geometry. For this purpose, we calculate the density of temperature coefficients of muon intensity in the atmosphere at various zenith angles of detection at sea level and at various depths underground for different absorption ranges of primary protons and pions in the atmosphere.

  4. Shock Synthesis in the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; McDonald, G. D.; de Vanssay, E.; Borucki, W. J.; McKay, C. P.; Bernstein, M. P.; Hartman, T. G.; Lech, J.

    1996-09-01

    We have previously investigated an approximate simulation of the Jupiter troposphere at the 1 bar NH_3 cloud level using Laser Induced Plasma (LIP) for shock synthesis in a 84.62:13.3:1.07:1.01 H_2:He:CH_4:NH_3 gas mixture, and found by GC/MS that HCN is the most abundant product, more abundant than all the major product hydrocarbons (C_2H_6, C_2H_2, C_3H_8, and C_4H10) combined. Using purge and trap isolation techniques on the LIP gas mixture using two absorbent traps in tandem, thermal desorption GC/MS has revealed a large array of product molecules starting from simple hydrocarbons such as C_2H_2, C_2H_4, etc., simple nitriles such as HCN, CH_3CN, etc., to molecules up to C13 (e.g. C13H23N). Here we report the results of our more accurate simulation of Jupiter at the 5 bar level using LIP with a 88:11.7:0.2:0.1 H_2:He:CH_4:NH_3 mixture, for comparison with mass spectral data from the Galileo probe. We detect in this more acurate simulation of Jupiter many of the same compounds, such as HCN, dimethylaminoacetonitrile, and dimethylcyanamide, as in the previous lower dilution experiment. We will compare the present results with those from low-pressure continuous flow plasma discharge experiments (McDonald et al. 1992, al Icarus 99, 131). We will also discuss the relevance of our data in light of the significant discrepancies between standard models of the jovian atmosphere and the compositional data returned by the Galileo entry probe.

  5. Atmospheric stability in CFD &NDASH; Representation of the diurnal cycle in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that focus primarily on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), for exam......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that focus primarily on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL......), for example the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, are mostly ignored in state-of-the-art CFD models. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, especially in complex terrain, the effect of thermal stratification on the ABL should be included in such models. The present...

  6. WATER FORMATION IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARLY EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marcq, Emmanuel; Vettier, Ludovic; Määttänen, Anni, E-mail: benjamin.fleury@latmos.ipsl.fr [Université Versailles St-Quentin, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2015-07-10

    The water concentration and distribution in the early Earth's atmosphere are important parameters that contribute to the chemistry and the radiative budget of the atmosphere. If the atmosphere above the troposphere is generally considered as dry, photochemistry is known to be responsible for the production of numerous minor species. Here we used an experimental setup to study the production of water in conditions simulating the chemistry above the troposphere of the early Earth with an atmospheric composition based on three major molecules: N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. The formation of gaseous products was monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Water was found as the major product, with approximately 10% of the gas products detected. This important water formation is discussed in the context of the early Earth.

  7. Optimal Spatial Subdivision method for improving geometry navigation performance in Monte Carlo particle transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenping; Song, Jing; Zheng, Huaqing; Wu, Bin; Hu, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The subdivision combines both advantages of uniform and non-uniform schemes. • The grid models were proved to be more efficient than traditional CSG models. • Monte Carlo simulation performance was enhanced by Optimal Spatial Subdivision. • Efficiency gains were obtained for realistic whole reactor core models. - Abstract: Geometry navigation is one of the key aspects of dominating Monte Carlo particle transport simulation performance for large-scale whole reactor models. In such cases, spatial subdivision is an easily-established and high-potential method to improve the run-time performance. In this study, a dedicated method, named Optimal Spatial Subdivision, is proposed for generating numerically optimal spatial grid models, which are demonstrated to be more efficient for geometry navigation than traditional Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) models. The method uses a recursive subdivision algorithm to subdivide a CSG model into non-overlapping grids, which are labeled as totally or partially occupied, or not occupied at all, by CSG objects. The most important point is that, at each stage of subdivision, a conception of quality factor based on a cost estimation function is derived to evaluate the qualities of the subdivision schemes. Only the scheme with optimal quality factor will be chosen as the final subdivision strategy for generating the grid model. Eventually, the model built with the optimal quality factor will be efficient for Monte Carlo particle transport simulation. The method has been implemented and integrated into the Super Monte Carlo program SuperMC developed by FDS Team. Testing cases were used to highlight the performance gains that could be achieved. Results showed that Monte Carlo simulation runtime could be reduced significantly when using the new method, even as cases reached whole reactor core model sizes

  8. Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, Olivier; Braconnot, P.; Bellier, J.; Brockmann, P.; Caubel, A.; Noblet, N. de; Friedlingstein, P.; Idelkadi, A.; Kageyama, M. [Unite Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL/LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dufresne, J.L.; Bony, S.; Codron, F.; Fairhead, L.; Grandpeix, J.Y.; Hourdin, F.; Musat, I. [Unite Mixte CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-ENS-UPCM, IPSL/LMD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Benshila, R.; Guilyardi, E.; Levy, C.; Madec, G.; Mignot, J.; Talandier, C. [unite mixte CNRS-IRD-UPMC, IPLS/LOCEAN, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cadule, P.; Denvil, S.; Foujols, M.A. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace des Sciences de l' Environnement (IPSL), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Krinner, G. [Unite mixte CNRS-UJF Grenoble, LGGE, BP96, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Swingedouw, D. [CNRS/CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents the major characteristics of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The model components and the coupling methodology are described, as well as the main characteristics of the climatology and interannual variability. The model results of the standard version used for IPCC climate projections, and for intercomparison projects like the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP 2) are compared to those with a higher resolution in the atmosphere. A focus on the North Atlantic and on the tropics is used to address the impact of the atmosphere resolution on processes and feedbacks. In the North Atlantic, the resolution change leads to an improved representation of the storm-tracks and the North Atlantic oscillation. The better representation of the wind structure increases the northward salt transports, the deep-water formation and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In the tropics, the ocean-atmosphere dynamical coupling, or Bjerknes feedback, improves with the resolution. The amplitude of ENSO (El Nino-Southern oscillation) consequently increases, as the damping processes are left unchanged. (orig.)

  9. Tritium distribution in the environment in the vicinity of a chronic atmospheric source-assessment of the steady state hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a major radionuclide production center. Tritium has been released to the atmosphere over the 36 year period of operation. The tritiated water concentration of the atmosphere, rain, vegetation and food have been routinely monitored during this period. Special studies have been made of tritium in soils and in the organic fractions of these same materials. The available data suggest that the average tritium concentration in the components of the terrestrial environment have approached a steady state with the two main sources of tritium, rainfall and atmospheric water vapor

  10. Regional atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen over the British isles assessed using a multi-layer atmospheric transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, N.; Tang, Y.S.; Dragosits, U.; Kluizenaar, Y.de; Sutton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen for the major political regions of the British Isles are investigated with a multi-layer atmospheric transport model. The model is validated against measurements of NH3 concentration and is developed to provide atmospheric budgets for defined subdomains of the

  11. The effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the earth's population would survive the immediate horrors of a nuclear holocaust, but what long-term climatological changes would affect their ability to secure food and shelter. This sobering report considers the effects of fine dust from ground-level detonations, of smoke from widespread fires, and of chemicals released into the atmosphere. The authors use mathematical models of atmospheric processes and data from natural situations - e.g., volcanic eruptions and arctic haze - to draw their conclusions

  12. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  13. Analysis of the atmospheric upward radiation in low latitude area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Wu, Zhensen; Lin, Leke; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing using THz wave has irreplaceable advantage comparing to the microwave and the infrared waves, and study on the THz remote sensing become more and more popular in recent years. The major applications of the remote sensing in THz wavelengths are the retrieval of the atmospheric parameters and the microphysical information of the ice cloud. The remote sensing of the atmosphere is based on the radiation of THz wave along the earth-space path of which the most significant part is the upward radiation of the atmosphere. The upward radiation of the atmosphere in sunny day in the low latitude area is computed and analyzed in this paper. The absorption of THz wave by the atmosphere is calculated using the formulations illustrated in the Recommendation ITU-R P.676 to save machine hour, the frequency range is then restricted below 1THz. The frequencies used for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water content are usually a few hundred GHz, at the lower end of THz wavelengths, so this frequency range is sufficient. The radiation contribution of every atmospheric layer for typical frequencies such as absorption window frequencies and peak frequencies are analyzed. Results show that at frequencies which absorption is severe, information about lower atmosphere cannot reach the receiver onboard a satellite or other high platforms due to the strong absorption along the path.

  14. Aspects of airborne particles and radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidy, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    There are two major ways that thermal radiation may interact with airborne particles in the Earth's atmosphere. The first is a classical problem in which the radiation balance is influenced by scattering and absorption from haze or aerosol layers in the atmosphere. Absorption is generally believed to have a minor effect on attenuation of radiation compared with scattering. In the visible and infrared, scattering by submicron sized particles can have a substantial influence on the balance of radiation in the atmosphere. Considerable interest in this question has developed recently with the assessment of the global impact of air pollution in the lower atmosphere and of exhaust emissions from aircraft flying in the stratosphere. In the first part of this review, the physics of atmospheric aerosol scattering is summarized, and the current status of observational knowledge is examined to identify areas of greatest uncertainty. The second way the radiation is involved in aerosols lies in the production in the atmosphere. Until recently, evidence for airborne particle production by atmospheric photochemistry was quite ambiguous. However, with the advent of results from several new field experiments the role of photochemistry in the generation of aerosol precursors from traces of such gases as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and olefinic hydrocarbons is much better understood. The remaining part of this paper is devoted to the discussion of several new observations that indicate the complicated nature of photochemical aerosol formation in the polluted and non-polluted atmosphere

  15. The Effect of Starspots on Detectability of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ryan; Berta-Thompson, Zachory

    2018-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is an effective tool for detecting and characterizing the atmospheres of transiting extrasolar planets. However, the presence of cool spots on a planet’s host star can be a source of uncertainty that is difficult to account for. Cool starspots introduce wavelength-dependent features and noise into the transmission spectrum of an orbiting exoplanet. For sufficiently cool stars, especially M dwarfs, this could cause false detections of water and other species in the planet’s atmosphere. To understand the extent of this problem, we use a combination of PHOENIX model spectra and the starspot simulation code MACULA to simulate the effects of starspots on observed transmission spectra for a wide variety of stars and spot configurations. By comparing the simulated DoTV (Depth of Transit Variation) due to starspots with models of the expected DoTV from exoplanet atmospheres with a given composition, we can estimate the level of effect the starspots have on the detectability of various atmospheres. For example, our results indicate for TRAPPIST-1’s planets that while the large amplitude absorption features from a H/He-rich atmosphere should be easily detectable, a pure water atmosphere would be much harder to distinguish from starspot noise. Consequently, proper characterization of exoplanet atmospheres, especially around cool, active host stars, requires a proper understanding of the star’s spot properties and suitable methods for reducing or removing spot-induced brightness fluctuations as a source of noise.

  16. 129Xe on the outgassing of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the short half-life of its parent ( 129 I, 17 m.y.) and its own chemical inertness, 129 Xe offers unique insight into the problem of the outgassing history of the earth's atmosphere. Because the current atmosphere is different in Xe isotopic patterns than is the interior, the present atmosphere must have been largely outgassed before these patterns finished changing, that is, very early in earth history. Furthermore, there can have been no significant delay in the onset of outgassing; that is, the earth must have been initially hot. Because ancient sedimentary rocks indicate that the atmospheric Xe patterns have not changed substantially for over 3 b.y., models presuming a separate, lower mantle reservoir do not alter these conclusions. Similar conclusions have been reached before but have always carried a heavier burden of debatable assumptions

  17. Editorial to the Special issue of the journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Alfirević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the editorial to the Special issue of the Management journal, dedicated to the 11th International Conference on "Challenges of Europe", organized by the Faculty of Economics in Split, Croatia, in May 2015.

  18. Aspects of the atmospheric surface layers on Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Landberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    and mean flow on Mars is found to obey the same scaling laws as on Earth. The largest micrometeorological differences between the two atmospheres are associated with the low air density of the Martian atmosphere. Together with the virtual absence of water vapour, it reduces the importance...

  19. Health of special educational teachers in the Central Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogataj Ivančič, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate the health of special education teachers who teach in elementary special schools with lower educational standards in the Central Slovenia region. 89 special education teachers participated in the study, average age 37 years. Data were collected in 2013 through a questionnaire, which was summarized and organized according to the needs of the study from questionnaires Health-related behavioral style (CINDI Slovenia, 2008) and Stress profile questionn...

  20. The turning of the wind in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Here we use accurate observations of the wind speed vector to analyze the behavior with height of the wind direction. The observations are a combination of tall meteorological mast and long-range wind lidar measurements covering the entire atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were performed...... winds underpredict the turning of the wind and the boundary-layer winds in general....

  1. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hardness when exposed to different atmospheric steam curing temperatures. ... Use of self-compacting concretes (SCCs) lowered the noise level on the ... Although maximum temperature limit values in curing locations should be from 40 to ...

  2. Evidence for the presence of Freon 21 in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crescentini, G.; Bruner, F.

    1979-05-24

    Results obtained using gas chromatography-mass fragmentography for the analysis of F21 in atmospheric samples of country areas in the regions of Urbino and Rome are reported. Fifteen samples trapped both in Rome and Urbino were analyzed by GC-mass fragmentography and F21 was found in each sample. These results show that F21 is actually present in the atmosphere and cannot be considered as an experimental artifact.

  3. Effect of increased ionization on the atmospheric electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study is a review of atmospheric electrical theory with the purpose of predicting the atmospheric electrical effects of increased ionization caused by radioactive inert gases. A time-independent perturbation model for the global atmospheric electric circuit precdicts that the electric field at the sea surface would be reduced to about 76% of its unperturbed value by a surface 85 Kr concentration of 3 nCi/m 3 . The electric field at a typical land station is predicted to be about 84% of its unperturbed value. Some scientists have suggested that the atmospheric electric field is part of a closed electrical feedback loop. The present model does not include such a closed feedback loop and may underestimate the total effects. This model is also useful for interpreting atmospheric electrical responses to natural fluctuations in the cosmic-ray component of background radiation

  4. The Life Satisfaction Advantage of Being Married and Gender Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Mikucka, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined whether the life satisfaction advantage of married over unmarried people decreased over the last three decades, and whether the changes in contextual gender specialization explained this trend. Contextual gender specialization was defined as a country-year specific share of married women who fully specialize in household work. The author used representative data from the World Values Survey–European Values Study (WVS–EVS) integrated data set for 87 countries (N = 2...

  5. The role of ammonia in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosset, C.

    1979-01-01

    Data is presented on the concentrations of hydrogen and ammonium ions in aerosol samples taken under various meteorological conditions in different areas of Sweden, and implications for the atmospheric chemistry of aerosols are discussed. Particle compositions at coastal and inland stations were determined during situations when particle concentrations increased as much as a hundred times due to atmospheric transport from Europe or air movements from the east or west. Analysis of particle compositions during both types of particle episodes reveals variations in the H(+)/NH4(+) ratio which indicate that particles present over agricultural areas take up ammonia from the ground and release it over a forest district with acid lakes. The ratio is found to be dependent on the atmospheric partial pressure of ammonia at equilibrium, with the flow of ammonia to or from the ground and transport conditions also likely to influence the ratio

  6. Structural aspects of the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Orsini, C.M.Q.

    1982-01-01

    The results presented on this paper may be considered as complementary to the ones published on two previous papers about the natural atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon Basin, and the effects, on these physical-chemical systems of the large scale brushfires carried out from time to time on that region. The experiments have been performed in August-September, 1980, simultaneously to the ones of the 'Projeto Queimadas - 1980' promoted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research from the U.S.A.. The new results here in presented are size distribution concentration data as log-probability curves for the detected tracer-elements; from these curves, by introducing a new technique, is was possible to derive the corresponding log-normal curves. These last curves can be used conveniently to characterize the atmospheric aerosol system which is under investigation. (Author) [pt

  7. Atmospheric Error Correction of the Laser Beam Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saydi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric models based on surface measurements of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity have been used to increase the laser ranging accuracy by ray tracing. Atmospheric refraction can cause significant errors in laser ranging systems. Through the present research, the atmospheric effects on the laser beam were investigated by using the principles of laser ranging. Atmospheric correction was calculated for 0.532, 1.3, and 10.6 micron wavelengths through the weather conditions of Tehran, Isfahan, and Bushehr in Iran since March 2012 to March 2013. Through the present research the atmospheric correction was computed for meteorological data in base of monthly mean. Of course, the meteorological data were received from meteorological stations in Tehran, Isfahan, and Bushehr. Atmospheric correction was calculated for 11, 100, and 200 kilometers laser beam propagations under 30°, 60°, and 90° rising angles for each propagation. The results of the study showed that in the same months and beam emission angles, the atmospheric correction was most accurate for 10.6 micron wavelength. The laser ranging error was decreased by increasing the laser emission angle. The atmospheric correction with two Marini-Murray and Mendes-Pavlis models for 0.532 nm was compared.

  8. Modeling the effects of atmospheric emissions on groundwater composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    A composite model of atmospheric, unsaturated and groundwater transport is developed to evaluate the processes determining the distribution of atmospherically derived contaminants in groundwater systems and to test the sensitivity of simulated contaminant concentrations to input parameters and model linkages. One application is to screen specific atmospheric emissions for their potential in determining groundwater age. Temporal changes in atmospheric emissions could provide a recognizable pattern in the groundwater system. The model also provides a way for quantifying the significance of uncertainties in the tracer source term and transport parameters on the contaminant distribution in the groundwater system, an essential step in using the distribution of contaminants from local, point source atmospheric emissions to examine conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport

  9. Raman scattering in the atmospheres of the major planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, W.D.; Trafton, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the rate at which photons are Raman scattered as a function of frequency and depth in an inhomogeneous anisotropically scattering atmosphere. This method is used to determine the effects of Raman scattering by H 2 in the atmospheres of the major planets. Raman scattering causes an insufficient decrease in the blue and ultraviolet to explain the albedos of all of the planets; an additional source of extinction is necessary in this spectral region. Approximately 0.5-2.0% of the blue continuum photons have undergone Raman scattering in the shallow atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, while in the deep atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune Raman scattering accounts for abount 10-15% of the blue continuum intensity. The filling in of the cores of solar lines and the production of Raman-shifted ghosts of the Fraunhofer spectrum will be detectable effects in all of the major planets. Raman scattering has a significant influence on the formation and profiles of the strong red and near-infrared CH 4 bands on Uranus and Neptune. The residual intensity in the cores of these bands may be fully explained as a result of Raman scattering by H 2 . This scattering of photons into the cores of saturated absorption bands will cause an underestimate of the abundance of the absorber unless the effects of Raman scattering by H 2 in an inhomogeneous atmosphere are properly included in the analysis

  10. Review of the Literature on Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study outlines the literature relevant to the Cross-cultural issues and the politics of SEN and the different perspectives arising from the literature on this widely debated issue are addressed. In addition, the origin of the term "special educational needs" (SEN), its definitions and the types of special education needs are…

  11. From "Special K" to "Special M": the evolution of the recreational use of ketamine and methoxetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Assi, Sulaf; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the recreational use of ketamine ("Special K"; KET) and explores the recent diffusion of its new derivative methoxetamine ("Special M"; MXE). The literature search on the nonclinical/recreational use of KET and MXE was carried out in a range of medical databases. Considering the limitations of peer-reviewed information, data were integrated with a qualitative assessment of a range of websites, drug fora, and other online resources including e-newsgroups, chat rooms, mailing lists, e-newsletters, and bulletin boards. The recreational use of KET has started since its discovery in 1962. This was due to its rapid onset, short duration of action, and peculiar psychotropic effects ("K-hole"). The latter effect ranges from confusion to dissociation and depersonalization (near-death experience). However, KET abuse is often associated with physical and psychological side effects, of which the worst is urological/bladder toxicity. Recently, MXE has emerged as a legal and "bladder-friendly" KET alternative. MXE presents with the same dissociative effect of KET, but with slower onset and longer duration of action. However, MXE seems to be associated with worse side effects than KET, ranging from mood disturbances/suicidal attempts to acute cerebellar toxicity. After 50 years of its discovery, KET has led to the emergence of MXE. However, this latter derivative does not appear to be a safer alternative to KET itself. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2012-12-01

    Recent methods to map artificial night-sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere that allows fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. They are accurate for a clear atmosphere, when a two-scattering approximation is acceptable, which is the most common situation. We present here up-to-date extended Garstang models (EGM), which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) satellite measurements of artificial light emission and to GTOPO30 (Global 30 Arcsecond) digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the world at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atmosphere across the territory. EGM account for (i) multiple scattering, (ii) wavelengths from 250 nm to infrared, (iii) the Earth's curvature and its screening effects, (iv) site and source elevation, (v) many kinds of atmosphere with the possibility of custom set-up (e.g. including thermal inversion layers), (vi) a mix of different boundary-layer aerosols and tropospheric aerosols, with the possibility of custom set-up, (vii) up to five aerosol layers in the upper atmosphere, including fresh and aged volcanic dust and meteoric dust, (viii) variations of the scattering phase function with elevation, (ix) continuum and line gas absorption from many species, ozone included, (x) up to five cloud layers, (xi) wavelength-dependent bidirectional

  13. Concentrations and fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Hansen, Kaj M; van Egmond, Roger; Christensen, Jesper H; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2010-07-15

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration in ambient air at a rural site in Sweden. The samples were collected with daily resolution between January and June 2009. The D(5) concentration ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng m(-3), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than previous reports. The measured data were compared with D(5) concentrations predicted using an atmospheric circulation model that included both OH radical and D(5) chemistry. The model was parametrized using emissions estimates and physical chemical properties determined in laboratory experiments. There was good agreement between the measured and modeled D(5) concentrations. The results show that D(5) is clearly subject to long-range atmospheric transport, but that it is also effectively removed from the atmosphere via phototransformation. Atmospheric deposition has little influence on the atmospheric fate. The good agreement between the model predictions and the field observations indicates that there is a good understanding of the major factors governing D(5) concentrations in the atmosphere.

  14. Method of instantaneous approximation of the atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.

    1983-12-01

    A basic primary modelling, very simple and compatible with all the existing models. The problem, the simplifying hypothesis being given, amounts to calculating a concentration chi determined by a fixed quantity Q released instantaneously in a quasi nil volume and uniformly distributed after the time t after the emission in a rectangular parallelepipedic volume. An atmospheric dilution coefficient and an atmospheric transfer coefficient are defined. From these elements, such defined, it is possible to establish of ''short term'' and ''long term'' transfer coefficients and also transfer coefficients ''in the atmosphere'' and to the ''ground''. They are presented in a tabular form [fr

  15. 20 CFR 702.146 - Source of the special fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by the employer into the fund. Compensation orders shall be made and filed in accordance with the... during that period for compensation, and (2) the ratio of the amount of payments made by the special fund... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source of the special fund. 702.146 Section...

  16. The emergence of medical specialization in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George

    2003-01-01

    This essay reexamines the nineteenth-century origins of medical specialization. It suggests that by the 1880s, specialization had become perceived as a necessity of medical science as a result of the realization of two preconditions: First, a new collective desire to expand medical knowledge prompted clinical researchers to specialize; only specialization, it was believed, permitted the rigorous observation of many cases. Second, administrative rationality suggested that one could best manage large populations through proper classification, gathering together individuals belonging to the same class and separating those belonging to different categories. Both of these conditions emerged first and most powerfully in early nineteenth-century Paris. They were, in contrast, uniquely underdeveloped in the fragmented medical community of London during this period.

  17. Eddy transport of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. R.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Viking orbiter measurements of the Martian atmosphere suggest that the residual north polar water-ice cap is the primary source of atmospheric water vapor, which appears at successively lower northern latitudes as the summer season progresses. Zonally symmetric studies of water vapor transport indicate that the zonal mean meridional circulation is incapable of transporting from north polar regions to low latitudes the quantity of water vapor observed. This result has been interpreted as implying the presence of nonpolar sources of water. Another possibility is the ability of atmospheric wave motions, which are not accounted for in a zonally symmetric framework, to efficiently accomplish the transport from a north polar source to the entirety of the Northern Hemisphere. The ability or inability of the full range of atmospheric motions to accomplish this transport has important implications regarding the questions of water sources and sinks on Mars: if the full spectrum of atmospheric motions proves to be incapable of accomplishing the transport, it strengthens arguments in favor of additional water sources. Preliminary results from a three dimensional atmospheric dynamical/water vapor transport numerical model are presented. The model accounts for the physics of a subliming water-ice cap, but does not yet incorporate recondensation of this sublimed water. Transport of vapor away from this water-ice cap in this three dimensional framework is compared with previously obtained zonally symmetric (two dimensional) results to quantify effects of water vapor transport by atmospheric eddies.

  18. Documenting the Experiences of Special Education Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Goldman, Samantha E.

    2017-01-01

    Many parents struggle to advocate for their children with disabilities to obtain services at school. Subsequently, parents may turn to special education advocates to help ensure that their children receive appropriate services. However, it is unclear how special education advocates support families and secure services for children with…

  19. Magnetic fields in the atmospheres of the sun and of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, R.

    1991-01-01

    Transient phenomena in the atmospheres of the Sun (flares) and of the Earth (magnetic storms, polar auroras) have a strong impact on space-related techniques involving the conducting layers (ionosphere) of the terrestrial atmosphere (propagation of radio waves, spacecraft). This influence is indirect in the case of the Sun, and operates via radiation (X rays) and particle fluxes (protons, etc.). In the case of the Earth, disturbances occur in situ, but they can be induced by the solar activity. In both situations, the output energy is taken from the magnetic field pervading these celestial bodies, and whose detailed topology is as yet imperfectly known. In this way, the present study of the electrodynamic conditions in these two environments shows how physicists of both specialities can benefit reciprocally from their respective know-how acquired in the determination of magnetic fields from surface measured values. 42 refs [fr

  20. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...

  1. Fourier transform wavefront control with adaptive prediction of the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    Predictive Fourier control is a temporal power spectral density-based adaptive method for adaptive optics that predicts the atmosphere under the assumption of frozen flow. The predictive controller is based on Kalman filtering and a Fourier decomposition of atmospheric turbulence using the Fourier transform reconstructor. It provides a stable way to compensate for arbitrary numbers of atmospheric layers. For each Fourier mode, efficient and accurate algorithms estimate the necessary atmospheric parameters from closed-loop telemetry and determine the predictive filter, adjusting as conditions change. This prediction improves atmospheric rejection, leading to significant improvements in system performance. For a 48x48 actuator system operating at 2 kHz, five-layer prediction for all modes is achievable in under 2x10(9) floating-point operations/s.

  2. Special Operations - the Central Role of Air Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    the ground and maritime elements of special operations, such as the Navy’s Frogman Corps and the Army Jaeger Corps. The paper gives a practical example of how a joint (all-services) special operations capacity may enlarge the strategic options of Denmark beyond what most people think is possible for a small...

  3. Below the Surface of Special Education Administrator Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The field of special education administration has experienced a shortage of high quality special education leadership candidates for several decades. If school districts are to effectively address the turnover of educational leaders, they must know what is happening that affects turnover of their leadership team. The intent of this study was to…

  4. Aerosol Properties of the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavvas, P. [Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France); Koskinen, T., E-mail: panayotis.lavvas@univ-reims.fr [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We use a model of aerosol microphysics to investigate the impact of high-altitude photochemical aerosols on the transmission spectra and atmospheric properties of close-in exoplanets, such as HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b. The results depend strongly on the temperature profiles in the middle and upper atmospheres, which are poorly understood. Nevertheless, our model of HD 189733 b, based on the most recently inferred temperature profiles, produces an aerosol distribution that matches the observed transmission spectrum. We argue that the hotter temperature of HD 209458 b inhibits the production of high-altitude aerosols and leads to the appearance of a clearer atmosphere than on HD 189733 b. The aerosol distribution also depends on the particle composition, photochemical production, and atmospheric mixing. Due to degeneracies among these inputs, current data cannot constrain the aerosol properties in detail. Instead, our work highlights the role of different factors in controlling the aerosol distribution that will prove useful in understanding different observations, including those from future missions. For the atmospheric mixing efficiency suggested by general circulation models, we find that the aerosol particles are small (∼nm) and probably spherical. We further conclude that a composition based on complex hydrocarbons (soots) is the most likely candidate to survive the high temperatures in hot-Jupiter atmospheres. Such particles would have a significant impact on the energy balance of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere and should be incorporated in future studies of atmospheric structure. We also evaluate the contribution of external sources to photochemical aerosol formation and find that their spectral signature is not consistent with observations.

  5. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Chemical Entropy Production of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Delgado-Bonal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic disequilibrium is a necessary situation in a system in which complex emergent structures are created and maintained. It is known that most of the chemical disequilibrium, a particular type of thermodynamic disequilibrium, in Earth’s atmosphere is a consequence of life. We have developed a thermochemical model for the Martian atmosphere to analyze the disequilibrium by chemical reactions calculating the entropy production. It follows from the comparison with the Earth atmosphere that the magnitude of the entropy produced by the recombination reaction forming O3 (O + O2 + CO2 ⥦ O3 + CO2 in the atmosphere of the Earth is larger than the entropy produced by the dominant set of chemical reactions considered for Mars, as a consequence of the low density and the poor variety of species of the Martian atmosphere. If disequilibrium is needed to create and maintain self-organizing structures in a system, we conclude that the current Martian atmosphere is unable to support large physico-chemical structures, such as those created on Earth.

  6. "Special Issue": Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…

  7. One hundred years of the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Special theory of relativity is considered here as an episode from non-Euclidean geometry. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the replacement of the fifth Euclidean postulate with the Lobachevsky postulate about the parallel straight lines in the velocity space of a material point leads to the replacement of the postulate about one and the same time rate with the postulate about one and the same light velocity in all inertial reference systems

  8. 1988 activity report of the Atmospheric and Aquatic Environment Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mery, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 activity report of the Atmospheric and Aquatic Environment Department of EDF (Electricity of France) is presented. The activities are focused on the following subjects: development studies in the fields of hydraulic, hydrobiology, meteorology and atmospheric polluants physico-chemistry; application studies involving data analysis from operating or under development power systems; actions concerning cooperation with the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of the Industry. The investigations related to water and atmosphere are reported, as well as congress communications and papers [fr

  9. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  10. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology....

  11. Influence of atmospheric factors on the rheumatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latman, N S

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of atmospheric factors on rheumatic diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, unspecified arthritis, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). The authors state that there appears to be ample evidence to conclude that various atmospheric factors do exert a significant impact on some people with various rheumatic diseases. The data are, however, crude relative to the authors general understanding. They recommend as a logical progression of research the determination of the effects of the meteorological/atmospheric factors of concern on the specific intrinsic mediators of inflammation.

  12. Particulate carbon in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surakka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted to the atmosphere in combustion processes. Carbon particles are very small and have a long residence time in the air. Black Carbon, a type of carbon aerosol, is a good label when transport of combustion emissions in the atmosphere is studied. It is also useful tool in air quality studies. Carbon particles absorb light 6.5 to 8 times stronger than any other particulate matter in the air. Their effect on decreasing visibility is about 50 %. Weather disturbances are also caused by carbon emissions e.g. in Kuwait. Carbon particles have big absorption surface and capacity to catalyze different heterogenous reactions in air. Due to their special chemical and physical properties particulate carbon is a significant air pollution specie, especially in urban air. Average particulate carbon concentration of 5.7 μg/m 2 have been measured in winter months in Helsinki

  13. Study of the atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the Frejus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdereau, O.

    1989-05-01

    The behavior of atmospheric neutrinos is investigated. It is a zero mass, zero charge and weak interacting particle. The aim of the investigation is to search for non standard phenomena, such as neutrino oscillations. The neutrino theoretical properties are discussed and the physical parameters experimental limits are recalled. The analysis of the approximately 200 events from atmospheric neutrinos observed in Frejus detector is carried out. The results and simulation of neutrino interactions are presented. The data analysis induces to the exclusion of neutrino oscillation hypothesis from some models. Three cases of oscillations involving two neutrino flavors are analyzed. The effect of a third flavor is also taken into account. The present data and those from IMB and Kamiokande experiments are compared. Topics involving investigations on the superposition of a signal and the atmospheric neutrinos are included [fr

  14. Specialized equipment needs for the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrey, D.; Lambert, M.

    1998-01-01

    To ensure the safe and reliable transportation of radioactive materials and components, from both the front and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, a transport management company needs three key elements: specialized knowledge, training and specialized equipment. These three elements result, in part, from national and international regulations which require specialized handling of all radioactive shipments. While the reasons behind the first two elements are readily apparent, the role of specialized equipment is often not considered until too late shipment process even though it plays an integral part of any radioactive material transport. This paper will describe the specialized equipment needed to transport three of the major commodities comprising the bulk of international nuclear transports: natural uranium (UF6), low enriched uranium (UF6) and fresh nuclear fuel. (authors)

  15. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    REPORT Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have transformed a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 31-Mar-2012 Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane Report Title ABSTRACT We have transformed a...DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer 1    Final Report for DARPA project W911NF1010027  Phytoremediation  of Atmospheric

  16. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  17. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Bardin, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Vogel, B.; Leyronas, C.; Ariya, P. A.; Psenner, R.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  18. The Outsized Influence of a Primordial Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2016-10-01

    Immediately following formation of the moon, its surface was subject to radiative influences from the Lunar Magma Ocean, an early Earth that radiated like a mid type M Dwarf Star, and the early Sun. These contributions have been hypothesized to have produced a vapor pressure atmosphere on the Moon. We model the early atmosphere of the Moon using an atmospheric model originally developed for Io. We also use a magma ocean crystallization model that finds that heating from the early Earth delays crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean and contributes to a moderate pressure and collapsing metal-dominated atmosphere on the earthside of the Moon until lid formation. The atmosphere is characterized by maximum pressures ~1 bar and strong horizontal supersonic winds that decreased as the Moon's orbital separation increased. Crustal and other compositional asymmetries may have been influenced by this atmosphere. The atmosphere transported significant amounts of mass horizontally and may have been a source for present day depletions and heterogeneities of moderately volatile elements on the lunar surface.

  19. Algebraically special perturbations of the Schwarzschild solution in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Óscar J C; Reall, Harvey S

    2013-01-01

    We study algebraically special perturbations of a generalized Schwarzschild solution in any number of dimensions. There are two motivations. First, to learn whether there exist interesting higher-dimensional algebraically special solutions beyond the known ones. Second, algebraically special perturbations present an obstruction to the unique reconstruction of general metric perturbations from gauge-invariant variables analogous to the Teukolsky scalars and it is desirable to know the extent of this non-uniqueness. In four dimensions, our results generalize those of Couch and Newman, who found infinite families of time-dependent algebraically special perturbations. In higher dimensions, we find that the only regular algebraically special perturbations are those corresponding to deformations within the Myers–Perry family. Our results are relevant for several inequivalent definitions of ‘algebraically special’. (paper)

  20. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  1. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  2. Highly resolved measurements of atmospheric turbulence with the new 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeromin, A; Schaffarczyk, A P; Puczylowski, J; Peinke, J; Hölling, M

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales

  3. The principle of relativity and the indeterminacy of special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial—but, unfortunately, even now somewhat controversial—question of the compatibility between the assumption of a special system of reference and Einstein's special relativity. The present study deals with the principle of relativity. Its historical evolution is reviewed and a 'weak' formulation is defended. It is emphasized that many assertions usually associated with special relativity, such as the 'relativity of time dilation' and 'relativity of space contraction' are indeed philosophical statements, as it has been established already by several authors in the past. Nonetheless, most teachers and scientists still believe nowadays they are implied by the theory and by the group property of the Lorentz transformation. This is by no means so, as it is reviewed and elucidated with the simple example on space contraction. It is argued that the lack of knowledge of the true value of the one-way speed of light in empty space leaves the theory undetermined. Einstein's special relativity corresponds to a simple and very elegant solution to this problem, allowing the study of relative motion without any concern with the study of absolute motion, which is considered to be superfluous. However, its standard interpretation is minimalist and even misleading. A large number of researchers have discussed this question, mostly within the conventionality of simultaneity thesis. The typical formulation of this thesis provides some new physical insight and points out the problem, but does not solve it. In contrast, it often leads to a labyrinth of difficult language which is herein clarified.

  4. The principle of relativity and the indeterminacy of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Rodrigo de; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial-but, unfortunately, even now somewhat controversial-question of the compatibility between the assumption of a special system of reference and Einstein's special relativity. The present study deals with the principle of relativity. Its historical evolution is reviewed and a 'weak' formulation is defended. It is emphasized that many assertions usually associated with special relativity, such as the 'relativity of time dilation' and 'relativity of space contraction' are indeed philosophical statements, as it has been established already by several authors in the past. Nonetheless, most teachers and scientists still believe nowadays they are implied by the theory and by the group property of the Lorentz transformation. This is by no means so, as it is reviewed and elucidated with the simple example on space contraction. It is argued that the lack of knowledge of the true value of the one-way speed of light in empty space leaves the theory undetermined. Einstein's special relativity corresponds to a simple and very elegant solution to this problem, allowing the study of relative motion without any concern with the study of absolute motion, which is considered to be superfluous. However, its standard interpretation is minimalist and even misleading. A large number of researchers have discussed this question, mostly within the conventionality of simultaneity thesis. The typical formulation of this thesis provides some new physical insight and points out the problem, but does not solve it. In contrast, it often leads to a labyrinth of difficult language which is herein clarified

  5. History of the special committee on INIS input preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo

    2011-06-01

    The special committee on INIS input techniques was held 8 times from December 1970 to March 1973. The special committee on INIS input preparation was held 39 times from February 1974 to December 2004. The history of these two committees is described. (author)

  6. Degradation of carbonyl hydroperoxides in the atmosphere and in combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Lili; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Wang, Zhandong; Zhang, Feng; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2017-01-01

    Oxygenates with carbonyl and hydroperoxy functional groups are important intermediates that are generated during the autooxidation of organic compounds in the atmosphere and during the autoignition of transport fuels. In the troposphere

  7. On the Atmospheric Correction of Antarctic Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Black

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for processing airborne hyperspectral data in this unique coastal Antarctic environment. Results from the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction version 4 (ATCOR-4 package reveal absolute reflectance values somewhat in line with laboratory measured spectra, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 5% in the visible near infrared (0.4–1 µm and 8% in the shortwave infrared (1–2.5 µm. Residual noise remains present due to the absorption by atmospheric gases and aerosols, but certain parts of the spectrum match laboratory measured features very well. This study demonstrates that commercially available packages for carrying out atmospheric correction are capable of correcting airborne hyperspectral data in the challenging environment present in Antarctica. However, it is anticipated that future results from atmospheric correction could be improved by measuring in situ atmospheric data to generate atmospheric profiles and aerosol models, or with the use of multiple ground targets for calibration and validation.

  8. Farmers' perception of the performance of the National Special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' perception of the performance of the National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) in Enugu State, NIgeria. ... of loans were high costs of production and disease attack on crops, poor yields and devastation of crops by animals, lack of markets for products and late release of loans, among others.

  9. Assessing the impact of atmospheric chemistry on the fate, transport, and transformation of adulticides in an urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, S.; Yoon, S.; Guagenti, M. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Usenko, S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are literal hot spots of mosquito-borne disease transmission and air pollution during the summer months. Public health authorities release aerosolized adulticides to target adult mosquitoes directly in to the atmosphere to control mosquito populations and reduce the threat of diseases (e.g. Zika). Permethrin and malathion are the primary adulticides for controlling adult mosquito populations in Houston, TX and are typically sprayed at night. After being released into the atmosphere adulticides are subject to atmospheric oxidation initiated by atmospheric oxidants (e.g. O3 and NO3) which are driven by anthropogenic air pollutants (e.g. NOx; NO and NO2). Particulate matter (PM) samples were measured at both application and downwind locations. Sampling sites were determined using the combination of atmospheric plume transport models and adulticide application data provided by Harris County Public Health Mosquito Division. Atmospheric PM samples were taken using a Mobile Laboratory, equipped with total suspended PM and PM2.5 (PM with diameter Interestingly, during malathion-use periods, atmospheric malaoxon concentrations measured in the PM2.5 samples were similar to corresponding TSP samples. This suggests that the majority of the malathion (and malaoxon) was associated with fine PM. During permethrin-use periods, atmospheric permethrin concentrations measured in the PM2.5 samples were an order and half lower in magnitude. This suggests that permethrin may be undergoing less volatilization into the gas phase after application as compared to malathion (and or malaoxon). Unlike permethrin, malathion was not sprayed with a carrier or a synergistic compound. As a result, malathion may be more prone to volatilization. The atmospheric oxidation and migration to fine PM may result in decreased efficacy and increase atmospheric transport, both of which have environmental and human health consequences.

  10. Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a comparison of two methods for the calculation of the height of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) ... Boundary layer; GPS sonde; mixed layer height; turbulent flow depth. J. Earth Syst. ..... for her PhD research work. References.

  11. The effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Most of the earth's population would survive the immediate horrors of a nuclear holocaust, but what long-term climatological changes would affect their ability to secure food and shelter. This sobering report considers the effects of fine dust from ground-level detonations, of smoke from widespread fires, and of chemicals released into the atmosphere. The authors use mathematical models of atmospheric processes and data from natural situations - e.g., volcanic eruptions and arctic haze - to draw their conclusions.

  12. The characteristic features of the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.

    1986-01-01

    The publication facilitates access to the development and effects of air pollution caused by the major emission sources by way of discussing the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants and the processes involved. Apart from the physical ratings of atmospheric pollutants the author focuses on the meteorological parameters determining the dispersion process as well as on the unavoidable statistical variations. Representative realistic maximum and minimum values indicating the relation between emissions from the relevant sources and the resulting air pollution allow an expeditious evaluation of possible environmental impacts classified by the different types of pollutants. The publication not only discusses the direct incorporation, that is the breathing of contaminated air or the absorption of food grown or produced in contaminated regions but also refers to radiation doses which due to the presence of radioactive substances accumulate in the human organism. Comprehensive references are annexed to facilitate access to relevant problems connected with the subject discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Numerical simulation of the circulation of the atmosphere of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdin, F.; Levan, P.; Talagrand, O.; Courtin, Regis; Gautier, Daniel; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Titan's atmosphere is described. Initial results obtained with an economical two dimensional (2D) axisymmetric version of the model presented a strong superrotation in the upper stratosphere. Because of this result, a more general numerical study of superrotation was started with a somewhat different version of the GCM. It appears that for a slowly rotating planet which strongly absorbs solar radiation, circulation is dominated by global equator to pole Hadley circulation and strong superrotation. The theoretical study of this superrotation is discussed. It is also shown that 2D simulations systemically lead to instabilities which make 2D models poorly adapted to numerical simulation of Titan's (or Venus) atmosphere.

  14. The special theory of relativity bound with relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dingle, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge

  15. Quality Special Education Programs: The Role of Transformational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Demi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether or not a relationship existed between principals who demonstrate transformational leadership traits and six different quality practices in their special education program. Effective principals must know and understand special education laws, practices, and current issues, but evidence…

  16. Convenient models of the atmosphere: optics and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ginsburg; Victor, Frolkis; Irina, Melnikova; Sergey, Novikov; Dmitriy, Samulenkov; Maxim, Sapunov

    2017-11-01

    Simple optical models of clear and cloudy atmosphere are proposed. Four versions of atmospheric aerosols content are considered: a complete lack of aerosols in the atmosphere, low background concentration (500 cm-3), high concentrations (2000 cm-3) and very high content of particles (5000 cm-3). In a cloud scenario, the model of external mixture is assumed. The values of optical thickness and single scattering albedo for 13 wavelengths are calculated in the short wavelength range of 0.28-0.90 µm, with regard to the molecular absorption bands, that is simulated with triangle function. A comparison of the proposed optical parameters with results of various measurements and retrieval (lidar measurement, sampling, processing radiation measurements) is presented. For a cloudy atmosphere models of single-layer and two-layer atmosphere are proposed. It is found that cloud optical parameters with assuming the "external mixture" agrees with retrieved values from airborne observations. The results of calculating hemispherical fluxes of the reflected and transmitted solar radiation and the radiative divergence are obtained with the Delta-Eddington approach. The calculation is done for surface albedo values of 0, 0.5, 0.9 and for spectral values of the sandy surface. Four values of solar zenith angle: 0°, 30°, 40° and 60° are taken. The obtained values are compared with data of radiative airborne observations. Estimating the local instantaneous radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols and clouds for considered models is presented together with the heating rate.

  17. Distribution of specialized care centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-11-01

    As a recommended strategy for optimally managing critical illness, regionalization of care involves matching the needs of the target population with available hospital resources. The national supply and characteristics of hospitals providing specialized critical care services is currently unknown. We seek to characterize the current distribution of specialized care centers in the United States. Using public data linked with the American Hospital Association directory and US Census, we identified US general acute hospitals providing specialized care for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (≥40 annual primary percutaneous coronary interventions reported in Medicare Hospital Compare), stroke (The Joint Commission certified stroke centers), trauma (American College of Surgeons or state-designated, adult or pediatric, level I or II), and pediatric critical care (presence of a pediatric ICU) services. We determined the characteristics and state-level distribution and density of specialized care centers (centers per state and centers per state population). Among 4,931 acute care hospitals in the United States, 1,325 (26.9%) provided one of the 4 defined specialized care services, including 574 STEMI, 763 stroke, 508 trauma, and 457 pediatric critical care centers. Approximately half of the 1,325 hospitals provided 2 or more specialized services, and one fifth provided 3 or 4 specialized services. There was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center in each state: STEMI median 7 interquartile range (IQR 2 to 14), stroke 8 (IQR 3 to 17), trauma 6 (IQR 3 to 11), pediatric specialized care 6 (IQR 3 to 11). Similarly, there was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center per population: STEMI median 1 center per 585,135 persons (IQR 418,729 to 696,143), stroke 1 center per 412,188 persons (IQR 321,604 to 572,387), trauma 1 center per 610,589 persons (IQR 406,192 to 917,588), and pediatric critical care 1 center per 665

  18. The functionality of canoeists specializing in competitive distance 200 meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Penchen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of reactive properties to realize the potential of canoeist of south-east Asia specializing in the 200 meters established on a specialized focus of the training process sprinter. The parameters of functionality of athletes based on integrated aerobic and anaerobic ensure competitive distance of 200 m. They are based on assessing level of aerobic power and capacity of energy supply and properties of the cardiorespiratory system in actively increasing metabolic acidosis.

  19. Deformation of high-speed meteor bodies by the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, I V; Gorshkov, A V

    2012-01-01

    We model the deformation that a meteorite can undergo during its passage through the atmosphere. First, the pressure distribution around a solid body in a flow was measured in a wind tunnel. Second, the deformation of molten tin droplets with different temperatures dropped into water was observed. Finally, a mathematical model of the fall was constructed to determine what pressure the meteorite experiences in the atmosphere and whether it is enough to deform it. (paper)

  20. A view of the upper atmosphere from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rycroft, M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the phenomena associated with the earth's upper atmosphere, as detected from field stations on the Antarctic continent. A description is given of the earth's atmosphere, including the auroral regions, the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Geospace phenomena investigated from the Antarctic are described, and include whistlers, chorus and trimpi events. The earth's geomagnetic field is measured at several Antarctic stations. Possibilities for future projects in Antarctica are also discussed. (U.K.)

  1. The Principle of Relativity and the Indeterminacy of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial--but,…

  2. Planet map generation by tetrahedral subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  3. Special Features of the Air to Space Neutron Transport Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    an atmosphere model. Radioactive Decay Free neutrons are not stable elementary particles. They decay radioactively with a half- life of around ten...milliseconds to seconds, so that radioactive decay of neutrons is negligible. (The probability of decay in 100 milliseconds with a 10 minute half- life is...the bottom and top of a layer are 1bZ - and bZ respectively. The methods developed here apply to any planet with an atmosphere and an orbiting

  4. Natural sources of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P

    1958-01-01

    Various gaseous pollutants including ozone, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, hydrogen, formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, chlorine compounds and free radicals can be formed by natural processes such as ultraviolet photochemical processes in the upper atmosphere and microbiological processes. The modes of formation and destruction of these gases, especially of their concentrations in the atmosphere, and the various reactions in which these gases can participate with each other are discussed in detail. 114 references.

  5. Numerical methods of estimating the dispersion of radionuclides in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladu, Mihaela; Ghitulescu, Alina; Popescu, Gheorghe; Piciorea, Iuliana

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the method of dispersion calculation, witch can be applied for the DLE calculation. This is necessary to ensure a secure performance of the Experimental Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation (using the technology for detritiation based upon isotope catalytic exchange between tritiated heavy water and deuterium followed by cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes). For the calculation of the dispersion of radioactivity effluents in the atmosphere, at a given distance between source and receiver, the Gaussian mathematical model was used. This model is currently applied for estimating the long-term results of dispersion in case of continuous or intermittent emissions as basic information for long-term radioprotection measures for areas of the order of kilometres from the source. We have considered intermittent or continuous emissions of intensity lower than 1% per day relative to the annual emission. It is supposed that the radioactive material released into environment presents a gaussian dispersion both in horizontal and vertical plan. The local dispersion parameters could be determined directly with turbulence measurements or indirectly by determination of atmospheric stability. Weather parameters for characterizing the atmospheric dispersion include: - direction of wind relative to the source; - the speed of the wind at the height of emission; - parameters of dispersion to different distances, depending on the atmospheric turbulence which characterizes the mixing of radioactive materials in the atmosphere; - atmospheric stability range; - the height of mixture stratum; - the type and intensity of precipitations. The choice of the most adequate version of Gaussian model depends on the relation among the height where effluent emission is in progress, H (m), and the height at which the buildings influence the air motion, HB (m). There were defined three zones of distinct dispersion. This zones can have variable lengths

  6. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J; Ebel, A; Lippert, E; Petry, H [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1998-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  7. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  8. PIXE analysis: an option for the study of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, U.F.

    1989-01-01

    Several techniques have been utilized in studying atmospheric contamination samples. However, each lack some characteristics required for these studies. Spectroscopy of X-rays particularly where excitation models are produced using charged particles (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE), for its high sensitivity, is the one that best fitting itself to the scheme of analysis required. In this paper we report some qualitative results of the atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Mexico City. (Author)

  9. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  10. A comparison of the WIND System atmospheric models and RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the characteristics of the WIND System atmospheric models and the NRC's RASCAL code was made. The modeling systems differ substantially in the way input is entered and the way output is displayed. Nevertheless, using the same source term and meteorological input parameters, the WIND System atmospheric models and RASCAL produce similar results in most situations. The WIND System atmospheric model predictions and those made by RASCAL are within a factor of two at least 70% of the time and are within a factor of four 89% of the time. Significant differences in the dose between the models may occur during conditions of low wind speeds, strong atmospheric stability, and/or wet deposition as well as for many atmospheric cases involving cloud shine. Even though the numerical results are similar in most cases, there are many site-specific and operational characteristics that have been incorporated into the WIND System atmospheric models to provide SRS emergency response personnel with a more effective emergency response tool than is currently available from using RASCAL

  11. Unconditioned stimulus pathways to the amygdala: effects of lesions of the posterior intralaminar thalamus on foot-shock-induced c-Fos expression in the subdivisions of the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, E; Moncho-Bogani, J; Ledoux, J E

    2008-08-26

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a site of convergence for auditory (conditioned stimulus) and foot-shock (unconditioned stimulus) inputs during fear conditioning. The auditory pathways to LA are well characterized, but less is known about the pathways through which foot shock is transmitted. Anatomical tracing and physiological recording studies suggest that the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus, which projects to LA, receives both auditory and somatosensory inputs. In the present study we examined the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in the LA in rats in response to foot-shock stimulation. We then determined the effects of posterior intralaminar thalamic lesions on foot-shock-induced c-Fos expression in the LA. Foot-shock stimulation led to an increase in the density of c-Fos-positive cells in all LA subnuclei in comparison to controls exposed to the conditioning box but not shocked. However, some differences among the dorsolateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial subnuclei were observed. The ventrolateral subnucleus showed a homogeneous activation throughout its antero-posterior extension. In contrast, only the rostral aspect of the ventromedial subnucleus and the central aspect of the dorsolateral subnucleus showed a significant increment in c-Fos expression. The density of c-Fos-labeled cells in all LA subnuclei was also increased in animals placed in the box in comparison to untreated animals. Unilateral electrolytic lesions of the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus and the medial division of the medial geniculate body reduced foot-shock-induced c-Fos activation in the LA ipsilateral to the lesion. The number of c-Fos labeled cells on the lesioned side was reduced to the levels observed in the animals exposed only to the box. These results indicate that the LA is involved in processing information about the foot-shock unconditioned stimulus and receives this kind of somatosensory information from the posterior intralaminar

  12. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  13. The Texts of the Agency's Relationship Agreements with Specialized Agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The texts of the relationship agreements which the Agency has concluded with the specialized agencies listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  14. The Texts of the Agency's Relationship Agreements with Specialized Agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The texts of the relationship agreements which the Agency has concluded with the specialized agencies listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [fr

  15. The Texts of the Agency's Relationship Agreements with Specialized Agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The texts of the relationship agreements which the Agency has concluded with the specialized agencies listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  16. Lidar: range-resolved optical remote sensing of the atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weitkamp, Claus; Walther, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    "Written by leading experts in optical radar, or lidar, this book brings all the recent practices up-to-date and covers a multitude of applications, from atmospheric sciences to environmental protection...

  17. Infrared radiation in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordiets, B.F.; Markov, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of the infrared radiation to the energy balance of the Earth's upper atmosphere is discussed. The theoretical analysis has been carried out of the mechanisms of the transformation of the energy of outgoing particles and the ultraviolet-radiation of the Sun absorbed at the heights of Z >= 90 km into the infrared radiation. It is found out the the infrared radiation within the wave length range of 1.2-20 μ is more intensive that the 63 μ radiation of atomic oxygen and plays an important role in the general energy balance and the thermal regime of the thermosphere. It has been found out too that in the area of Z >= 120 km heights the radiation in the 5.3 μ NO band is the most intensive. This radiation is to be considered for the more accurate description of parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, density) conditioning the nature of the translocation of ionospheric sounds (ISS)

  18. Military Special Use Airspace: Atlantic / Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Military Special Use Airspace is airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because of...

  19. Roles and responsibilities of the special-section editor

    KAUST Repository

    Marfurt, Kurt; Schuster, Gerald; Danker, Sheral; Nemeth, Balazs; Bui, Huyen; Zeng, Hongliu

    2017-01-01

    , there are two additional advantages of the special-section format. First, the journal broadens the scope of contributors beyond those whose career advancement (typically in academia and in government laboratories) requires them to publish in peer

  20. Fusibility diagram and phase composition of special section ZrO2-MgCr2O4 in oxidative and inert atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennikov, S.G.; Revzin, G.E.; Chistyakova, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Using the differential-thermal and microroentgenospectral analyses fusibility diagram is built and phase transformations in subsolidus region of partial cross-section ZrO 2 -MgCr 2 O 4 in the air and in argon atmosphere are studied. It is established that the system studied is attributed to simple eutectics, with the eutectics composition 43 mol.%ZrO 2 and temperature 2005+-15 deg C. Mutual solubility of components is of a limited character. Using the methods of roentgenography and by thermodynamical calculations it has been shown that above 1300 K in oxidative atmosphere enrichment of samples with magnesium oxide and their composition sift to the field of elementary triangle take place

  1. The relationship between hospital specialization and hospital efficiency: do different measures of specialization lead to different results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindlbauer, Ivonne; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between hospital specialization and technical efficiency using different measures of specialization, including two novel approaches based on patient volumes rather than patient proportions. It was motivated by the observation that most studies to date have quantified hospital specialization using information about hospital patients grouped into different categories based on their diagnosis, and in doing so have used proportions-thus indirectly assuming that these categories are dependent on one other. In order to account for the diversification of organizations and the idea that hospitals can be specialized in terms of professional expertise or technical equipment within a given diagnosis category, we developed our two specialization measures based on patient volume in each category. Using a one-step stochastic frontier approach on randomly selected data from the annual reports of 1,239 acute care German hospitals for the years 2000 through 2010, we estimated the relationship of inefficiency to exogenous variables, such as specialization. The results show that specialization as quantified by our novel measures has effects on efficiency that are the opposite of those obtained using earlier measures of specialization. These results underscore the importance of always providing an exact definition of specialization when studying its effects. Additionally, a Monte Carlo simulation based on three scenarios is provided to facilitate the choice of a specialization measure for further analysis.

  2. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  3. Special functions and the theory of group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, N Ja

    1968-01-01

    A standard scheme for a relation between special functions and group representation theory is the following: certain classes of special functions are interpreted as matrix elements of irreducible representations of a certain Lie group, and then properties of special functions are related to (and derived from) simple well-known facts of representation theory. The book combines the majority of known results in this direction. In particular, the author describes connections between the exponential functions and the additive group of real numbers (Fourier analysis), Legendre and Jacobi polynomials and representations of the group SU(2), and the hypergeometric function and representations of the group SL(2,R), as well as many other classes of special functions.

  4. Dynamics of general and specially trained of women-weightlifters at the stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Slobodyanuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the general and special training of women-weightlifters different groups weight categories for annual macrocycle at the stage of specialized basic training. Materials and Methods: indexes long jump, running 30 meters, push-ups, jumps on how Abalakova index and wrist strength athletes different schools of Ukraine. Results: found dynamic indicators of general and special training of women-weightlifters different groups weight categories at the stage of basic training six specialized schools in Ukraine. Conclusions: the results of the study provide an opportunity to consider certain indicators in planning differentiated training programs to improve the training process athletes for women-weightlifters at the stage of specialized basic training different groups weight categories in the annual macrocycle.

  5. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  6. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  7. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, M.A.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  8. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T

  9. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  10. The homeostatic astroglia emerges from evolutionary specialization of neural cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of the nervous system progressed through cellular diversification and specialization of functions. Conceptually, the nervous system is composed from electrically excitable neuronal networks connected with chemical synapses and non-excitable glial cells that provide for homeostasis...

  11. The Online Specialization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Hong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  12. Program report for FY 1980. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Orphan, R.C.

    1981-02-01

    The FY 1980 research program conducted by the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division and supporting segments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is reviewed briefly. The work is divided into five research themes: advanced modeling, regional modeling and assessments, CO 2 and climate research, stratospheric research, and special projects. Specific projects are described, and significant findings of the work are indicated. Unique numerical modeling capabilities in use and under development are described

  13. The dynamics in the upper atmospheres of Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared M.

    2008-06-01

    This thesis explores the dynamics of two terrestrial bodies: Mars and Titan. At Mars, the coupled Mars General Circulation Model - Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MGCM-MTGCM) is employed to investigate the phenomenon known as Mars winter polar warming. At Titan, a new theoretical model, the Titan Global Ionosphere - Thermosphere Model (T-GITM), is developed, based upon previous work by Ridley et al. [2006]. Using this new model, three separate numerical studies quantify the impacts of solar cycle, seasons, and lower boundary zonal winds on the Titan thermosphere structure and dynamics. At Mars, this thesis investigates thermospheric winter polar warming through three major studies: (1) a systematic analysis of vertical dust mixing in the lower atmosphere and its impact upon the dynamics of the lower thermosphere (100-130 km), (2) an interannual investigation utilizing three years of lower atmosphere infrared (IR) dust optical depth data acquired by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), and finally (3) a brief study of the MTGCM's response to variations in upward propagating waves and tides from the lower atmosphere. Ultimately, this investigation suggests that an interhemispheric summer-to-winter Hadley circulation, originating in the lower atmosphere and extending into the upper atmosphere, is responsible for thermospheric winter polar warming [ Bell etal. , 2007]. A major branch of this thesis builds upon the previous work of Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000], Müller-Wodarg et al. [2003], M7uuml;ller-Wodarg et al. [2006], and Yelle et al. [2006] as it attempts to explain the structures in Titan's upper atmosphere, between 500-1500 km. Building also upon the recent development of GITM by Ridley et al. [2006], this thesis presents a new theoretical framework, T-GITM. This model is then employed to conduct a series of numerical experiments to quantify the impacts of the solar cycle, the season, and the

  14. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Electrical Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Galichenko, Sergey V.; Aphinogenov, Konstantin V.; Prokhorchuk, Aleksandr A.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the chaotic motion of charged particles carried by turbulent eddies, electrical quantities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have short-term variability superimposed on long-term variability caused by sources from regional to global scales. In this study the influence of radon exhalation rate, aerosol distribution and turbulent transport efficiency on the variability of fair-weather atmospheric electricity is investigated via Lagrangian stochastic modelling. For the mid-latitude lower atmosphere undisturbed by precipitation, electrified clouds, or thunderstorms, the model is capable of reproducing the diurnal variation in atmospheric electrical parameters detected by ground-based measurements. Based on the analysis of field observations and numerical simulation it is found that the development of the convective boundary layer, accompanied by an increase in turbulent kinetic energy, forms the vertical distribution of radon and its decaying short-lived daughters to be approximately coincident with the barometric law for several eddy turnover times. In the daytime ABL the vertical distribution of atmospheric electrical conductivity tends to be uniform except within the surface layer, due to convective mixing of radon and its radioactive decay products. At the same time, a decrease in the conductivity near the ground is usually observed. This effect leads to an enhanced ground-level atmospheric electric field compared to that normally observed in the nocturnal stably-stratified boundary layer. The simulation showed that the variability of atmospheric electric field in the ABL associated with internal origins is significant in comparison to the variability related to changes in global parameters. It is suggested that vertical profiles of electrical quantities can serve as informative parameters on ABL turbulent dynamics and can even more broadly characterize the state of the environment.

  15. Atmospheric water vapor: Distribution and Empirical estimation in the atmosphere of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phokate, S.

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a crucial component of the Earth’s atmosphere, which is shown by precipitable water vapor. It is calculated from the upper air data. In Thailand, the data were collected from four measuring stations located in Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Bangkok, and Songkhla during the years 1998-2013. The precipitable water vapor obtained from this investigation were used to define an empirical model associated with the vapor pressure, which is a surface data at the same stations. The result shows that the relationship has a relatively high level of reliability. The precipitable water vapor obtained from the upper air data is nearly equal to the value from the model. The model was used to calculate the precipitable water vapor from the surface data 85 stations across the country. The result shows that seasonal change of the precipitable water vapor was low in the dry season (November-April) and high in the rainy season (May-October). In addition, precipitable water vapor varies along the latitudes of the stations. The high value obtains for low latitudes, but it is low for high latitudes.

  16. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  17. Illusion and reality in the atmospheres of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, L. Drake; Seager, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheres of exoplanets reveal all their properties beyond mass, radius, and orbit. Based on bulk densities, we know that exoplanets larger than 1.5 Earth radii must have gaseous envelopes and, hence, atmospheres. We discuss contemporary techniques for characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. The measurements are difficult, because—even in current favorable cases—the signals can be as small as 0.001% of the host star's flux. Consequently, some early results have been illusory and not confirmed by subsequent investigations. Prominent illusions to date include polarized scattered light, temperature inversions, and the existence of carbon planets. The field moves from the first tentative and often incorrect conclusions, converging to the reality of exoplanetary atmospheres. That reality is revealed using transits for close-in exoplanets and direct imaging for young or massive exoplanets in distant orbits. Several atomic and molecular constituents have now been robustly detected in exoplanets as small as Neptune. In our current observations, the effects of clouds and haze appear ubiquitous. Topics at the current frontier include the measurement of heavy element abundances in giant planets, detection of carbon-based molecules, measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles, definition of heat circulation efficiencies for tidally locked planets, and the push to detect and characterize the atmospheres of super-Earths. Future observatories for this quest include the James Webb Space Telescope and the new generation of extremely large telescopes on the ground. On a more distant horizon, NASA's study concepts for the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) and the Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) missions could extend the study of exoplanetary atmospheres to true twins of Earth.

  18. The atmosphere of Mars - Detection of krypton and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Biemann, K.; Biller, J. E.; Lafleur, A. L.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Krypton and xenon have been discovered in the Martian atmosphere with the mass spectrometer on the second Viking lander. Krypton is more abundant than xenon. The relative abundances of the krypton isotopes appear normal, but the ratio of xenon-129 to xenon-132 is enhanced on Mars relative to the terrestrial value for this ratio. Some possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Generalization of binary tensor product schemes depends upon four parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.; Bari, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with general formulae of parametric and non parametric bivariate subdivision scheme with four parameters. By assigning specific values to those parameters we get some special cases of existing tensor product schemes as well as a new proposed scheme. The behavior of schemes produced by the general formulae is interpolating, approximating and relaxed. Approximating bivariate subdivision schemes produce some other surfaces as compared to interpolating bivariate subdivision schemes. Polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation are desirable properties of subdivision schemes. Capability of polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation is strongly connected with smoothness, sum rules, convergence and approximation order. We also calculate the polynomial generation and polynomial reproduction of 9-point bivariate approximating subdivision scheme. Comparison of polynomial reproduction, polynomial generation and continuity of existing and proposed schemes has also been established. Some numerical examples are also presented to show the behavior of bivariate schemes. (author)

  20. Specialized case tools for the development of the accounting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an approach to building specialized CASE tools for the development of accounting applications. These tools form an integrated development environment allowing the computer aided development of the different applications in this field. This development environment consists of a formula interpreter, ...

  1. Finally Making Good on the Promise of Qualitative Research in Special Education? A Response to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In this response to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…

  2. The role of the independent neuropsychologist in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurewitz, Felicia; Kerr, Sonja

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychologists are playing an increasing role in special education. We explain steps that neuropsychologists can take to ethically and effectively approach the "quasi-forensic" role of independent evaluator. Because neuropsychologists may provide reports for treatment, school programming, and legal disputes, it is important that they are familiar with the school programming process and the unique litigation procedures available for children with disabilities in special education. We provide guidelines including determining referral questions, obtaining outside information, choosing assessments, considering the legal constructs of questions, reviewing discrepant results from other evaluations and Individual Education Plans and communicating ideas.

  3. The Place of Special / Gifted Children in the Universal Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the fact that many special/gifted children are left to roam the street without any form of education. The schools have no place for such children, because even the normal children have not been properly catered for as regards spaces. The UBE is intended to ensure, that all children irrespective of their ...

  4. Features of projectile motion in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Ghassan Y

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic projectile motion in a vacuum is examined by means of elementary consequences of special relativity. Exact analytical expressions were found for the kinematics variables using basic mathematical tools. The trajectory equation was established and the area under the trajectory traversed by the relativistic projectile was determined. It was found that, unlike non-relativistic projectile motion, the launching angles that maximize both the horizontal range as well as the area under the trajectory are functions of the initial speed. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of students and serve as a resource for further problems usually encountered in the special theory of relativity

  5. On the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxel, O; Schumann, G

    1953-01-01

    The results of the use of the filter designed by Haxel show that the activity of the atmosphere at a height of 565 m on the Konigsstuhl near Heidelberg varies with the particular air mass passing over. The onset of a period of extraordinary activity due to an atomic explosion can be calculated easily from data showing the decay of this activity with time. It is shown that a particular explosion at Las Vegas took 7 days to arrive.

  6. Origin of atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Gy [Eotvos Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied.

  7. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry in the atmosphere and snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Poulain

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg. This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review Hg research taken place in Polar Regions pertaining to AMDEs, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made but the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the role that the snow pack and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg is presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does