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Sample records for special growth manner

  1. Wingless promotes proliferative growth in a gradient-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Lopez, Luis Alberto; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2009-10-06

    Morphogens form concentration gradients that organize patterns of cells and control growth. It has been suggested that, rather than the intensity of morphogen signaling, it is its gradation that is the relevant modulator of cell proliferation. According to this view, the ability of morphogens to regulate growth during development depends on their graded distributions. Here, we describe an experimental test of this model for Wingless, one of the key organizers of wing development in Drosophila. Maximal Wingless signaling suppresses cellular proliferation. In contrast, we found that moderate and uniform amounts of exogenous Wingless, even in the absence of endogenous Wingless, stimulated proliferative growth. Beyond a few cell diameters from the source, Wingless was relatively constant in abundance and thus provided a homogeneous growth-promoting signal. Although morphogen signaling may act in combination with as yet uncharacterized graded growth-promoting pathways, we suggest that the graded nature of morphogen signaling is not required for proliferation, at least in the developing Drosophila wing, during the main period of growth.

  2. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  3. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P Cartwright

    Full Text Available The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose, 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol, L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  4. IGFBP-4 regulates adult skeletal growth in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridas, David E; DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Mohan, Subburaman; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins are critical mediators of skeletal growth. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is highly expressed in osteoblasts and inhibits IGF-1 actions in vitro Yet, in vivo studies suggest that it could potentiate IGF-1 and IGF-2 actions. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP-4 might potentiate the actions of IGF-1 on the skeleton. To test this, we comprehensively studied 8- and 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- mice. Both male and female adult Igfbp4 -/- mice had marked growth retardation with reductions in body weight, body and femur lengths, fat proportion and lean mass at 8 and 16 weeks. Marked reductions in aBMD and aBMC were observed in 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- females, but not in males. Femoral trabecular BV/TV and thickness, cortical fraction and thickness in 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- females were significantly reduced. However, surprisingly, males had significantly more trabeculae with higher connectivity density than controls. Concordantly, histomorphometry revealed higher bone resorption and lower bone formation in Igfbp4 -/- females. In contrast, Igfbp4 -/- males had lower mineralized surface/bone surface. Femoral expression of Sost and circulating levels of sclerostin were reduced but only in Igfbp4 -/- males. Bone marrow stromal cultures from mutants showed increased osteogenesis, whereas osteoclastogenesis was markedly increased in cells from Igfbp4 -/- females but decreased in males. In sum, our results indicate that loss of Igfbp4 affects mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation, regulates osteoclastogenesis and influences both skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thus, IGFBP-4 modulates the skeleton in a gender-specific manner, acting as both a cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous factor. © 2017 The authors.

  5. Plasmin-driven fibrinolysis facilitates skin tumor growth in a gender-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Andreas; Eickhardt, Hanne; Maerkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard

    2012-01-01

    deficiency was due to thrombosis and lost patency of the tumor vasculature, resulting in tumor necrosis. The connection between plasmin-dependent fibrinolysis, vascular patency, and tumor growth was further substantiated as the effect of plasminogen deficiency on tumor growth could be reverted...

  6. B16 melanoma tumor growth is delayed in mice in an age-dependent manner

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for cancer is increasing age, which suggests that syngeneic tumor implants in old mice would grow more rapidly. However, various reports have suggested that old mice are not as permissive to implanted tumor cells as young mice. In order to determine and characterize the age-related response to B16 melanoma, we implanted 5×105 tumor cells into 8, 16, 24, and 32-month-old male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6×BALB/c F1 (CB6 F1 mice subcutaneously in the inguinal and axillary spaces, or intradermally in the lateral flank. Results showed decreased tumor volume with increasing age, which varied according to mouse genetic background and the implanted site. The B6 strain showed robust tumor growth at 8 months of age at the inguinal implantation site, with an average tumor volume of 1341.25 mm3. The 16, 24, and 32-month age groups showed a decrease in tumor growth with tumor volumes of 563.69, 481.02, and 264.55 mm3, respectively (p≤0.001. The axillary implantation site was less permissive in 8-month-old B6 mice with an average tumor volume of 761.52 mm3. The 24- and 32-month age groups showed a similar decrease in tumor growth with tumor volumes of 440 and 178.19 mm3, respectively (p≤0.01. The CB6F1 strain was not as tumor permissive at 8 months of age as B6 mice with average tumor volumes of 446.96 and 426.91 mm3 for the inguinal and axillary sites, respectively. There was a decrease in tumor growth at 24 months of age at both inguinal and axillary sites with an average tumor volume of 271.02 and 249.12 mm3, respectively (p≤0.05. The strain dependence was not apparent in 8-month-old mice injected intradermally with B16 melanoma cells, with average tumor volumes of 736.82 and 842.85 mm3 for B6 and CB6 F1, respectively. However, a strain difference was seen in 32-month-old B6 mice with an average decrease in tumor volume of 250.83 mm3 (p≤0.01. In contrast, tumor growth significantly decreased earlier in CB6 F1 mice with average

  7. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

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    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  8. Peripubertal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Longitudinal Bone Growth in Immature Male Rats in a Dose- and Time-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Young; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Jisook; Choi, Hyeonhae; Shin, Jiwon; Roh, Jaesook

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dose- and time-dependent effects of caffeine consumption throughout puberty in peripubertal rats. A total of 85 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and caffeine-fed groups with 20, 60, or 120 mg/kg/day through oral gavage for 10, 20, 30, or 40 days. Caffeine decreased body weight gain and food consumption in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by a reduction in muscle and body fat. In addition, it caused a shortening and lightening of leg bones and spinal column. The total height of the growth plate decreased sharply at 40 days in the controls, but not in the caffeine-fed groups, and the height of hypertrophic zone in the caffeine-fed groups was lower than in the control. Caffeine increased the height of the secondary spongiosa, whereas parameters related to bone formation, such as bone area ratio, thickness and number of trabeculae, and bone perimeter, were significantly reduced. Furthermore, serum levels of IGF-1, estradiol, and testosterone were also reduced by the dose of caffeine exposure. Our results demonstrate that caffeine consumption can dose- and time-dependently inhibit longitudinal bone growth in immature male rats, possibly by blocking the physiologic changes in body composition and hormones relevant to bone growth.

  9. Quorum sensing influences Vibrio harveyi growth rates in a manner not fully accounted for by the marker effect of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackerdien, Zeena E; Keynan, Alexander; Bassler, Bonnie L; Lederberg, Joshua; Thaler, David S

    2008-02-27

    The light-emitting Vibrios provide excellent material for studying the interaction of cellular communication with growth rate because bioluminescence is a convenient marker for quorum sensing. However, the use of bioluminescence as a marker is complicated because bioluminescence itself may affect growth rate, e.g. by diverting energy. The marker effect was explored via growth rate studies in isogenic Vibrio harveyi (Vh) strains altered in quorum sensing on the one hand, and bioluminescence on the other. By hypothesis, growth rate is energy limited: mutants deficient in quorum sensing grow faster because wild type quorum sensing unleashes bioluminescence and bioluminescence diverts energy. Findings reported here confirm a role for bioluminescence in limiting Vh growth rate, at least under the conditions tested. However, the results argue that the bioluminescence is insufficient to explain the relationship of growth rate and quorum sensing in Vh. A Vh mutant null for all genes encoding the bioluminescence pathway grew faster than wild type but not as fast as null mutants in quorum sensing. Vh quorum sensing mutants showed altered growth rates that do not always rank with their relative increase or decrease in bioluminescence. In addition, the cell-free culture fluids of a rapidly growing Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) strain increased the growth rate of wild type Vh without significantly altering Vh's bioluminescence. The same cell-free culture fluid increased the bioluminescence of Vh quorum mutants. The effect of quorum sensing on Vh growth rate can be either positive or negative and includes both bioluminescence-dependent and independent components. Bioluminescence tends to slow growth rate but not enough to account for the effects of quorum sensing on growth rate.

  10. Quorum sensing influences Vibrio harveyi growth rates in a manner not fully accounted for by the marker effect of bioluminescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeena E Nackerdien

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The light-emitting Vibrios provide excellent material for studying the interaction of cellular communication with growth rate because bioluminescence is a convenient marker for quorum sensing. However, the use of bioluminescence as a marker is complicated because bioluminescence itself may affect growth rate, e.g. by diverting energy.The marker effect was explored via growth rate studies in isogenic Vibrio harveyi (Vh strains altered in quorum sensing on the one hand, and bioluminescence on the other. By hypothesis, growth rate is energy limited: mutants deficient in quorum sensing grow faster because wild type quorum sensing unleashes bioluminescence and bioluminescence diverts energy. Findings reported here confirm a role for bioluminescence in limiting Vh growth rate, at least under the conditions tested. However, the results argue that the bioluminescence is insufficient to explain the relationship of growth rate and quorum sensing in Vh. A Vh mutant null for all genes encoding the bioluminescence pathway grew faster than wild type but not as fast as null mutants in quorum sensing. Vh quorum sensing mutants showed altered growth rates that do not always rank with their relative increase or decrease in bioluminescence. In addition, the cell-free culture fluids of a rapidly growing Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp strain increased the growth rate of wild type Vh without significantly altering Vh's bioluminescence. The same cell-free culture fluid increased the bioluminescence of Vh quorum mutants.The effect of quorum sensing on Vh growth rate can be either positive or negative and includes both bioluminescence-dependent and independent components. Bioluminescence tends to slow growth rate but not enough to account for the effects of quorum sensing on growth rate.

  11. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 regulates angiogenesis in a transforming growth factor β-dependent manner in human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuan; Shan, Jinlu; Dai, Nan; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Qing, Yi; Yang, Yuxing; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Chongyi; Sui, Jiangdong; Ren, Tao; Li, Mengxia; Wang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis and has been reported to be inversely correlated with overall survival of osteosarcoma patients. It has been shown that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a dually functional protein possessing both base excision repair and redox activities, is involved in tumor angiogenesis, although these mechanisms are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that the expression of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) was significantly reduced in APE1-deficient osteosarcoma cells. Transforming growth factor β promotes cancer metastasis through various mechanisms including immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and invasion. In the current study, we initially revealed that APE1, TGFβ, and microvessel density (MVD) have pairwise correlation in osteosarcoma tissue samples, whereas TGFβ, tumor size, and MVD were inversely related to the prognosis of the cohort. We found that knocking down APE1 in osteosarcoma cells resulted in TGFβ downregulation. In addition, APE1-siRNA led to suppression of angiogenesis in vitro based on HUVECs in Transwell and Matrigel tube formation assays. Reduced secretory protein level of TGFβ of culture medium also resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Smad3 of HUVECs. In a mouse xenograft model, siRNA-mediated silencing of APE1 downregulated TGFβ expression, tumor size, and MVD. Collectively, the current evidence indicates that APE1 regulates angiogenesis in osteosarcoma by controlling the TGFβ pathway, suggesting a novel target for anti-angiogenesis therapy in human osteosarcoma. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

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    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  13. Maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy causes fetal growth restriction in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner.

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    Shen, Ru; Zhao, Ling-Li; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is male developmental toxicant that impairs testis development with reduced anogenital distance. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal DEHP exposure during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a gender-specific manner and to identify the critical window of DEHP-induced fetal IUGR. Pregnant mice were administered with DEHP (0, 50 or 200mg/kg) by gavage. Fetal IUGR was observed not only in males but also in females when litters were exposed to DEHP on gestational day (GD)0-GD17. Interestingly, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced, markedly in dams with DEHP on GD13-GD17, slightly in dams with on GD7-GD12, but not in dams with on GD0-GD6. Further analysis showed that maternal DEHP exposure on GD7-GD12 inhibited cell proliferation, lowered placental weight, and reduced blood sinusoid area in placental labyrinth layer. These results suggest that maternal DEHP exposure induces IUGR in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles combined with actein suppress non-small-cell lung cancer growth in a p53-dependent manner

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    Wang MS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Shan Wang,1 Liang Chen,2 Ya-Qiong Xiong,2 Jing Xu,2 Ji-Peng Wang,2 Zi-Li Meng2 1Department of Oncology, Huaiyin Hospital of Huai’an City, Huai’an, China; 2Department of Respiration, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, China Abstract: Actein (AT is a triterpene glycoside isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida that has been investigated for its antitumor effects. AT treatment leads to apoptosis in various cell types, including breast cancer cells, by regulating different signaling pathways. Iron oxide (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are nanomaterials with biocompatible activity and low toxicity. In the present study, the possible benefits of AT in combination with MNPs on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC were explored in in vitro and in vivo studies. AT-MNP treatment contributed to apoptosis in NSCLC cells, as evidenced by activation of the caspase 3-signaling pathway, which was accompanied by downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL, and upregulation of the proapoptotic signals Bax and Bad. The death receptors of TRAIL were also elevated following AT-MNP treatment in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model in vivo revealed that AT-MNP treatment exhibited no toxicity and suppressed NSCLC growth compared to either AT or MNP monotherapies. In conclusion, this study suggests a novel therapy to induce apoptosis in suppressing NSCLC growth in a p53-dependent manner by combining AT with Fe3O4 MNPs. Keywords: actein, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, NSCLC, apoptosis, p53

  15. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins.

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    Seong, Hyun-A; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Ha, Hyunjung

    2007-04-20

    We have reported previously that PDK1 physically interacts with STRAP, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor-interacting protein, and enhances STRAP-induced inhibition of TGF-beta signaling. In this study we show that PDK1 coimmunoprecipitates with Smad proteins, including Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7, and that this association is mediated by the pleckstrin homology domain of PDK1. The association between PDK1 and Smad proteins is increased by insulin treatment but decreased by TGF-beta treatment. Analysis of the interacting proteins shows that Smad proteins enhance PDK1 kinase activity by removing 14-3-3, a negative regulator of PDK1, from the PDK1-14-3-3 complex. Knockdown of endogenous Smad proteins, including Smad3 and Smad7, by transfection with small interfering RNA produced the opposite trend and decreased PDK1 activity, protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation, and Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, coexpression of Smad proteins and wild-type PDK1 inhibits TGF-beta-induced transcription, as well as TGF-beta-mediated biological functions, such as apoptosis and cell growth arrest. Inhibition was dose-dependent on PDK1, but no inhibition was observed in the presence of an inactive kinase-dead PDK1 mutant. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that wild-type PDK1 prevents translocation of Smad3 and Smad4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as the redistribution of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to TGF-beta. Taken together, our results suggest that PDK1 negatively regulates TGF-beta-mediated signaling in a PDK1 kinase-dependent manner via a direct physical interaction with Smad proteins and that Smad proteins can act as potential positive regulators of PDK1.

  16. Hemispheric Specialization and the Growth of Human Understanding.

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    Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Connectionistic notions of hemispheric specialization and use are incompatible with the network organization of the human brain. Although brain organization has correspondence with phenomena at more complex levels of analysis, the correspondence is not categorical in nature, as has been claimed by the left-brain/right-brain theorists. (Author/GC)

  17. Triiodothyronine regulates angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion by isolated human decidual cells in a cell-type specific and gestational age-dependent manner.

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    Vasilopoulou, E; Loubière, L S; Lash, G E; Ohizua, O; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S Y

    2014-06-01

    cell isolates were unaffected by T3 so changes in cell numbers could not account for any observed effects. In the first trimester, T3 decreased VEGF-A secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05) and increased angiopoietin-2 secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) but in the second trimester total decidual cells showed only increased angiogenin secretion (P < 0.05). In the first trimester, T3 reduced IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05), and reduced granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), IL-10 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.05) and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 (P < 0.001) secretion by macrophages, but increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) and increased IL-6 by uNK cells (P < 0.05). In contrast, in the second trimester T3 increased IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.01) but did not affect cytokine secretion by uNK cells and macrophages. Conditioned media from first trimester T3-treated total decidual cells and macrophages did not alter EVT invasion compared with untreated controls. Thus, treatment of decidual cells with T3 resulted in changes in both angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion in a cell type-specific and gestational age-dependent manner, with first trimester decidual macrophages being the most responsive to T3 treatment, but these changes in decidual cell secretome did not affect EVT invasion in vitro. Our results are based on in vitro findings and we cannot be certain if a similar response occurs in human pregnancy in vivo. Optimal maternal thyroid hormone concentrations could play a critical role in maintaining a balanced inflammatory response in early pregnancy to prevent fetal immune rejection and promote normal placental development through the regulation of the secretion of critical cytokines and angiogenic growth factors by human decidual cells. Our data suggest that there is an ontogenically determined regulatory 'switch' in T3

  18. Growth Hormone Resistance—Special Focus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Christoffer Soendergaard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH plays major anabolic and catabolic roles in the body and is important for regulating several aspects of growth. During an inflammatory process, cells may develop a state of GH resistance during which their response to GH stimulation is limited. In this review, we will emphasize specific mechanisms governing the formation of GH resistance in the active phase of inflammatory bowel disease. The specific molecular effects mediated through individual inflammatory mediators and processes will be highlighted to provide an overview of the transcriptional, translational and post-translational inflammation-mediated impacts on the GH receptor (GHR along with the impacts on GH-induced intracellular signaling. We also will review GH’s effects on mucosal healing and immune cells in the context of experimental colitis, human inflammatory bowel disease and in patients with short bowel syndrome.

  19. Plant growth regulators ameliorate or exacerbate abiotic and biotic stress effects on Zea mays kernel weight in a genotype-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yishi; Stutts, Lauren; Stapleton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth regulators have documented roles in plant responses to single stresses. In combined-stress environments, plants display novel genetic architecture for growth traits and the response to growth regulators is unclear. We investigated the role of plant growth regulators in combined-stress responses in Zea mays. Twelve maize inbreds were exposed to all combinations of the following stressors: drought, nitrogen, and density stress. Chemical treatments were utilized to alter balances of...

  20. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (PIGF-1 in the total population, but a sex×group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95 % CI 0·4, 21·8;P=0...

  1. Mind Your Manners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a lot of talk in the media about the loss of courtesy in modern society. By many criteria, it seems that people in general have lost a degree of politeness. Reading some of the online comments after several recent articles in The Scientist would seem to indicate that biologists have also lost their manners. This lack of basic manners alarms me not only because of the obvious danger to our sense of community, but also because this type of behavior could damage society’s positive perception of scientists. Every time scientists (or anonymous bloggers posing as scientists) rant about the idiocy of someone who disagrees with them, our collective credibility erodes. Yes, there are a number of issues that we as scientists should be passionate about, but our objectives are best served by retaining an objective demeanor and respecting those to whom we happen to disagree.

  2. Childhood growth and development associated with need for full-time special education at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerkoski, Minna; Aberg, Laura; Hoikkala, Marianne; Sarna, Seppo; Kaski, Markus; Autti, Taina; Heiskala, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    To explore how growth measurements and attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood reflect the need for full-time special education (SE). After stratification in this population-based study, 900 pupils in full-time SE groups (age-range 7-16 years, mean 12 years 8 months) at three levels and 301 pupils in mainstream education (age-range 7-16, mean 12 years 9 months) provided data on height and weight from birth to age 7 years and head circumference to age 1 year. Developmental screening was evaluated from age 1 month to 48 months. Statistical methods included a general linear model (growth measurements), binary logistic regression analysis (odds ratios for growth), and multinomial logistic regression analysis (odds ratios for developmental milestones). At 1 year, a 1 standard deviation score (SDS) decrease in height raised the probability of SE placement by 40%, and a 1 SDS decrease in head size by 28%. In developmental screening, during the first months of life the gross motor milestones, especially head support, differentiated the children at levels 0-3. Thereafter, the fine motor milestones and those related to speech and social skills became more important. Children whose growth is mildly impaired, though in the normal range, and who fail to attain certain developmental milestones have an increased probability for SE and thus a need for special attention when toddlers age. Similar to the growth curves, these children seem to have consistent developmental curves (patterns).

  3. Vasohibin 2 promotes human luminal breast cancer angiogenesis in a non-paracrine manner via transcriptional activation of fibroblast growth factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Min; Lu, Cheng; Lv, Nan; Wei, Jishu; Lu, Zipeng; Xi, Chunhua; Chen, Jianmin; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Kuirong; Li, Qiang; Wu, Junli; Song, Guoxin; Wang, Shui; Gao, Wentao; Miao, Yi

    2016-12-28

    Vasohibin 2 (VASH2) is an angiogenic factor and cancer-related protein that acts via paracrine mechanisms. Here, we investigated the angiogenic function and mechanism of action of VASH2 in 200 human breast cancer tissues by performing immunohistochemical staining, western blot, indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a semi-quantitative sandwich-based antibody array. Breast cancer cells stably overexpressing VASH2 or with knocked-down VASH2 were established and used for in vivo and in vitro models. In human luminal tissue, but not in HER2-positive or basal-like breast cancer tissues, VASH2 was positively correlated with CD31-positive microvascular density, induced angiogenesis in xenograft tumors, and promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VASH2 expression was absent in the concentrated conditioned medium collected from knocked-down VASH2 and VASH2-overexpressing luminal breast cancer cells. Further, VASH2 regulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in human luminal breast cancer cells, and the pro-angiogenic effect induced by VASH2 overexpression was blocked by FGF2 neutralization in vitro. Additionally, dual luciferase reporter assay and Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis results showed that FGF2 promoter was transcriptionally activated by VASH2 via histone modifications. In conclusion, VASH2 expression is positively correlated with FGF2 expression and promotes angiogenesis in human luminal breast cancer by transcriptional activation of fibroblast growth factor 2 through non-paracrine mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligman, L.H.; Murphy, G.F. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm)doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermic in association with the UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity. (Author).

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 activation in mammary tumor cells promotes macrophage recruitment in a CX3CL1-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna R Reed

    Full Text Available Tumor formation is an extensive process requiring complex interactions that involve both tumor cell-intrinsic pathways and soluble mediators within the microenvironment. Tumor cells exploit the intrinsic functions of many soluble molecules, including chemokines and their receptors, to regulate pro-tumorigenic phenotypes that are required for growth and progression of the primary tumor. Previous studies have shown that activation of inducible FGFR1 (iFGFR1 in mammary epithelial cells resulted in increased proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. These studies also demonstrated that iFGFR1 activation stimulated recruitment of macrophages to the epithelium where macrophages contributed to iFGFR1-mediated epithelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The studies presented here further utilize this model to identify the mechanisms that regulate FGFR1-induced macrophage recruitment. Results from this study elucidate a novel role for the inflammatory chemokine CX3CL1 in FGFR1-induced macrophage migration. Specifically, we illustrate that activation of both the inducible FGFR1 construct in mouse mammary epithelial cells and endogenous FGFR in the triple negative breast cancer cell line, HS578T, leads to expression of the chemokine CX3CL1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FGFR-induced CX3CL1 is sufficient to recruit CX3CR1-expressing macrophages in vitro. Finally, blocking CX3CR1 in vivo leads to decreased iFGFR1-induced macrophage recruitment, which correlates with decreased angiogenesis. While CX3CL1 is a known target of FGF signaling in the wound healing environment, these studies demonstrate that FGFR activation also leads to induction of CX3CL1 in a tumor setting. Furthermore, these results define a novel role for CX3CL1 in promoting macrophage recruitment during mammary tumor formation, suggesting that the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis may represent a potential therapeutic approach for targeting breast cancers associated

  6. Paclitaxel-loaded iron platinum stealth immunomicelles are potent MRI imaging agents that prevent prostate cancer growth in a PSMA-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor RM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Robert M Taylor,1,2 Laurel O Sillerud1,31Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2New Mexico Cancer Nanoscience and Microsystems Training Center, 3UNM Cancer Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground and methods: Problems with the clinical management of prostate cancer include the lack of both specific detection and efficient therapeutic intervention. We report the encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs and paclitaxel in a mixture of polyethyleneglycolated, fluorescent, and biotin-functionalized phospholipids to create multifunctional SIPP-PTX micelles (SPMs that were conjugated to an antibody against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA for the specific targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and treatment of human prostate cancer xenografts in mice.Results: SPMs were 45.4 ± 24.9 nm in diameter and composed of 160.7 ± 22.9 µg/mL iron, 247.0 ± 33.4 µg/mL platinum, and 702.6 ± 206.0 µg/mL paclitaxel. Drug release measurements showed that, at 37°C, half of the paclitaxel was released in 30.2 hours in serum and two times faster in saline. Binding assays suggested that PSMA-targeted SPMs specifically bound to C4-2 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and released paclitaxel into the cells. In vitro, paclitaxel was 2.2 and 1.6 times more cytotoxic than SPMs to C4-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of incubation, respectively. After 72 hours of incubation, paclitaxel and SPMs were equally cytotoxic. SPMs had MRI transverse relaxivities of 389 ± 15.5 Hz/mM iron, and SIPP micelles with and without drug caused MRI contrast enhancement in vivo.Conclusion: Only PSMA-targeted SPMs and paclitaxel significantly prevented growth of C4-2 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, mice injected with PSMA-targeted SPMs showed significantly more paclitaxel and platinum in tumors, compared with nontargeted SPM-injected and paclitaxel-injected mice.Keywords: iron platinum, MRI

  7. Properties, synthesis, and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes with special focus on thermal chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Gilbert D

    2010-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated in the last decade because their superior properties could benefit many applications. However, CNTs have not yet made a major leap into industry, especially for electronic devices, because of fabrication challenges. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art of CNT synthesis techniques and illustrates their major technical difficulties. It also charts possible in situ analyses and new reactor designs that might enable commercialization. After a brief description of the CNT properties and of the various techniques used to synthesize substrate-free CNTs, the bulk of this review analyzes chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This technique receives special attention since it allows CNTs to be grown in predefined locations, provides a certain degree of control of the types of CNTs grown, and may have the highest chance to succeed commercially. Understanding the primary growth mechanisms at play during CVD is critical for controlling the properties of the CNTs grown and remains the major hurdle to overcome. Various factors that influence CNT growth receive a special focus: choice of catalyst and substrate materials, source gases, and process parameters. This review illustrates important considerations for in situ characterization and new reactor designs that may enable researchers to better understand the physical growth mechanisms and to optimize the synthesis of CNTs, thus contributing to make carbon nanotubes a manufacturing reality.

  8. [Demographic growth and the dynamics of specialization in the Third World].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussy, J

    1983-01-01

    All inquiries into the relationship between demographic growth and specialization in the 3rd World face a conflict found in the entire demographic-economic literature between 2 extreme positions that regard underdevelopment as caused either by the exploitation of developing by developed nations or as caused by overpopulation. This polarization of viewpoints appears to have deflected attention from more productive work and to have retarded empirical research. The object of the present study is to present a systematic and detailed critique of the opposing theoretical positions as a step in moving the debate into more productive areas. The section on the demographic explanation of the dynamics of specialization in developing countries considers its view of the comparative advantages and disadvantages created by demographic growth, including the impact of demographic growth on the availability of factors of production and on the structures of supply, demand, and exchange. The section discussing explanations of demographic-economic disequilibria in the 3rd World that are founded on the international division of labor describes the theory and its view of the division of labor in developing countries including such characteristics as the preponderance of the primary sector, the disproportionate attention to cash crops and relative neglect of subsistence crops, the importation of luxury goods, and the lack of local industrial production; the hypothesis that demographic growth and economic backwardness in developing countries both result from the international divisions of labor; the role of 3rd world demographic-economic disequilibrium in the continuation of the international division of labor; the possible advantages of demographic growth in stimulating supply, demand, and technological progress; and the increased probability of terminating the present international division of labor because of demographic pressure. The article ends with a general critique of the

  9. Speech Mannerisms: Games Clients Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1978-01-01

    This article focuses on speech mannerisms often employed by clients in a helping relationship. Eight mannerisms are presented and discussed, as well as possible interpretations. Suggestions are given to help counselors respond to them. (Author)

  10. Exploration of Teaching Strategies That Stimulate the Growth of Academic Skills of Children with ASD in Special Education School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Eirini; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive growth of children with developmental disorders, like autism, can be seriously impaired due to the disorder. If so, in the Netherlands, these children can attend special schools where they are treated to ameliorate disorder symptoms and to stimulate cognitive growth. The aim of this paper was to identify teaching strategies that…

  11. The Coxiella Burnetii type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) component DotA is released/secreted during infection of host cells and during in vitro growth in a T4BSS-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Mahapatra, Saugata; Lutter, Erika I; Shaw, Edward I

    2017-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described. To address this, we used the acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM) along with cell culture infection and immunological techniques to identify the cellular and extracellular localization of T4BSS components. Interestingly, we found that DotA and IcmX were secreted/released in a T4BSS-dependent manner into the ACCM. Analysis of C. burnetii-infected cell lines revealed that DotA colocalized with the host cell marker CD63 (LAMP3) at the PV membrane. In the absence of bacterial protein synthesis, DotA also became depleted from the PV membrane. These data are the first to identify the release/secretion of C. burnetii T4BSS components during axenic growth and the interaction of a T4BSS component with the PV membrane during infection of host cells. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on Self-Efficacy and Motivation of Adolescent Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Emily A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a growth intervention would improve adolescent special education students' self-efficacy and motivation. The research was conducted in a middle school in the Northeast from January 2016 to June 2016. The convenience sample for this study comprised of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students…

  13. Longitudinal burnout-collaboration patterns in Japanese medical care workers at special needs schools: a latent class growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayama M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mieko Kanayama,1 Machiko Suzuki,1 Yoshikazu Yuma2 1Department of Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Human Development Education, Graduate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Kato, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools. The best model included four types of both burnout and collaboration in latent class growth analysis with intercept, slope, and quadratic terms. The four types of burnout were as follows: low stable, moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing. They were identified as involving inverse collaboration function. The results indicated that there could be dynamic burnout types, namely moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing, when focusing on growth trajectories in latent class analyses. The finding that collaboration was dynamic for dynamic burnout types and stable for stable burnout types is of great interest. This was probably related to the inverse relationship between the two constructs. Keywords: burnout, collaboration, latent class growth analysis, interprofessional care, special needs schools

  14. Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

  15. Decentralization and public expenditure: Does special local autonomy affect regional economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martapina Anggai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between public expenditure within regional autonomy policy and economic growth in West Papua and Papua provinces. We distinguish two kinds of expenditure’s decentralization – operational and capital – and also private expenditures. We use an unbalanced panel data over the period of 2007-2010 to investigate those expenditures, whether they enhance regional economic growth or not. We find that the government’s operating and private expenditures have a positive effect on local economic growth, but there is no relationship between capital expenditure’s decentralization on economic growth. The findings did not conform to a-priori efficiency expectations, which suggest needing to reform regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization policy in both provinces.

  16. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years [Introduction to Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  17. Buried Messages, Hidden Meanings: Speech Mannerisms Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces counselors to 10 commonly used mannerisms of speech and the part that each mannerism plays in the communication process, especially in the counseling context. Offers suggestions on how to respond to these speech mannerisms in a straightforward and effective manner. (Author)

  18. Effects of probiotic on the intestinal morphology with special reference to the growth of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutfullah, G.; Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    The probiotic (Protexin) increases the growth rate in broilers. It must interfere with the intestinal cell morphology and absorption. The intestinal epithelium is one of the most rapidly renewed tissues in the body and is renewed by a process of continuous cell division. This study was carried out with an aim to establish a link between the use of probiotic doses, growth rate, and intestinal cell proliferation by measuring the length and weight of the intestine and intestinal crypt cell proliferation (CCP) of broiler chicks. The results revealed significant increase in intestinal CCP but no effect was observed on the intestinal weight and length. The increase in CCP has also no significant influence towards growth factor. The increased weight gain in this study is associated with more feed consumption which is observed with Protexin dose 1.0 g / 10 kg of feed. Furthermore, feed consumption reduced beyond this dose may lead to reduced weight gain. (author)

  19. Longitudinal burnout-collaboration patterns in Japanese medical care workers at special needs schools: a latent class growth analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Mieko; Suzuki, Machiko; Yuma, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools. The best model included four types of both burnout and collaboration in latent class growth analysis with intercept, slope, and quadratic terms. The four types of burnout were as follows: low stable, moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing. They were identified as involving inverse collaboration function. The results indicated that there could be dynamic burnout types, namely moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing, when focusing on growth trajectories in latent class analyses. The finding that collaboration was dynamic for dynamic burnout types and stable for stable burnout types is of great interest. This was probably related to the inverse relationship between the two constructs. PMID:27366107

  20. Growth hormone administration stimulates energy expenditure and extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in a dose-dependent manner and suppresses circadian thyrotrophin levels: studies in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Møller, Jens

    1994-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: GH administration stimulated peripheral T4 to T3 conversion in a dose-dependent manner. Serum T3 levels were subnormal despite T4 substitution when the patients were off GH but normalized with GH therapy. Energy expenditure increased with GH and correlated with free T3 levels. GH caused......Abstract OBJECTIVE: The impact of exogenous GH on thyroid function remains controversial although most data add support to a stimulation of peripheral T4 to T3 conversion. For further elucidation we evaluated iodothyronine and circadian TSH levels in GH-deficient patients as part of a GH dose...... without GH, whereas GH therapy significantly suppressed the TSH levels and blunted the circadian rhythm (mean TSH levels (mU/l) 0.546 +/- 0.246 (no GH) vs 0.066 +/- 0.031 (2 IU GH) (P

  1. Microbial growth in domestic hot water systems with special emphasis on connections to district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, S [Lund Institute of Technology, Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund (SE); Krongaard Kristensen, K [Regional Food and Hygiene Authority, Koebenhavns Amt Vest, Glostrup (DK)

    1991-01-01

    It is by now well-estalished that domestic hot water systems often harbour Legionella bacteria. Measurements into a number of Danish systems have revealed many other bacteria, among them the thermophilic species Thermus, which is predominantly found on heating coils, where local temperatures are higher. This bacterium not only hampers heat transfer due to fouling, but may also be pathogenic, due to release of endotoxins. Its presence may explain a wide spectrum of symptoms experienced by people after hot baths, such as rashes and itching. The paper summarizes these findings, and on this basis engineering and microbiological considerations are presented in an effort to find ways of future control strategies that go beyond Legionella prevention. Special attention is given to district heating connections, in which low supply and return temperatures are generally wanted in the primary circuit. (author) 16 refs.

  2. Application of the system of water erosion control measures in growths of special cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Hálek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to select an optimal variant of the system of water erosion control measures. The water erosion issue was observed and evaluated in 15 blocks of special cultivations-vineyards and orchards. These blocks are situated in the managed area of the join-stock company PATRIA Kobylí. At first the average long-term loss of soil with the influence of water erosion is calculated. The universal Wischmeier-Smith equation is used for this purpose. If the calculated loss of soil exceeds the permissible value, the erosion control measures have to be suggested. The optimal variant has been selected on the bases of the evaluation of several kinds of measures in each block. This variant follows first of all the erosion control efficiency, but also demands on production as well as slope accessibility for mechanization, expensiveness and some negative sides of suggested measures. The suggested system of water erosion control measures contributes to increasing of soil fertility and production ability with the respect to landscape management and environmental protection.

  3. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants' growth and health: a multisite surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Cutts, Diana B; Frank, Deborah A; Geppert, Joni; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Casey, Patrick H; Berkowitz, Carol; Zaldivar, Nieves; Cook, John T; Meyers, Alan F; Herren, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the largest food supplement program in the United States, serving almost 7 500 000 participants in 2002. Because the program is a grant program, rather than an entitlement program, Congress is not mandated to allocate funds to serve all eligible participants. Little is known about the effects of WIC on infant growth, health, and food security. To examine associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants 95th percentile, varied from 7% to 9% and did not differ among the 3 groups but were higher than the 5% expected from national growth charts. Rates of food insecurity were consistent with national data for minority households with children. Families that did not receive WIC assistance because of access problems had higher rates of food insecurity (28%) than did WIC participants (23%), although differences were not significant after covariate control. Caregivers who did not perceive a need for WIC services had more economic and personal resources than did WIC participants and were less likely to be food-insecure, but there were no differences in infants' weight-for-age, perceived health, or overweight between families that did not perceive a need for WIC services and those that received WIC assistance. Infants participation. Health care providers should promote WIC utilization for eligible families and advocate that WIC receive support to reduce waiting lists and eliminate barriers that interfere with access.

  4. Growth and development of children with a special focus on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2011-12-01

    The first two decades of life are characterised complex biological processes involving growth and maturation as well as differentiation. The Central Nervous System (CNS) where among others internal and external stimuli are integrated and responses of the body are prepared starts to evolve quite early during ontogenesis. One of the complex behaviours, which are regulated by the brain, is the sleep-wake cycle. The discussion of age-related changes in sleep comprises changes at the physiological level (e.g. changes in the frequency and amplitude of EEG signal, as well as development and distribution of sleep stages), changes in the corresponding behaviour (e.g. changes in the absolute amount of sleep and its distribution in 24h perspective), and finally the subjective perception of sleep and sleep as a measure of well-being. Studies on the impact of a specific factor on sleep during childhood and adolescence have to consider chronological and biological age as well as sex as relevant biological parameters. Even when these factors are controlled for large interindividual differences persist, that is why prospective instead of cross-sectional approaches should be used whenever possible. Furthermore, it has to be distinguished between sleep assessed at the level of brain functioning (i.e. by polysomnography), which gives information on effects at the physiological level and at the level of self-assessment, which focuses on behaviour. Both, sleep at the subjective as well as at the objective level, can to a considerable degree be affected by life style factors, which hence have to be considered as potential confounders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    but that once people decide to migrate, they base their choice of destination primarily on economic opportunities available at that end. Distance bears little relationship to choice of destination. To stem this tide efforts need to be made to increase rural income, provide employment opportunities for those displaced as agriculture becomes more efficient, and to provide for greater amenities in rural areas. Urban unemployment is an ever-increasing problem, accentuated by population growth and migration. Intensive rural development is needed to reverse this trend.

  6. Kant, Xunzi and the Artificiality of Manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja BERNINGER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both Chinese and Western philosophers have argued for the ethical importance of manners. Their approaches are sometimes criticized on the grounds that manners are artificial. I compare Xunzi’s and Kant’s responses to this claim, and discuss the relevance of both positions for the development of a theory of manners. I show that there is no single artificiality claim, but rather four different claims: the claim that polite behavior lacks spontaneity, the claim that it is insincere, the claim that it goes against human nature, and the claim that it is arbitrary. While Kant is mainly concerned with the insincerity claim, Xunzi focusses on the claim that manners are arbitrary rules. Because of their different understandings of the function of manners both authors only provide a partial answer to the artificiality claim. To arrive at a full account of manners both perspectives must be combined.

  7. Aplikasi Pembelajaran Table Manners Berbasis Multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Yosanny, Agustinna; Pradipta, Albert; Viles, Dody; Pensen, Pensen

    2011-01-01

    Table manners adalah aturan-aturan pokok yang berlaku di meja makan. Aturan ini biasanya diterapkan padajamuan makan resmi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang dan mengembangkan suatu aplikasipembelajaran tentang table manners untuk memudahkan dalam mempelajari aturan-aturan yang perlu diketahuidalam jamuan makan resmi, meliputi etika sebelum dan saat proses menyantap makanan, serta penggunaanalat-alat makan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode Interactive Multimedia System De...

  8. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  9. SOEKARNO: HIS MANNERISM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Wejak

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss Soekarno's mannerism and method of communication. Certain aspects such as Soekarno's use of language in his speeches are highlighted here in order to provide some basic understanding of Soekarno - both as a person and a political leader of the nation. The article aims at stimulating further discussions concerning this very well known leader. This article also examines Soeharto's style of speech for a comparison.

  10. SOEKARNO: HIS MANNERISM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wejak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss Soekarno's mannerism and method of communication. Certain aspects such as Soekarno's use of language in his speeches are highlighted here in order to provide some basic understanding of Soekarno - both as a person and a political leader of the nation. The article aims at stimulating further discussions concerning this very well known leader. This article also examines Soeharto's style of speech for a comparison.

  11. Going “old school”: From bedside manner to deskside manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between tertiary educators and students, we contend, improves trust and betters student responses to emotional distress while at university. Therefore, we introduce the “Deskside Manner Framework” as an emerging practice in the tertiary teaching and learning context to aid student transition success. Based on concepts and practice that originated primarily in the medical profession and later in other high credence professional contexts, the deskside manner framework includes: show respect, critical listening, the four Bs and follow up. Deskside manner is transferrable and we aim to facilitate it through workshops and by developing a digital repository of educator-student interaction stories.  

  12. Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion, maternal disomy, and deficient imprinting are recognized. Maternal disomy can arise because of 4 possible mechanisms: trisomy rescue (TR, gamete complementation (GC, monosomy rescue (MR, and postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (Mit. Recently, TR/GC caused by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 has been identified increasingly, as a result of advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea. We verified that the d3 allele increases the responsiveness of the growth hormone (GH receptor to endogenous GH. This paper also provides an overview of endocrine dysfunctions in children with PWS, including GH deficiency, obesity, sexual development, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as the effects of GH treatment. GH treatment coupled with a strictly controlled diet during early childhood may help to reduce obesity, improve neurodevelopment, and increase muscle mass. A more active approach to correct these hormone deficiencies would benefit patients with PWS.

  13. Modulators of axonal growth and guidance at the brain midline with special reference to glial heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALCANTE LENY A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilaterally symmetric organisms need to exchange information between the left and right sides of their bodies to integrate sensory input and to coordinate motor control. Thus, an important choice point for developing axons is the Central Nervous System (CNS midline. Crossing of this choice point is influenced by highly conserved, soluble or membrane-bound molecules such as the L1 subfamily, laminin, netrins, slits, semaphorins, Eph-receptors and ephrins, etc. Furthermore, there is much circumstantial evidence for a role of proteoglycans (PGs or their glycosaminoglycan (GAG moieties on axonal growth and guidance, most of which was derived from simplified models. A model of intermediate complexity is that of cocultures of young neurons and astroglial carpets (confluent cultures obtained from medial and lateral sectors of the embryonic rodent midbrain soon after formation of its commissures. Neurite production in these cocultures reveals that, irrespective of the previous location of neurons in the midbrain, medial astrocytes exerted an inhibitory or non-permissive effect on neuritic growth that was correlated to a higher content of both heparan and chondroitin sulfates (HS and CS. Treatment with GAG lyases shows minor effects of CS and discloses a major inhibitory or non-permissive role for HS. The results are discussed in terms of available knowledge on the binding of HSPGs to interative proteins and underscore the importance of understanding glial polysaccharide arrays in addition to its protein complement for a better understanding of neuron-glial interactions.

  14. Late effects of in utero exposure to carcinogens in rats, with special reference to postnatal growth and tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Y; Takizawa, S; Watanabe, H; Hirose, F [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1976-11-01

    Fifteen-day pregnant Wistar/Furth rats were irradiated with 100 rads of x ray of fast neutron (14.1 MeV). Fast neutron was found to be more effective than x rays in reducing the number of live-births and in retarding the postnatal growth of the offspring. Among the various organs examined, the brain, uterus, spleen and gonads were highly radiosensitive in terms of organ weight. Microscopic examination revealed a marked dysplasia of the ovary in the fast neutron-irradiated rats. Pre-conception irradiation did not cause any deleterious effects on the offspring. No substantial difference was noted in the peripheral blood pictures or on the tumor incidence in rats born from the irradiated female rats. On the other hand, it was noteworthy that N-butylnitrosourea given transplacentally induced 3 cases of brain tumor. The incidence of leukemia and mammary tumor was significantly higher in the irradiated or carcinogen-treated pregnant rats.

  15. Prognostic factors of craniopharyngioma with special reference to autocrine/paracrine signaling: underestimated implication of growth hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor classified as benign, but tight adhesion and significant local infiltration to the vital structures are common. In spite of improvement of modern microsurgery techniques and precise anatomical understanding not few cases of this tumor recur, and long-term tumor control and maintenance of quality of life are sometimes difficult. However, very little is known about the effects of the molecular characters of craniopharyngioma on the prognosis. Ninety eight cases of craniopharyngioma surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Hospital and Kohnan Hospital from April 1996 to May 2014, 45 males and 53 females aged from 2 to 80 years (mean, 40.84 years) were retrospectively reviewed, and postoperative outcomes and the possible involvement of the autocrine/paracrine mechanism were investigated. The patients were followed up at intervals of 6 months to assess tumor recurrence, and clinical outcomes were correlated with the findings of immunohistochemical examinations used growth hormone receptor (GHR) and downstream hormones. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 209 months. Hormone expression was examined in 88 patients, of which 46 specimens (52.3 %) showed high expression of GHR. The GHR high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p = 0.007). Simultaneous high expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR was found in 33 specimens (37.5 %), and the high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p = 0.011). No other hormones showed statistically significant differences in outcomes. High expression of GHR is associated with shorter duration of postoperative stable disease in patients with craniopharyngioma. If the surgical specimens were craniopharyngiomas with high GHR expression, GH supplementation

  16. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases ... Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / Special Needs: ...

  17. Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

    2014-06-01

    Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 × 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 × 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Feminist Therapy: A New Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Carole Bennett

    1975-01-01

    A new area of concentration, if not of specialization, has recently developed, roughly termed "feminist" therapy or counseling. Whether or not it is a "legitimate" specialization, whether or not women should be counseled in a manner different from that of men, is a topic of current debate. (Author)

  19. Do children with obesity have worse table manners? Associations between child table manners, weight status and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Naomi F; Cesaro, Robert J; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Pesch, Megan H

    2018-06-01

    Children with obesity experience stigma stemming from stereotypes, one such stereotype is that people with obesity are "sloppy" or have poor manners. Teaching children "proper table manners" has been proposed as an obesity prevention strategy. Little is known about the association between children's weight status and table manners. To examine correlates of child table manners and to examine the association of child table manners with child obese weight status and prospective change in child body mass index z-score (BMIz). Mother-child dyads (N = 228) participated in a videotaped laboratory eating task with cupcakes. Coding schemes to capture child table manners (making crumbs, chewing with mouth open, getting food on face, shoving food in mouth, slouching, and getting out of seat), and maternal attentiveness to child table manners, were reliably applied. Anthropometrics were measured at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Regression analyses examined the association of participant characteristics with child table manners, as well as the associations of child table manners with child obese weight status, and prospective change in BMIz/year. Predictors of poorer child table manners were younger child age, greater cupcake consumption, and greater maternal attentiveness to child table manners. Poorer child table manners were not associated with child obese (vs. not) weight status, but were associated with a prospective decrease in BMIz/year in children with overweight/obesity. Obesity interventions to improve table manners may be perpetuating unfavorable stereotypes and stigma. Future work investigating these associations is warranted to inform childhood obesity guidelines around table manners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  1. 26 CFR 1.9005-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9005-4 Section 1.9005-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-4 Manner of exercising election. (a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section 1.9004-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-4 Manner of exercising election. (a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8 Section 1.9002-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-8 Manner of exercising elections...

  4. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section 1.9003-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-4 Manner of exercising election. (a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.853-4 Manner of...

  6. Mannerisms of the Elderly and Approaches to Rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Warren A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Many older adults react to old age with empirically identified distinguishable mannerisms. Using these mannerisms, or behavior patterns, as a basis for rapport, gerontologists can: (1) uncover causes of adjustment problems; (2) assess seriousness of problems; and (3) implement counseling suggestions. (Author/JAC)

  7. 29 CFR 1905.21 - Manner of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Hearings § 1905.21 Manner of service. Service of any... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner of service. 1905.21 Section 1905.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. Trends in Special Library Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine; Cohen, Aaron

    1987-01-01

    Examines special library facilities, noting impact of organizational structure, and discusses the concept of information resources management in this context. Development of online and telecommunications systems, corporate and government campuses, and special library systems are identified as reasons for growth of special libraries. Furniture and…

  9. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  10. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  11. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  12. Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner by optimizing the woolled sheep production systems within the communal farming area of the Eastern Cape. “A vision that is future directed”

  13. The Manners of Liberalism: A Question of Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William B.

    1982-01-01

    The argument that liberal education leads people to substitute intellectual tolerance or ambiguity for righteous indignation is criticized, with reference to Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrayal of Thomas Jefferson, his liberalism, and democratic manners. (MSE)

  14. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1614.704(a) through (m). (3) When posting data pursuant to § 1614.704(d) and (j), bases of... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner and format of data. 1614.703 Section 1614.703 Labor... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their...

  15. Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2013-12-24

    It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

  16. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  17. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  18. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... revised, effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, therevised text is set forth as follows...

  19. Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

  20. Stereotypes: A Preliminary Report on Mannerisms and Blindisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, M.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes current research on stereotypes in a group of blind children in Barcelona, Spain. Mannerisms and blindisms covering a range of verbal and motor behavior are defined and discussed, as are the variables of behavior related to them. (Author/DB)

  1. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation, the statement shall be signed with the corporate name, followed by the signature and title of an officer of the corporation empowered to sign for the corporation, and the corporate seal must be affixed...) INCOME TAXES Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An election under the...

  2. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or in the case of a female employee, pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth, an employee must file the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT...

  3. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quotations. 344.2 Section 344.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT FILING QUOTATIONS FOR U.S. GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender...

  4. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... Care for Your Child With Special Needs Special Education: Getting Help for Your Child Words to Know ( ...

  5. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... for Health Insurance Finding Respite Care for Your Child With Special Needs Special Education: Getting Help for ...

  6. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  7. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  8. 19 CFR 134.41 - Methods and manner of marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles which are the objects of special rulings by the Commissioner of Customs. As a general rule... of permanence and visibility. The degree of permanence should be at least sufficient to insure that...

  9. NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE MEDIATED BY MANNER OF MOTION VERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesea BODEAN-VOZIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is typological variation in the way languages encode manner as an element of a motion event. Languages like English view it as relevant, and the lexicalization of the variety of ways to move results in a rich class of motion verbs, contrary to other types of languages, like Romanian, which leave the manner element to be encoded by verbids or adverbs (for these reasons some linguists refer to the first type as manner-rich and second type as manner-poor languages. Still, several studies contrasting typologically different languages showed that languages of the latter type are not so poor in manner-of-motion verbs. The question then might rather be: which manner components are more likely to be lexicalized?For research purposes, we distinguish manner in terms of objective elements (medium, speed or intensity and subjective elements (attitude, intention. The aim of the study is to focus on the manner-of-motion verbs that embed an evaluative or qualitative dimension of motion and to examine the way these verbs encode somebody’s perspective in a narrative. The first question in such a case is whose evaluation or point of view is being represented. The second one is how the subjective point of view (narrative perspective mediated through manner-of-motion verbs in an English narrative (The Lord of the Rings, by J.R.R. Tolkien is translated into Romanian, supposedly a manner-poor or low-manner language.PERSPECTIVA NARATIVĂ MEDIATĂ DE VERBELE DE MIŞCARE DE MODExistă o variaţie tipologică în felul în care limbile codifică modul ca element al unui eveniment de mişcare. Limbile precum engleza îl percep drept unul relevant, iar lexicalizarea gamei de mijloace de redare a mişcării a dat naştere unei clase bogate de verbe de mişcare, contrar altor tipuri de limbi, aşa ca româna, în care elementul ce redă modul este codificat de gerunziu sau adverbe. Din aceasta cauză, unii lingvişti numesc primul tip limbi bogate în verbe de mod (

  10. Practicing leadership-as-practice in content and manner

    OpenAIRE

    Raelin, Joe; Kempster, Stephen John; Youngs, Howard; Caroll, Brigid; Jackson, Brad

    2018-01-01

    A collective and collaborative response to an article appearing in Leadership’s “Leading Questions” department is prepared by a team subscribing to the leadership-as-practice approach. The focus is to represent the manner in which leadership-as-practice operates as a leadership theory and in its communal practice orientation. Among the themes addressed are leadership-as-practice’s theory development, its contribution in comparison to critical leadership theory, its approach to power, and its ...

  11. MANNER OF STOCKS SORTING USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Halčinová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  12. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  13. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  14. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  15. IAA Producing Enterobacter sp. I-3 as a Potent Bio-herbicide Candidate for Weed Control: A Special Reference with Lettuce Growth Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Man; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Development of bio-herbicides is an emerging method to weed management in agricultural field. Very few studies were conducted on identification of microbial bio-herbicides to weed control. The present study was aimed to isolate and identify the effective bio-herbicide potential bacterium from soil and assess their role on plant growth inhibition. Three-hundred and one rhizobacteria were isolated from agriculture field soil samples collected from various parts of Republic of Korea. Two bacteri...

  16. Special survey: mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, H.

    1981-01-01

    South Africa is now the world's second biggest producer of non-oil minerals after the United States and far ahead of Canada and Australia, according to the author. South Africa's economic growth prospects over the 1980's are inevitably crucially dependent on the mining industry. The production and economics of various minerals are discussed, with special reference to gold, coal, diamonds, uranium, platinum, manganese, copper and asbestos

  17. Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators

    OpenAIRE

    L. PIETOLA; R. TANNI; P. ELONEN

    2008-01-01

    The role of plant growth regulators (PGR) in nitrogen (N) fertilization of spring wheat and oats (CCC), fodder barley (etephon/mepiquat) and oilseed rape (etephone) in crop rotation was studied in 19931996 on loamy clay soil. Carry over effect of the N fertilization rates (0180 kg ha-1 ) was evaluated in 1997. N fertilization rate for the best grain/seed yield (120150 kg ha-1 ) was not affected by PGRs. The seed and N yields of oilseed rape were improved most frequently by recommended use of ...

  18. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  19. [Effects of special mouth care with an aroma solution on oral status and oral cavity microorganism growth in elderly stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hye; Park, Hyojung

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of oral care with an aroma solution on oral status and oral cavity microorganism growth in elderly patients with stroke. A non-equivalent control group, with a pretest-posttest design was used in this study. The participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=30) that received oral care with an aroma solution or the control group (n=31) that received 0.9% saline solution. To identify the effect of the experimental treatments, objective/subjective assessments of oral status and oral cavity microorganism growth were performed using the oral assessment guide, oral perception guide, and oral swab culture. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test with the SPSS version 21.0 program. The objective oral status was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (t= -3.64, pspecial mouth care using an aroma solution could be an effective oral health nursing intervention for elderly patients with stroke.

  20. Radiation-induced sprout and growth inhibition in vegetables with special reference to the susceptibility to microbial attacks and the effect of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    Experiments have shown ionizing irradiation to be an effective method for sprout and growth inhibition but it is necessary to keep the doses at the absolute minimum in order to avoid unwanted by-effects One of the by-effects is an increased susceptibility to storage rot in potatoes, onions and carrots. This effect is connected with the wounding and bruising caused by digging up and handling as the wound healing process is inhibited simultaneously with the sprout inhibition. Patogens increase tissue permeability during pathogenesis and, as irradiation has an analogous effect on tissues it might facilitate the growth of the pathogens. Irradiation softens the tissue and mobilizes the calcium in the tissue; this may thereby make the tissue more accessible to microbial attack. An external supply of calcium increases the firmness of tissue, reduces tissue permeability, and may compensate for the loss of calcium in irradiated tissue mainly as a result of a surplus of calcium in the wounds. Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were some of the most wide spread and serious pathogens in carrots, which vegetable were the main object of the studies. Culture filtrates of these fungi had a strong macerating activity on carrot tissues. The effect, which results from activity and interaction of pectolytic enzymes and oxalic acid, could be reduced or nullified by calcium. A diversity of the groups of pectolytic enzymes are widely distributed among organisms and not confined to plant pathogens. Because of this, because there exists pectolytic enzymes for every condition and pectic substances, and because calcium is not very inhibiting to all kinds of pectolytic enzymes it is not to be expected that the protective effect of calcium will always be expressed to the same extent on storage of the products. (author)

  1. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies.

  2. 75 FR 21606 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview.... Alexa Posny, Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. [FR Doc. 2010-9626... education and training for rehabilitation personnel; (3) Disseminate, in a cost-effective manner...

  3. Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. PIETOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of plant growth regulators (PGR in nitrogen (N fertilization of spring wheat and oats (CCC, fodder barley (etephon/mepiquat and oilseed rape (etephone in crop rotation was studied in 1993–1996 on loamy clay soil. Carry over effect of the N fertilization rates (0–180 kg ha-1 was evaluated in 1997. N fertilization rate for the best grain/seed yield (120–150 kg ha-1 was not affected by PGRs. The seed and N yields of oilseed rape were improved most frequently by recommended use of PGR. The yields of oats were increased in 1995–96. Even though PGR effectively shortened the plant height of spring wheat, the grain yield increased only in 1995. N yield of wheat grains was not increased. Response of fodder barley to PGR was insignificant or even negative in 1995. The data suggest that PGRs may decrease some N leaching at high N rates by improving N uptake by grain/seeds, if the yield is improved. The carryover study showed that in soils with no N fertilization, as well as in soils of high N rates, N uptake was higher than in soils with moderate N fertilization (60–90 kg ha-1 , independent of PGRs. According to soil mineral N contents, N leaching risk is significant (15–35 kg ha-1 only after dry and warm late seasons. After a favourable season of high yields, the N rates did not significantly affect soil mineral N contents. ;

  4. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  5. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  6. Special lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  7. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  8. Special effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  9. Influence of Martian regolith analogs on the activity and growth of methanogenic archaea, with special regard to long-term desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch eSchirmack

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic archaea have been studied as model organisms for possible life on Mars for several reasons: they can grow lithoautotrophically by using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as energy and carbon sources, respectively; they are anaerobes; and they evolved at a time when conditions on early Earth are believed to have looked similar to those of early Mars. As Mars is currently dry and cold and as water might be available only at certain time intervals, any organism living on this planet would need to cope with desiccation. On Earth there are several regions with low water availability as well, e.g. permafrost environments, desert soils and salt pans. Here, we present the results of a set of experiments investigating the influence of different Martian regolith analogs on the metabolic activity and growth of three methanogenic strains exposed to culture conditions as well as long-term desiccation. In most cases, concentrations below 1 %wt of regolith in the media resulted in an increase of methane production rates, whereas higher concentrations decreased the rates, thus prolonging the lag phase. Further experiments showed that methanogenic archaea are capable of producing methane when incubated on a water-saturated sedimentary matrix of regolith lacking nutrients. Survival of methanogens under these conditions was analyzed with a 400 day desiccation experiment in the presence of regolith analogs. All tested strains of methanogens survived the desiccation period as it was determined through reincubation on fresh medium and via qPCR following propidium monoazide treatment to identify viable cells. The survival of long-term desiccation and the ability of active metabolism on water-saturated MRAs strengthens the possibility of methanogenic archaea or physiologically similar organisms to exist in environmental niches on Mars. The best results were achieved in presence of a phyllosilicate, which provides insights of possible positive effects in habitats

  10. A new mathematical model for nitrogen gas production with special emphasis on the role of attached growth media in anammox hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The present study emphasised on the development of new mathematical models based on mass balance and stoichiometry of nitrogen removal in anammox hybrid reactor (AHR). The performance of AHR at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) revealed that nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increases with increase in HRT and was found optimal (89 %) at HRT of 2 days. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that major fraction (74.1 %) of input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2 % utilised in biomass synthesis. Attached growth media (AGM) in AHR contributed to an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29 %. This also enhanced the sludge retention capacity of AHR and thus minimised the formation of nitrate in the treated effluent, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process. Process kinetics was also studied using various mathematical models. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen was found most precise and predicted N2 gas with least error (1.68 ± 4.44 %). Model validation for substrate removal kinetics dictated comparatively higher correlation for Grau second-order model (0.952) than modified Stover-Kincannon model (0.920). The study concluded that owing to features of high biomass retention, less nitrate formation and consistently higher nitrogen removal efficiency, this reactor configuration is techno-economically most efficient and viable. The study opens the door for researchers and scientists for pilot-scale testing of AHR leading to its wide industrial application.

  11. Influence of manner of heating on functioning of fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, J.

    1994-01-01

    In connection with a bioenergy research programme, there is an ongoing project for developing of wood-fired fireplaces. The overall target in the project is through research and development to improve the combustion and heating characteristics of fireplaces so that their harmful flue gas emissions are reduced and they become more appropriate sources of supplementary and reserve energy (e.g. when installed in electrically heated houses). In connection with this project, TTS Institute's Forestry Department conducted a study on the heating properties of a lightweight iron stove. Correct manner of heating is a means to reducing the amount of harmful flue gases produced by fireplaces and of raising their combustion efficiency. The content of environmentally harmful gases in the flue gases was at Its maximum when the stove was operated with little draught and with the combustion chamber full of fuel. By increasing the draught from 4 Pa to 32 Pa, the carbon monoxide content of the non-combusted gases was reduced almost by 75 percent. This was accompanied by nearly a doubling of the free heat loss of the flue gases. As well as being influenced by the draught in the flue, the functioning of the stove and completeness of combustion was influenced by the moisture content of the chopped firewood. A rise in the moisture level from 13 % to 40 % led to nearly a fivefold increase in the proportion of combustible gases in the flue gases

  12. Special energies and special frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.

    1987-01-01

    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  13. 26 CFR 1.1044(a)-1 - Time and manner for making election under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1044(a)-1 Time and manner for making election under the Omnibus Budget... sale if the taxpayer purchases common stock or a partnership interest in a specialized small business investment company (SSBIC) within the 60-day period beginning on the date the publicly traded securities are...

  14. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  15. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  16. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  17. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  18. [Perception manner of mother of obese persons in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoszewska, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    There are specific relation properties of mother to the obese child. The mother representation in child is understand as a experience manner of herself. Representation (mental image) include perceptions, knowledge about characteristics and behaviors of a person and evaluation and experiences that provoke in others. The aim of this article is a trial of an answer what is a mental representation of mother experienced by obese girls and boys in adolescence. 21 obese persons (12 girls and 9 boys) and 23 persons of normal body mass (15 girls and 8 boys) have been investigated. The mean age of the investigated obese persons were 14.53, and for a person of normal body mass was 15.31. All persons were investigated by a clinical interview with 6 questions concerning mental mother representation. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to mental mother representation contents: cognitive, emotional, social, sexual, certificate, behavioral and somatic. Obese persons more often than the person of the normal body mass identify to mental mother representation somatic contents, more rarely social, sexual and behavioral contents. Obese girls more rarely than girls of the normal body mass identify to social contents, more often to somatic. Obese girls more rarely than obese boys identify to mental mother representation emotional contents, more often to somatic contents. The specific relation properties of mother to obese person in adolescence could be manifested in difficulties in turn on contents of mental mother representation, in external, somatic point of concern for mental mother representation, difficulties in contact with mental contents of mother representation.

  19. 5 CFR 531.245 - Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing locality rates and special... Gm Employees § 531.245 Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees. Locality rates and special rates are computed for GM employees in the same manner as locality rates and special rates...

  20. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  1. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  2. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  3. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  4. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  5. TGF-β's delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-β on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-β increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-β promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Providing nutrition services for people with developmental disabilities and special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Cynthia L; Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2010-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition services provided by registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs), are essential components of comprehensive care for all people with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Nutrition services should be provided throughout life in a manner that is interdisciplinary, family-centered, community-based, and culturally competent. People with developmental disabilities and special health care needs frequently have nutrition concerns, including growth alterations (failure to thrive, obesity, or growth retardation), metabolic disorders, poor feeding skills, medication-nutrient interactions, and sometimes partial or total dependence on enteral or parenteral nutrition. Individuals with special needs are also more likely to develop comorbid conditions such as obesity or endocrine disorders that require nutrition interventions. Poor health habits, limited access to services, and long-term use of multiple medications are considered health risk factors. Health maintenance and avoidance of complications can be promoted by timely and cost-effective nutrition interventions. Public policy for individuals with special needs has evolved over time, resulting in a transition from institutional facilities and programs to community living. The expansion of public access to technology and health information on the Internet challenges RDs and DTRs to provide accurate scientific information for those with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Nationally credentialed RDs and DTRs are best prepared to provide appropriate nutrition information for wellness and quality of life.

  7. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  8. The Generating Mechanism of the Perlocutionary Effects of Train Manner Posters

    OpenAIRE

    水田, 洋子

    2013-01-01

    Manner posters, which are used for the purpose of improving people’s manners in public spaces, attempt to be effective without being impositional. How do they meet the challenge? Manner posters can be considered to perform speech acts with written words and visual devices. The current work investigates the generating mechanism of their perlocutionary effects such as persuasion. It provides a case study of Japanese train manner posters by Tokyo Metro in 2008-2010. The analysis is conducted wit...

  9. 48 CFR 1371.101 - Inspection and manner of doing work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and manner of... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.101 Inspection and manner of doing work. Insert clause 1352.271-70, Inspection and Manner of...

  10. 45 CFR 1621.4 - Complaints by clients about manner or quality of legal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complaints by clients about manner or quality of...) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION CLIENT GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1621.4 Complaints by clients about manner or... clients about the manner or quality of legal assistance that has been rendered by the recipient to the...

  11. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  13. Early Specialization in Youth Sport: A Biomechanical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeffrey M.; Richards, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines, from a biomechanical perspective, three issues related to early specialization: overuse injuries, the developmental aspects, and the performance aspects. It concludes that "there is no evidence that early specialization causes overuse injuries or hinders growth and maturation." At the same time, early specialization has…

  14. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-2 - Manner of exercising election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.669(b)-2 Section 1.669(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-2 Manner of exercising election. (a) By whom election...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6316-5 - Manner of paying tax by foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... currency to be deposited shall be that amount which, when converted at the rate of exchange used on the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. 301....6316-5 Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. (a) Time and place to pay. The unpaid tax required to...

  16. Point of View: Manner of Realising The Matter in Adichie's Half of A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manner' to create meaning or matter. The best form of art is the blending of form and content; means and end; manner and matter. Therefore, the uniqueness of any novelist's product is contingent upon how well or otherwise their peculiar ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.871-1 - Classification and manner of taxing alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification and manner of taxing alien... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-1 Classification and manner of taxing alien individuals. (a) Classes of aliens. For purposes of the income tax...

  18. 26 CFR 1.522-2 - Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. 1.522-2 Section 1.522-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-2 Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. (a) In general. Farmers...

  19. Benford's Law for Quality Assurance of Manner of Death Counts in Small and Large Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeremy; Caetano, Samantha-Jo; Huyer, Dirk; Stephen, Andrew; Fernandes, John; Lytwyn, Alice; Hoppe, Fred M

    2017-09-01

    To assess if Benford's law, a mathematical law used for quality assurance in accounting, can be applied as a quality assurance measure for the manner of death determination. We examined a regional forensic pathology service's monthly manner of death counts (N = 2352) from 2011 to 2013, and provincial monthly and weekly death counts from 2009 to 2013 (N = 81,831). We tested whether each dataset's leading digit followed Benford's law via the chi-square test. For each database, we assessed whether number 1 was the most common leading digit. The manner of death counts first digit followed Benford's law in all the three datasets. Two of the three datasets had 1 as the most frequent leading digit. The manner of death data in this study showed qualities consistent with Benford's law. The law has potential as a quality assurance metric in the manner of death determination for both small and large databases. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Horhoianu, I A; Dumitrascu, M C; Horhoianu, V

    2014-06-15

    The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth charts and their characteristics: populational growth charts, standard growth charts, individualized growth charts, customized growth charts and growth trajectories.

  1. Assessment of Ethical Ideals and Ethical Manners in Care of Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Frilund, Marianne; Fagerström, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Katie; Eklund, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish structured clusters and well-defined ontological entities (nodes) describing ethical values as both ideal and opportunity for ethical manner as perceived by the caregiver. In this study, we use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to analyse ethical values (ethos) and ethical manners in daily work with older people. Material is based on questionnaire data collected by the instrument for the self-assessment of individual ethos in the care of older people (ISAEC...

  2. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    significantly in the supernatant from cells stimulated by rIL-2 in a dose-dependent manner both in patients and volunteers. Total cell-bound histamine was 49.3 +/- 4.1 ng/ml in patients compared to 78.5 +/- 7.7 ng/ml in volunteers (p ... was significantly enhanced in cancer patients compared to volunteers (*p manner in both cancer patients and volunteers. This may in part explain the severe toxicity observed during high...

  3. Pragmatic awareness of Suggestions: From (Im)Polite Mannerism to Attitudinal Appropriateness

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Allami; Nasim Boustani

    2017-01-01

    The present research seeks to determine: (a) Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b) their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c), their (im)polite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d) the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (im)politeness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT) was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their langua...

  4. Globalized conflicts, globalized responses. Changing manners of contestation among indigenous communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyei, Petra; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized world, environmental conflicts affecting indigenous communities (including hunter-gatherer groups) have intensified and grown in their transnational character. These changes have affected the choice of manners of contestation of these groups, favouring in some cases the emergence...... activities and confront conflicts through a truly bottom-up approach. The chapter ends discussing how, despite the potential of such new manners of contestation, the power imbalances that currently underpin many indigenous conflicts are first to be addressed....

  5. A Mission to Reform Manners: Religion, Secularization, and Empire in Early Modern England

    OpenAIRE

    Taback, Naomi Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation looks at three voluntary societies formed in London shortly after the revolution of 1688. These societies, with overlapping membership, shared a broad vision for the improvement of manners and morals throughout the burgeoning British Empire. The Society for Reformation of Manners, founded in 1691, called for the enforcement of the civil laws against prostitution, swearing, drunkenness, gambling, and other moral crimes. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, founde...

  6. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... characterized by historically developed specialization, a special geographical location ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... product, service or technology providing economic and/or public benefit, additional in ...... the region's competitiveness // International Business Management.

  8. Growth and development of true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) : with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae, starch crops, plant growth and development, plant morphology, inflorescence structure, electron microscopy, phenological scale, genetic variation, plant taxonomy, folk taxonomy, ethnobotany, leaf area, leaf area index, starch accumulation, starch distribution,

  9. Exercise training in transgenic mice is associated with attenuation of early breast cancer growth in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorming Goh

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that regular physical activity confers beneficial effects that mediate an anti-tumor response and may reduce cancer recurrence. It is unclear what amount of physical activity is necessary to exert such a protective effect and what mechanisms are involved. We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on tumor progression and cytokine gene expression in the transgenic polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT mouse model of invasive breast cancer. Runners showed significantly reduced tumor sizes compared with non-runners after 3 weeks of running (p ≤ 0.01, and the greater the running distance the smaller the tumor size (Pearson's r = -0.61, p ≤ 0.04, R(2 = 0.38. Mice running greater than 150 km per week had a significantly attenuated tumor size compared with non-runners (p ≤ 0.05. Adipose tissue mass was inversely correlated with tumor size in runners (Pearson's r = -0.77, p = 0.014 but not non-runners. Gene expression of CCL22, a cytokine associated with recruitment of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells, was decreased in tumors of runners compared to non-runners (p ≤ 0.005. No differences in tumor burden or metastatic burden were observed between runners and non-runners after ten weeks of running when the study was completed. We conclude that voluntary wheel running in PyMT mice correlates with an attenuation in tumor progression early during the course of invasive breast cancer. This effect is absent in the later stages of overwhelming tumor burden even though cytokine signaling for immunosuppressive regulatory T cells was down regulated. These observations suggest that the initiation of moderate exercise training for adjunctive therapeutic benefit early in the course of invasive breast cancer should be considered for further investigation.

  10. A Conceptual Derivation of Einstein's Postulates of Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion and conceptual derivation of Einstein's postulates of special relativity. The perceptron approach appears to be a fundamentally new manner of regarding physical phenomena and it is hoped that physicists will interest themselves in the concept. (Author)

  11. Developments in special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  12. Growth of Namibian silver kob agyrosomus inodorus based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    northern and southern) along the Namibian coast was determined using longitudinally sectioned otoliths. The special Von Bertalanffy growth model adequately described the growth of kob in both regions. Growth rate for kob in the south was ...

  13. Pragmatic awareness of Suggestions: From (ImPolite Mannerism to Attitudinal Appropriateness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to determine: (a Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c, their (impolite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (impoliteness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their language proficiency level and to satisfy the assumption of homogeneity among the learners. These participants along with 10 American native speakers then underwent a suggestion DCT. The questionnaire included questions addressing interlocutors’ with higher, lower or equal power status and intimate or strange social distance. The DCT also involved attitudinal appropriateness scale and (impoliteness mannerism likert scale to examine the learners’ degree of confidence and mannerism. Besides similarities and differences in the application of suggestion semantic formulae between the Iranian learners and American speakers, the results revealed variations in the two groups’ performances for appropriateness and (impoliteness. The results also indicated a positive relationship between the attitude and mannerism scales.

  14. The Reflection of Javanese Life Manner on the Dongkrek Art and Ritual Performance in Madiun Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharfina Nur Amalina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses in the analysis of Javanese life manner within Dongkrek art and ritual performance in Mejayan, Madiun, Indonesia. The purpose of research is to reflect a life manner of Javanese society within a Dongkrek show. The qualitative-descriptive was used as research approach. Data were collected by interview, literature review, and other relevant resources. The results of research show a five points of Javanese manner of life in Dongkrek, represent in the phrase Ambrasta Dur Hangkara, Memayu Hayuning Bawana, Sura Dira Jayaning Lebur Dening Pangastuti, Sadulur Papat Kalima Pancer, and Manunggaling Kawula Gusti. Those phrases contain many moral values that generally can be accepted by society. The phrase represents a human relationship, the manner of life, ways of life, world-view, willingness, and the transcendental relationship between humans and God. It means the purpose of the Javanese manner of life is to reach the perfection of life. The perfection of life is resting on the faith towards to the God through the maturity of spirituality.

  15. Report on the behalf of the Special Commission in charge of the examination, in the perspective of a final reading, of the bill project related to energy transition for a green growth (T.A. 519). N 3004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareigts, Ericka; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Baupin, Denis; Plisson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the various amendments introduced by the French Senate before the final reading by the French National Assembly of the bill project on energy transition for a green growth. It also reports the discussion of the Commission in charge of the examination of these amendments with, for some of them, a wider discussion about their acceptance or rejection

  16. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  17. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  18. 26 CFR 1.881-1 - Manner of taxing foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax avoidance purposes, whether or not such corporation is engaged in trade or business in the United... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.881-1 Manner of taxing foreign corporations. (a) Classes of foreign corporations. For purposes of the income tax, foreign corporations are divided into two...

  19. 17 CFR 17.02 - Form, manner and time of filing reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form, manner and time of filing reports. 17.02 Section 17.02 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... markets located in that time zone, and central time for information concerning all other markets. (b...

  20. Organizing artistic activities in a recurrent manner : (on the nature of) entrepreneurship in the performing arts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergamini, Michela; Van de Velde, Ward; Van Looy, Bart; Visscher, Klaasjan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of performing arts organizations active in classical music, theatre, and contemporary dance rely on funding from "third parties" in order to organize productions in a recurrent manner. We adopt an entrepreneurial perspective to inform the debate on the economic sustainability of

  1. Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like domain-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kny, Melanie; Standera, Sybille; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and interacts directly with the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, which is found in high molecular mass complexes of the ER membrane. Here we present the first evidence that Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-dependent manner. We...

  2. Impact of Video Feedback on Teachers' Eye-Contact Mannerisms in Microteaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasar, Niyazi

    To test the impact of video feedback on teachers' eye-contact mannerisms in microteaching in inservice vocational teacher education, the study utilized video recordings from the data bank generated by previous studies conducted at the Ohio State University's Center for Vocational and Technical Education. The tapes were assigned through a…

  3. Nucleoside analogues are activated by bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases in a species-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, Anders; On, Stephen L. W.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal activity of antiviral and anticancer nucleoside analogues against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and characterize the activating enzymes, deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). Several FDA-approved nucleoside analogue drugs were screened for their potential bacteric......-specific manner. Therefore, nucleoside analogues have a potential to be employed as antibiotics in the fight against emerging multiresistant bacteria....

  4. Rheological properties of a nematic cell oriented in a planar manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, G.; Meyer, C.; Lelidis, I.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple model to investigate the rheological properties of a nematic cell oriented in a planar manner. The storage and loss modulus are evaluated in the case of strong and weak anchoring conditions. The contribution of the surface viscosity to the rheological parameters is also considered.

  5. Astrocytic connexin hemichannels are regulated by PKC phosphorylation in an isoform-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, N.; Alstrom, J. S.; Hansen, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    /activation of PKC and by mutational disruption of the proposed PKC-phosphorylation sites. Cx30 hemichannel activity, in contrast, was down-regulated by PKC activation, in a manner suggesting PKC-mediated channel closure. No single PKC consensus site could be assigned to this regulatory property by mutational...

  6. Weighting of Acoustic Cues to a Manner Distinction by Children with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…

  7. Silence and table manners : When environments activate norms (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joly, Janneke F.; Stapel, Diederik A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e. g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e. g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there

  8. 40 CFR 141.203 - Tier 2 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier 2 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice. 141.203 Section 141.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc...

  9. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice. 141.204 Section 141.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc...

  10. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  11. Platelets Drive Thrombus Propagation in a Hematocrit and Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Manner in an In Vitro Venous Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marcus; Schoeman, Rogier M; Krohl, Patrick J; Wallbank, Alison M; Samaniuk, Joseph R; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Neeves, Keith B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the role of platelets and red blood cells on thrombus propagation in an in vitro model of venous valvular stasis. A microfluidic model with dimensional similarity to human venous valves consists of a sinus distal to a sudden expansion, where for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, 2 countercurrent vortices arise because of flow separation. The primary vortex is defined by the points of flow separation and reattachment. A secondary vortex forms in the deepest recess of the valve pocket characterized by low shear rates. An initial fibrin gel formed within the secondary vortex of a tissue factor-coated valve sinus. Platelets accumulated at the interface of the fibrin gel and the primary vortex. Red blood cells at physiological hematocrits were necessary to provide an adequate flux of platelets to support thrombus growth out of the valve sinus. A subpopulation of platelets that adhered to fibrin expose phosphatidylserine. Platelet-dependent thrombus growth was attenuated by inhibition of glycoprotein VI with a blocking Fab fragment or D-dimer. A 3-step process regulated by hemodynamics was necessary for robust thrombus propagation: First, immobilized tissue factor initiates coagulation and fibrin deposition within a low flow niche defined by a secondary vortex in the pocket of a model venous valve. Second, a primary vortex delivers platelets to the fibrin interface in a red blood cell-dependent manner. Third, platelets adhere to fibrin, activate through glycoprotein VI, express phosphatidylserine, and subsequently promote thrombus growth beyond the valve sinus and into the bulk flow. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Network design analysis for special needs student services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Population growth can lead to public school capacity issues, as well as increased school bus utilization. This increased utilization, in turn, can result in longer school bus transport times for both regular and special needs/medically fragile studen...

  14. Non-natural manners of death among users of illicit drugs: Substance findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn M; Teige, Brita; Rogde, Sidsel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore differences and similarities between the various non-natural manners of death (accident, suicide, homicide) regarding toxicological findings in illicit drug users. Medicolegal autopsy reports from the Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Oslo concerning deaths from 2000 to 2009 were investigated. Those aged 20-59 whose manner of death was non-natural and who tested positive for any narcotic drug (morphine/heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD, PCP, and high levels of GHB in addition to methadone and buprenorphine) were selected. All substance findings were registered and categorized (narcotics, ethanol, and medicinal products). Of the 1603 autopsies that met the selection criteria, 1204 were accidental intoxications, 122 accidents other than intoxication, 114 suicides by intoxication, 119 non-intoxication suicides, and 44 victims of homicide. Poly drug use was found in all manners of death. The drug profile as well as the mean number of substances (illicit drugs and medicinal products) varied from 2.9 to 4.6 substances per case, depending on the manner of death. Intoxication suicides had the highest number of substances and a total drug profile similar to accidental intoxications. Non-intoxication suicides had a total drug profile similar to homicide and accidents other than intoxication. The number of substances found per case increased during the decade, mainly due to increased findings of methadone, cannabis, amphetamines, and benzodiazepines. Methadone findings increased much more than buprenorphine. Methadone was found 20 times more often than buprenorphine in accidental intoxication cases. In summary, poly drug findings are common in adults who suffer a non-natural death while using illicit drugs. The different manners of death have some specific characteristics and significant differences regarding drug profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Eurostat and the Ministry of Economic Development. 4. .... regard to the application of special national schemes for small enterprises. ... 2013) mentions a two-year exemption from the tax on joint stock companies and local taxes. ... specialized support programs are developed, such as the introduction of the ...

  16. Special Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  17. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, AR; Horhoianu, IA; Dumitrascu, MC; Horhoianu, V

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the t...

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... since this experience-oriented philosopher is affected by Barclay, he focuses ... thought is cognition system reconstruction in the manner that is ... prove it by philosophical argument or through intellect, but here psychological phenomenon ... the objects also will be distinct from human mind and perceptions.

  19. SMART SPECIALIZATION, ELEMENT OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research-Development and innovation expenditure (conditions of a few high specializations in different fields of science know an increasing importance, both at countries level and regions, on the background of challenges that occur in economic growth, at European Union level, involving investment increase in knowledge, respectively, education, professional training, research and development. The existence of a good model of territorial development means finding a strategy and governance able to create new economic activities that capitalize the competitive and comparative advantages of territorial potential, in global context. The new strategy of economic transformation at local level, the smart specialization, aims to promote efficient and effective use of public investment in research, based on innovation encouragement, at regional level, that should lead to economic growth and prosperity of regions. The implementation of strategy`s instruments involves an integrated approach, by using own forces and potential of each region, that should meet the requirements of European Agenda, for growth and competitiveness achievement. By identifying the fields with high potential, at regional level, and their strengthening, the smart specialization can concur to regions access on global markets and international value chain. The study briefly expounds the concept of smart specialization and its constituent sizes, principles of action in the field of research-development and innovation. There are also considered the implementation stages of "strategy", in the interventions at regional level, as well as the advantages and risks that it entails.

  20. A cross-sectional study of growth, nutritional status and body proportions in children and adolescents at a medical center specializing in the treatment of cystic fibrosis in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Dorota; Zielińska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition, delayed growth and delayed puberty are commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status and body proportions in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis. Material and methods The evaluation was based on 19 somatic measurements and indices calculated from these measurements. Somatic development was evaluated in relation to several factors connected to the clinical picture or the course of the disease. Anthropometric data were extracted from the medical histories of 41 boys and 48 girls diagnosed and treated at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw (Poland). Mean values for somatic parameters and body build indices for the children suffering from CF were compared to those for the reference group. Results The results revealed that growth in these children was significantly delayed in comparison to that seen in the healthy population (Z-score = –0.56, p < 0.001). Nutritional status was also adversely affected (Z-score = –0.85, p < 0.001). The children suffered more from a deficit in muscularity than in adiposity (Z-score = –0.75 and Z-score = –0.34, p < 0.01, respectively). This was especially true for boys. The children had infantile body proportions and defects in trunk and chest structure. Conclusions The factors that most affected somatic development were infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the time at which the disease was diagnosed. Chronic infection by P. aeruginosa and type of CFTR mutation were the factors that most affected pulmonary function parameters. PMID:25861303

  1. Special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  2. Special Issue to publish

    OpenAIRE

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  3. Considerations on the manner to account for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellisier-Tanon, A.; Grandemange, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    The way followed in France for analyzing fast fracture resistance of PWR primary components is the one of a deterministic analysis with safety coefficients imposed in the fracture criteria. The study of margins towards fast fracture of the 900 MWe program vessels undertaken in 1982 includes parametric evaluations of the influence of essential variables. It has stimulated further thoughts on the level of safety to fix in the analysis methodology, on the orientations for the choice of safety factors and on the manner to introduce them in the analysis. A first chapter tries to characterize the French approach in comparison to those of other countries. A second chapter examines the manner according to which safety factors can be introduced in the deterministic analysis. It presents the principle for a logical approach accounting for the interdependency of all factors and variables. It establishes criteria for the selection of defect kind and size for the computation

  4. p21-activated Kinase1(PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Fu, Meng; Wang, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    204) although phosphorylation of b-Raf (Ser445) and c-Raf (Ser 338) remained unchanged. Furthermore, increased activation of the PAK1 activator Rac1 induced the formation of a triple complex of Rac1, PAK1 and Mek1, independent of the kinase activity of PAK1. These data suggest that PAK1 can stimulate...... MEK activity in a kinase independent manner, probably by serving as a scaffold to facilitate interaction of c-Raf....

  5. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... In this research, two questionnaires of knowledge management and employees' ... development, human resources are the most important tool and capital of ... foster talent, to improve public and specialized awareness, and to ...

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... delivery system which are primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, ..... services are usually delivered by nurse practitioners, medical assistants, ... The quaternary care is a highly specialized care with a target to cure.

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... quantitative method used, data analysis and findings of Telehealth ... The users' acceptance of wireless sensor devise (Motes) for ..... access to specialized health care: the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulletin ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    . Special ... is 4000 pps, in 1 ms there are 4 sampling intervals. Fig. .... Although this type of radar is simple, generally it is not very sensitive because of increased ... processing) to determine the true sign of Doppler frequency.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  11. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  12. Israeli Special Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... special experience of urban environments in the development process. ... Internet and social networking, and eventually poor performance of the police .... was shown that different regions have different levels of fear of crime.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    Published online: 1 May 2018. ABSTRACT ... CMOS technology with many special features that can overcome all the limitations in CMOS. QCA is of high speed, small size ... is done depending on position of single electrons. This shows that ...

  15. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  16. de Sitter special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... and 1340s, centralization and organizational unity in the early 1350s, ... appropriate productivity in specialized costs of welfare and social ..... and finally the lack of compliance with commitments by the government to the social.

  18. The Online Specialization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Hong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  19. Indoor visible mold and mold odor are associated with new-onset childhood wheeze in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Caroline; Crane, Julian; Pierse, Nevil; Barnes, Phillipa; Kang, Janice; Wickens, Kristin; Douwes, Jeroen; Stanley, Thorsten; Täubel, Martin; Hyvärinen, Anne; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2018-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that indoor dampness and mold are associated with the development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. New Zealand has high rates of both asthma and indoor mold and is ideally placed to investigate this. We conducted an incident case-control study involving 150 children with new-onset wheeze, aged between 1 and 7 years, each matched to two control children with no history of wheezing. Each participant's home was assessed for moisture damage, condensation, and mold growth by researchers, an independent building assessor and parents. Repeated measures of temperature and humidity were made, and electrostatic dust cloths were used to collect airborne microbes. Cloths were analyzed using qPCR. Children were skin prick tested for aeroallergens to establish atopy. Strong positive associations were found between observations of visible mold and new-onset wheezing in children (adjusted odds ratios ranged between 1.30 and 3.56; P ≤ .05). Visible mold and mold odor were consistently associated with new-onset wheezing in a dose-dependent manner. Measurements of qPCR microbial levels, temperature, and humidity were not associated with new-onset wheezing. The association between mold and new-onset wheeze was not modified by atopic status, suggesting a non-allergic association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rhizoctonia solani and Bacterial Inoculants Stimulate Root Exudation of Antifungal Compounds in Lettuce in a Soil-Type Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Windisch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted on a unique field site comprising three contrasting soils (diluvial sand DS, alluvial loam AL, loess loam LL under identical cropping history, demonstrated soil type-dependent differences in biocontrol efficiency against Rhizoctonia solani-induced bottom rot disease in lettuce by two bacterial inoculants (Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re-4-18. Disease severity declined in the order DS > AL > LL. These differences were confirmed under controlled conditions, using the same soils in minirhizotron experiments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS profiling of rhizosphere soil solutions revealed benzoic and lauric acids as antifungal compounds; previously identified in root exudates of lettuce. Pathogen inoculation and pre-inoculation with bacterial inoculants significantly increased the release of antifungal root exudates in a soil type-specific manner; with the highest absolute levels detected on the least-affected LL soil. Soil type-dependent differences were also recorded for the biocontrol effects of the two bacterial inoculants; showing the highest efficiency after double-inoculation on the AL soil. However, this was associated with a reduction of shoot growth and root hair development and a limited micronutrient status of the host plants. Obviously, disease severity and the expression of biocontrol effects are influenced by soil properties with potential impact on reproducibility of practical applications.

  1. Report on the behalf of the special commission for the examination of the bill project, after proceeding the accelerated procedure, modified by the Senate in first reading, related to energy transition for a green growth (nr 2611) - Nr 2736

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareigts, Ericka; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Baupin, Denis; Plisson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    After a presentation of the commission works, this huge report presents and discusses the content and the modifications brought by the Senate to the bill project on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it addresses the different articles of this bill project: to define common objectives for a successful energy transition, to strengthen France energy independence and economic competitiveness, to preserve health and the environment and to struggle against climatic change; to better renovate buildings to save energy, to reduce bills and to create jobs; to develop clean transports for a better air quality and to protect health; to struggle against spillages and to promote circular economy from product design to recycling; to promote renewable energies to diversify energies and valorise territorial resources; to strengthen nuclear safety and citizen information; to simplify and clarify procedures for better efficiency and competitiveness; to give to citizen, enterprises, territories and State the power to act together. A table gives a comparative vision of the successive versions of the bill project

  2. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gidske L; Krzywinski, Knut

    2007-06-15

    Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  3. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywinski Knut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  4. Special protective concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.

    2001-01-01

    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  5. Metal stressors consistently modulate bacterial conjugal plasmid uptake potential in a phylogenetically conserved manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Riber, Leise

    2017-01-01

    The environmental stimulants and inhibitors of conjugal plasmid transfer in microbial communities are poorly understood. Specifically, it is not known whether exposure to stressors may cause a community to alter its plasmid uptake ability. We assessed whether metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn) and one metal...... that community permissiveness is sensitive to metal(loid) stress in a manner that is both partially consistent across stressors and phylogenetically conserved.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 2 August 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.98....

  6. The description of morality and manners in Vsevolod Solovyov’s short prose

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2013-01-01

    This article contains a genre specificity of short prose by Vsevolod Solovyov, whose work is devoted to the Russian history between the 18th and 19th centuries. According to professor N.L. Vershinina, the author distinguishes the difference between the description of morality and manners. The main difference is in the presence of author’s point of view on the describing occurrences. In this case, such works are considered to be a kind of morality, which characterizes Solovyov’s works. Showing...

  7. The description of morality and manners in Vsevolod Solovyov’s short prose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a genre specificity of short prose by Vsevolod Solovyov, whose work is devoted to the Russian history between the 18th and 19th centuries. According to professor N.L. Vershinina, the author distinguishes the difference between the description of morality and manners. The main difference is in the presence of author’s point of view on the describing occurrences. In this case, such works are considered to be a kind of morality, which characterizes Solovyov’s works. Showing every-day life, he examined the process of turning barbarism into a civilizing society.

  8. Tissue transglutaminase inhibits the TRPV5-dependent calcium transport in an N-glycosylation-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boros, Sandor; Xi, Qi; Dimke, Henrik Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme, catalyzing protein crosslinking. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family of cation channels was recently shown to contribute to the regulation of TG activities in keratinocytes and hence skin barrier form......, these observations imply that tTG is a novel extracellular enzyme inhibiting the activity of TRPV5. The inhibition of TRPV5 occurs in an N-glycosylation-dependent manner, signifying a common final pathway by which distinct extracellular factors regulate channel activity....

  9. A Brief Analysis on The Mannerism of Strange Stories of A Chinese Studio by Pu Songling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andyni Khosasih

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Strange Stories of a Chinese Studio, commonly known as 聊斋 (Liaozhai is a short novel written in classical Chinese from Qing dynasty. This novel was written in 1680, year 19 of Emperor Kangxi’s reign. The novel has 491 chapters. Article explored Pu Songling’s mannerism, such as the contents, material collection, innovation of artistic literary elements and images of women. It can be concluded that  the novel reflects the broadness of humanistic world and thoroughly describes images of women. It broke through the restriction of thoughts in feudalism society.  

  10. A nonparametric test for industrial specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, Stephen B.; Johnson, Erik B.

    2010-01-01

    Urban economists hypothesize that industrial diversity matters for urban growth and development, but metrics for empirically testing this relationship are limited to simple concentration metrics (e.g. location quotient) or summary diversity indices (e.g. Gini, Herfindahl). As shown by recent advances in how we measure localization and specialization, these measures of industrial diversity may be subject to bias under small samples or the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Furthermore, empirically...

  11. 26 CFR 1.936-7 - Manner of making election under section 936 (h)(5); special election for export sales; revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... support services for affiliated companies such as centralized testing, marketing of products, management... affiliated group incurs no research, development or experimental costs in the product area? A. 4: Yes. In... has been made with respect to the product area, the cost sharing payment or the research and...

  12. Ghrelin stimulates synaptic formation in cultured cortical networks in a dose-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzig, K.H.; Stoyanova, Irina; le Feber, Jakob; Rutten, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin was initially related to appetite stimulation and growth hormone secretion. These findings suggest that ghrelin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of disorders related to synaptic impairment.

  13. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  14. Preface JFDE Special Issue Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facade Design and Engineering is a multidisciplinary field that touches many other scientific disciplines. Glass is one of the key materials for building envelopes, and a strong scientific community has developed over the last decade. Designers love glass for its transparency. It is strong but brittle and very demanding in terms of engineering. We continuously see new innovative developments in terms of its climatic performance, structural possibilities, construction design and new applications. Reason enough to dedicate this special issue to the topic. The issue would not have been possible without the contribution of our special editors Jan Belis and Christian Louter, who contributed through their outstanding editorial work and network. Most of the papers in this issue were carefully selected from of a number of invited submissions and conference papers of the COST Action TU0905 Mid-Term Conference, April 17+18 2013, Porec, (CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden and subsequently subjected to the regular blind review process of the journal. Glass as a building material demonstrates the nature of the architectural discipline, where science and building practice are closely linked. Buildings are the live testing bed for scientific research and, at the same time, building practice formulates new research questions. We found that many articles sent to us deal with this relation. Therefore we decided to introduce the new category ’Applied Practice’ for certain journal paper contributions, which from now on can be found at the end of each issue. Although they do not need to be purely scientific, ’Applied Practice’ papers will always discuss new developments, will have a clear structure and are subjected to the strict JFDE review process. Façade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ’open access’ as the future publishing model. But it

  15. Art Is Not Special

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Martin; Nadal, Marcos

    2018-01-01

    The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters...... a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and biases the sort of processes to be studied. More generally, assuming that art is special is to cling to the idea that some aspect of our species’ mental constitution makes us unique, special, and meaningful. This assumption continues to relegate...... scientific aesthetics to the periphery of science and hampers a naturalized view of the human mind....

  16. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...... arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted...... by the theory.Keywords: Outsourcing, Comparative advantage, Specialization, Wages.JEL Classification: F16, J31, C23....

  17. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too much growth hormone. Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body ...

  18. TALE activators regulate gene expression in a position- and strand-dependent manner in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Cheung, Edna; Lu, Biao

    2014-01-24

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of transcription factors that are readily programmable to regulate gene expression. Despite their growing popularity, little is known about binding site parameters that influence TALE-mediated gene activation in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that TALE activators modulate gene expression in mammalian cells in a position- and strand-dependent manner. To study the effects of binding site location, we engineered TALEs customized to recognize specific DNA sequences located in either the promoter or the transcribed region of reporter genes. We found that TALE activators robustly activated reporter genes when their binding sites were located within the promoter region. In contrast, TALE activators inhibited the expression of reporter genes when their binding sites were located on the sense strand of the transcribed region. Notably, this repression was independent of the effector domain utilized, suggesting a simple blockage mechanism. We conclude that TALE activators in mammalian cells regulate genes in a position- and strand-dependent manner that is substantially different from gene activation by native TALEs in plants. These findings have implications for optimizing the design of custom TALEs for genetic manipulation in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochanin a and Daidzein Influence Meiotic Maturation of Pig Oocytes in a Different Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hošková K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of phytoestrogens biochanin A (BIO A; 20, 40, 50μg ml-1 and daidzein (DAI; 10, 20, 40, 50μg ml-1 on the course of meiotic maturation of pig oocytes. After a 24-hour cultivation, a stage of nuclear maturation was achieved and the areas of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, as an indicator of cumulus expansion, were evaluated. The effects of both contaminants on oocytes were mani - fested from the lowest concentration used. Nuclear maturation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the case of BIO A. Effects of DAI reached a plateau at a concentration of 20μg ml-1.Possible relationship to limited solubility of DAI was excluded because limits of DAI solubility in culture medium were confirmed at 50 μg ml-1.The cumulus expansion was also influenced in a different manner - reduction of the COC’s area by BIO A was dose-dependent, whereas DAI had the strongest effect on CCs in the lowest and highest concentrations used. Both phytoestrogens negatively influence the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes but there are significant differences in their concrete effects which could relate to the diverse mechanisms of their acting on target cells.

  20. A top-down manner-based DCNN architecture for semantic image segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qiao

    Full Text Available Given their powerful feature representation for recognition, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs have been driving rapid advances in high-level computer vision tasks. However, their performance in semantic image segmentation is still not satisfactory. Based on the analysis of visual mechanism, we conclude that DCNNs in a bottom-up manner are not enough, because semantic image segmentation task requires not only recognition but also visual attention capability. In the study, superpixels containing visual attention information are introduced in a top-down manner, and an extensible architecture is proposed to improve the segmentation results of current DCNN-based methods. We employ the current state-of-the-art fully convolutional network (FCN and FCN with conditional random field (DeepLab-CRF as baselines to validate our architecture. Experimental results of the PASCAL VOC segmentation task qualitatively show that coarse edges and error segmentation results are well improved. We also quantitatively obtain about 2%-3% intersection over union (IOU accuracy improvement on the PASCAL VOC 2011 and 2012 test sets.

  1. Special Libraries and Multitype Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the history of multitype library networks; examines the reasons why special libraries and other network participants have resisted the inclusion of special libraries in these networks; and discusses the benefits to both special libraries and to other libraries in the network that would result from special library participation. (17…

  2. Special Needs: A Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…

  3. Compensatory growth assessment by plasma IGF-I hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... feeding diets and regimes will be evaluated in future studies. Key words: Compensatory growth, food coefficient ratio, food intake, IGF-I, rainbow trout, special growth .... Blood was sampled for IGF-I hormone concentration.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...

  6. Special Libraries in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Alice

    1979-01-01

    Distinguishes five main categories of special libraries in Singapore: those of private organizations, foreign governments, government departments, statutory boards, and regional organizations. Statistical data are provided for library holdings, professional staff employment, and subject profiles, and suggestions for improving various aspects of…

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Perak, Malaysia was observed under ral waste in powder and xtract generated optimum produce highest length of fectively improved shoot ed faster effect on C. ed positive result for the shed light on how the Z. C. nutans. This study ld application. pagation; Zea mays stem. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. ... confirmatory factor analysis which is a technique to study the structure of a ... School as a social institution is part of a special community that has ... specifies the amount of support that teacher thinks that students ..... social adjustment and academic performance in third grade female ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Special attention is paid to human capital agglomeration, which is regarded as a .... the innovation sector, on the periphery of the ... Agglomeration is an effective form of concentration of human capital, intellectual ... participants of social relations (public, entrepreneurs) or the formation of clusters, emerging.

  10. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... they have no special development plan and their authorities actually do not know about the ... Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban network, SWOT analysis, ... rural areas and can decrease regional differences in developing ... Small scale cities are necessary for integration of rural and urban.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Scienc. ISSN 1112-9867 ... (0.9623, 0.3857) and (0.9975, ity, temperature, CO, UVB and. 10 concentration. In by using ANN or Fit model. Research Article. Special Issue .... The EM algorithm is a simple computational implementation to find the posterior mode. Fig.

  13. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  14. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... WORLD THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL ... It has been explored by many a Russian and foreign researcher. ... attempt to focus, instead of going back to the analysis of past experience, on the subject from ... intercultural interaction between various nations, was given special ...

  16. Procurement with specialized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms' cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low (high)

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.

  18. Overview of Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Harman, Donna; Allan, James; Kelly, Diane; Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bennet, Paul; Callan, Jamie; Clarke, Charles; Diaz, Fernando; Dumais, Susan; Ferro, Nicola; Harman, Donna; Ruthven, Ian; Sakai, Tetsuya; Smucker, Mark D.; Zobel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of SIGIR Forum marks the 40th anniversary of the ACM SIGIR Conference by showcasing papers selected for the ACM SIGIR Test of Time Award from the years 1978-2001. These papers document the history and evolution of IR research and practice, and illustrate the intellectual impact

  19. Special Issue Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this special issue focuses on work in the South African context, ... practice) with youth addresses the key imperatives of (un)employment, age, ... patterns of male control over sexual encounters and women's sexuality are emergent ... in the paper by Ngabaza, Bojarczuk, Masuku and Roelfse, titled, 'Empowering young.

  20. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  1. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... such as the athletes. This is done through gene doping, ... reduced risk of injury and drug abuse, talent selection through DNA and special training ..... GJB2 gene among Malays with non-syndromic hearing loss. International ...

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... of specific musical terms; attention to the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt and special devotion to ... Another factor that plays a role in making the poetry of Shahriar .... world, they start reading the masterpieces of world literature and ...

  4. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  5. Special Interest Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  6. Assertiveness with 'Special' Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia

    The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... because Amir al- Mu'minin's(peace be upon him) name is related to human perfection and. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ...

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... We are listed under Research Associations. D THAT USES A ... Clinical Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama, Aoba ... Special Issue ..... advisable to run the prognosis results at least one hundred times with the Euclidean and ... They are some of the topics left for future research. 5.

  9. A specialized vessel for specialized work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, J.; De Beenhouwer, S.; Strong, R.; Eversdijk, B. [Tideway BV (Netherlands); Breen, L. [Petro-Canada, St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges associated with the construction and development of the Terra Nova Field, situated on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. In particular, the paper describes how pipelines were protected and stabilized in this harsh environment where the presence of icebergs is common in the springtime. Pipelines were covered with a berm of well-graded quarry stone. The job was executed by the specialized dynamically positioned fall-pipe vessel (DPFPV) called Seahorse. Tideway Marine of the Netherlands operates the Seahorse, which has 2 storage bunkers to carry a total of 18,000 metric tons of rock. Conveyor belts transport the stones from the storage bunkers to a fall-pipe, an open tubular hanging under the vessel which allows the rocks to be dumped in water depths ranging from 20 metres to 1,000 metres. This paper demonstrates that rock dumping is an effective and flexible solution to stabilize and protect pipelines. Dimensions and configuration of the rock can be optimized according to unique specifications of a project. The insulation properties of the rock reduce the amount of insulation foam required for hot flowlines. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... effect of PP of different viscosities on the physical and mechanical properties ... thrust to the cement stone, which contributes to more intensive growth of strains. ..... forecast of structural behavior and the index assessment of its ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress was significant on all the traits studied. ... non- stress drought condition, the leaf area index and growth rate in the sunflower .... Changes in hormonal balance, is one.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... ries are lacking behind and depend heavily on the outsourcing wo ... As a consequence of this crisis, the rate of economy growth dropped down which led to .... affiliation greater prominent capability scale and flex as required.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... SIMULATION OF BRAIN TUMOR GROWTH MODEL USING ... developed by using MATLAB software and some numerical simulation d. The findings ..... On the convergence of two-stage iterative processes for solving linear.

  15. Maternal obesity alters brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Calais S; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major clinical problem in obstetrics being associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal programming. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a validated miR-210 target, is necessary for placental development, fetal growth, glucose metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Plasma BDNF levels are reduced in obese individuals; however, placental BDNF has yet to be studied in the context of maternal obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal obesity and sexual dimorphism on placental BDNF signaling. BDNF signaling was measured in placentas from lean (pre-pregnancy BMI 30) women at term without medical complications that delivered via cesarean section without labor. MiRNA-210, BDNF mRNA, proBDNF, and mature BDNF were measured by RT - PCR, ELISA, and Western blot. Downstream signaling via TRKB (BDNF receptor) was measured using Western blot. Maternal obesity was associated with increased miRNA-210 and decreased BDNF mRNA in placentas from female fetuses, and decreased proBDNF in placentas from male fetuses. We also identified decreased mature BDNF in placentas from male fetuses when compared to female fetuses. Mir-210 expression was negatively correlated with mature BDNF protein. TRKB phosphorylated at tyrosine 817, not tyrosine 515, was increased in placentas from obese women. Maternal obesity was associated with increased phosphorylation of MAPK p38 in placentas from male fetuses, but not phosphorylation of ERK p42/44. BDNF regulation is complex and highly regulated. Pre-pregnancy/early maternal obesity adversely affects BDNF/TRKB signaling in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner. These data collectively suggest that induction of placental TRKB signaling could ameliorate the placental OB phenotype, thus improving perinatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potentiation Effects of Half-Squats Performed in a Ballistic or Nonballistic Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sato, Kimitake; DeWeese, Brad H; Ebben, William P; Stone, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    This study examined and compared the acute effects of ballistic and nonballistic concentric-only half-squats (COHSs) on squat jump performance. Fifteen resistance-trained men performed a squat jump 2 minutes after a control protocol or 2 COHSs at 90% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) COHS performed in a ballistic or nonballistic manner. Jump height (JH), peak power (PP), and allometrically scaled peak power (PPa) were compared using three 3 × 2 repeated-measures analyses of variance. Statistically significant condition × time interaction effects existed for JH (p = 0.037), PP (p = 0.041), and PPa (p = 0.031). Post hoc analysis revealed that the ballistic condition produced statistically greater JH (p = 0.017 and p = 0.036), PP (p = 0.031 and p = 0.026), and PPa (p = 0.024 and p = 0.023) than the control and nonballistic conditions, respectively. Small effect sizes for JH, PP, and PPa existed during the ballistic condition (d = 0.28-0.44), whereas trivial effect sizes existed during the control (d = 0.0-0.18) and nonballistic (d = 0.0-0.17) conditions. Large statistically significant relationships existed between the JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat 1RM (r = 0.520; p = 0.047) and relative COHS 1RM (r = 0.569; p = 0.027) during the ballistic condition. In addition, large statistically significant relationship existed between JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat strength (r = 0.633; p = 0.011), whereas the moderate relationship with the subject's relative COHS strength trended toward significance (r = 0.483; p = 0.068). Ballistic COHS produced superior potentiation effects compared with COHS performed in a nonballistic manner. Relative strength may contribute to the elicited potentiation response after ballistic and nonballistic COHS.

  17. Intermittent Hypoxia Disrupts Glucose Homeostasis in Liver Cells in an Insulin-Dependent and Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Juan Gu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine the molecular effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH on hepatic insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis, and whether c-Jun NH2-terminal-kinase (JNK contributed to metabolic responses to IH in liver cells. Methods: The human HepG2 cells and rat FAO cells were exposed to 10, 30, 120, 240 or 360 cycles of IH (1% O2 for 60 s followed by 21% O2 for 60s, 7.5 cycles per hour or normoxia as a control. In a subgroup, we exposed cells to 360 cycles of IH with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. After IH exposure, cell glycogen content and glucose output were measured using colorimetric assay kits. Canonical insulin signaling and gluconeogenic genes were measured by western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: IH decreased insulin-stimulated protein kinase B (AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner, while inhibiting forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 expression and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK transcription independent of insulin signaling. JNK inhibitor SP600125 partially restored AKT/ GSK-3β phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis, but did not affect other IH-induced glucose metabolic changes. Conclusion: IH in vitro impaired insulin signal transduction in liver cells as assessed by inhibited AKT/GSK-3β phosphorylation via JNK activation. IH inhibited FOXO1 and gluconeogenesis in an insulin-independent manner.

  18. Moral Personality Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kalin

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning in terms of personality growth is a life-long process, just as personality growth itself is a life-long process. Kalin presents a number of psychological theories and their impact on moral development - which is an integral part of personality growth. The paper further treats the formation and changing of beliefs, and the role of education in the two processes. Great emphasis is put on cognitive theories; Kalin explains those formulated by L. Kohlberg and J. Rest. In discussing the process of shaping and changing one's views, special emphasis is put on the environment, or rather the social group an individual belongs to, and on the influence of personality traits and experience. The paper juxtaposes the influence - strengths and weaknesses - of the psychology of persuasion and education on forming and changing one's views, taken into consideration that views consist of cognitive, emotive and conative dimensions.

  19. Geomembrane special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Special Education and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent development in special education includes the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to assist students during their lifetime. ICT is now also recognized as a tool which ensures access to knowledge and learning resources. In this paper we present an overview of the most representative studies of the last decade (2001-2010 which deal with the two important issues in the field of special education, diagnosis and intervention. One important advantage of these tools is that they can be employed by teachers and parents as well, to adapt education to the needs and abilities of pupils. The studies chosen will be classified according to the areas of needs they serve.

  1. Very special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew G; Glashow, Sheldon L

    2006-07-14

    By very special relativity (VSR) we mean descriptions of nature whose space-time symmetries are certain proper subgroups of the Poincaré group. These subgroups contain space-time translations together with at least a two-parameter subgroup of the Lorentz group isomorphic to that generated by K(x) + J(y) and K(y)- J(x). We find that VSR implies special relativity (SR) in the context of local quantum field theory or of conservation. Absent both of these added hypotheses, VSR provides a simulacrum of SR for which most of the consequences of Lorentz invariance remain wholly or essentially intact, and for which many sensitive searches for departures from Lorentz invariance must fail. Several feasible experiments are discussed for which Lorentz-violating effects in VSR may be detectable.

  2. 2008 GRS specialized forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    After the successful trial run in 2007, the 2008 GRS Specialized Forum held at the Cologne Wolkenburg on April 7 and 8, 2008 was a full success. GRS, Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, plans to resume in this way its GRS specialized lectures series with a tradition of many years. Approximately 180 participants from public authorities, licensees, the nuclear industry, research and engineering establishments as well as universities showed their interest in current GRS activities. On 2 days, only GRS experts presented fundamental and GRS-specific approaches in scientific analysis, new research findings, and possibilities of advancing scientific methods under the four headings of Reactor Safety Research and Evaluation, Topical Subjects of Reactor Safety, Radiation Protection Activities, and Repository Safety and Environmental Research. The discussions held after each presentation offered a number of critical, but valuable and welcome, contributions from the different perspectives of the discussants. (orig.)

  3. FBAR syndapin 1 recognizes and stabilizes highly curved tubular membranes in a concentration dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Pradeep; Baroji, Younes F.; Seyyed Reihani, Seyyed Nader

    2013-01-01

    Syndapin 1 FBAR, a member of the Bin-amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain protein family, is known to induce membrane curvature and is an essential component in biological processes like endocytosis and formation and growth of neurites. We quantify the curvature sensing of FBAR on reconstituted porcine b...

  4. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  5. PRES 2012 special section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Qiuwang

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing...... the main points. The main areas of this issue can be summarised as: Process Integration for Energy Saving, Integrating Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Optimisation issues....

  6. Specialization, outsourcing and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. We argue that if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains arising from an increase in the division...... of labor, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsourcing affect wages as predicted....

  7. Preface to Special Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Nathanson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that reading comprehension is at the forefront of global literacy discourse, this special edition of Per Linguam, the first number that is also published online, features a collection of articles that cover different aspects of reading comprehension and instruction, such as, strategies for comprehending texts, metacognitive awareness, the reciprocity of assessment and comprehension instruction and socio-affective factors that influence comprehension.

  8. Special zone territory decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Special issue photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In this letter of the INES (french National Institute of the Solar Energy), a special interest is given to photovoltaic realizations in Europe. Many information are provided on different topics: the China future fifth world producer of cells in 2005, batteries and hydrogen to storage the solar energy and a technical sheet on a photovoltaic autonomous site installation for electric power production. (A.L.B.)

  10. JENDL special purpose file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-01-01

    In JENDL-3,2, the data on all the reactions having significant cross section over the neutron energy from 0.01 meV to 20 MeV are given for 340 nuclides. The object range of application extends widely, such as the neutron engineering, shield and others of fast reactors, thermal neutron reactors and nuclear fusion reactors. This is a general purpose data file. On the contrary to this, the file in which only the data required for a specific application field are collected is called special purpose file. The file for dosimetry is a typical special purpose file. The Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is making ten kinds of JENDL special purpose files. The files, of which the working groups of Sigma Committee are in charge, are listed. As to the format of the files, ENDF format is used similarly to JENDL-3,2. Dosimetry file, activation cross section file, (α, n) reaction data file, fusion file, actinoid file, high energy data file, photonuclear data file, PKA/KERMA file, gas production cross section file and decay data file are described on their contents, the course of development and their verification. Dosimetry file and gas production cross section file have been completed already. As for the others, the expected time of completion is shown. When these files are completed, they are opened to the public. (K.I.)

  11. Exports, capital formation and economic growth in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa the export sector is frequently accorded a special role in encouraging faster economic growth. Nonetheless, a question that remains unresolved is whether higher export growth indeed leads to higher economic growth and what particular role exports may play within the overall economic growth process of the ...

  12. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  13. Sexy is what you make it: organizational culture and U.S. Army Special Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hawk, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) are the most highly trained, best equipped, and most seasoned soldiers to which the United States can turn to achieve national security objectives. The future, however, will require more indirect application of SF, through special warfare operations (e.g., UW, FID, etc.), in a host of hostile and undefined areas around the globe. This manner of employment is a change in emphasis from the direct combat ...

  14. Special software for computing the special functions of wave catastrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Kryukovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of ordinary differential equations in the context of calculating the special functions of wave catastrophes is considered. Complementary numerical methods and algorithms are described. The paper shows approaches to accelerate such calculations using capabilities of modern computing systems. Methods for calculating the special functions of wave catastrophes are considered in the framework of parallel computing and distributed systems. The paper covers the development process of special software for calculating of special functions, questions of portability, extensibility and interoperability.

  15. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  16. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without

  17. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Greenberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. METHODS: We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98, and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. RESULTS: Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2 of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44 and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55, respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with

  18. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  19. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes?

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  20. Chinese aquaculture in light of green growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leilei Zou; Shuolin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Over China’s long history of aquaculture development, great achievements have been made by enhancing aquaculture as the major contributor to aquatic products supply, while lessons have also been learnt that aquaculture has been developing at the cost of environment. Priority is now given to the aquaculture development in the light of green growth, which attaches importance to both environment protection and high productivity. To sustain Chinese aquaculture in a green-growth manner, polices ch...

  1. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Fumiko; Kugimiya, Fumitaka; Ohba, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ogasawara, Toru; Ogata, Naoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Chung, Ung-il

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in cartilage development, we adenovirally expressed a constitutively active (Canada) or a dominant negative (dn) form of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), the main nuclear effector of the pathway, in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, chondrogenic cells, and primary chondrocytes, and examined the expression of markers for chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy. caLEF-1 and LiCl, an activator of the canonical pathway, promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy, whereas dnLEF-1 and the gene silencing of β-catenin suppressed LiCl-promoted effects. To investigate whether these effects were dependent on Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage development, we stimulated Sox9-deficient ES cells with the pathway. caLEF-1 and LiCl promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy in wild-type, but not in Sox9-deficient, cells. The response of Sox9-deficient cells was restored by the adenoviral expression of Sox9. Thus, the canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

  2. Stat3 signaling regulates embryonic stem cell fate in a dose-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-I Tai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stat3 is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC self-renewal mediated by LIF/gp130 receptor signaling. Current understanding of Stat3-mediated ESC self-renewal mechanisms is very limited, and has heretofore been dominated by the view that Stat3 signaling functions in a binary “on/off” manner. Here, in contrast to this binary viewpoint, we demonstrate a contextual, rheostat-like mechanism for Stat3's function in mESCs. Activation and expression levels determine whether Stat3 functions in a self-renewal or a differentiation role in mESCs. We also show that Stat3 induces rapid differentiation of mESCs toward the trophectoderm (TE lineage when its activation level exceeds certain thresholds. Stat3 induces this differentiation phenotype via induction of Tfap2c and its downstream target Cdx2. Our findings provide a novel concept in the realm of Stat3, self-renewal signaling, and pluripotent stem cell biology. Ultimately, this finding may facilitate the development of conditions for the establishment of authentic non-rodent ESCs.

  3. The H3K27 demethylase, Utx, regulates adipogenesis in a differentiation stage-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Ota

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx, in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes. Utx-deficient mESCs showed diminished potential to differentiate to adipocytes compared to that of controls. In contrast, Utx-deficient preadipocytes showed enhanced differentiation to adipocytes. Microarray analyses indicated that the β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway was differentially regulated in Utx-deficient cells during adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, our data suggest that Utx governs adipogenesis by regulating c-Myc in a differentiation stage-specific manner and that targeting the Utx signaling pathway could be beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and congenital utx-deficiency disorders.

  4. The Probiotic Lactobacillus Prevents Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Murine Colitis in a TLR2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Choi, Soo-Young; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Park, Jin-Il; Kim, Jun-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-07-28

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ameliorated the effects of Citrobactor rodentium infection in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) knockout (KO) and TLR4 KO mice, as well as in wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice. TLR2 KO, TLR4 KO, and B6 mice were divided into three groups per each strain. Each group had an uninfected control group (n = 5), C. rodentium-infected group (n = 8), and LGG-pretreated C. rodentium-infected group (n = 8). The survival rate of B6 mice infected with C. rodentium was higher when pretreated with LGG. Pretreatment with LGG ameliorated C. rodentium-induced mucosal hyperplasia in B6 and TLR4 KO mice. However, in C-rodentium-infected TLR2 KO mice, mucosal hyperplasia persisted, regardless of pretreatment with LGG. In addition, LGG-pretreated B6 and TLR4 KO mice showed a decrease in spleen weight and downregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 mRNA expression compared with the non-pretreated group. In contrast, such changes were not observed in TLR2 KO mice, regardless of pretreatment with LGG. From the above results, we conclude that pretreatment with LGG ameliorates C. rodentium-induced colitis in B6 and TLR4 KO mice, but not in TLR2 KO mice. Therefore, LGG protects mice from C. rodentium-induced colitis in a TLR2-dependent manner.

  5. The aPKC-CBP Pathway Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in an Age-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayden Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age. Importantly, elevation of CREB activity rescues these deficits, and CREB activity is reduced whereas aPKC activity is increased in the murine hippocampus as they age from 3 to 6 months regardless of genotype. Thus, the aPKC-CBP pathway is a homeostatic compensatory mechanism that modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in an age-dependent manner in response to reduced CREB activity.

  6. Fesselin is a target protein for calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KoIakowski, Janusz; Wrzosek, Antoni; Dabrowska, Renata

    2004-01-01

    Fesselin is a basic protein isolated from smooth muscle which binds G-actin and accelerates its polymerization as well as cross-links assembled filaments [J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 20 (1999) 539; Biochemistry 40 (2001) 14252]. In this report experimental evidence is provided for the first time proving that fesselin can interact with calmodulin in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner in vitro. Using ion exchange, followed by calmodulin-affinity chromatography, enabled us to simplify and shorten the fesselin preparation procedure and increase its yield by about three times in comparison to the procedure described by Leinweber et al. [J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 20 (1999) 539]. Fesselin interaction with dansyl-labelled calmodulin causes a 2-fold increase in maximum fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore and a 21 nm blue shift of the spectrum. The transition of complex formation between fesselin and calmodulin occurs at submicromolar concentration of calcium ions. The dissociation constant of fesselin Ca 2+ /calmodulin complexes amounted to 10 -8 M. The results suggest the existence of a direct link between Ca 2+ /calmodulin and fesselin at the level of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in smooth muscle

  7. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers.

  8. Bilirubin Modulates Acetylcholine Receptors In Rat Superior Cervical Ganglionic Neurons In a Bidirectional Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Dong, Jing; Pan, Ruirui; Qiu, Haibo; Zhang, Jinmin; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction as a partial contributing factor to cardiovascular instability in jaundiced patients is often associated with increased serum bilirubin levels. Whether increased serum bilirubin levels could directly inhibit sympathetic ganglion transmission by blocking neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) remains to be elucidated. Conventional patch-clamp recordings were used to study the effect of bilirubin on nAChRs currents from enzymatically dissociated rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons. The results showed that low concnetrations (0.5 and 2 μM) of bilirubin enhanced the peak ACh-evoked currents, while high concentrations (3 to 5.5 µM) of bilirubin suppressed the currents with an IC50 of 4 ± 0.5 μM. In addition, bilirubin decreased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of bilirubin on nAChRs channel currents was non-competitive and voltage independent. Bilirubin partly improved the inhibitory effect of forskolin on ACh-induced currents without affecting the action of H-89. These data suggest that the dual effects of enhancement and suppression of bilirubin on nAChR function may be ascribed to the action mechanism of positive allosteric modulation and direct blockade. Thus, suppression of sympathetic ganglionic transmission through postganglionic nAChRs inhibition may partially contribute to the adverse cardiovascular effects in jaundiced patients. PMID:25503810

  9. MCP-1 expressed by osteoclasts stimulates osteoclastogenesis in an autocrine/paracrine manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kana; Ninomiya, Ken; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Miyamoto, Hiroya

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Here, we describe that multinuclear osteoclast formation was significantly inhibited in cells derived from MCP-1-deficient mice. MCP-1 has been implicated in the regulation of osteoclast cell-cell fusion; however defects of multinuclear osteoclast formation in the cells from mice deficient in DC-STAMP, a seven transmembrane receptor essential for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, was not rescued by recombinant MCP-1. The lack of MCP-1 in osteoclasts resulted in a down-regulation of DC-STAMP, NFATc1, and cathepsin K, all of which were highly expressed in normal osteoclasts, suggesting that osteoclast differentiation was inhibited in MCP-1-deficient cells. MCP-1 alone did not induce osteoclastogenesis, however, the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in MCP-1-deficient cells was restored by addition of recombinant MCP-1, indicating that osteoclastogenesis was regulated in an autocrine/paracrine manner by MCP-1 under the stimulation of RANKL in osteoclasts.

  10. Paternal engagement during childbirth depending on the manner of their preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioma-Markowska, Urszula; Poręba, Ryszard; Machura, Mariola; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the forms of paternal activity depending on the manner of their preparation, including stages of labor. A prospective survey-based study involved 250 fathers who participated in their child's birth. The fathers included in the study were present during all stages of family-assisted natural labor. The study was conducted one day after childbirth with the use of a survey prepared by the authors. Statistical calculations were conducted using the Statistica PL software. The frequency of individual qualitative features (non-measurable) was assessed by means of a non-parametric χ² (chi-squared) test. The statistical significance level was p fathers included in the study (52.4%) participated in childbirth with no prior preparation. The dominant form of preparation involved self-education from books, magazines and the Internet (24%). 23.6% of fathers participated in ante-natal classes. The study demonstrated that fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engaged in the supportive role, provided nursing care and carried out instrumental monitoring during each stage of childbirth. The fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engage in the supportive role, provide nursing care and carry out instrumental control during each stage of childbirth. Ante-natal classes should be promoted as an optimal form of preparation for active participation in childbirth. Moreover, other forms of paternal ante-natal education as well as continued education in a delivery room should be developed.

  11. Unacknowledged threats proffered "in a manner of speaking": recognizing workplace bullying as shaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Albataineh, Raya

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine workplace bullying victims' perceptions of what they heard their bully counterparts say through their use of prosody. From a sampling frame of 89 manuscripts referenced in the authors' previous studies, we identified a subset (n = 10) that included quotes regarding bullying victims' perceptions of communication experiences with their bully perpetrators. We used hermeneutics and a recursive metasynthesis to interpret quotes embedded in the manuscripts chosen for this study. Two-thirds of language is expressed nonverbally through prosody or "manner of speaking"-rhythm, stress, intonation, and vocabulary choice. We found that as bullies communicated with their intended victims over time, they used prosody across subtle, linked communications, or boldly and openly in public venues, to establish a context-embedded, one-way communication process of "doublespeak." Bullies' confusing prosodic communication processes served to recontexualize victims' situations and, through mechanisms largely unacknowledged by the victims, to subtly demean their personhood, and to shame them and render them voiceless. This study directs formal attention to the language of workplace bullying. Further study might strengthen opportunities to effectively address and curtail the long-term personal, professional, and organizational injuries deriving from workplace bullying. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Nuclear size is sensitive to NTF2 protein levels in a manner dependent on Ran binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Lidija D.; Jevtić, Predrag; Zhang, Zhaojie; Stohr, Bradley A.; Levy, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Altered nuclear size is associated with many cancers, and determining whether cancer-associated changes in nuclear size contribute to carcinogenesis necessitates an understanding of mechanisms of nuclear size regulation. Although nuclear import rates generally positively correlate with nuclear size, NTF2 levels negatively affect nuclear size, despite the role of NTF2 (also known as NUTF2) in nuclear recycling of the import factor Ran. We show that binding of Ran to NTF2 is required for NTF2 to inhibit nuclear expansion and import of large cargo molecules in Xenopus laevis egg and embryo extracts, consistent with our observation that NTF2 reduces the diameter of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in a Ran-binding-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic NTF2 expression in Xenopus embryos and mammalian tissue culture cells alters nuclear size. Finally, we show that increases in nuclear size during melanoma progression correlate with reduced NTF2 expression, and increasing NTF2 levels in melanoma cells is sufficient to reduce nuclear size. These results show a conserved capacity for NTF2 to impact on nuclear size, and we propose that NTF2 might be a new cancer biomarker. PMID:26823604

  13. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  14. Report: EPA Needs Policies and Procedures to Manage Public Pesticide Petitions in a Transparent and Efficient Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0019, October 27, 2015. OPP’s lack of policies and procedures to manage public pesticide petitions in a transparent and efficient manner can result in unreasonable delay lawsuits costing the agency time and resources.

  15. Bioreactor design for successive culture of anchorage-dependent cells operated in an automated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino-Oka, Masahiro; Ogawa, Natsuki; Umegaki, Ryota; Taya, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    A novel bioreactor system was designed to perform a series of batchwise cultures of anchorage-dependent cells by means of automated operations of medium change and passage for cell transfer. The experimental data on contamination frequency ensured the biological cleanliness in the bioreactor system, which facilitated the operations in a closed environment, as compared with that in flask culture system with manual handlings. In addition, the tools for growth prediction (based on growth kinetics) and real-time growth monitoring by measurement of medium components (based on small-volume analyzing machinery) were installed into the bioreactor system to schedule the operations of medium change and passage and to confirm that culture proceeds as scheduled, respectively. The successive culture of anchorage-dependent cells was conducted with the bioreactor running in an automated way. The automated bioreactor gave a successful culture performance with fair accordance to preset scheduling based on the information in the latest subculture, realizing 79- fold cell expansion for 169 h. In addition, the correlation factor between experimental data and scheduled values through the bioreactor performance was 0.998. It was concluded that the proposed bioreactor with the integration of the prediction and monitoring tools could offer a feasible system for the manufacturing process of cultured tissue products.

  16. Preschool professionals' (self)perception of competency and attitudes in the field of team work with children with special needs

    OpenAIRE

    Rozman, Katjuša

    2017-01-01

    Preschool period is very important for children's growth. Preschool period is also important for children with special needs, because we need to discover their problems, disabilities or obstacles as soon as possible. In Slovenia preschool children with special needs are divided in one of the three different educational programs definite by law. In ordinary preschool program they carry out special program for children with special needs. This special program has extra professional assistance, ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... in a global economy, along with an increasing growth of demands for different .... et.al (2012) in the field of supply chain risk management [11, 21]. .... Logistics networks within the oil and gas industry are less flexible compare ...

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... year and huge amount of money is invested into this business. Some of these movies make ... Use of social media to predict movie success is also a popular trend. [10] used Twitter ... considered lately to predict movie growth.

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... STUDYING THE FACTORS AFFECTING URBAN DISPERSION IN MASHHAD ... population growth rate for review and analysis, and at first by examining area ... centers, dense population and employment and road network ..... regional planning. ... of the urban front of the building density index (case study.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Urban transport is one of the important factors of life and economic growth of the city and is considered as the most effective sector of transport. According to the World Bank report in .... According to the report byCommunications Management and International Affairs of Tehran. Subway Operation, Tehran ...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Department of International Relations, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia ... This study examines effect of distributive justice and procedural justice on ... collaborations will further lift the growth of telecom sector in .... organizational context but also in other performance contexts such as student .... Experience.

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... root matrix systems gave effect toward growth of both grasses. ... Mycorrhizal fungi able helps the plant to use water and nutrients in the soil. The plant provides a fungi with a food which is .... soil types have varies in pore spaces where sandy soil has bigger spaces ... Vegetation Affecting the Slope Stability.

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... [9] Verma SP, Tripathi VC, Das P. Asparagus racemosus leaf extract inhibits growth of. UOK 146 renal cell carcinoma cell line: Simultaneous Oncogenic PRCCTFE3 Fusion. Transcript Inhibition and Apoptosis independent cell death. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15: 1937-1941. [10] Kim BY, Cui ZG, Lee ...

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... the evaluation of fatigue crack growth rate for iron-carbon metals py generation theorem. ... C steel. mail: shahrum@ukm.edu.my. /10.4314/jfas.v9i5s.37 ... f the present model are .... the shear modulus and σy the yield stress.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Labor deployment issues play an important role in analyzing their use at the country or regional level .... The growth of employment in the service sector since the 50s, as a result of the rapid ... Hotels and restaurants. 23,0 ..... for the better, its number decreases and the quality of labor resources deteriorates.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... The growth of employment in the service sector since the 50s, as a result of the rapid ... Hotels and restaurants. 23,0. 25,8. 28,9 ..... quality of workers in the region only by means of its internal labor resources, it is necessary to.

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Therefore, this paper aims to develop an urban growth simulation ... The Study Area (George Town Conurbation) ... development occurs in the city, especially in the industrial, ... Peninsular Malaysia can easily establish relationships and cooperation both in regional ... network and administrative boundary.

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Then, the effect of stock indices on cash flow and earnings ... companies with high free cash flow and low growth. ... and management performance appraisal could be current and past profits of company. Continuity .... value to total debts ratio to book value of total assets has higher correlation coefficient with.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. In megacities, exposure to high concentrations of air pollution, as a major concern on public health, is being felt worldwide problem. The issue of particulate matter especially the PM2.5 has become extremely crucial in Tehran, due to industrialization and population growth. Therefore, it.

  10. Terminology: A necessary tool for the Specialized Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura E. Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language disciplines, including Terminology and Specialized Translation, have made great strides after the second half of the twentieth century. This development, related to technological growth and international communication that occurred during this period, has resulted in a considerable increase of concepts. Thus, experts have become more and more aware of the importance of naming these new concepts. Specialized translators were among the first language professionals to recognize the need of mastering the terminology of specialized fields in order to perform their duties well (Antia et coll., 2005. In this work, we study the very close relationship between Terminology and Specialized Translation. We also study the theoretical and practical knowledge of Terminology that a specialized translator should have.

  11. A National Association: Our Growth, Organizational Development and Special Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Charles M.

    The establishment of a unified voice, the development of a learned society, and the democratization of the National Art Education Association's (NAEA) governance are the three most significant changes that have occurred in the development of the NAEA since its establishment in 1947. During NAEA's foundational years, 1947-1958, many important…

  12. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...

  13. Abstract specialization and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of program specialization is to optimize programs by exploiting certain knowledge about the context in which the program will execute. There exist many program manipulation techniques which allow specializing the program in different ways. Among them, one of the best known techniques is partial evaluation, often referred to simply as program specialization, which optimizes programs by specializing them for (partially) known input data. In this work we describe abstract specia...

  14. A very special relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The book shows why Britain adopted postwar defence policies that entailed nuclear weapon tests, why more than half of these tests were in Australia, where and how they took place, how the two nations cooperated and what was achieved at what cost. The radiation safety standards of the time and of the present day are compared and the safety aspects of the trials are looked at from the contemporary and present day viewpoint. The book covers the five series of trials in Australia and discusses the very special relationship that existed between the United Kingdom and Australia that made them possible. (author)

  15. Clocks and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRoberts, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A kinematic theory without precise definitions of the 'space' and 'time' used is an uninterpreted calculus. The definition of 'time' in special relativity is based on light propagation and the 'constant velocity of light' is a tautological consequence of the definition. When this definition is reified in a 'clock' the phenomenon of 'time dilation' occurs, in terms of the defined time, but is not reciprocal between moving systems; the postulate of relativity is not observed. The new definition of time is compatible with an ether theory without the relativity principle. The derivation of the Lorentz transformations, which requires both postulates, is purely formalistic and is not ontologically sound. (Auth.)

  16. Ohio Special Education Profile, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a brief, but substantive, profile of the special needs student population in Ohio, including academic performance and graduation trends and an overview of special education funding and related policy issues. The report's central message is that investments in students with special educational needs produce substantial results…

  17. Virtual Reality and Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of virtual environments for special needs is as diverse as the field of Special Education itself and the individuals it serves. Individuals with special needs often face challenges with attention, language, spatial abilities, memory, higher reasoning and knowledge acquisition. Research in the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)…

  18. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  19. With this Special Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With this Special Edition, the refereed Scientific Magazine, published in February 2017, presents a nourished and multidisciplinary theme, from the relationship of Environmental Education, in this ecological sharing man-environment; the social responsibility from the Management environment and the motivational values ​​conducive to the teaching performance in the different educational levels. Twenty-five (25 articles, generated from research production in university environments at the International level, are a signature of the quality of articles / essays presented in this Special Edition. Several reasons motivate the literary pen of our authors, adjusting to the rhythm of the times and the use of new technologies; and in correspondence with the care of the environment, this way of disseminating and making visible the scientific contents of humanistic and social court, support the care and protection of the forests, being an online production, in the Cloud. Thanks to the support of the Instituto Internacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico Educativo INDTEC, CA, Scientific Magazine has been able to develop from the cooperative work of the people who compose its different committees: Editorial Academic Committee, Academic Scientific Committee and the Arbitrators in the review and valuation of the quality of the articles. With these assets, the Scientific Magazine, opening to the general public and especially to the academic new intellectual horizons.

  20. Special Memories at INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistillo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    INIS: a worldwide hub where nuclear information is preserved, validated, and made universally available. Within this special edition of the Newsletter, celebrating the 45th birthday of INIS, you will probably read this definition, and many more, of the International Nuclear Information System. However, INIS has some special aspects, not immediately visible to those who interact with the System and the INIS Secretariat, which make it unique in the scientific environment. In this article, I will try to share my experience with INIS and the memories that have stayed with me, even after my departure. I joined INIS in 2006 as an IT Systems Engineer. I must say that I found a very complex IT infrastructure with over 20 servers and several software applications which, given the small size of the INIS Unit, clearly reflected the multitude of activities INIS was (and still is) involved in. From the start, I felt that INIS was perceived in a different way by other people involved with Information Technology. In fact, since its birth in 1970, INIS has proven to be extremely innovative and open to embracing new technologies, compared with other parts of the Agency. For example, Livelink was proposed and installed for the first time by the INIS Unit before becoming the IAEA standard tool for enterprise document management, and presently, is uniquely and sharply customized to fulfill INIS’ critical weekly task of processing thousands of bibliographic and full text records

  1. Eukaryogenesis, how special really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Austin; Doolittle, W Ford

    2015-08-18

    Eukaryogenesis is widely viewed as an improbable evolutionary transition uniquely affecting the evolution of life on this planet. However, scientific and popular rhetoric extolling this event as a singularity lacks rigorous evidential and statistical support. Here, we question several of the usual claims about the specialness of eukaryogenesis, focusing on both eukaryogenesis as a process and its outcome, the eukaryotic cell. We argue in favor of four ideas. First, the criteria by which we judge eukaryogenesis to have required a genuinely unlikely series of events 2 billion years in the making are being eroded by discoveries that fill in the gaps of the prokaryote:eukaryote "discontinuity." Second, eukaryogenesis confronts evolutionary theory in ways not different from other evolutionary transitions in individuality; parallel systems can be found at several hierarchical levels. Third, identifying which of several complex cellular features confer on eukaryotes a putative richer evolutionary potential remains an area of speculation: various keys to success have been proposed and rejected over the five-decade history of research in this area. Fourth, and perhaps most importantly, it is difficult and may be impossible to eliminate eukaryocentric bias from the measures by which eukaryotes as a whole are judged to have achieved greater success than prokaryotes as a whole. Overall, we question whether premises of existing theories about the uniqueness of eukaryogenesis and the greater evolutionary potential of eukaryotes have been objectively formulated and whether, despite widespread acceptance that eukaryogenesis was "special," any such notion has more than rhetorical value.

  2. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of

  3. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  4. 9 CFR 82.12 - Other interstate movements and special permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or cleaning and disinfection may be carried out. (1) For an interstate movement, the special permit... interstate; and (iv) The reason for the interstate movement. (2) For destruction or cleaning and disinfection... END, in a manner other than is specifically prescribed in this subpart, and for cleaning and...

  5. Proliferation marker pKi-67 affects the cell cycle in a self-regulated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Duchrow, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation marker pKi-67 is commonly used in research and pathology to detect proliferating cells. In a previous work, we found the protein to be associated with regulators of the cell cycle, controlling S-phase progression, as well as entry into and exit from mitosis. Here we investigate whether pKi-67 has a regulative effect on the cell cycle itself. For that purpose we cloned four fragments of pKi-67, together representing nearly the whole protein, and an N-terminal pKi-67 antisense oligonucleotide into a tetracycline inducible gene expression system. The sense fragments were C-terminally modified by addition of either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a STOP codon to address the impact of their intracellular distribution. FACS based cell cycle analysis revealed that expression of nearly all pKi-67 domains and the antisense oligonucleotide led to a decreased amount of cells in S-phase and an increased number of cells in G(2)/M- and G(1)-phase. Subsequent analysis of the endogenous pKi-67 mRNA and protein levels revealed that the constructs with the most significant impact on the cell cycle were able to silence pKi-67 transcription as well. We conclude from the data that pKi-67 influences progression of S-phase and mitosis in a self-regulated manner and, therefore, effects the cell cycle checkpoints within both phases. Furthermore, we found pKi-67 mediates an anti-apoptotic effect on the cell and we verified that this marker, although it is a potential ribosomal catalyst, is not expressed in differentiated tissues with a high transcriptional activity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Isoproterenol Increases RANKL Expression in a ATF4/NFATc1-Dependent Manner in Mouse Osteoblastic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghwa Baek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nervous system stimulation-induced β-adrenergic signal transduction is known to induce bone loss and increase of osteoclast activity. Although isoproterenol, a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been shown to increase receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, the details of the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT in isoproterenol-induced RANKL expression in C2C12 and in primary cultured mouse calvarial cells. Isoproterenol increased nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and RANKL expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and increased NFAT reporter activity. NFATc1 knockdown blocked isoproterenol-mediated RANKL expression. Isoproterenol also promoted cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1 and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 phosphorylation. Isoproterenol-mediated transcriptional activation of NFAT was blocked by protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H89. Isoproterenol-induced CREB1, ATF4, NFATc1, and RANKL expressions were suppressed by H89. Mutations in cAMP response element-like or NFAT-binding element suppressed isoproterenol-induced RANKL promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that isoproterenol increased NFAT-binding and ATF4-binding activities on the mouse RANKL promoter, but did not increase CREB1-binding activity. Association of NFATc1 and ATF4 was not observed in a co-immunoprecipitation study. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced NFAT binding to the RANKL promoter, whereas NFATc1 knockdown did not suppress isoproterenol-induced ATF4 binding to the RANKL promoter. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced expressions of NFATc1 and RANKL. These results suggest that isoproterenol increases RANKL expression in an ATF4/NFATc1-dependent manner.

  7. Relationship between the Manner of Mobile Phone Use and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Mijatović, Kristijan; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera

    2018-04-08

    Objectives : There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.96), in those who send more text messages SMSs (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12-1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population.

  8. Adiponectin influences progesterone production from MA-10 Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, David; Paré, Aurélie; Jean, Stéphanie; Martin, Luc J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity in men is associated with lower testosterone levels, related to reduced sperm concentration and the development of various diseases with aging. Hormones produced by the adipose tissue may have influences on both metabolism and reproductive function. Among them, the production and secretion of adiponectin is inversely correlated to total body fat. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) have been found to be expressed in testicular Leydig cells (producing testosterone). Since StAR and Cyp11a1 are essential for testosterone synthesis and adiponectin has been shown to regulate StAR mRNA in swine granulosa cells, we hypothesized that adiponectin might also regulate these genes in Leydig cells. Our objective was to determine whether adiponectin regulates StAR and Cyp11a1 genes in Leydig cells and to better define its mechanisms of action. Methods used in the current study are qPCR for the mRNA levels, transfections for promoter activities, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the progesterone concentration. We have found that adiponectin cooperates with cAMP-dependent stimulation to activate StAR and Cyp11a1 mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner in MA-10 Leydig cells as demonstrated by transfection of a luciferase reporter plasmid. These results led to a significant increase in progesterone production from MA-10 cells. Thus, our data suggest that high doses of adiponectin typical of normal body weight may promote testosterone production from Leydig cells.

  9. A time-dependent degeneration manner of condyle in rat CFA-induced inflamed TMJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liqin; Guo, Huilin; Li, Cheng; Xu, Jie; Fang, Wei; Long, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation is a potential risk factor of osteoarthritis (OA) but the detailed degenerative changes in the inflamed TMJ remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the changes of condylar cartilage and subchondral bone in rat inflamed TMJ induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA). Articular cavity was injected with CFA and the TMJ samples were collected 1, 2, 3, and 4-week post-injection. Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining, toluidine blue (TB) staining, Safranin O (S.O) staining, Masson trichrome staining and micro-CT were used to assess TMJ degeneration during inflammation. Osteoclast and osteoblast activities were analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and osteocalcin (OCN) immunohistochemistry staining respectively. The expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone was also evaluated through immunohistochemistry and RANKL/OPG ratio was evaluated. Reduced cartilage thickness, decreased number of chondrocytes, and down-regulated proteoglycan expression were observed in the condylar cartilage in the inflamed TMJ. Enhanced osteoclast activity, and expanded bone marrow cavity were reached the peak in the 2-week after CFA-injection. Meanwhile the RANKL/OPG ratio in the cartilage and subchondral bone also increased in the 2-week CFA-injection. Immature, unmineralized new bones with irregular trabecular bone structure, atypical condylar shape, up-regulated OCN expression, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) were found in the inflamed TMJ. The time-dependent degeneration manner of TMJ cartilage and subchondral bone was found in CFA-induced arthritis rat model. The degeneration in the TMJ with inflammation might be a risk factor and should be concerned.

  10. Apolipoprotein A-IV constrains HPA and behavioral stress responsivity in a strain-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E B; Zhang, Jintao; Myers, Brent; Ko, Chih-Wei; Wang, Fei; Tso, Patrick; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2017-12-01

    There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus. Given that both peripheral and central metabolic processes are important modulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, the present work tests the hypothesis that apoA-IV activity affects stress responses. As emerging data suggests that apoA-IV actions can vary with background strain, we also explore the strain-dependence of apoA-IV stress regulation. These studies assess HPA axis, metabolic (hyperglycemia), and anxiety-related behavioral responses to psychogenic stress in control (wildtype) and apoA-IV-deficient (KO) mice on either the C57Bl/6J (C57) or 129×1/SvJ (129) background strain. The results indicate that apoA-IV KO increases post-stress corticosterone and anxiety-related behavior specifically in the 129 strain, and increases stress-induced hyperglycemia exclusively in the C57 strain. These data support the hypothesis that apoA-IV is a novel factor that limits stress reactivity in a manner that depends on genetic background. An improved understanding of the complex relationship among lipid homeostasis, stress sensitivity, and genetics is needed to optimize the development of personalized treatments for stress- and metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between the Manner of Mobile Phone Use and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.96), in those who send more text messages (SMSs) (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11–1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12–1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12–2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population. PMID:29642471

  12. Metformin decreases lung cancer risk in diabetic patients in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Ju; Yang, Chih-Jen; Kung, Ya-Ting; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Shen, Yu-Ting; Chang, Pi-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2014-11-01

    Higher risk of lung cancer has been noted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Some observational studies have shown a reduced risk of lung cancer in DM patients taking metformin, but a dose-response relationship has never been reported. The aim of this study is to exam the association between the dose of metformin and the incidence of lung cancer in a Chinese population. The dataset used for this nationwide population-based study is a cohort of 1 million subjects randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance system. We enrolled all subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 DM between 1997 and 2007. Subjects with a diagnosis of neoplasm before DM diagnosis, those using metformin before DM diagnosis, those with polycystic ovary syndrome, and those with a DM diagnosis before their 15 years of age were excluded. The demographic data and duration, cumulative dose and intensity of metformin use were compared between patients developing lung cancer and those without lung cancer. Totally, 47,356 subjects were identified. After adjusting for age, gender, and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index score, the utilization of metformin was an independent protecting factor, and the risk of developing lung cancer decreased progressively with either the higher cumulative dose or the higher intensity of metformin use. This study revealed that the use of metformin decreased the risk of lung cancer in a dose-dependent manner in patients with type 2 DM. The chemo-preventive effect of metformin deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Glover, Vivette; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Tibu, Florin; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes alters mast cell phenotype, mediator and osteopontin secretion in a listeriolysin-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Jobbings

    Full Text Available Whilst mast cells participate in the immune defence against the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, there is conflicting evidence regarding the ability of L. monocytogenes to infect mast cells. It is known that the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin (LLO is important for mast cell activation, degranulation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mast cells, however, are a potential source of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators including osteopontin, which contributes to the clearing of L. monocytogenes infections in vivo, although its source is unknown. We therefore aimed to resolve the controversy of mast cell infection by L. monocytogenes and investigated the extent of mediator release in response to the bacterium. In this paper we show that the infection of bone marrow-derived mast cells by L. monocytogenes is inefficient and LLO-independent. LLO, however, is required for calcium-independent mast cell degranulation as well as for the transient and selective downregulation of cell surface CD117 (c-kit on mast cells. We demonstrate that in addition to the key pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, mast cells release a wide range of other mediators in response to L. monocytogenes. Osteopontin, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 are released in a MyD88-dependent manner. The wide range of mediators released by mast cells in response to L. monocytogenes may play an important role in the recruitment and activation of a variety of immune cells in vivo. The cocktail of mediators, however, is unlikely to skew the immune response to a particular effector response. We propose that mast cells provide a hitherto unreported source of osteopontin, and may provide an important role in co-ordinating the immune response during Listeria infection.

  15. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław eKaczor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal cultures: nominally astrocyte-free neuronal culture (NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC and miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of respective enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of neuronal culture with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (with MSO strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (BAYU6751 or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle,fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle.

  16. Comparative assessment of metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste with special emphasis on bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anshu; Hait, Subrata

    2017-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth. Conventional approaches for recovery of metals from e-waste, viz. pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, are rapid and efficient, but cause secondary pollution and economically unviable. Limitations of the conventional techniques have led to a shift towards biometallurgical technique involving microbiological leaching of metals from e-waste in eco-friendly manner. However, optimization of certain biotic and abiotic factors such as microbial species, pH, temperature, nutrients, and aeration rate affect the bioleaching process and can lead to profitable recovery of metals from e-waste. The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the metallurgical techniques for recovery of metals from e-waste with special emphasis on bioleaching process and the associated factors.

  17. Smurf2 E3 ubiquitin ligase modulates proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2 dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Diana; Jagadeeshan, Sankar; Hariharan, Ramkumar; Nair, Asha Sivakumari; Pillai, Radhakrishna Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    Smurf2 is a member of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that play important roles in determining the competence of cells to respond to TGF- β/BMP signaling pathway. However, besides TGF-β/BMP pathway, Smurf2 regulates a repertoire of other signaling pathways ranging from planar cell polarity during embryonic development to cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. Expression of Smurf2 is found to be dysregulated in many cancers including breast cancer. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of Smurf2 knockdown on the tumorigenic potential of human breast cancer cells emphasizing more on proliferative signaling pathway. siRNAs targeting different regions of the Smurf2 mRNA were employed to knockdown the expression of Smurf2. The biological effects of synthetic siRNAs on human breast cancer cells were investigated by examining the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, focus formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle arrest, and cell cycle and cell proliferation related protein expressions upon Smurf2 silencing. Smurf2 silencing in human breast cancer cells resulted in a decreased focus formation potential and clonogenicity as well as in vitro cell migration/invasion capabilities. Moreover, knockdown of Smurf2 suppressed cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that the anti-proliferative effect of Smurf2 siRNA was mediated by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was caused by decreased expression of cyclin D1and cdk4, followed by upregulation p21 and p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silencing of Smurf2 downregulated the proliferation of breast cancer cells by modulating the PI3K- PTEN-AKT-FoxO3a pathway via the scaffold protein CNKSR2 which is involved in RAS-dependent signaling pathways. The present study provides the first evidence that silencing Smurf2 using synthetic siRNAs can regulate the tumorigenic properties of human breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2 dependent manner. Our results

  18. Sorafenib modulates the radio sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro in a schedule-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiaoqiao; Hu, Yonghong; Xi, Mian; He, Liru; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Mengzhong

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high incidence and mortality. Radiotherapy and sorafenib have proven effective for HCC. Here, we investigated whether sorafenib modulated the response of HCC cells to irradiation in vitro, effect of timing of sorafenib, and the underlying mechanisms. Cell viability of the HCC cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402, was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4-sulfophenyl)-2 H-terazolium (MTT) assays. Clonogenic growth assays of SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402 were determined by colony formation assays. DNA damage was assessed by monitoring γ-HAX foci in irradiated cells with immunofluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle distribution changes were examined by flow cytometry. Effects of sorafenib (15 μM) added 30 min prior to radiation (pre-irradiation sorafenib) of SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 or 24 h post-irradiation (post-irradiation sorafenib) on irradiated SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells were compared to those of radiation alone or no treatment. The effect of sorafenib was dependent on its time of addition in relationship to irradiation of cells. Pre-irradiation sorafenib did not significantly affect the viability of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells compared with irradiation treatment alone. In contrast, post-irradiation sorafenib increased the sensitivity of irradiated SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells significantly in a time-dependent manner. Pre-irradiation sorafenib significantly increased the surviving fraction of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells in clonogenic assays whereas post-irradiation sorafenib significantly reduced the surviving fractions of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells. SMMC-7721 cells treated with sorafenib 30 min before irradiation had significantly fewer cells with γ-H2AX foci (23.8 ± 2.9%) than SMMC-7721 cells receiving radiation alone (59.9 ± 2.4; P < 0.001). Similarly, BEL-7402 cells receiving sorafenib prior to irradiation had significantly fewer cells with γ-H2AX foci (46.4 ± 3.8%) than those

  19. Sorafenib modulates the radio sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro in a schedule-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiaoqiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has a high incidence and mortality. Radiotherapy and sorafenib have proven effective for HCC. Here, we investigated whether sorafenib modulated the response of HCC cells to irradiation in vitro, effect of timing of sorafenib, and the underlying mechanisms. Methods Cell viability of the HCC cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402, was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2(4-sulfophenyl-2 H-terazolium (MTT assays. Clonogenic growth assays of SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402 were determined by colony formation assays. DNA damage was assessed by monitoring γ-HAX foci in irradiated cells with immunofluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle distribution changes were examined by flow cytometry. Effects of sorafenib (15 μM added 30 min prior to radiation (pre-irradiation sorafenib of SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 or 24 h post-irradiation (post-irradiation sorafenib on irradiated SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells were compared to those of radiation alone or no treatment. Results The effect of sorafenib was dependent on its time of addition in relationship to irradiation of cells. Pre-irradiation sorafenib did not significantly affect the viability of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells compared with irradiation treatment alone. In contrast, post-irradiation sorafenib increased the sensitivity of irradiated SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells significantly in a time-dependent manner. Pre-irradiation sorafenib significantly increased the surviving fraction of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells in clonogenic assays whereas post-irradiation sorafenib significantly reduced the surviving fractions of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells. SMMC-7721 cells treated with sorafenib 30 min before irradiation had significantly fewer cells with γ-H2AX foci (23.8 ± 2.9% than SMMC-7721 cells receiving radiation alone (59.9 ± 2.4; P  Conclusions Sorafenib combined with irradiation exerted a schedule-dependent effect in

  20. Trajectories and models of individual growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseniy Karkach

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that the patterns of growth play an important role in the evolution of age trajectories of fertility and mortality (Williams, 1957. Life history studies would benefit from a better understanding of strategies and mechanisms of growth, but still no comparative research on individual growth strategies has been conducted. Growth patterns and methods have been shaped by evolution and a great variety of them are observed. Two distinct patterns - determinate and indeterminate growth - are of a special interest for these studies since they present qualitatively different outcomes of evolution. We attempt to draw together studies covering growth in plant and animal species across a wide range of phyla focusing primarily on the noted qualitative features. We also review mathematical descriptions of growth, namely empirical growth curves and growth models, and discuss the directions of future research.

  1. Special dossier: new energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; His, Stephane; Le Lidec, Frederic; Paillard, Michel; Vandevoorde, Patrick; Huby, Jean; Soetaert, Emmanuel; Bertiere, Francois; Zwierski, Didier; Kuntz, Michel; Mallet, Pierre; Leboucher, Nathalie; Isikveren, Murat; Vacher, Romain

    2012-01-01

    This special dossier about renewable energies is made of 14 contributions dealing with: wind turbines against radars, legal constraints on wind farms location (Fabrice Cassin); the sea, an ocean of wind energy (Stephane His); marine energies, a promising sector (Frederic Le Lidec); Gamesa, an integrated actor of the wind power industry; the great future of renewable marine energies (Michel Paillard); focus on wind power (Patrick Vandevoorde); wind power, a new industrial adventure (Jean Huby); hydropower, a renewed modernity (Emmanuel Soetaert); the new needs of tomorrows' cities (Francois Bertiere); the control of power consumption, a huge market in progress (Didier Zwierski, Michel Kuntz); in the heart of the smart grids revolution (Pierre Mallet); the smart-city, an established reality (Nathalie Leboucher); imagining solutions for the environment (Murat Isikveren); energy: towards a smart consumption (Romain Vacher)

  2. Introduction to special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, W.

    1982-01-01

    This is intended as a text for an introductory course on special relativity; it assumes no prior knowledge of relativity. It is intended for the upper undergraduate level and upwards. The first three chapters take a three-dimensional viewpoint for a simple introduction to topics such as the relativity of simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, the twin paradox and the appearance of moving objects. For the remaining chapters the strongest possible use is made of four-dimensional techniques. Chapter four deals with space-time, chapters five and six with mechanics and electromagnetism. In these a purely synthetic four-tensor approach is adopted. Pure tensor theory is covered in an appendix. The last chapter is on the mechanics of continua. (U.K.)

  3. Insulin, IGF-1, and GH Receptors Are Altered in an Adipose Tissue Depot-Specific Manner in Male Mice With Modified GH Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Berryman, Darlene E; Comisford, Ross; Frank, Stuart J; List, Edward O; Bjerre, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Kopchick, John J

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using 7-month-old transgenic mice expressing the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice. Glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced in bGH and GHR-/- mice, and bGH mice displayed impaired gluconeogenesis as judged by pyruvate tolerance testing. Serum IGF-1 was elevated by 90% in bGH mice, whereas IGF-1 and insulin were reduced by 97% and 61% in GHR-/- mice, respectively. Igf1 RNA was increased in subcutaneous, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots in bGH mice (mean increase ± standard error of the mean in all five depots, 153% ± 27%) and decreased in all depots in GHR-/- mice (mean decrease, 62% ± 4%). IGF-1 receptor expression was decreased in all AT depots of bGH mice (mean decrease, 49% ± 6%) and increased in all AT depots of GHR-/- mice (mean increase, 94% ± 8%). Insulin receptor expression was reduced in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in bGH mice (mean decrease in all depots, 56% ± 4%) and augmented in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in GHR-/- mice (mean increase: 51% ± 1%). Collectively, our findings indicate a role for GH in influencing hormone signaling in AT in a depot-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Justin L; Collins, Kaitlyn E; Patel, Rushi; Wellman, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  5. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates fetal membrane inflammation in a time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah N; Nelson, Rachel A; Potter, Julie A; Norwitz, Errol R; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2018-04-30

    Chorioamnionitis and infection-associated inflammation are major causes of preterm birth. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) is widely used in obstetrics as a tocolytic; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. This study sought to investigate how MgSO 4 modulates infection-associated inflammation in fetal membranes (FMs), and whether the response was time dependent. Human FM explants were treated with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS); with or without MgSO 4 added either: 1 hour before LPS; at the same time as LPS; 1 hour post-LPS; or 2 hours post-LPS. Explants were also treated with or without viral dsRNA and LPS, alone or in combination; and MgSO 4 added 1 hour post-LPS After 24 hours, supernatants were measured for cytokines/chemokines; and tissue lysates measured for caspase-1 activity. Lipopolysaccharide-induced FM inflammation by upregulating the secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Magnesium sulfate administered 1-hour post-LPS inhibited FM secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, RANTES, and TNFα. Magnesium sulfate administered 2 hours post-LPS augmented FM secretion of these factors as well as IL-8, IFNγ, VEGF, GROα and IP-10. Magnesium sulfate delivered 1- hour post-LPS inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activity, and inhibited the augmented IL-1β response triggered by combination viral dsRNA and LPS. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates LPS-induced FM inflammation in a time-dependent manner, in part through its modulation of caspase-1 activity. Thus, the timing of MgSO 4 administration may be critical in optimizing its anti-inflammatory effects in the clinical setting. MgSO 4 might also be useful at preventing FM inflammation triggered by a polymicrobial viral-bacterial infection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Collins, Kaitlyn E.; Patel, Rushi

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  7. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  8. GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database: stimuli for research on manners of human locomotion and iconic gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kwok, Natasha; Kita, Sotaro

    2018-06-01

    Human locomotion is a fundamental class of events, and manners of locomotion (e.g., how the limbs are used to achieve a change of location) are commonly encoded in language and gesture. To our knowledge, there is no openly accessible database containing normed human locomotion stimuli. Therefore, we introduce the GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database, which contains 676 videos of actors performing novel manners of human locomotion (i.e., moving from one location to another in an unusual manner) and videos of a female actor producing iconic gestures that represent these actions. The usefulness of the database was demonstrated across four norming experiments. First, our database contains clear matches and mismatches between iconic gesture videos and action videos. Second, the male actors and female actors whose action videos matched the gestures in the best possible way, perform the same actions in very similar manners and different actions in highly distinct manners. Third, all the actions in the database are distinct from each other. Fourth, adult native English speakers were unable to describe the 26 different actions concisely, indicating that the actions are unusual. This normed stimuli set is useful for experimental psychologists working in the language, gesture, visual perception, categorization, memory, and other related domains.

  9. Low grade inflammation inhibits VEGF induced HUVECs migration in p53 dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panta, Sushil; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Takenouchi, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoko; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kojo, Tsuyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2017-01-01

    In the course of studying crosstalk between inflammation and angiogenesis, high doses of pro-inflammatory factors have been reported to induce apoptosis in cells. Under normal circumstances also the pro-inflammatory cytokines are being released in low doses and are actively involved in cell signaling pathways. We studied the effects of low grade inflammation in growth factor induced angiogenesis using tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) respectively. We found that low dose of TNFα can inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Low dose of TNFα induces mild upregulation and moreover nuclear localization of tumor suppressor protein 53 (P53) which causes decrease in inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (Id1) expression and shuttling to the cytoplasm. In absence of Id1, HUVECs fail to upregulate β 3 -integrin and cell migration is decreased. Connecting low dose of TNFα induced p53 to β 3 -integrin through Id1, we present additional link in cross talk between inflammation and angiogenesis. - Highlights: • Low grade inflammation (low dose of TNF alfa) inhibits VEGF induced endothelial cells migration. • The low grade inflammation with VEGF treatment upregulates P53 to a nonlethal level. • P53 activation inhibits Id1 shuttling to the cytoplasm in endothelial cells. • Inhibition of Id1 resulted in downregulation of β 3 -integrin which cause decrease in cell migration. • Inflammation and angiogenesis might cross-talk by P53 – Id1 – β 3 -integrin pathway in endothelial cells.

  10. Serum IGF-1 affects skeletal acquisition in a temporal and compartment-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden-William Courtland

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays a critical role in the development of the growing skeleton by establishing both longitudinal and transverse bone accrual. IGF-1 has also been implicated in the maintenance of bone mass during late adulthood and aging, as decreases in serum IGF-1 levels appear to correlate with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD. Although informative, mouse models to date have been unable to separate the temporal effects of IGF-1 depletion on skeletal development. To address this problem, we performed a skeletal characterization of the inducible LID mouse (iLID, in which serum IGF-1 levels are depleted at selected ages. We found that depletion of serum IGF-1 in male iLID mice prior to adulthood (4 weeks decreased trabecular bone architecture and significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 16 weeks (adulthood. Likewise, depletion of serum IGF-1 in iLID males at 8 weeks of age, resulted in significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 32 weeks (late adulthood, but had no effect on trabecular bone architecture. In contrast, depletion of serum IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (at 16 weeks resulted in enhancement of trabecular bone architecture, but no significant changes in cortical bone properties by 32 weeks as compared to controls. These results indicate that while serum IGF-1 is essential for bone accrual during the postnatal growth phase, depletion of IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (16 weeks is compartment-specific and does not have a detrimental effect on cortical bone mass in the older adult mouse.

  11. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  12. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  13. Device to take facial photographs in frankfort horizontal plane in a standardized manner at repeated intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorantla Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very little attention has been given in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning regarding appropriate facial orientation during photographic recordings. Analysis of facial profile using standardized photographs is a valuable tool for orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We have worked on a new way to position the patient's head with Frankfort horizontal parallel to the floor by use of a a specially fabricated device. It consists of a vertically adjustable scale attached to metal framework. The shadow of the scale is projected as a horizontal line onto the face by means of a light source. The patient's head is positioned such that the Frankfort horizontal lies along the projected line. Twenty-five (13 males and 12 females people aged between 15 and 25 years were photographed using the above method with a digital single-lens reflex camera. The photographs were taken again after a 15-day interval using the same protocol and checked for reliability. Results: Statistical analysis was done using paired student t-test and Kappa test. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean angles at the initial (76.92 ± 4.77 and 15-day interval (76.72 ± 4.67 in profile view and between the mean angles at the initial (90.88 ± 2.06 and 15-day interval (90.96 ± 1.96 in the frontal view. Conclusion: This method allows us to take facial photographs by positioning the patient's head such that the FH plane is parallel to the floor. This method also helped us in standardization of facial photographs when photographs are taken in successive visits.

  14. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Vittek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensive administrative support to improve job satisfaction and the likelihood a special educator will remain in their job.

  15. Functional specialization of ramets in a clonal plant network functional specialization of ramets in a clonal plant network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, M.

    2004-01-01

    Functional specialization of ramets and co-operation between interconnected ramets in heterogeneous environments are studied in this thesis. Since clonal plants can spread horizontally by vegetative growth, a genet has the potential to grow across a heterogeneous environment. Therefore, ramets can

  16. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P specializing in a single sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  17. Transforming Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertsen, Tom A

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of Norwegian Special Operation Forces (NORSOF), raising the hypothesis that its current organizational structure is inconsistent with its future roles and missions...

  18. KHNP special safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Lee, Bang-Jin; Lee, Soung-Hee; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2009-01-01

    Commemorating the 30 year anniversary of commercial nuclear power plant operation in KOREA, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has conducted a Special Safety Review (SSR) of its 20 operating units to understand their safety performance and to identify any areas that need improvement. The SSR reviewed all 20 operating units for 2 weeks per site. Areas that were reviewed are Safety Margins, Plant Performance, Employee Safety, Employee Performance and Performance Improvement Process. Each review team consisted of international and domestic members. The international reviewers were from IAEA, WANO and INPO. The domestic reviewers consisted of professors, Engineering Company, Research Institute and KHNP experts. The review confirmed safe and reliable operations of the 20 nuclear units. The common understanding resulted from the SSR is as follows. Firstly, KHNP corporate and its plants confirmed and shared mutual understanding on recurring areas for improvements, especially in the areas of Organizational Effectiveness, Industrial Safety, Human Performance, Configuration Management, Operations, Equipment Performance and Material Condition. Secondly, KHNP understood that plant and department level performances are directly related to the leadership and competency of the management team including supervisors. Thirdly, the strengths of individual stations that consistently have produced good results need to be shared with the other KHNP stations. Finally, KHNP learned that strong corporate leadership and support are needed to resolve most of the areas for improvement since they are common to all KHNP stations. (author)

  19. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.

    1992-01-01

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  20. Cine Club - Special Event

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2017-01-01

    Special event on Thursday 4 May 2017 at 18:30 CERN Council Chamber In collaboration with the CERN Running Club and the Women In Technology initiative, the CERN CineClub is happy to announce the screening of the film Free to Run Directed by Pierre Morath Switzerland, 2016, 99 minutes Today, all anybody needs to run is the determination and a pair of the right shoes. But just fifty years ago, running was viewed almost exclusively as the domain of elite male athletes who competed on tracks. With insight and propulsive energy, director Pierre Morath traces running's rise to the 1960s, examining how the liberation movements and newfound sense of personal freedom that defined the era took the sport out of the stadiums and onto the streets, and how legends like Steve Prefontaine, Fred Lebow, and Kathrine Switzer redefined running as a populist phenomenon. Original version French; English subtitles. http://freetorun.ch/ Come along to watch the film and learn more about the history of popular races and amat...

  1. Special graphites; Graphites speciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [French] Ameliorer les proprietes du graphite nucleaire pour empilements et ouvrir de nouveaux domaines d'application au graphite constituent une part importante de l'effort entrepris en commun par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) et la compagnie PECHINEY. Des procedes nouveaux de fabrication de carbones et graphites speciaux ont ete mis au point: graphite forge, pyrocarbone, graphite de haute densite, agglomeration de poudres de graphite par craquage de gaz naturel, graphites impermeables. Les proprietes physiques de ces produits ainsi que leur reaction avec differents gaz oxydants sont decrites. Les premiers resultats d'irradiation sont aussi donnes. (auteurs)

  2. 2017 Gas Congress special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Patrick; Ferrier, Jerome; Holleaux, Didier; Vivier, Laurent; Gattaz, Pierre; Delga, Carole; Carenco, Jean-Francois; Sadamori, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of 'Gaz d'Aujourd'hui' journal is entirely devoted to the 2017 Gas Congress proceedings. The congress was organized in 5 round tables and 12 workshops: Round table 1 - COP 21 2 years after, workshops 1-6: 1 - digital transformation: what are the challenges for the gas sector? 2 - Which actors and what policies to fight against energy insecurity? 3 - Natural gas development: what fiscal signs? 4 - Terrestrial transportation: current situation and prospects; 5 - Consumers' perception of gas; 6 - industrial uses; Round table 2 - Maritime and fluvial LNG perspectives; Round table 3 - Territories, the new decision-makers, workshops 7-12: 7 - What energy regulation for tomorrow? 8 - How to succeed in injecting more and more green gas? 9 - Digital, data and emerging technologies (drones, blockchain..): challenges and applications for gas networks? 10 - Underground storage: a promising infrastructure? 11 - Security of supply: what new cooperation? 12 - Power-to-gas: a new way of energy valorization; Round table 4 - Gas and electricity, winning synergies; Round table 5 - The Europe of gas

  3. Rb suppresses collective invasion, circulation and metastasis of breast cancer cells in CD44-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Basal-like breast carcinomas (BLCs present with extratumoral lymphovascular invasion, are highly metastatic, presumably through a hematogenous route, have augmented expression of CD44 oncoprotein and relatively low levels of retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor. However, the causal relation among these features is not clear. Here, we show that Rb acts as a key suppressor of multiple stages of metastatic progression. Firstly, Rb suppresses collective cell migration (CCM and CD44-dependent formation of F-actin positive protrusions in vitro and cell-cluster based lymphovascular invasion in vivo. Secondly, Rb inhibits the release of single cancer cells and cell clusters into the hematogenous circulation and subsequent metastatic growth in lungs. Finally, CD44 expression is required for collective motility and all subsequent stages of metastatic progression initiated by loss of Rb function. Altogether, our results suggest that Rb/CD44 pathway is a crucial regulator of CCM and metastatic progression of BLCs and a promising target for anti-BLCs therapy.

  4. Dafachronic acid inhibits C. elegans germ cell proliferation in a DAF-12-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Madhumati; Chaudhari, Snehal N; Balachandran, Riju S; Vagasi, Alexandra S; Kipreos, Edward T

    2017-12-15

    Dafachronic acid (DA) is a bile acid-like steroid hormone that regulates dauer formation, heterochrony, and lifespan in C. elegans. Here, we describe that DA is an inhibitor of C. elegans germ stem cell proliferation in adult hermaphrodites. Using a C. elegans germ cell primary culture system, we show that DA inhibits the proliferation of germ cells in vitro. Exogenous DA reduces the frequency of large tumors in adult tumorous germline mutants and decreases the proliferation of wild-type germ stem cells in adult hermaphrodites. In contrast, DA has no appreciable effect on the proliferation of larval-stage germ cells in wild type. The inhibition of adult germ cell proliferation by DA requires its canonical receptor DAF-12. Blocking DA production by inactivating the cytochrome P450 DAF-9 increases germ cell proliferation in wild-type adult hermaphrodites and the frequency of large tumors in germline tumorous mutants, suggesting that DA inhibits the rate of germ cell proliferation under normal growth conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Growth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test measuring thyroid ... not affect intelligence or brain function. The cause of growth hormone ...

  7. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the changes your body goes through during puberty. Puberty is the stage of your life when sexual development happens, like breast development and menstrual periods in girls and growth of the penis and testicles in boys. One of the body ...

  8. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented......Inheritance allows a class to be specialized and its attributes refined, but implementation specialization can only take place by overriding with manually implemented methods. Automatic program specialization can generate a specialized, effcient implementation. However, specialization of programs...

  9. Special Edition: Environment in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When we were invited by the editors of Sustainability to put together a special edition on “Environment in Sustainable Development” our first reaction was to question whether this was really needed. After all, the environment has long been regarded as a central plank in sustainability and there are countless articles and books published on an annual basis that explore the impact of our economic and social activities on our environment. Just what is it that a special edition can achieve? What new angles could we hope to provide? Our initial thinking was to link the special edition to a particular, almost unique, location in time rather than space. We are in the process of recovering, albeit stuttering, from the deepest economic crash experienced by the European and North American economies. The crash has brought some national economies to their knees and, if economic commentators are to be believed, almost destroyed the Euro. Recovery from that crash has been slow and it is arguable whether at the time of writing this has developed much momentum. There is still the skewed perception that prosperity equals economic growth and that economic growth can take place without real (sustainable development or by simply implementing austerity measures and surely without people’s participation. An analogy from National Parks worldwide is when conservation agencies try to enforce protection without local people’s support. All such attempts have either failed or resurrected only once people’s involvement was secured and guaranteed. The unidirectional austerity measures imposed mainly in the countries of southern Europe have destroyed social cohesion leaving deeply wounded societies, while at the same time have also put up for grabs important assets (including natural capital in each of these countries and therefore in jeopardy even their long term recovery.

  10. 75 FR 14582 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special... of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of proposed... for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services proposes a priority under the Special Demonstration...

  11. 75 FR 47798 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special... of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of final... for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services establishes a priority under the Special...

  12. IEP Use by General and Special Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rotter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of general and special educators in implementing the Individualized Education Program (IEP is critical. This study investigated the perceptions of those teachers on when they read the IEP, how they measure attainment of IEP goals and objectives, and the IEPs usefulness in instructional planning. Four hundred twenty-six teachers from suburban school districts in central New Jersey were respondents. Results indicated that the majority of general and special education teachers are reading their students’ IEPs in a fairly timely manner and that they find them moderately useful in planning instruction. Results also suggested that teachers relied heavily on grades to document attainment of IEP goals and that teachers felt that the IEPs themselves could be improved if they were shorter with student-specific, critical information that was more relevant to classroom instruction.

  13. Special relativity in general frames from particles to astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gourgoulhon, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Special relativity is the basis of many fields in modern physics: particle physics, quantum field theory, high-energy astrophysics, etc. This theory is presented here by adopting a four-dimensional point of view from the start. An outstanding feature of the book is that it doesn’t restrict itself to inertial frames but considers accelerated and rotating observers. It is thus possible to treat physical effects such as the Thomas precession or the Sagnac effect in a simple yet precise manner. In the final chapters, more advanced topics like tensorial fields in spacetime, exterior calculus and relativistic hydrodynamics are addressed. In the last, brief chapter the author gives a preview of gravity and shows where it becomes incompatible with Minkowsky spacetime. Well illustrated and enriched by many historical notes, this book also presents many applications of special relativity, ranging from particle physics (accelerators, particle collisions, quark-gluon plasma) to astrophysics (relativistic jets, active g...

  14. Interpreting doubly special relativity as a modified theory of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    In this article we develop a physical interpretation for the deformed (doubly) special relativity theories (DSRs), based on a modification of the theory of measurement in special relativity. We suggest that it is useful to regard the DSRs as reflecting the manner in which quantum gravity effects induce Planck-suppressed distortions in the measurement of the 'true' energy and momentum. This interpretation provides a framework for the DSRs that is manifestly consistent, nontrivial, and in principle falsifiable. However, it does so at the cost of demoting such theories from the level of fundamental physics to the level of phenomenological models - models that should in principle be derivable from whatever theory of quantum gravity one ultimately chooses to adopt

  15. TEACHER EDUCATION FOR DISTANCE LEARNING BASED SPECIAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila NABEEL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Special education is a mode of education in which specially designed instruction material and environment is required to meet the diverse requirements of children with special needs. In Pakistan, Open University (AIOU exclusively initiated a program for teacher preparation for Special Children through distance learning. This was a unique program of its kind with no precedence of defined services for Special Teachers’ Preparation. Dept of Special Education AIOU - through Distance learning system, offers study/training at graduate, masters and Ph. D. levels. Teachers are prepared in 6 specialized areas of Visual Impairment, Physical Disabilities, Hearing Impairment, Intellectual Disability, Learning Disability and Inclusive Education. The Open University has a well established regional network, outreach system providing educational counseling and guiding services to its students. University has 32 regional campuses with 86 part-time regional coordinating officers throughout the country for providing assistance to the Regional campuses. Over 900 study centers are established during the semester and are managed through the university’s regional campuses. Each student is assigned to a tutor who is a subject specialist. To maintain consistency of on and off campus observations, University faculty conducts reliability observations with adjunct Supervisors. Their professional growth impacts the quality of the teaching cadre. It was for the first time in the history of teacher training institutes of Pakistan that a teacher training program at Masters Level in the area of Special Education was offered through distance education. This paper gives the experiences, methodology and successes as outcome of the Distance- learning Special-Educator Program in Pakistan. Also highlighted is the Special Teacher Preparation Model through Distance Education System. Increased program completion rates support the fact that Open University faculty have become better

  16. The nucleoid protein Dps binds genomic DNA of Escherichia coli in a non-random manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, F. A.; Toshchakov, S. V.; Dominova, I.; Shvyreva, U. S.; Vrublevskaya, V. V.; Morenkov, O. S.; Panyukov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Dps is a multifunctional homododecameric protein that oxidizes Fe2+ ions accumulating them in the form of Fe2O3 within its protein cavity, interacts with DNA tightly condensing bacterial nucleoid upon starvation and performs some other functions. During the last two decades from discovery of this protein, its ferroxidase activity became rather well studied, but the mechanism of Dps interaction with DNA still remains enigmatic. The crucial role of lysine residues in the unstructured N-terminal tails led to the conventional point of view that Dps binds DNA without sequence or structural specificity. However, deletion of dps changed the profile of proteins in starved cells, SELEX screen revealed genomic regions preferentially bound in vitro and certain affinity of Dps for artificial branched molecules was detected by atomic force microscopy. Here we report a non-random distribution of Dps binding sites across the bacterial chromosome in exponentially growing cells and show their enrichment with inverted repeats prone to form secondary structures. We found that the Dps-bound regions overlap with sites occupied by other nucleoid proteins, and contain overrepresented motifs typical for their consensus sequences. Of the two types of genomic domains with extensive protein occupancy, which can be highly expressed or transcriptionally silent only those that are enriched with RNA polymerase molecules were preferentially occupied by Dps. In the dps-null mutant we, therefore, observed a differentially altered expression of several targeted genes and found suppressed transcription from the dps promoter. In most cases this can be explained by the relieved interference with Dps for nucleoid proteins exploiting sequence-specific modes of DNA binding. Thus, protecting bacterial cells from different stresses during exponential growth, Dps can modulate transcriptional integrity of the bacterial chromosome hampering RNA biosynthesis from some genes via competition with RNA polymerase

  17. Growth points in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Peter Edward

    1980-01-01

    Growth Points in Nuclear Physics, Volume 2 covers the progress in the fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. This book is composed of three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to nuclear forces and potentials, in particular the optical model potential that enables the elastic scattering of many particles by nuclei to be calculated in a very simple manner. This chapter also deals with the three-body forces and the spin dependence of the nuclear potential. The second chapter describes higher order processes involving two or more stages, specifically their intrinsic interest and th

  18. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  19. PAI-1 modulates cell migration in a LRP1-dependent manner via β-catenin and ERK1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlova, Nina; Jensen, Jan Kristian; Chi, Tabughang Franklin

    2015-01-01

    was proposed to modulate the β-catenin pathway. Therefore, we used wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and MEFs deficient of LRP1 to study PAI-1 as modulator of the β-catenin pathway. We found that PAI-1 influences MEF proliferation and motility in a LRP1-dependent manner and that β...

  20. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general. A partnership having an election in effect under this section may revoke such election with the... required to be filed. A partnership which wishes to revoke such an election shall file with the district... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and manner of making election to adjust...

  1. Regulation of AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 by endoplasmic reticulum stress modulates substrate specificity in a severity dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wa Yung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a common factor in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases that are characterised by contrasting cellular behaviours, from proliferation in cancer to apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Coincidently, dysregulation of AKT/PKB activity, which is the central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival, is often associated with the same diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress modulates AKT substrate specificity in a severity-dependent manner, as shown by phospho-specific antibodies against known AKT targets. ER stress also reduces both total and phosphorylated AKT in a severity-dependent manner, without affecting activity of the upstream kinase PDK1. Normalisation to total AKT revealed that under ER stress phosphorylation of Thr308 is suppressed while that of Ser473 is increased. ER stress induces GRP78, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of GRP78 enhances phosphorylation at Ser473 by 3.6 fold, but not at Thr308. Substrate specificity is again altered. An in-situ proximity ligation assay revealed a physical interaction between GRP78 and AKT at the plasma membrane of cells following induction of ER stress. Staining was weak in cells with normal nuclear morphology but stronger in those displaying rounded, condensed nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation of GRP78 and P-AKT(Ser473 confirmed the immuno-complex consists of non-phosphorylated AKT (Ser473 and Thr308. The interaction is likely specific as AKT did not bind to all molecular chaperones, and GRP78 did not bind to p70 S6 kinase. These findings provide one mechanistic explanation for how ER stress contributes to human pathologies demonstrating contrasting cell fates via modulation of AKT signalling.

  2. Regulation of AKT Phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Modulates Substrate Specificity in a Severity Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hong Wa

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common factor in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases that are characterised by contrasting cellular behaviours, from proliferation in cancer to apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Coincidently, dysregulation of AKT/PKB activity, which is the central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival, is often associated with the same diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress modulates AKT substrate specificity in a severity-dependent manner, as shown by phospho-specific antibodies against known AKT targets. ER stress also reduces both total and phosphorylated AKT in a severity-dependent manner, without affecting activity of the upstream kinase PDK1. Normalisation to total AKT revealed that under ER stress phosphorylation of Thr308 is suppressed while that of Ser473 is increased. ER stress induces GRP78, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of GRP78 enhances phosphorylation at Ser473 by 3.6 fold, but not at Thr308. Substrate specificity is again altered. An in-situ proximity ligation assay revealed a physical interaction between GRP78 and AKT at the plasma membrane of cells following induction of ER stress. Staining was weak in cells with normal nuclear morphology but stronger in those displaying rounded, condensed nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation of GRP78 and P-AKT(Ser473) confirmed the immuno-complex consists of non-phosphorylated AKT (Ser473 and Thr308). The interaction is likely specific as AKT did not bind to all molecular chaperones, and GRP78 did not bind to p70 S6 kinase. These findings provide one mechanistic explanation for how ER stress contributes to human pathologies demonstrating contrasting cell fates via modulation of AKT signalling. PMID:21445305

  3. The "special K" in kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-05-01

    Do you want a strategy that guarantees the success of kaizen in your organization? This article will provide insights as to why one organization may succeed and another fails. Learn why the "Special K" is the difference. Idea will be presented on how to develop the "Special K" in others and ourselves. You will be challenged to become a "kaizener".

  4. Stress: The Special Educator's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Donna; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The article describes approaches special education teachers can take to reduce stress including diet and exercise, relaxation techniques, use of social support systems, goal setting, time management, and networking. A survey of special education teachers found the use of humor the most common strategy for coping with stress. (DB)

  5. Teaching Special Relativity without Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 many AAPT members received a booklet that is the first chapter of a physics textbook available on a CD. This book espouses the new educational philosophy of teaching special relativity as the first item in the topic of mechanics. Traditionally, special relativity is part of one or more modern physics chapters at the end of the text, and…

  6. Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be

  7. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  8. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy E. Vittek

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensi...

  9. Special Education Finance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…

  10. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  11. Stability, Specialization and Social Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Lazarova, E.A.; Ruys, P.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Yang s theory of economic specialization under increasing returns to scale (Yang 2001) is a formal development of the fundamental Smith-Young theorem on the extent of the market and the social division of labor.In this theory specialization and, thus, the social division of labor is firmly embedded

  12. A novel small molecule FL118 that selectively inhibits survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53-independent manner, shows superior antitumor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ling

    Full Text Available Drug/radiation resistance to treatment and tumor relapse are major obstacles in identifying a cure for cancer. Development of novel agents that address these challenges would therefore be of the upmost importance in the fight against cancer. In this regard, studies show that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is a central molecule involved in both hurdles. Using cancer cell-based survivin-reporter systems (US 7,569,221 B2 via high throughput screening (HTS of compound libraries, followed by in vitro and in vivo analyses of HTS-derived hit-lead compounds, we identified a novel anticancer compound (designated FL118. FL118 shows structural similarity to irinotecan. However, while the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase 1 activity by FL118 was no better than the active form of irinotecan, SN-38 at 1 µM, FL118 effectively inhibited cancer cell growth at less than nM levels in a p53 status-independent manner. Moreover, FL118 selectively inhibited survivin promoter activity and gene expression also in a p53 status-independent manner. Although the survivin promoter-reporter system was used for the identification of FL118, our studies revealed that FL118 not only inhibits survivin expression but also selectively and independently inhibits three additional cancer-associated survival genes (Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53 status-independent manner, while showing no inhibitory effects on control genes. Genetic silencing or overexpression of FL118 targets demonstrated a role for these targets in FL118's effects. Follow-up in vivo studies revealed that FL118 exhibits superior antitumor efficacy in human tumor xenograft models in comparison with irinotecan, topotecan, doxorubicin, 5-FU, gemcitabine, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, cytoxan and cisplatin, and a majority of mice treated with FL118 showed tumor regression with a weekly × 4 schedule. FL118 induced favorable body-weight-loss profiles (temporary and reversible and was able to eliminate large tumors. Together

  13. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  14. Fighting Segregation in Special Needs Education in the Netherlands: The Effects of Different Funding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the number of students attending segregated special schools in the Netherlands has risen considerably. In 1975, 2.2% of all students between 4 and 11 years old attended a special school, and this percentage almost doubled to 4.3% over the next 20 years. In order to stop further growth, two new education policies came into…

  15. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...

  16. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  17. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  18. Effect of hydrogel elasticity and ephrinB2-immobilized manner on Runx2 expression of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya; Uyama, Hiroshi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to design the manner of ephrinB2 immobilized onto polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels with varied elasticity and evaluate the effect of hydrogels elasticity and the immobilized manner of ephrinB2 on the Runx2 expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). The PAAm hydrogels were prepared by the radical polymerization of acrylamide (AAm), and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). By changing the BIS concentration, the elasticity of PAAm hydrogels changed from 1 to 70kPa. For the bio-specific immobilization of ephrinB2, a chimeric protein of ephrinB2 and Fc domain was immobilized onto protein A-conjugated PAAm hydrogels by making use of the bio-specific interaction between the Fc domain and protein A. When hMSC were cultured on the ephrinB2-immobilized PAAm hydrogels with varied elasticity, the morphology of hMSC was of cuboidal shape on the PAAm hydrogels immobilized with ephrinB2 compared with non-conjugated ones, irrespective of the hydrogels elasticity. The bio-specific immobilization of ephrinB2 enhanced the level of Runx2 expression. The expression level was significantly high for the hydrogels of 3.6 and 5.9kPa elasticity with bio-specific immobilization of ephrinB2 compared with other hydrogels with the same elasticity. The hydrogels showed a significantly down-regulated RhoA activity. It is concluded that the Runx2 expression of hMSC is synergistically influenced by the hydrogels elasticity and their immobilized manner of ephrinB2 immobilized. Differentiation fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is modified by biochemical and biophysical factors, such as elasticity and signal proteins. However, there are few experiments about combinations of them. In this study, to evaluate the synergistic effect of them on cell properties of MSC, we established to design the manner of Eph signal ligand, ephrinB2, immobilized onto polyacrylamide hydrogels with varied elasticity. The gene expression level of an osteogenic maker, Runx2, was enhanced

  19. Spatial geometry and special relativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, it is shown the interplay of relative and absolute entities, which are present in both spatial geometry and special relativity. In order to strengthen the understanding of special relativity, we discuss firstly an instance of geometry and the existence of both frame......-dependent and frame-independent entities. We depart from a subject well known by students, which is the three-dimensional geometric space in order to compare, afterwards, with the treatment of four-dimensional space in the special relativity. The differences and similarities between these two subjects are also...

  20. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  1. Special issue on Econophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, P.; Ausloos, M.; Dacorogna, M.

    2002-05-01

    The area of research described as “econophysics" is renewing a kinship between physicists and economists and financial practitioners, that has been lost since the 19th century when scientists such as Pascal and Halley made groundbreaking advances in the area. Now, new meetings are revealing new research opportunities outside the established pathways traditionally explored within economics and finance. In December 2001, around 100 researchers from across the world attended the EPS meeting “Applications of Physics to Financial Analysis” (APFA3). This was held in the Museum of London Conference Centre which was chosen for its proximity to the City of London and its trading centres. The meeting was especially useful in bringing together roughly equal numbers of physicists, mathematicians and financial practitioners. Taking part in the conference we had the impression that, whilst the relation between physics and applied finance may still be at an early stage, it is evolving very quickly. As in nature, a sign of evolution is the emergence of different and specialised branches, each w ith their own specific character. Papers covered a range of topics, including: market modelling, risk management, agent-based modelling, hedging in incomplete markets, benchmarking, performance measurement, foreign exchange markets, time series analysis and prediction, efficient market hypothesis, equilibrium and non-equilibrium markets, economic a nd financial networks, the valuation of derivatives, growth and bankruptcy. The meeting was sponsored by the European Physical Society and the UK Institute of Physics. The invited speakers were J.Ph. Bouchaud, J.F. Muzy, K. Sneppen, G. Iori and S. Solomon. Articles outlining some of the more interesting advances in this fie ld have been selected by the Guest Editors, from amongst the submitted articles, and after having been refereed, they are presented here in this edition of EPJ B. APFA3 closed on a positive note. There was a feeling that

  2. Special interest in decision making in entrepreneurship policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben; Klyver, Kim; Schou Nielsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented...... entrepreneurship policy. The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality....

  3. The Correlation between Managers’ Delegation of Authority with the Manner of Employee Direction in Hospitals of Qom Province

    OpenAIRE

    Maleki M.R; Nasiri Pour A.A; Amini F; Parham M

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The destructive effect of centralized management can be found throughout each organization, which is a barrier for delegation of authority and productivity leading to administrative violence increase and compression and frigidity of affairs. With attention to the importance of delegation of authority this research aimed at determining the correlation between the manager's delegation of authority with the manner of employee direction in Qom hospitals, designed for co...

  4. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m.......40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner....

  5. Exercise training protects against aging-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in mouse skeletal muscle in a PGC-1α dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jens Frey; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Olesen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired mitochondrial function, whereas exercise training enhances mitochondrial content and function in part through activation of PGC-1α. Mitochondria form dynamic networks regulated by fission and fusion with profound effects on mitochondrial functions, yet the effect...... evidence that exercise training rescues aging-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in skeletal muscle by suppressing mitochondrial fission protein expression in a PGC-1α dependent manner....

  6. Special Issue: Engineering Digital Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J. Garcia-Sabater

    2018-04-01

    We gratefully acknowledge the authors and particularly the reviewers, whose valuable comments have improved the quality of the selected papers, which were extended (and again reviewed by pairs after the conference in order to be published in this Special Issue.

  7. Some Pitfalls in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, An-Ti

    1973-01-01

    The problem of observing a collision between two spaceships is utilized to illustrate the misuse of time dilation and length contraction, and the incorrect description of space-time coordinates in special relativity. (Author/DF)

  8. Evacuating populations with special needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Evacuation operations are conducted under the authority of, and based on decisions by, local and state authorities. The purpose of this primer, Evacuating Populations with Special Needs, is to provide local and state emergency managers, government of...

  9. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, C.E.

    1979-11-01

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  10. Aggregate and regional productivity growth in Chinese industry, 1978-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    This book analyses the growth experience in Chinese industry and manufacturing, with a special emphasis on the decomposition of growth, structural change, regional divergence and convergence, and technology spillovers. The decomposition analysis focuses on three dimensions: sectoral, regional and

  11. Wicked Problems in Special and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2017-01-01

    This special paper provides a critical overview of wicked problems in special and inclusive education. Practically, this paper provides a strategic framework for future special issues in the "Journal of Special Educational Needs". Critical attention is also given to the concept of a wicked problem when applied to research in special and…

  12. Special theory on chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This book give a special description about chemical engineering. The contents of this book are special technique for isolation on introduction and separation by membrane, biochemistry engineering, process system engineering, energy engineering, environment engineering, a high molecular new material, election material and research on surface property of catalyst. It has appendixes on history of transition on Korean chemical engineering text contents and history of the activity of Korea chemical engineering institute.

  13. Editorial: Special issue on education

    OpenAIRE

    Masal Ercan; Önder İsmail; Çalışkan Hüseyin; Beşoluk Şenol; Demirhan Eda

    2017-01-01

    This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. I...

  14. Editorial: Special issue on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masal Ercan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. In sum the results of studies will contribute to the field.

  15. Making Space for Specialized Astronomy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, D.

    2007-10-01

    With the growth of both free and subscription-based resources, articles on astronomy have never been easier to find. Locating the best and most current materials for any given search, however, now requires multiple tools and strategies dependent on the query. An analysis of the tools currently available shows that while astronomy is well-served by Google Scholar, Scopus and Inspec, its literature is best accessed through specialized resources such as ADS (Astrophysics Data System). While no surprise to astronomers, this has major implications for those of us who teach information literacy skills to astronomy students and work in academic settings where astronomy is just one of many subjects for which our non-specialist colleagues at the reference desk provide assistance. This paper will examine some of the implications of this analysis for library instruction, reference assistance and training, and library webpage development.

  16. Special Problems Of Pacing In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Antretter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of children suffering from congenital or acquired rhythm disorders, and therefore being pacemaker dependent, is very small. This is one of the reasons why a special hardware has never been developed for this cohort. Pacemaker implantation into children does not differ substantially from operations in adults. But there are several important points which have to be fulfilled in these small patients in order to guarantee a complication free function. As most of these children remain pacemaker dependent a lifetime, it is of tremendous importance to minimize all revisions regarding the implanted systems and to enable our small patients a high and therefore nearly normal quality of life. Pros and cons of different surgical approaches, implantation sites and the problem of growth after pacemaker implantation in children are considered.

  17. TIMP-1 mediates the inhibitory effect of interleukin-6 on the proliferation of a hepatocarcinoma cell line in a STAT3-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Guo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 is a multifunctional protein which is not only an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs but also to have a possible "cytokine-like" action. Here, we first compared mRNA expression of TIMP-1 and MMP-9 in BEL-7402 (a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, L-02 (a normal liver cell line and QSG-7701 (a cell line derived from peripheral tissue of liver carcinoma using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. By evaluating the variation of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio as an index of reciprocal changes of the expression of the two genes, we observed that the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was about 13- and 5-fold higher in BEL-7402 than in L-02 and QSG-7701, respectively. Significantly, overexpression of TIMP-1 decreased the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in BEL-7402 and then inhibited the cell growth to 60% and reduced the migration to about 30%. Meanwhile, our data showed that interleukin-6 (IL-6 (100 ng/mL could also inhibited the cell growth of BEL-7402. Further studies indicated that TIMP-1 mediated the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on BEL-7402 cell proliferation in a STAT3-dependent manner, which could further accelerate the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. A dominant negative STAT3 mutant totally abolished IL-6-induced TIMP-1 expression and its biological functions. The present results demonstrate that TIMP-1 may be one of the mediators that regulate the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on BEL-7402 proliferation in which STAT3 signal transduction and p21 up-regulation also play important roles.

  18. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ptpn11 Deletion in CD4+ Cells Does Not Affect T Cell Development and Functions but Causes Cartilage Tumors in a T Cell-Independent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, S M Shahjahan; Jayasuriya, Chathuraka T; Salter, Alexander I; Reilly, Emma C; Fugere, Céline; Yang, Wentian; Chen, Qian; Brossay, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2, encoded by Ptpn11 ) is required for constitutive cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and the regulation of immune responses. During development and maturation, subsets of T cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors known to associate with phosphatases, which in turn, dephosphorylate key players of activating receptor signaling pathways. We hypothesized that SHP-2 deletion would have major effects on T cell development by altering the thresholds for activation, as well as positive and negative selection. Surprisingly, using mice conditionally deficient for SHP-2 in the T cell lineage, we show that the development of these lymphocytes is globally intact. In addition, our data demonstrate that SHP-2 absence does not compromise T cell effector functions, suggesting that SHP-2 is dispensable in these cells. Unexpectedly, in aging mice, Ptpn11 gene deletion driven by CD4 Cre recombinase leads to cartilage tumors in wrist bones in a T cell-independent manner. These tumors resemble miniature cartilaginous growth plates and contain CD4-lineage positive chondrocyte-like cells. Altogether these results indicate that SHP-2 is a cartilage tumor suppressor during aging.

  20. Ptpn11 Deletion in CD4+ Cells Does Not Affect T Cell Development and Functions but Causes Cartilage Tumors in a T Cell-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shahjahan Miah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2, encoded by Ptpn11 is required for constitutive cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and the regulation of immune responses. During development and maturation, subsets of T cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors known to associate with phosphatases, which in turn, dephosphorylate key players of activating receptor signaling pathways. We hypothesized that SHP-2 deletion would have major effects on T cell development by altering the thresholds for activation, as well as positive and negative selection. Surprisingly, using mice conditionally deficient for SHP-2 in the T cell lineage, we show that the development of these lymphocytes is globally intact. In addition, our data demonstrate that SHP-2 absence does not compromise T cell effector functions, suggesting that SHP-2 is dispensable in these cells. Unexpectedly, in aging mice, Ptpn11 gene deletion driven by CD4 Cre recombinase leads to cartilage tumors in wrist bones in a T cell-independent manner. These tumors resemble miniature cartilaginous growth plates and contain CD4-lineage positive chondrocyte-like cells. Altogether these results indicate that SHP-2 is a cartilage tumor suppressor during aging.

  1. Localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent and an anticancer drug in a time-controllable manner to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Yu; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Chiang, Wei-Lun; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Wei-Chih; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chang, Yen; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs commonly requires several injections on various schedules, and the probability that the drug molecules reach the diseased tissues at the proper time and effective therapeutic concentrations is very low. This work elucidates an injectable co-delivery system that is based on cationic liposomes that are adsorbed on anionic hollow microspheres (Lipos-HMs) via electrostatic interaction, from which the localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent (1,25(OH)2D3) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin; DOX) can be thermally driven in a time-controllable manner by an externally applied high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). Lipos-HMs can greatly promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tumor cells by reducing their cytoplasmic expression of an antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) by 1,25(OH)2D3, increasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to the cytotoxic action of DOX. In nude mice that bear xenograft tumors, treatment with Lipos-HMs under exposure to HFMF effectively inhibits tumor growth and is the most effective therapeutic intervention among all the investigated. These empirical results demonstrate that the synergistic anticancer effects of sequential release of 1,25(OH)2D3 and DOX from the Lipos-HMs may have potential for maximizing DOX cytotoxicity, supporting more effective cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ω-3 and ω-6 Fatty Acids Modulate Conventional and Atypical Protein Kinase C Activities in a Brain Fatty Acid Binding Protein Dependent Manner in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa E. Elsherbiny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a highly infiltrative brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. High levels of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP are associated with increased migration/infiltration in GBM cells, with a high ratio of arachidonic acid (AA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA driving B-FABP-mediated migration. Since several protein kinase Cs (PKCs are overexpressed in GBM and linked to migration, we explored a possible relationship between B-FABP and levels/activity of different PKCs, as a function of AA and DHA supplementation. We report that ectopic expression of B-FABP in U87 cells alters the levels of several PKCs, particularly PKCζ. Upon analysis of PKCζ RNA levels in a panel of GBM cell lines and patient-derived GBM neurospheres, we observed a trend towards moderate positive correlation (r = 0.624, p = 0.054 between B-FABP and PKCζ RNA levels. Analysis of PKC activity in U87 GBM cells revealed decreased typical PKC activity (23.4% in B-FABP-expressing cells compared with nonexpressing cells, with no difference in novel and atypical PKC activities. AA and DHA modulated both conventional and atypical PKC activities in a B-FABP-dependent manner, but had no effect on novel PKC activity. These results suggest that conventional and atypical PKCs are potential downstream effectors of B-FABP/fatty acid-mediated alterations in GBM growth properties.

  3. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  4. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J

    2015-01-01

    There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Nonsystematic review. Clinical review. Level 4. Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. C. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. The Business of Running a Special Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Helen J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper, a lecture to library school students, presents in detail four elements that make a special library special," as background for a discussion of suggested approaches to follow in managing a special library. (Author/AB)

  6. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care for Your Child With Special Needs Special Education: Getting Help for Your Child Words to Know (Special Needs Glossary) View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy ...

  7. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) Print Young adults with special ...

  8. Educational technologies regarding sports training of children with special educational needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Cosmin BOCA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Special Educational Needs (SEN, introduced by UNESCO in the '90s, determined the development of a constant concern of the specialists in physical education and sport to specify the special educational needs that require to be respected when addressing children presenting peculiarities of growth and development. Peculiarities of people with special educational needs in physical exercise practice require additional measures to those in general education. Through sport, children with special educational needs have the opportunity to experiment unprecedented life situations, to acquire a high degree of autonomy and have access to new cultural activities that encourage social integration.

  9. Finance, growth, and stability : Lessons from the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    This article introduces a special issue on lessons from the recent crisis on finance, growth, and stability. The papers in the special issue discuss (i) the benefits and risks of financial innovation and regulatory responses to these risks, (ii) the effect of finance and globalization on the real

  10. The economic growth of oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbod, G.

    2007-02-01

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  11. Mechanisms for Teaching Typewriting to Special Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Gives examples of specialized typewriting instructional methods for students with disabilities, involving modifications to typewriters, using special keyboards, and adding sensory devices for different impairments. (MF)

  12. The positional identity of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells along the anterior-posterior axis is controlled in a dosage-dependent manner by bFGF and EGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shuling; Ochalek, Anna; Szczesna, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Neural rosettes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been claimed to be a highly robust in vitro cellular model for biomedical application. They are able to propagate in vitro in the presence of mitogens, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth...... factor (EGF). However, these two mitogens are also involved in anterior-posterior patterning in a gradient dependent manner along the neural tube axis. Here, we compared the regional identity of neural rosette cells and specific neural subtypes of their progeny propagated with low and high concentrations...... of the neural rosettes, resulting in subsequent cholinergic neuron differentiation. Thus, our results indicate that different concentrations of bFGF and EGF supplemented during propagation of neural rosettes are involved in altering the identity of the resultant neural cells....

  13. Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R

    2001-01-01

    This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co

  14. Vico and Literary Mannerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    Reviews: Scott Samuelson, New Vico studies, vol. 18 (2000), pp. 111-115; Maurizio Martirano, Sesto contribuito alla bibliografia vichiana (1996-2000); Alfredo Guida Editore: ?, (2002), p. 70 (Studi vichiani, vol. 37)...

  15. Synthesis and structure of a 2D Zn complex with mixed ligands stacked in offset ABAB manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ling, E-mail: qinling0924013@163.com; Wang, Yan-Qing; Ni, Gang [Hefei University of Technology, Department of chemical engineering and food processing, Xuancheng Campus (China)

    2016-07-15

    The title complex, ([Zn(ODIB){sub 1/2}(bpdc)]·2DMF){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions (dimethylformamide and water) based on two ligands, namely, 1,1′-oxy-bis[3,5-diimidazolyl-benzene] (ODIB) and biphenyldicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}bpdc). ODIB ligands link Zn cations to give layers in crystal. bpdc{sup 2–} anions coordinate to Zn atoms, however, their introduction does not increase the dimension of the structure. Each layer is partially passes through the adjacent layers in the offset ABAB manner.

  16. Multiple effects of the special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) in colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömberg, Anja; Rabe, Michael; Aigner, Achim

    2014-12-01

    SATB1 (special AT-rich binding protein 1) is a global chromatin organizer regulating the expression of a large number of genes. Overexpression has been found in various solid tumors and positively correlated with prognostic and clinicopathological properties. In colorectal cancer (CRC), SATB1 overexpression and its correlation with poor differentiation, invasive depth, TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases) stage and prognosis have been demonstrated. However, more detailed studies on the SATB1 functions in CRC are warranted. In this article, we comprehensively analyze the cellular and molecular role of SATB1 in CRC cell lines with different SATB1 expression levels by using RNAi-mediated knockdown. Using siRNAs with different knockdown efficacies, we demonstrate antiproliferative, cell cycle-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of SATB1 knockdown in a SATB1 gene dose-dependent manner. Tumor growth inhibition is confirmed in vivo in a subcutaneous tumor xenograft mouse model using stable knockdown cells. The in-depth analysis of cellular effects reveals increased activities of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9 and other mediators of apoptotic pathways. Similarly, the analysis of E- and N-cadherin, slug, twist, β-catenin and MMP7 indicates SATB1 effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and matrix breakdown. Our results also establish SATB1 effects on receptor tyrosine kinases and (proto-)oncogenes such as HER receptors and Pim-1. Taken together, this suggests a more complex molecular interplay between tumor-promoting and possible inhibitory effects in CRC by affecting multiple pathways and molecules involved in proliferation, cell cycle, EMT, invasion and cell survival. © 2014 UICC.

  17. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  18. Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Assche, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The set of lectures from the Summer School held in Leuven in 2002 provide an up-to-date account of recent developments in orthogonal polynomials and special functions, in particular for algorithms for computer algebra packages, 3nj-symbols in representation theory of Lie groups, enumeration, multivariable special functions and Dunkl operators, asymptotics via the Riemann-Hilbert method, exponential asymptotics and the Stokes phenomenon. The volume aims at graduate students and post-docs working in the field of orthogonal polynomials and special functions, and in related fields interacting with orthogonal polynomials, such as combinatorics, computer algebra, asymptotics, representation theory, harmonic analysis, differential equations, physics. The lectures are self-contained requiring only a basic knowledge of analysis and algebra, and each includes many exercises.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of asymmetrical growth of cube-shaped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanyuan; Xie Huaqing; Wu Zihua; Xing Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    We simulated the asymmetrical growth of cube-shaped nanoparticles by applying the Monte Carlo method. The influence of the specific mechanisms on the crystal growth of nanoparticles has been phenomenologically described by efficient growth possibilities along different directions (or crystal faces). The roles of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors have been evaluated in three phenomenological models. The simulation results would benefit the understanding about the cause and manner of the asymmetrical growth of nanoparticles. (paper)

  20. Special Teacher Stress: Its Product and Prevention. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Robert H.; Fones, Donald M.

    1985-01-01

    Findings from a study involving 60 special education teachers examine characteristics of 20 Ss who scored highest and 20 who scored lowest on both job stress and life stress measures. Teachers are urged to begin relaxation training, exercise, emphasize positive attitudes, and maintain adequate diets. (CL)

  1. The geometry of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This book for students in mathematics or physics shows the interest of geometry to understand special relativity as a consequence of invariance of Maxwell equations and of constancy of the speed of light. Space-time is actually provided with a geometrical structure and a physical interpretation: at each observer are associated his own time and his own physical space in which occur events he is concerned with. This leads to a natural approach to special relativity. The Lorentz group and its algebra are then studied by using matrices and the Pauli algebra. Quaternions are also addressed

  2. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  3. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  4. Effect of chest wall radiotherapy in different manners using tissue equivalent bolus on skin and lung of cavia cobayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wei; Qu Yaqin; Song Xiangfu; Liu Shixin; Jia Xiaojing; Guo He; Yang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To probe the influence of electron beam radiotherapy in different manners using different tissue equivalent boluses on skin and lung. Methods: Adult female cavia cobayas were randomly divided into four groups as control group, half-time with bolus group, half-time with bolus group and without bolus group. Acute-irradiation animal models were established using electron beam in different manners with or without 0.5 cm tissue equivalent bolus. Pathological changes in lung, hair vesicle and fibroblast cell count were analyzed 40 clays after irradiation. Results: The radiation dermatitis in the group with bolus was slighter than that of the group without bolus, but the radiation pneumonia was reverse. With bolus, the radiation dermatitis of haft-time group was slighter than that of full-time group. The injury repair of half-time group was more active than full-time group. Conclusions: The treatment of haft-time bolus could protect lung without serious skin complications. (authors)

  5. O-GlcNAcylation modulates PKA-CREB signaling in a manner specific to PKA catalytic subunit isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nana; Ma, Denglei; Gu, Jianlan; Shi, Jianhua; Xu, Xiaotao; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei; Chu, Dandan

    2018-02-26

    O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of proteins. Protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling plays critical roles in multiple biological processes. Isoforms α and β of PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) and CREB are modified by O-GlcNAcylation. In the present study, we determined the role of O-GlcNAcylation in PKAc isoform-specific CREB signaling. We found that up-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation enhanced CREB phosphorylation, but suppressed CREB expression in exogenous PKAc isoform-unspecific manner. PKAc isoforms affected exogenous expression of OGT or OGA and protein O-GlcNAcylation differently. Up-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation did not significantly affect net PKAcα-CREB signaling, but enhanced PKAcβ-CREB signaling. The role of O-GlcNAcylation in PKA-CREB signaling was desensitized by insulin treatment. This study suggests a role of O-GlcNAcylation in PKA-CREB signaling by affecting phosphorylation of CREB in a PKAc isoform-specific manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Entrepreneurial and Business Growth and the Quest for a "Comprehensive Theory"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitch, Claire; Hill, Frances; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This article is the introduction to a special issue on growth. The special issue is important because it questions extant knowledge of growth, its conceptualization and points out the lack of theoretical development. Our knowledge of this phenomenon is still predominantly empirical in terms...

  7. Access to Specialized Surgical Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. January 2016 Volume 13 Issue 1 1. EDITORIAL. Access to Specialized Surgical Care. Saidi H. University of Nairobi. Correspondence to: Prof Hassan Saidi, P.O Box 30196-00100, Nairobi. Email: hsaid2ke@yahoo.com. Ann Afr Surg. 2016;13(1):1-2. The narrative of surgical disease in ...

  8. Teaching Strategies for Specialized Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Music, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides a strategy, from the book "Strategies for Teaching Specialized Ensembles," that addresses Standard 9A of the National Standards for Music Education. Explains that students will identify and describe the musical and historical characteristics of the classical era in music they perform and in audio examples. (CMK)

  9. Virtual Special Issue on Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Declan; Elhorst, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This editorial introduces a virtual special issue of Spatial Economic Analysis compiled to mark the keynote lecture at the 46th Annual Conference of the Regional Science Association InternationalBritish and Irish Section in Cornwall by Professor Jacques Poot of the National Institute of Demographic

  10. Computational genomics of specialized metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.

    2018-01-01

    Microbial and plant specialized metabolites, also known as natural products, are key mediators of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions and constitute a rich resource for drug development. In the past decade, genome mining has emerged as a prominent strategy for natural product discovery.

  11. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    In Poincares axiomatic formulation special relativity is a derived consequence of a true Lorentz contraction, for a rod in absolute motion through a substratum. Furthermore, Lorentz had shown that the rod contraction can be understood by an inverse square law interaction and therefore special relativity derived from more fundamental principles. The derivation by Lorentz shows that the root of the divergence problems is the singular inverse square law. By replacing the inverse square law with a regular one through the introduction of a finite length, the author has succeeded in deriving a nonlinear generalization of special relativity which eliminates all infinities. Besides the relative velocities, these nonlinear transformation equations also contain absolute velocities against a substratum, but in the limit of small energies they go over into the linear Lorentz transformations. Depending on the smallness of the fundamental length, departures from special relativity can be observed only at very high energies. The theorem that the velocity of light is the same in all reference systems still holds and likewise the conservation laws for energy and momentum

  12. Couple specialization in multiple equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esping-Andersen, G.; Boertien, D.; Bonke, J.; Gracia, P.

    2013-01-01

    We address the issue of men’s lagged adaptation to the ongoing revolution of women’s roles. This article proposes a multiple equilibrium approach and shows how modes of couple specialization cluster around qualitatively distinct logics. We identify a traditional, egalitarian, and ‘unstable’

  13. Special workshop on lung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Special Workshop on Lung Dosimetry was convened in Salt Lake City, Utah, on April 21-22, 1982, to stimulate the use of improved radiation dosimetry and to formulate a stronger basis for dose-response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. The two-day workshop was held in conjunction with the 30th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society. Publication is planned

  14. Special issue of photosynthetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamura, M.; Wraight, C.A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy

  15. Special Issue: Candida and Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue highlights emerging topics related to Candida, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in the hospital setting. The advantages and limitations of new, non-culture based diagnostic techniques are discussed. The issue reviews mammalian and non-mammalian infection models. The manuscripts present updates on several molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, including filamentation, biofilm formation, and phospholipid production.

  16. Cybernetics and Education (Special Issue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopstein, Felix F., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This is a special issue examining the potential of cybernetics in educational technology. Articles discuss: cybernetic methods, algorithms, feedback learning theory, a structural approach to behavioral objectives and criterion-referenced testing, task specifications and diagnosis, teacher-child interaction, educational development, teaching…

  17. IDEA papers special number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadie, J.L.

    2003-06-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA papers provides information such as, meeting, Internet addresses and programs. This paper is specially devoted to the environment. (A.L.B.)

  18. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  19. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  20. Special Operations - Myths and facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    The brief addresses some of the myths, which have induced an institutional resistance at the political and military decision levels against understanding and considering special operations as a valuable strategic tool in contemporary and future conflict prevention, crisis management, and conflict...

  1. Special Operations Doctrine: Is it Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    AOB), eight Special Forces Operational Detachment-Alphas (SFODAs)2, and Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations teams working alongside two bat...Operations doctrine. Sixty years after the Army’s first special operations units were formed, the time had arrived for writing how Army special operations...Affairs, Psychological Operations, and Special Forces, the effort inte- grated the roles and missions of the Ranger Regiment, Special Mission Units, and

  2. Site and stand analysis for growth prediction of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of site information with that of tree growth is of special importance in Zululand, where sustainable supply of timber is essential for local processing and export commitments. Site prediction growth models need to be based on easily attainable input variables that are suitable for operational implementation by ...

  3. Childhood growth in boys with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varimo, Tero; Hero, Matti; Laitinen, Eeva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe childhood growth patterns in a series of well-characterized patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) with special emphasis on genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the growth charts of 36 males with CHH (27 from Finland...

  4. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  5. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle V Rosa

    Full Text Available Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively. At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01 and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02; however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during

  6. Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Holland, Olivia; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.

  7. Plant villin, lily P-135-ABP, possesses G-actin binding activity and accelerates the polymerization and depolymerization of actin in a Ca2+-sensitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Etsuo; Tominaga, Motoki; Mabuchi, Issei; Tsuji, Yasunori; Staiger, Christopher J; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Shimmen, Teruo

    2005-10-01

    From germinating pollen of lily, two types of villins, P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP, have been identified biochemically. Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent actin-filament binding and bundling activities have been demonstrated for both villins previously. Here, we examined the effects of lily villins on the polymerization and depolymerization of actin. P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP present in a crude protein extract prepared from germinating pollen bound to a DNase I affinity column in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Purified P-135-ABP reduced the lag period that precedes actin filament polymerization from monomers in the presence of either Ca(2+) or Ca(2+)-CaM. These results indicated that P-135-ABP can form a complex with G-actin in the presence of Ca(2+) and this complex acts as a nucleus for polymerization of actin filaments. However, the nucleation activity of P-135-ABP is probably not relevant in vivo because the assembly of G-actin saturated with profilin, a situation that mimics conditions found in pollen, was not accelerated in the presence of P-135-ABP. P-135-ABP also enhanced the depolymerization of actin filaments during dilution-mediated disassembly. Growth from filament barbed ends in the presence of Ca(2+)-CaM was also prevented, consistent with filament capping activity. These results suggested that lily villin is involved not only in the arrangement of actin filaments into bundles in the basal and shank region of the pollen tube, but also in regulating and modulating actin dynamics through its capping and depolymerization (or fragmentation) activities in the apical region of the pollen tube, where there is a relatively high concentration of Ca(2+).

  8. An audit of the toxicology findings in 555 medico-legal autopsies finds manner of death changed in 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Neil E I; Gilbert, John D; Heath, Karen J; Winskog, Calle; Kostakis, Chris

    2013-03-01

    An audit of toxicological analysis in Coronial autopsies performed at Forensic Science South Australia was conducted on the cases of three pathologists. Toxicological analysis had been performed in 555 (68 %) from a total of 815 autopsies. It was found that the proffered manner of death was changed from the provisional report (provided immediately after the post-mortem examination) in five cases (just under 1 %) as a consequence of the toxicological findings. This is a limited study as it is retrospective, not all cases had toxicological analysis and the findings are constrained by the range of the substances that could be detected. Nonetheless, the audit supports the application of toxicological analysis in medico-legal death investigation and suggests that an inclusive policy should be adopted.

  9. The Role of Perception in the Typology of Geminate Consonants: Effects of Manner of Articulation, Segmental Environment, Position, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The present study seeks to answer the question of whether consonant duration is perceived differently across consonants of different manners of articulation and in different contextual environments and whether such differences may be related to the typology of geminates. The results of the cross-linguistic identification experiment suggest higher perceptual acuity in labeling short and long consonants in sonorants than in obstruents. Duration categories were also more consistently and clearly labeled in the intervocalic than in the preconsonantal environment, in the word-initial than in the word-final position, and after stressed vowels than between unstressed vowels. These perceptual asymmetries are in line with some typological tendencies, such as the cross-linguistic preference for intervocalic and post-stress geminates, but contradict other proposed cross-linguistic patterns, such as the preference for obstruent geminates and the abundance of word-final geminates.

  10. GSK3β is involved in the relief of mitochondria pausing in a Tau-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Llorens-Martín

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial trafficking deficits have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. The Ser/Thre kinase GSK3β is believed to play a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. Given that GSK3β substrates include Tau protein, here we studied the impact of GSK3β on mitochondrial trafficking and its dependence on Tau protein. Overexpression of GSK3β in neurons resulted in an increase in motile mitochondria, whereas a decrease in the activity of this kinase produced an increase in mitochondria pausing. These effects were dependent on Tau proteins, as Tau (-/- neurons did not respond to distinct GSK3β levels. Furthermore, differences in GSK3β expression did not affect other parameters like mitochondria velocity or mitochondria run length. We conclude that GSK3B activity regulates mitochondrial axonal trafficking largely in a Tau-dependent manner.

  11. The Correlation between Managers’ Delegation of Authority with the Manner of Employee Direction in Hospitals of Qom Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki M.R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The destructive effect of centralized management can be found throughout each organization, which is a barrier for delegation of authority and productivity leading to administrative violence increase and compression and frigidity of affairs. With attention to the importance of delegation of authority this research aimed at determining the correlation between the manager's delegation of authority with the manner of employee direction in Qom hospitals, designed for contributing to improvement of managers’ performance in hospitals.Methods: This correlational and cross-sectional research, was carried out on all the employees under the control of managers and chiefs of Qom province hospitals (N=2167. Sampling was done by cluster sampling method through the use of Cokran sampling based on Morgan and kerjsi chart. 998 samples with the confidence level of %95 and permitted errors of 0.05 were randomly selected. Data were collected via questionnaires which were answered by self-report method. The data were then analyzed by the Pearson correlation coefficient, variance's test F analyses, multiple variant regression and T-test.Results: The mean score of the manager's non-delegation of authority was (32.4. Among the indicators of the direction, there was a significant relationship between the motivation (mean= 61.44 and organizational communication (49.39, also there was a significant relationship between the managers’ delegation of authority and the manner of their employees direction (non-delegation of authority R=-0.13. Conclusion: Due to the meaningful and direct relationship between most of direction variables with the managers’ delegation of authority, increasing the delegation of authority and deconcentration can lead to an increase in employee motivation and (vertical and formal communication and improved performance of affairs.

  12. Adiponectin receptor 2 is regulated by nutritional status, leptin and pregnancy in a tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen Ruth; Caminos, Jorge Eduardo; Gallego, Rosalía; Tovar, Sulay; Vázquez, María Jesús; Garcés, María Fernanda; Lopez, Miguel; García-Caballero, Tomás; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2010-01-12

    The aim of the present work was to study the regulation of circulating adiponectin levels and the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (Adipo-R2) in several rat tissues in relation to fasting, leptin challenge, pregnancy, and chronic undernutrition. Using real-time PCR, we found Adipo-R2 mRNA expression in the liver, stomach, white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) of adult rats. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed protein expression in the same tissues. Adipo-R2 mRNA levels were decreased in liver after fasting, with no changes in the other tissues. Leptin decreased Adipo-R2 expression in liver and stomach, but increased its expression in WAT and BAT. Chronic caloric restriction in normal rats increased Adipo-R2 gene expression in stomach, while it decreased hepatic Adipo-R2 levels in pregnant rats. Using radioimmunoassay, we found that plasma adiponectin levels were diminished by fasting and leptin. Conversely, circulating adiponectin was increased in food-restricted rats, whereas its levels decreased in food-restricted pregnant rats by the end of gestation. In conclusion our findings provide the first evidence that (a) Adipo-R2 mRNA is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by fasting, but leptin is not responsible for those changes; (b) chronic caloric restriction in normal and pregnant rats also regulate Adipo-R2 mRNA in a tissue-specific manner; and (c) Adipo-R2 mRNA does not show a clear correlation with plasma adiponectin levels.

  13. Molecular Stress-inducing Compounds Increase Osteoclast Formation in a Heat Shock Factor 1 Protein-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ryan C.; Kouspou, Michelle M.; Lang, Benjamin J.; Nguyen, Chau H.; van der Kraan, A. Gabrielle J.; Vieusseux, Jessica L.; Lim, Reece C.; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Price, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss. PMID:24692538

  14. Molecular stress-inducing compounds increase osteoclast formation in a heat shock factor 1 protein-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ryan C; Kouspou, Michelle M; Lang, Benjamin J; Nguyen, Chau H; van der Kraan, A Gabrielle J; Vieusseux, Jessica L; Lim, Reece C; Gillespie, Matthew T; Benjamin, Ivor J; Quinn, Julian M W; Price, John T

    2014-05-09

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss.

  15. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to  nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials.  Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale  materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientati...

  16. GSK3 controls axon growth via CLASP-mediated regulation of growth cone microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Saijilafu; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Xu, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Feng-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity in neurons yields pleiotropic outcomes, causing both axon growth promotion and inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that specific GSK3 substrates, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), support axon growth by regulating the stability of axonal microtubules (MTs), but the substrate(s) and mechanisms conveying axon growth inhibition remain elusive. Here we show that CLIP (cytoplasmic linker protein)-associated protein (CLASP), originally identified as a MT plus end-binding protein, displays both plus end-binding and lattice-binding activities in nerve growth cones, and reveal that the two MT-binding activities regulate axon growth in an opposing manner: The lattice-binding activity mediates axon growth inhibition induced by suppression of GSK3 activity via preventing MT protrusion into the growth cone periphery, whereas the plus end-binding property supports axon extension via stabilizing the growing ends of axonal MTs. We propose a model in which CLASP transduces GSK3 activity levels to differentially control axon growth by coordinating the stability and configuration of growth cone MTs. PMID:21937714

  17. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutinas, M.; Kiparissides, A.; Silva-Rocha, R.; Lam, M.C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Lorenzo, de V.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.; Mantalaris, A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is

  18. Special nuclear material simulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  19. Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Elordieta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years there has been an intense and increasing collaboration effort between researchers working on the Iberian languages, and this is particularly true in the realm of phonetics and phonology. The 'Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 'has played a role in contributing to stimulate such a collaborative research focusing on the Iberian languages: first with a Special Issue on 'Variation and Change in the Iberian Languages: the Peninsula and Beyond', and now with a Special Issue on the 'Prosody of Ibero-Romance and Related Languages'. In fact, to broaden its scope of coverage to the Iberian languages has become an explicit goal of the journal. As guest-editors of this issue, we are very pleased to be able to contribute to this objective, which we find an extremely fruitful one.

  20. FATHER PLAY: IS IT SPECIAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori

    2017-11-01

    Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Innovation, Competition and Growth: Evolving Complexiting or Complex Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Ramlogan

    2002-01-01

    , innovation and competition. It starts from the premise that the economy is a system comprising multiplicity of agents, diverse in abilities and capabilities, interacting, adapting, reacting and constantly modifying the patterns on structures that they help to create. Two themes in special are explored in this context. The first it is enterprise as the primum mobile of modern capitalist economies. The second relates to the importance of the economic growth as an emergent phenomenon. The transformation processes involved can be broken down into three elements: micro-diversity, selection processes and development processes. It is the manner of interdependence between these three elements that defines the relation between innovation, growth and competition. We explore these issues in a model of growth whose forms differ in three dimensions: efficiency, investment behavior and processes of cost reducing innovation. The dynamics of Fisher´s principles are explored in this context. The main result of this paper can be summarized as being a critical assessment of the knowledge foundations of endogenous growth theory, a clear statement of the core elements in an evolutionary adaptive theory of growth and the analysis of economic growth through the use of replier dynamic processes.

  2. Special Operations Officer Talent Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    employees , and then create a self-development program for their employees to maximize the potential of each worker. “In Microsoft , Bill Gates has... Malaysia , Pakistan, Indonesia, Singapore, Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan.15 SOF officers have specialized training and education to train, work, and...Instruction 12410.25: Civilian Employee and Training Development (Washington DC: Department of the Navy, 5 July 2011), 1. 47 Like their military

  3. Is special relativity logically inconsistent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author gives his view that Special Relativity is logically and mathematically consistent, as well as physically comprehensible if, and only if, it is firmly based on the single assumption of a unique fundamental reference frame for light propagation. The theory and all its results are derivable from this assumption; the Relativity and Light Principles become intelligible consequences of this assumption; the physical significance and source of time dilation and length contraction are made manifest thereby. (Auth.)

  4. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Pomegranate extract inhibits EMT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in a NF-κB and JNK dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin An

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that PE may mediate inhibition growth of pVHL-deficient ccRCCs and raises the possibility of its use as a dietary adjunct to managing patients with active surveillance for small, localized, incidentally identified renal tumors so as to avoid more invasive procedures such as nephrectomy.

  6. Voluntary Wheel Running Reduces the Acute Inflammatory Response to Liver Carcinogen in a Sex-specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, M L; Gehl, Julie; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth, including diethylnitrosamine-(DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma. Having observed a sex-dependent development of DEN-induced hepatocarcinoma, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise and sex on the acute inflammatory response to DEN. Thus, we randomized male and female mice...

  7. Special issue on asteroids - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Bojan; Hsieh, Henry H.; Gronchi, Giovanni F.

    2018-04-01

    The articles in this special issue are devoted to asteroids, small solar system bodies that primarily populate a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, known as the asteroid belt, but can also be found throughout the Solar System. Asteroids are considered to be a key to understanding the formation and evolution of our planetary system. Their properties allow us to test current theoretical models and develop new theoretical concepts pertaining to evolutionary processes in the Solar System. There have been major advances in asteroid science in the last decade, and that trend continues. Eighteen papers accepted for this special issue cover a wide range of asteroid-related subjects, pushing the boundaries of our understanding of these intriguing objects even further. Here we provide the reader with a brief overview of these thrilling papers, with an invitation for interested scientists to read each work in detail for a better understanding of these recent cutting edge results. As many topics in asteroid science remain open challenges, we hope that this special issue will be an important reference point for future research on this compelling topic.

  8. Specialization of judicial and other authorities in the fight against environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection, investigation and prosecution of crimes against the environment has its specificity compared to other forms of crime, because of the nature of these crimes, the manner of execution (modus operandi and the characteristics of their perpetrators. Although there is no objective need for modification of the rules of criminal procedure with regard to these offenses, there is an obvious need for a specialized body of the procedure (prosecutors, judges and authorized officers of the internal affairs. This is due the fact that only specific additional, specialized knowledge about the environmental issues, which is usually multidisciplinary, can provide high-quality, professional and competent research and detection of crimes against the environment. In this paper, the authors deal with the problems of specialization of judicial and other authorities in connection with criminal proceedings for offenses against the environment, of reasonableness and necessity, given the current situation in domestic practice, as well as some comparative solutions and experiences.

  9. Development of special libraries in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Češnovar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Slovenia is a small European country with only 2 million inhabitants, Slovenian librarianship can be compared with any other bigger country. The staffing and information technology in special libraries have been accelerating for the last four decades.Seventeen years have passed since the first meeting of special libraries. When Slovenia attained independence, numerous changes occured in the field of special librarianship.Due to the economic crisis, several special libraries of enterprises were abolished, while on the other hand, the number of special libraries in public institutions has increased. The article deals with the changes which have influenced the development of special librarianship in Slovenia.

  10. Uncloaking the dagger: does adherence to the Geneva Conventions betray Special Operations Forces?

    OpenAIRE

    Staab, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Bombs, Special Operations Forces (SOF), and proxy forces are growth industries in the modern fight. As President Obama identified in an address covering the nation's strategy in Syria, "airstrikes, Special Forces, and working with local forces who are fighting to regain control of their own country -- that is how we'll achieve a more sustainable victory." [i] These remarks capture the nation's current policy for combating terrorist threats. From its origins in the Second World War to prese...

  11. 75 FR 47801 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Special Demonstration Programs--Model Demonstration Projects To Improve Outcomes for Individuals.... Alexa Posny, Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. [FR Doc. 2010-19585...

  12. The Correlation between Managers’ Delegation of Authority with the Manner of Employee Direction in Hospitals of Qom Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Maleki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: The destructive effect of centralized management can be found throughout each organization, which is a barrier for delegation of authority and productivity leading to administrative violence increase and compression and frigidity of affairs. With attention to the importance of delegation of authority this research aimed at determining the correlation between the manager's delegation of authority with the manner of employee direction in Qom hospitals, designed for contributing to improvement of managers’ performance in hospitals.

     

    Methods: This correlational and cross-sectional research, was carried out on all the employees under the control of managers and chiefs of Qom province hospitals (N=2167. Sampling was done by cluster sampling method through the use of Cokran sampling based on Morgan and kerjsi chart. 998 samples with the confidence level of 95% and permitted errors of 0.05 were randomly selected. Data were collected via questionnaires which were answered by self-report method. The data were then analyzed by the Pearson correlation coefficient, variance's test F analyses, multiple variant regression and T-test.

     

    Results: The mean score of the manager's non-delegation of authority was (32.4. Among the indicators of the direction, there was a significant relationship between the motivation (mean= 61.44 and organizational communication (49.39, also there was a significant relationship between the managers’ delegation of authority and the manner of their employees direction (non-delegation of authority R=-0.13.

     

    Conclusion: Due to the meaningful and direct relationship between most of direction variables with the managers’ delegation of authority, increasing the delegation of authority and deconcentration can lead to an increase

  13. The Technological Growth in eHealth Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The infusion of information communication technology (ICT into health services is emerging as an active area of research. It has several advantages but perhaps the most important one is providing medical benefits to one and all irrespective of geographic boundaries in a cost effective manner, providing global expertise and holistic services, in a time bound manner. This paper provides a systematic review of technological growth in eHealth services. The present study reviews and analyzes the role of four important technologies, namely, satellite, internet, mobile, and cloud for providing health services.

  14. The Technological Growth in eHealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shilpa; Pant, Millie; Abraham, Ajith; Agrawal, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    The infusion of information communication technology (ICT) into health services is emerging as an active area of research. It has several advantages but perhaps the most important one is providing medical benefits to one and all irrespective of geographic boundaries in a cost effective manner, providing global expertise and holistic services, in a time bound manner. This paper provides a systematic review of technological growth in eHealth services. The present study reviews and analyzes the role of four important technologies, namely, satellite, internet, mobile, and cloud for providing health services.

  15. The Technological Growth in eHealth Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shilpa; Pant, Millie; Abraham, Ajith; Agrawal, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    The infusion of information communication technology (ICT) into health services is emerging as an active area of research. It has several advantages but perhaps the most important one is providing medical benefits to one and all irrespective of geographic boundaries in a cost effective manner, providing global expertise and holistic services, in a time bound manner. This paper provides a systematic review of technological growth in eHealth services. The present study reviews and analyzes the role of four important technologies, namely, satellite, internet, mobile, and cloud for providing health services. PMID:26146515

  16. Location and regional productive specialization in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Antonio Mendoza Tolosa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This document is directed to responding if Colombian regional economies restructured their productive activities from 2000 to 2014, and if so, illustrate the way that process has been effective in the different departments from the results and dynamics of their economic activities. For developing this exercise, we used a set of statistical indicators of spatial geography, among which is the factorial analysis, specifically the method of principal components, whose purpose was to identify the set activities whose performance explains more clearly the productive orientation of the departments, and complementary synthetic regional specialization indexes were employed in order to identify the degree and the changes of economic diversification, presented in those indicators. The results of this research shows that most of the Colombian regions have diversified their economic activity, with focus on service activities, among which are representative government and non-market services produced by those institutions, nowadays less dependent on few sources of growth. However, in other regions the primary sector, mainly mining activity, for many years has been the most important activity of production structures, affecting the process of full diversification, which is close to current local demands and international economic order the requests with greater intensity.

  17. Marketing in the Special Library Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Janet E.

    1995-01-01

    Special libraries developed in response to a need for quick access to specific information. Integrated marketing in special libraries focuses the library toward strategic planning and offers the opportunity to develop more effective library services. (Author/AEF)

  18. ICSSP 2015–Special Issue Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfahl, Dietmar; Kuhrmann, Marco; Bendraou, Reda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to the Special Issue of the International Conference on Software and System Process......Introduction to the Special Issue of the International Conference on Software and System Process...

  19. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Care for Your Child With Special Needs Special Education: Getting Help for Your Child Words to Know ( ...

  20. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn about everything from financial and health care benefits to employment and housing options. ... Child With Special Needs Special Education: Getting Help for Your Child Words to Know ( ...