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Sample records for special colorant effects

  1. Variables separation of the spectral BRDF for better understanding color variation in special effect pigment coatings.

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana María; Campos, Joaquín; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2012-06-01

    A type of representation of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is proposed that distinctly separates the spectral variable (wavelength) from the geometrical variables (spherical coordinates of the irradiation and viewing directions). Principal components analysis (PCA) is used in order to decompose the spectral BRDF in decorrelated spectral components, and the weight that they have at every geometrical configuration of irradiation/viewing is established. This method was applied to the spectral BRDF measurement of a special effect pigment sample, and four principal components with relevant variance were identified. These four components are enough to reproduce the great diversity of spectral reflectances observed at different geometrical configurations. Since this representation is able to separate spectral and geometrical variables, it facilitates the interpretation of the color variation of special effect pigments coatings versus the geometrical configuration of irradiation/viewing.

  2. Spectral BRDF-based determination of proper measurement geometries to characterize color shift of special effect coatings.

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana; Campos, Joaquín; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco; Chorro, Elísabet; Perales, Esther; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2013-02-01

    A reduced set of measurement geometries allows the spectral reflectance of special effect coatings to be predicted for any other geometry. A physical model based on flake-related parameters has been used to determine nonredundant measurement geometries for the complete description of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The analysis of experimental spectral BRDF was carried out by means of principal component analysis. From this analysis, a set of nine measurement geometries was proposed to characterize special effect coatings. It was shown that, for two different special effect coatings, these geometries provide a good prediction of their complete color shift.

  3. Special effects.

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  4. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  5. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Damir Vusić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  6. Evaluation of the hydrogen peroxide and special colorant effects under irradiation by argon and diode laser on tooth-whitening in vitro

    Gaspar, Jose Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if there is any interaction between special colorant found on bleaching agents that have 35 % of hydrogen peroxide on its composition, and argon or diode laser. The first part of the study was to characterize the extrinsic stain obtained through a staining solution containing products present on the day by day diet of the general population. Thirty-two inferior human extracted incisors, free of caries and without filling material were selected for the study. The laser devices employed were Argon laser (AccuCure 3000 TM - Lasermed), wave length 488 nm, with a 200 mW/cm 2 for 30 seconds in continuos mode; and diode laser (L 808 Medical Laser - Lasering do Brasil), wave length 808 ± 10 nm, with 1,6 W/cm 2 for 30 seconds in continuos mode. The application mode done by a scanning movement over the buccal surface. The bleaching agents used were: Opalescence Extra (OE) - Ultradent Products USA, hydrogen peroxide 35%, gel with Carotene to convert light into heat; Pola Office (PO) - SDI - USA single doses of hydrogen peroxide; Whiteness HP (WHP) - FGM - Brasil, hydrogen peroxide 35%; Opus White (OW) - Sharplan - Israel, hydrogen peroxide 35%. The temperature rise measurement was performed with a thermocouple model 120-202-AJ, Fenwal, inserted into the pulpar chamber. The bleaching material was applied on the tooth surface with 2 mm thickness and then the irradiation was perform. The thirty two teeth were randomized in four groups, two for each laser device. The obtain data demonstrated a superior performance of the Argon laser on tooth whitening and also better results concerning the temperature rise. The alteration on tooth coloration was verified through digital spectrophotometer (Shade-Eye EX - Shofu) and quantitative analyses showed statistical differences among the groups. The bleaching results for Argon laser combined with OE and WHP were superior for the other groups. The mean variation of the temperature rise obtained Argon

  7. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  8. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  9. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  10. Influence of color word availability on the Stroop color-naming effect.

    Kim, Hyosun; Cho, Yang Seok; Yamaguchi, Motonori; Proctor, Robert W

    2008-11-01

    Three experiments tested whether the Stroop color-naming effect is a consequence of word recognition's being automatic or of the color word's capturing visual attention. In Experiment 1, a color bar was presented at fixation as the color carrier, with color and neutral words presented in locations above or below the color bar; Experiment 2 was similar, except that the color carrier could occur in one of the peripheral locations and the color word at fixation. The Stroop effect increased as display duration increased, and the Stroop dilution effect (a reduced Stroop effect when a neutral word is also present) was an approximately constant proportion of the Stroop effect at all display durations, regardless of whether the color bar or color word was at fixation. In Experiment 3, the interval between the onsets of the to-be-named color and the color word was manipulated. The Stroop effect decreased with increasing delay of the color word onset, but the absolute amount of Stroop dilution produced by the neutral word increased. This study's results imply that an attention shift from the color carrier to the color word is an important factor modulating the size of the Stroop effect.

  11. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  12. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  13. Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces

    Odabaşıoğlu, Seden

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-152). The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color ...

  14. Effects of Face and Background Color on Facial Expression Perception

    Tetsuto Minami

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting others’ emotional states from their faces is an essential component of successful social interaction. However, the ability to perceive emotional expressions is reported to be modulated by a number of factors. We have previously found that facial color modulates the judgment of facial expression, while another study has shown that background color plays a modulatory role. Therefore, in this study, we directly compared the effects of face and background color on facial expression judgment within a single experiment. Fear-to-anger morphed faces were presented in face and background color conditions. Our results showed that judgments of facial expressions was influenced by both face and background color. However, facial color effects were significantly greater than background color effects, although the color saturation of faces was lower compared to background colors. These results suggest that facial color is intimately related to the judgment of facial expression, over and above the influence of simple color.

  15. Railroad signal color and orientation : effects of color blindness and criteria for color vision field tests

    2015-03-01

    This report concerns two issues: 1) whether color vision is necessary for locomotive crews who work on railroads where the signal system is either completely redundant with regard to signal color and signal orientation or the signal system only uses ...

  16. Color screening effect in the quark potential model

    Zhang Zongye; Yu Youwen; Shen Pengnian; Shen Xiaoyan; Dong Yubin

    1993-01-01

    By using the color confinement potential which includes the color screening effect, we studied the baryon spectra and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The results show that the color screening effect not only improves the baryon spectrum calculation, but also can solve the long-tail problem of the color Van der Waals force. A part of the medium attraction of the nuclear force can be obtained from the color Van der Waals force. (orig.)

  17. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  18. Investigation of color effects in lepton-pair collisions

    Kim, S.K.; Kim, Y.; Lee, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section of the high Psub(t) jet production is calculated using the equivalent-photon approximation in the framework of the broken color gauge symmetry theory to investigate color effects. The cross section is found to have no parameter at all. And the results are compared with that of the exact color symmetry and it is found that the cross section of the broken color symmetry is larger than that of the exact color symmetry theory. (author)

  19. Characterization of Angle Dependent Color Travel of Printed Multi-Color Effect Pigment on Different Color Substrates

    Mirica Karlovits

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Color-travel pigments, which exhibit much more extensive color change as well provide angle-dependent optical effect can be used in many industrial products. In present paper the multi-color effect pigment printed on three different foils with different background color (black, silver and transparent was investigated. The pigment was based on synthetically produced transparent silicon dioxide platelets coated with titanium dioxide. CIEL*a*b* values and reflection of prints were measured by multi-angle spectrophotometer at constant illumination at an angle of 45º and different viewing angles (-15º, 15°, 25º, 45º, 75º and 110º were used. The measurements of printed multi-color pigment showed that CIEL*a*b* color coordinates varied to great extents, depending on detection angles as well on color of the printing substrate. The study revealed that pigmnet printed on black background obtained significant change in color. The study has also shown that when viewing angle increases, the reflection curves decreases.

  20. Inverse design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Johansen, Villads Egede; Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose an inverse design methodology for systematic design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects. The methodology is based on a 2D topology optimization formulation based on frequency-domain finite element simulations for E and/or H polarized waves. The goal of the optimization...... is to maximize color intensity in prescribed direction(s) for a prescribed color (RGB) vector. Results indicate that nanostructured surfaces with any desirable color vector can be generated; that complex structures can generate more intense colors than simple layerings; that angle independent colorings can...

  1. Color and emotion: effects of hue, saturation, and brightness.

    Wilms, Lisa; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies on emotional effects of color often failed to control all the three perceptual dimensions of color: hue, saturation, and brightness. Here, we presented a three-dimensional space of chromatic colors by independently varying hue (blue, green, red), saturation (low, medium, high), and brightness (dark, medium, bright) in a factorial design. The 27 chromatic colors, plus 3 brightness-matched achromatic colors, were presented via an LED display. Participants (N = 62) viewed each color for 30 s and then rated their current emotional state (valence and arousal). Skin conductance and heart rate were measured continuously. The emotion ratings showed that saturated and bright colors were associated with higher arousal. The hue also had a significant effect on arousal, which increased from blue and green to red. The ratings of valence were the highest for saturated and bright colors, and also depended on the hue. Several interaction effects of the three color dimensions were observed for both arousal and valence. For instance, the valence ratings were higher for blue than for the remaining hues, but only for highly saturated colors. Saturated and bright colors caused significantly stronger skin conductance responses. Achromatic colors resulted in a short-term deceleration in the heart rate, while chromatic colors caused an acceleration. The results confirm that color stimuli have effects on the emotional state of the observer. These effects are not only determined by the hue of a color, as is often assumed, but by all the three color dimensions as well as their interactions.

  2. Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

    2013-01-01

    Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the ...

  3. Effects of color in the learning of science

    Sánchez Juárez, A.; Granda, César W.; Castillo, D.; Jaramillo, Johanna E.; Melgar, Guissella K.

    2017-09-01

    The teaching of science is a global problem, general studies have been carried out which take into account the effects of color in the educational environment and have had revealing results, however a study has not been made to measure the effects of color in the learning of the sciences, in this specific case of Physics and mathematics. A study of the effects of color on science teaching was conducted, controlling color of various materials such as slides used in class, markers on blackboard, pens, paper sheets, laboratory materials and teacher's clothing color. In this paper we present results of student academic performance, opinion about the subject, development of logical abilities and a comparison with the teaching of science in a free way, that is to say, without control of color. There is also a study of color effects in science education distinguishing between genders and finally comparing the general results in the educational field with those obtained in this work.

  4. How "implicit" are implicit color effects in memory?

    Zimmer, Hubert D; Steiner, Astrid; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2002-01-01

    Processing colored pictures of objects results in a preference to choose the former color for a specific object in a subsequent color choice test (Wippich & Mecklenbräuker, 1998). We tested whether this implicit memory effect is independent of performances in episodic color recollection (recognition). In the study phase of Experiment 1, the color of line drawings was either named or its appropriateness was judged. We found only weak implicit memory effects for categorical color information. In Experiment 2, silhouettes were colored by subjects during the study phase. Performances in both the implicit and the explicit test were good. Selections of "old" colors in the implicit test, though, were almost completely confined to items for which the color was also remembered explicitly. In Experiment 3, we applied the opposition technique in order to check whether we could find any implicit effects regarding items for which no explicit color recollection was possible. This was not the case. We therefore draw the conclusion that implicit color preference effects are not independent of explicit recollection, and that they are probably based on the same episodic memory traces that are used in explicit tests.

  5. Memory color effect induced by familiarity of brand logos.

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-Ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

    2013-01-01

    When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject's familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly.

  6. Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

    2013-01-01

    Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject’s familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. Methods and Findings In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. Conclusion The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly. PMID:23874638

  7. Memory color effect induced by familiarity of brand logos.

    Atsushi Kimura

    Full Text Available When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect. It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject's familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies.In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low. Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic.The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly.

  8. The Effect of Illumination on Gray Color

    Da Pos, Osvaldo; Baratella, Linda; Sperandio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell…

  9. The effect of illumination on gray color

    Gabriele Sperandio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell chips in a viewing box. The results show that the Munsell values so obtained are linear measures of gray color. The results support the possibility that the gray color of the object derives from an additive integration of the information about mean luminance of the object and about mean luminance of the environment, with the weights of this information varying with the mean luminances.

  10. Joint effects of emotion and color on memory.

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that memory is enhanced for emotionally negative and positive information relative to neutral information. We examined whether emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by low-level perceptual attributes such as color. Because in everyday life red is often used as a warning signal, whereas green signals security, we hypothesized that red might enhance memory for negative information and green memory for positive information. To capture the signaling function of colors, we measured memory for words standing out from the context by color, and manipulated the color and emotional significance of the outstanding words. Making words outstanding by color strongly enhanced memory, replicating the well-known von Restorff effect. Furthermore, memory for colored words was further increased by emotional significance, replicating the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. Most intriguingly, the effects of emotion on memory additionally depended on color type. Red strongly increased memory for negative words, whereas green strongly increased memory for positive words. These findings provide the first evidence that emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by color and demonstrate that different colors can have different functions in human memory.

  11. Special problems: LBB, thermal effects

    Lin Chiwen

    2001-01-01

    This section presents the discussion of special problems in the reactor coolant system design, including LBB and thermal effects. First, the categories of fracture mechanics technology applicable to LBB is discussed. Two categories of fracture mechanics, namely: linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) are discussed specifically. Next, basic concepts of LEFM are discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of EPFM, with more specific discussion of the methodology currently acceptable to NRC, with the emphasis on the J-integral approach. This is followed by a discussion of the NRC position and recommendations and basic requirements laid out by NRC. A specific example of LBB application to WPWR piping is used to identify the key steps to be followed, in order to satisfy the recommendations and requirements of NRC. An application of LBB to the WPWR reactor coolant loop piping is provided as further illustration of the methodology. This section focuses on the thermal effects which have not been addressed earlier, and the thermal effects which have caused particular concerns on potential reactor degradations, such as pressurized thermal shocks. The organization of this section is divided into the following subsections: linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM); elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM); J concepts; NRC recommendations and requirements on the application of LBB; two specific applications of LBB to WPWR piping; PWR internals degradation; thermal fatigue considerations; a case study of pressurized thermal shock

  12. [The use of computer-aided colorimeter in porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns among patients with special colored teeth].

    Fu, Yuan-fei; Weng, Wei-min

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the roll of ShadeEye-NCC, a computer-aided colorimeter, in Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal crowns among patients with special colored Teeth. The first step was to choose the proper patients. The next was to use the colorimeter to measure the base shade of tooth and fabricate the PFM crowns according to the recipe given by the colorimeter. At last, the effects of the PFM crowns were evaluated subjectively by patients and doctor. The satisfaction rates of patients and doctor were 83.7% and 81.4% respectively, there was no significant difference between the two rates. The computer-aided colorimeter can offer good base shade recipe for fabricating PFM crowns of patients with special colored teeth.

  13. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    In this study, the color effects of wood materials to coloring with different application methods (brush, roller sponge and spray gun) and waterborne varnishes were investigated according to ASTM-D 2244. For this purpose, the experimental samples of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and ...

  14. The mere exposure effect is sensitive to color information: evidence for color effects in a perceptual implicit memory test.

    Hupbach, Almut; Melzer, André; Hardt, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows that color effects can be found in perceptual implicit tests when the test task requires the processing of color information. In Experiment 1, reliable color priming was found in a mere exposure design (preference test). In Experiment 2, the preference test was contrasted with a conceptually driven color-choice test. Altering the shape of object from study to test resulted in significant priming in the color-choice test but eliminated priming in the preference test. Preference judgments thus largely depend on perceptual processes. In Experiment 3, the preference and the color-choice test were studied under explicit test instructions. Differences in reaction times between the implicit and the explicit test suggest that the implicit test results were not an artifact of explicit retrieval attempts. In contrast with previous assumptions, it is therefore concluded that color is part of the representation that mediates perceptual priming.

  15. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination.

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan; Frank, Michael C; Wu, Lisa; Wade, Alex R; Boroditsky, Lera

    2007-05-08

    English and Russian color terms divide the color spectrum differently. Unlike English, Russian makes an obligatory distinction between lighter blues ("goluboy") and darker blues ("siniy"). We investigated whether this linguistic difference leads to differences in color discrimination. We tested English and Russian speakers in a speeded color discrimination task using blue stimuli that spanned the siniy/goluboy border. We found that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colors when they fell into different linguistic categories in Russian (one siniy and the other goluboy) than when they were from the same linguistic category (both siniy or both goluboy). Moreover, this category advantage was eliminated by a verbal, but not a spatial, dual task. These effects were stronger for difficult discriminations (i.e., when the colors were perceptually close) than for easy discriminations (i.e., when the colors were further apart). English speakers tested on the identical stimuli did not show a category advantage in any of the conditions. These results demonstrate that (i) categories in language affect performance on simple perceptual color tasks and (ii) the effect of language is online (and can be disrupted by verbal interference).

  16. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the colorants of ...

    Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the colorants of heated red beetroot extracts. Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier, Ismahen Essaidi, Ahmed Snoussi, Slim Zgoulli, Mohamed Moncef Chaabouni, Phillipe Thonart, Nabiha Bouzouita ...

  17. Effects of irradiation on color and lipid oxidation of prosciutto

    Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Yue Ling; Chen Zhijun; Bao Yingzi; Dai Xudong; Xu Yun

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the effect of irradiation on the color, ordor and lipid oxidation of prosciutto crudo. The hams were irradiated by γ-ray and electronic beam (EB). Changes of color, ordor, TBA value (TBARS), peroxide value (POV), carbonyl value and conjugated diene value were analyzed and compared with nonirradiated hams. Results showed that color index (a * ) of control, γ-ray irradiated and EB irradiated were 14.39, 9.45 and 11.71 respectively. γ-ray irradiation had been shown to have apparently detrimental effect on the color and ordor of hams, while EB irradiation had little detrimental effect. Irradiation increased POV and conjugated diene value, but the amounts of lipid oxidation products (TBARS, carbonyl value) were less than nonirradiated hams. (authors)

  18. Spatial dependence of color assimilation by the watercolor effect.

    Devinck, Frédéric; Delahunt, Peter B; Hardy, Joseph L; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2006-01-01

    Color assimilation with bichromatic contours was quantified for spatial extents ranging from von Bezold-type color assimilation to the watercolor effect. The magnitude and direction of assimilative hue change was measured as a function of the width of a rectangular stimulus. Assimilation was quantified by hue cancellation. Large hue shifts were required to null the color of stimuli < or = 9.3 min of arc in width, with an exponential decrease for stimuli increasing up to 7.4 deg. When stimuli were viewed through an achromatizing lens, the magnitude of the assimilation effect was reduced for narrow stimuli, but not for wide ones. These results demonstrate that chromatic aberration may account, in part, for color assimilation over small, but not large, surface areas.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of color attributes for video indexing

    Chupeau, Bertrand; Forest, Ronan

    2001-10-01

    Color features are reviewed and their effectiveness assessed in the application framework of key-frame clustering for abstracting unconstrained video. Existing color spaces and associated quantization schemes are first studied. Description of global color distribution by means of histograms is then detailed. In our work, 12 combinations of color space and quantization were selected, together with 12 histogram metrics. Their respective effectiveness with respect to picture similarity measurement was evaluated through a query-by-example scenario. For that purpose, a set of still-picture databases was built by extracting key frames from several video clips, including news, documentaries, sports and cartoons. Classical retrieval performance evaluation criteria were adapted to the specificity of our testing methodology.

  20. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  1. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  2. Quantifying the effect of colorization enhancement on mammogram images

    Wojnicki, Paul J.; Uyeda, Elizabeth; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2002-04-01

    Current methods of radiological displays provide only grayscale images of mammograms. The limitation of the image space to grayscale provides only luminance differences and textures as cues for object recognition within the image. However, color can be an important and significant cue in the detection of shapes and objects. Increasing detection ability allows the radiologist to interpret the images in more detail, improving object recognition and diagnostic accuracy. Color detection experiments using our stimulus system, have demonstrated that an observer can only detect an average of 140 levels of grayscale. An optimally colorized image can allow a user to distinguish 250 - 1000 different levels, hence increasing potential image feature detection by 2-7 times. By implementing a colorization map, which follows the luminance map of the original grayscale images, the luminance profile is preserved and color is isolated as the enhancement mechanism. The effect of this enhancement mechanism on the shape, frequency composition and statistical characteristics of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) are analyzed and presented. Thus, the effectiveness of the image colorization is measured quantitatively using the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP).

  3. Effect of Ingested Liquids on Color Change of Composite Resins.

    Malek Afzali, Beheshteh; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirani, Asrin; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Akbarzade Baghban, Alireza; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-08-01

    Color change of composite restorations is well known to dentists. However, the effect of commonly consumed drinks on discoloration of composite resins has yet to be determined. This study sought to assess the color change of a nanofilled (Premise) and a flowable composite resin (Premise flowable) following simulated consumption of tea, cola, iron drops and multivitamin syrup. Forty disk-shaped specimens (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from each composite resin. The baseline color values were measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using digital imaging. The specimens of each restorative material were randomly divided into five groups (eight each) according to the storage media namely tea, cola, iron drops, multivitamin syrup or distilled water (control). The specimens were immersed in staining solutions for three hours daily over a 40-day test period. Following this, the color change values (ΔE*) were calculated. For statistical analyses, the color differences were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (Pcomposite resins (P>0.05). In both composite materials, the difference among the solutions was not significant (P>0.05). Under the tested experimental conditions, both restorative materials were susceptible to discoloration by all four staining solutions. The color change values were not related to the solution or the type of material used.

  4. Electrophysiological evidence for effects of color knowledge in object recognition.

    Lu, Aitao; Xu, Guiping; Jin, Hua; Mo, Lei; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X

    2010-01-29

    Knowledge about the typical colors associated with familiar everyday objects (i.e., strawberries are red) is well-known to be represented in the conceptual semantic system. Evidence that such knowledge may also play a role in early perceptual processes for object recognition is scant. In the present ERP study, participants viewed a list of object pictures and detected infrequent stimulus repetitions. Results show that shortly after stimulus onset, ERP components indexing early perceptual processes, including N1, P2, and N2, differentiated between objects in their appropriate or congruent color from these objects in an inappropriate or incongruent color. Such congruence effect also occurred in N3 associated with semantic processing of pictures but not in N4 for domain-general semantic processing. Our results demonstrate a clear effect of color knowledge in early object recognition stages and support the following proposal-color as a surface property is stored in a multiple-memory system where pre-semantic perceptual and semantic conceptual representations interact during object recognition. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene.

  7. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  8. Disruptive Effects of Colorful versus Non-Colorful Play Area on Structured Play – a Pilot Study with Preschoolers

    Keren Stern-Ellran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To contribute to young children's development, sensory enrichment is often provided via colorful play areas. However, little is known about the effects of colorful environments on children while they engage in age-appropriate tasks and games. Studies in adults suggest that aspects of color can distract attention and impair performance, and children are known to have less developed attentional and executive abilities than adults. Preliminary studies conducted in children aged 5-8 suggest that the colorfulness of both distal (e.g., wall decorations and proximal (e.g., the surface of the desktop environments can have a disruptive effect on children's performance. The present research seeks to extend the previous studies to an even younger age group and focus on proximal colorfulness. With a sample of 15 pre-schoolers (3-4 years old we examined whether a colorful play surface compared to a non-colorful (white play surface would affect engagement in developmentally appropriate structured play. Our pilot findings suggest that a colorful play surface interfered with preschoolers' structured play, inducing more behaviors indicating disruption in task execution compared with a non-colorful play surface. The implications of the current study for practice and further research are discussed.

  9. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  10. Effect of algae and water on water color shift

    Yang, Shengguang; Xia, Daying; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jun

    1991-03-01

    This study showed that the combined effect of absorption of planktonic algae and water on water color shift can be simulated approximately by the exponential function: Log( E {100cm/ W }+ E {100cm/ Xch1})=0.002λ-2.5 where E {100/cm W }, E {100cm/ Xchl} are, respectively, extinction coefficients of seawater and chlorophyll—a (concentration is equal to X mg/m3), and λ (nm) is wavelength. This empirical regression equation is very useful for forecasting the relation between water color and biomass in water not affected by terrigenous material. The main factor affecting water color shift in the ocean should be the absorption of blue light by planktonic algae.

  11. The Translucency Effect of Different Colored Resin Cements used ...

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the different color of resin cements and zirconia cores on the translucency parameter (TP) of the restoration that simulates the implant‑supported fixed prosthesis using titanium base on the bottom. Materials and Methods: Zirconia core plates (Zr‑Zahn) were ...

  12. Effects of heat treatment on density, dimensional stability and color ...

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties and color change of Pinus nigra wood which has high industrial use potential and large growing stocks in Turkey. Wood samples which comprised the material of the study were obtained from an industrial plant. Samples were ...

  13. [The effect of colored syringes and a colored sheet on the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management].

    Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Igarashi, Takashi; Saitoh, Kazuhiko; Seo, Norimasa

    2005-09-01

    Syringe swap is an important problem in anesthetic care, causing harm to patients. We examined the effect of colored syringe and a colored sheet on the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management. We determined the color code. The blue-syringe contains local anesthetics; yellow-syringe, sympathomimetic drugs; and white-syringe with a red label fixed opposite the scale, muscle relaxants. The colored sheet displays the photographs of the syringe with drug name, dose and volume. The colored syringe and colored sheet were supplied for use from February 2004. We compared the incidence of syringe swaps during the period from February 2004 to January 2005 with that from February 2003 to January 2004. Although five syringe swaps were recorded from February 2003 to January 2004, in 5901 procedures, we encountered no syringe swaps from February 2004 to January 2005, in 6078 procedures. The colored syringe and colored sheet significantly decreased the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management (P sheet together with colored syringes can prevent syringe swaps during anesthesia.

  14. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  15. Color Memory

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  16. The nature of instructional effects in color constancy.

    Radonjić, Ana; Brainard, David H

    2016-06-01

    The instructions subjects receive can have a large effect on experimentally measured color constancy, but the nature of these effects and how their existence should inform our understanding of color perception remains unclear. We used a factorial design to measure how instructional effects on constancy vary with experimental task and stimulus set. In each of 2 experiments, we employed both a classic adjustment-based asymmetric matching task and a novel color selection task. Four groups of naive subjects were instructed to make adjustments/selections based on (a) color (neutral instructions); (b) the light reaching the eye (physical spectrum instructions); (c) the actual surface reflectance of an object (objective reflectance instructions); or (d) the apparent surface reflectance of an object (apparent reflectance instructions). Across the 2 experiments we varied the naturalness of the stimuli. We find clear interactions between instructions, task, and stimuli. With simplified stimuli (Experiment 1), instructional effects were large and the data revealed 2 instruction-dependent patterns. In 1 (neutral and physical spectrum instructions) constancy was low, intersubject variability was also low, and adjustment-based and selection-based constancy were in agreement. In the other (reflectance instructions) constancy was high, intersubject variability was large, adjustment-based constancy deviated from selection-based constancy and for some subjects selection-based constancy increased across sessions. Similar patterns held for naturalistic stimuli (Experiment 2), although instructional effects were smaller. We interpret these 2 patterns as signatures of distinct task strategies-1 is perceptual, with judgments based primarily on the perceptual representation of color; the other involves explicit instruction-driven reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Effects of irradiation on color and lipid oxidation of prosciutto

    Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Yue Ling; Chen Zhijun; Bao Yingzi; Dai Xudong; Xu Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study dealt with the effect of irradiation on the color, irradiation odor and lipid oxidation of prosciutto crudo. The hams were irradiated by γ-ray and electronic beam (EB). Changes of color, irradiation odor, TBA value (TBARS), peroxide value (POV), carbonyl value and conjugated diene value were analyzed and compared with non-irradiated hams. Results showed that color index (a * ) of control, γ-ray irradiated and EB irradiated were 14.39, 9.45 and 11.71 respectively. The ratios of a * /b * were different with the type of rays. The ratio of a * /b * of EB irradiation was same with control, while that of γ-ray irradiation was decreased apparently. γ-ray irradiation had been shown to have apparently detrimental effect on the color and odor of hams, while EB irradiation had little detrimental effect. Irradiation increased POV and conjugated diene value, but the amounts of lipid oxidation products (TBARS, carbonyl value) were less than nonirradiated hams. (authors)

  18. [Environmental context effects of background colors on recognition memory].

    Isarida, Takeo; Ozecki, Kousuke

    2005-02-01

    Three experiments examined whether or not switching study background-color contexts among target words at testing reduces word-recognition performance. These experiments also examined whether or not presentation rate--one of the determinants of item strength--interacted with background-color context. Undergraduates learned 40 target words presented at a rate of 1.5 or 3.0 seconds per word in one of two background-color contexts in Experiment 1, and in one of ten contexts in Experiments 2 and 3. Recognition of the targets was tested by mixing 40 distractor words with the targets immediately after the learning session in Experiments 1 and 2, and with a 5-minute filled retention interval in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 failed to find background-color context effects on recognition, but Experiments 2 and 3 successfully found the context effects. Presentation rate did not interact with the context effects. The results conflict with the ICE theory. The implications of the present findings are discussed.

  19. Space Environmental Effects on Colored Coatings and Anodizes

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1999-01-01

    Colored coatings and anodizes are used on spacecraft as markers and astronaut visual aids. These materials must be stable in the space environment and withstand atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and high vacuum without significant change in optical and mechanical properties. A variety of colored coatings and anodizes have been exposed to simulated space environments at Marshall Space Flight Center and also actual space environment as part of the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) - I flight experiment. Colored coatings were developed by AZ Technology, Huntsville, AL, under a NASA contract for International Space Station (ISS). These include yellow, red, blue, and black paints suitable for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) visual aids and ISS emblems. AaChron, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, developed stable colored anodizes, also in yellow, red, blue, and black, for astronaut visual aids. These coatings were exposed in the laboratory to approximately 550 equivalent sun-hours of solar ultraviolet radiation and approximately 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen in vacuum. The AZ Technology yellow colored coating, designated TMS800IY, and all four AaChron colored anodizes were flown on POSA-I. POSA-I was a Risk Mitigation Experiment for ISS. It was attached to the exterior of the Mir space station docking module by EVA and was exposed for 18 months. The laboratory-simulated space environment, the natural space environment and the unique environment of an orbiting, active space station and their effects on these developmental materials are discussed.

  20. Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models

    da Silva, L. A.; Vilela, R. D.

    2015-06-01

    Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.

  1. Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Selambakknu, Sarala; Jamaliah Shariff; Ting, Teo Ming; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

  2. Effect of vehicle color and background visibility for improving safety on rural Kansas highways.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vehicle color on crash involvement has been an interesting topic for several decades; however, the effect of a vehicles : color on its visibility to drivers has not been studied in detail, especially at rural intersections. There has...

  3. Effect of vehicle color and background visibility for improving safety on rural Kansas highways : [technical summary].

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vehicle color on crash involvement has been an interesting topic for several : decades; however, the effect of vehicle color on its visibility to drivers has not been : studied in detail, especially at rural intersections. There has bee...

  4. Homeostatic study of the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome

    Yuan, Jian-Qin; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Wu, Ren-Le; Ruan, Chang-Xiong; He, Li-Mei; Liu, Song-Hao

    2008-12-01

    There are effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. It has been explained from the psychological and perceptual viewpoints, respectively. It was studied by integrating the homeostatic theory of exercise training and autonomic nervous model of color vision in this paper. It was found that the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome depend on autonomic nervous homeostasis (ANH). Color can be classified into hot color such as red, orange and yellow and cold color such as green, blue and violet. If the athletes have been in ANH, there are no effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. If the autonomic nervous system is far from ANH due to exercise induced fatigue, wearing cold color had no predominance for cold-hot matches, and wearing white had no predominance for white-color matches.

  5. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how…

  6. Preface: Special Topic on Nuclear Quantum Effects.

    Tuckerman, Mark; Ceperley, David

    2018-03-14

    Although the observable universe strictly obeys the laws of quantum mechanics, in many instances, a classical description that either ignores quantum effects entirely or accounts for them at a very crude level is sufficient to describe a wide variety of phenomena. However, when this approximation breaks down, as is often the case for processes involving light nuclei, a full quantum treatment becomes indispensable. This Special Topic in The Journal of Chemical Physics showcases recent advances in our understanding of nuclear quantum effects in condensed phases as well as novel algorithmic developments and applications that have enhanced the capability to study these effects.

  7. Preface: Special Topic on Nuclear Quantum Effects

    Tuckerman, Mark; Ceperley, David

    2018-03-01

    Although the observable universe strictly obeys the laws of quantum mechanics, in many instances, a classical description that either ignores quantum effects entirely or accounts for them at a very crude level is sufficient to describe a wide variety of phenomena. However, when this approximation breaks down, as is often the case for processes involving light nuclei, a full quantum treatment becomes indispensable. This Special Topic in The Journal of Chemical Physics showcases recent advances in our understanding of nuclear quantum effects in condensed phases as well as novel algorithmic developments and applications that have enhanced the capability to study these effects.

  8. A Study of the Effect of Color in Memory Retention When Used in Presentation Software.

    McConnohie, Bruce Vernon

    A study of the effects of color as used in presentation software on short-range (immediately following treatment) and long-range (one hour following treatment) memory retention was conducted. Previous studies have concentrated on color as cueing or coding mechanisms primarily in print media and have not explored the effect of individual colors as…

  9. Color memory matching: time effect and other factors

    Pérez Carpinell, Jaime; Baldoví, Rosa; Fez Saiz, Dolores de; Castro, José

    1998-01-01

    The methods of simultaneous and successive, or memory, color matching have been compared for 10 color reference samples distributed in two groups each performed by 50 observers (25 men and 25 women). Our results, obtained with a total of 200 Munsell color chips arrayed on 10 gray cardboard panels, indicated that: a)while by simultaneous matching the mean color differences obtained are, in most cases, lower than 1 Cielab unit, those obtained by memory are generally higer; b) the worst remember...

  10. Color Effects on the Impulsivity and Activity of Hyperactive Children.

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Dwyer, Anne M.

    1989-01-01

    Administered to hyperactive second and third graders either black/white form of Matching Familiar Figures Test and one month later a colored version, or the reverse color order in a repeated crossover design. Found addition of nonrelevant color to this task normalized activity of hyperactive children such that group differences were observed only…

  11. Effects of Black and White, Authentic and Contrived Color on Children's Perceptions of Dynamic Picture Content.

    Vollan, Clayton J.

    A study was devised to determine whether, if color is found superior to black-and-white for communicating dynamic picture content, that superiority can be attributed to the realism of authentic color, or whether that superiority is the effect of the simple presence of color. A sample of 90 sixth grade students were shown slides, half of which…

  12. The Effects of Highlight Color on Immediate Recall on Subjects of Different Cognitive Styles.

    Worley, Gary M.; Moore, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of color for enhancing recognition memory focuses on a study of undergraduates that evaluated images as black and white, full color, or highlight color and the effect these characteristics had on recognition memory and recall for learners classified as field-dependent and field-independent in terms of cognitive style. (LRW)

  13. Gluonic effects in color dielectric model. Pt. 2

    Aoki, N.; Hyuga, H.

    1990-01-01

    We study generalized versions of the Nielsen and Patkos color dielectric model with an effective quark mass m q (χ=m q /χ τ and a dielectric function Κ(χ)=χ β . Gluonic effects are studied in this model with both perturbative and self-consistent calculations. In the case of τ=0.5 and β=2, it is shown that the perturbative gluonic effects are too strong to obtain a reasonable description of N and Δ. The choice of τ=2 and β=4 is shown to give a reasonable agreement of the masses of N and Δ with their observed ones. Taking into account the results in our previous paper, it is therefore suggested that the choice of τ:β=1:2 is superior to that of 1:4, the latter of which corresponds of the Nielsen and Patkos model. (orig.)

  14. Mean colors and effective temperatures of K and M dwarfs

    Wing, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    A new compilation of the mean colors of K3 - M6 dwarfs obtained largely from the photometry of Johnson (1965) by sorting the stars he observed according to their new spectral classifications from the eight-color photometry is given in table form. For each color index, a plot was made of color vs. spectral type and a smooth curve was drawn through the data. With the new spectral types, these curves are well determined, the author claims. He recommends the use of the new tabulation of mean colors whenever classifications on the MK system are employed, in view of the substantial systematic differences with Johnson's. (G.J.P.)

  15. Effect of cell culture medium components on color of formulated monoclonal antibody drug substance.

    Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Varma, Sharat; Yang, Yi; Mun, Melissa; Arevalo, Silvana; Gawlitzek, Martin; Swartz, Trevor; Lim, Amy; Li, Feng; Zhang, Boyan; Meier, Steve; Kiss, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As the industry moves toward subcutaneous delivery as a preferred route of drug administration, high drug substance concentrations are becoming the norm for monoclonal antibodies. At such high concentrations, the drug substance may display a more intense color than at the historically lower concentrations. The effect of process conditions and/or changes on color is more readily observed in the higher color, high concentration formulations. Since color is a product quality attribute that needs to be controlled, it is useful to study the impact of process conditions and/or modifications on color. This manuscript summarizes cell culture experiments and reports on findings regarding the effect of various media components that contribute to drug substance color for a specific monoclonal antibody. In this work, lower drug substance color was achieved via optimization of the cell culture medium. Specifically, lowering the concentrations of B-vitamins in the cell culture medium has the effect of reducing color intensity by as much as 25%. In addition, decreasing concentration of iron was also directly correlated color intensity decrease of as much as 37%. It was also shown that the color of the drug substance directly correlates with increased acidic variants, especially when increased iron levels cause increased color. Potential mechanisms that could lead to antibody coloration are briefly discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Color appearance of familiar objects: effects of object shape, texture, and illumination changes.

    Olkkonen, Maria; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-05-26

    People perceive roughly constant surface colors despite large changes in illumination. The familiarity of colors of some natural objects might help achieve this feat through direct modulation of the objects' color appearance. Research on memory colors and color appearance has yielded controversial results and due to the employed methods has often confounded perceptual with semantic effects. We studied the effect of memory colors on color appearance by presenting photographs of fruit on a monitor under various simulated illuminations and by asking observers to make either achromatic or typical color settings without placing demands on short-term memory or semantic processing. In a control condition, we presented photographs of 3D fruit shapes without texture and 2D outline shapes. We found that (1) achromatic settings for fruit were systematically biased away from the gray point toward the opposite direction of a fruit's memory color; (2) the strength of the effect depended on the degree of naturalness of the stimuli; and (3) the effect was evident under all tested illuminations, being strongest for illuminations whose chromaticity was closest to the stimulus chromaticity. We conclude that the visual identity of an object has a measurable effect on color perception, and that this effect is robust under illuminant changes, indicating its potential significance as an additional mechanism for color constancy.

  17. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  18. Cultivating a Community of Effective Special Education Teachers: Local Special Education Administrators' Roles

    Bettini, Elizabeth; Benedict, Amber; Thomas, Rachel; Kimerling, Jenna; Choi, Nari; McLeskey, James

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of the powerful impact teachers have on student achievement has led to an intensive focus on cultivating effective teachers, including special education teachers (SETs). Local special education administrators (LSEAs) share responsibility for cultivating effective SETs throughout their districts. However, the roles LSEAs play in this…

  19. The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

    Devinck, Frédéric; Delahunt, Peter B; Hardy, Joseph L; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2005-05-01

    When a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour, the brighter color will spread into the entire enclosed area. This is known as the watercolor effect (WCE). Here we quantified the effect of color spreading using both color-matching and hue-cancellation tasks. Over a wide range of stimulus chromaticities, there was a reliable shift in color appearance that closely followed the direction of the inducing contour. When the contours were equated in luminance, the WCE was still present, but weak. The magnitude of the color spreading increased with increases in luminance contrast between the two contours. Additionally, as the luminance contrast between the contours increased, the chromaticity of the induced color more closely resembled that of the inside contour. The results support the hypothesis that the WCE is mediated by luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

  20. An Investigation of the Effects of Practice on Color Memory as a Function of Condition, Dimension and Color

    Remus, Britten Grace

    2001-01-01

    Forty-two college aged participants took part in a mixed repeated measures factorial design experiment that assessed color memory as a function of condition (practice with feedback, practice without feedback and no practice), dimension (hue, saturation and lightness) and color (red, yellow, green and blue). Attention was focused on the distinction between memory color and color memory, color experience and preference, mechanisms of color perception and theories of color vision (see below). ...

  1. The contribution of color to attention capture effects during search for onset targets.

    Goller, Florian; Ditye, Thomas; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The literature on top-down contingent capture is concerned with the question of what constitutes a search set. Is it restricted to single stimulus properties such as color or onsets, or can such sets be more complex? In nine experiments (N = 140), we tested whether cueing effects during search for onset targets were affected by cue color. According to the classic theory of contingent capture (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 1030-1044, 1992), during search for onset targets, cues capture attention on the basis of a match between the cue's onset and top-down control settings directed to the target onsets. However, such cueing effects were based on cues of a color similar to the target color. Therefore, matches of the cue color to the target color could have contributed to the effects. Indeed, here we found cueing effects when the cues and targets were of the same color, but not when they were of different colors (Exps. 1a, 1b, 4a, and 4b). In addition, same-color cueing effects were stronger than different-color cueing effects (Exps. 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, and the white-target conditions of Exp. 5). In Experiment 5, we also identified efficient search for only one target color as a critical prerequisite for the differences between cueing by color-similar and -dissimilar onset cues. We conclude with a discussion of the contributions of cue-to-set color matches, deallocation of attention, and intertrial priming to what appear to be top-down contingent-capture effects based on abrupt onsets.

  2. Evaluation of the hydrogen peroxide and special colorant effects under irradiation by argon and diode laser on tooth-whitening in vitro; Avaliacao do efeito de corantes especiais e peroxido de hidrogenio irradiados por laser de argonio e laser de diodo no clareamento dental 'in vitro'

    Gaspar, Jose Antonio

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if there is any interaction between special colorant found on bleaching agents that have 35 % of hydrogen peroxide on its composition, and argon or diode laser. The first part of the study was to characterize the extrinsic stain obtained through a staining solution containing products present on the day by day diet of the general population. Thirty-two inferior human extracted incisors, free of caries and without filling material were selected for the study. The laser devices employed were Argon laser (AccuCure 3000 TM - Lasermed), wave length 488 nm, with a 200 mW/cm{sup 2} for 30 seconds in continuos mode; and diode laser (L 808 Medical Laser - Lasering do Brasil), wave length 808 {+-} 10 nm, with 1,6 W/cm{sup 2} for 30 seconds in continuos mode. The application mode done by a scanning movement over the buccal surface. The bleaching agents used were: Opalescence Extra (OE) - Ultradent Products USA, hydrogen peroxide 35%, gel with Carotene to convert light into heat; Pola Office (PO) - SDI - USA single doses of hydrogen peroxide; Whiteness HP (WHP) - FGM - Brasil, hydrogen peroxide 35%; Opus White (OW) - Sharplan - Israel, hydrogen peroxide 35%. The temperature rise measurement was performed with a thermocouple model 120-202-AJ, Fenwal, inserted into the pulpar chamber. The bleaching material was applied on the tooth surface with 2 mm thickness and then the irradiation was perform. The thirty two teeth were randomized in four groups, two for each laser device. The obtain data demonstrated a superior performance of the Argon laser on tooth whitening and also better results concerning the temperature rise. The alteration on tooth coloration was verified through digital spectrophotometer (Shade-Eye EX - Shofu) and quantitative analyses showed statistical differences among the groups. The bleaching results for Argon laser combined with OE and WHP were superior for the other groups. The mean variation of the temperature rise

  3. Evaluation of the hydrogen peroxide and special colorant effects under irradiation by argon and diode laser on tooth-whitening in vitro; Avaliacao do efeito de corantes especiais e peroxido de hidrogenio irradiados por laser de argonio e laser de diodo no clareamento dental 'in vitro'

    Gaspar, Jose Antonio

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if there is any interaction between special colorant found on bleaching agents that have 35 % of hydrogen peroxide on its composition, and argon or diode laser. The first part of the study was to characterize the extrinsic stain obtained through a staining solution containing products present on the day by day diet of the general population. Thirty-two inferior human extracted incisors, free of caries and without filling material were selected for the study. The laser devices employed were Argon laser (AccuCure 3000 TM - Lasermed), wave length 488 nm, with a 200 mW/cm{sup 2} for 30 seconds in continuos mode; and diode laser (L 808 Medical Laser - Lasering do Brasil), wave length 808 {+-} 10 nm, with 1,6 W/cm{sup 2} for 30 seconds in continuos mode. The application mode done by a scanning movement over the buccal surface. The bleaching agents used were: Opalescence Extra (OE) - Ultradent Products USA, hydrogen peroxide 35%, gel with Carotene to convert light into heat; Pola Office (PO) - SDI - USA single doses of hydrogen peroxide; Whiteness HP (WHP) - FGM - Brasil, hydrogen peroxide 35%; Opus White (OW) - Sharplan - Israel, hydrogen peroxide 35%. The temperature rise measurement was performed with a thermocouple model 120-202-AJ, Fenwal, inserted into the pulpar chamber. The bleaching material was applied on the tooth surface with 2 mm thickness and then the irradiation was perform. The thirty two teeth were randomized in four groups, two for each laser device. The obtain data demonstrated a superior performance of the Argon laser on tooth whitening and also better results concerning the temperature rise. The alteration on tooth coloration was verified through digital spectrophotometer (Shade-Eye EX - Shofu) and quantitative analyses showed statistical differences among the groups. The bleaching results for Argon laser combined with OE and WHP were superior for the other groups. The mean variation of the temperature rise

  4. Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance

    Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

  5. Color effects from scattering on random surface structures in dielectrics

    Clausen, Jeppe; Christiansen, Alexander B; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized...

  6. The effect of a nonverbal aid on preschoolers' recall for color.

    Ling, J; Blades, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the provision of a nonverbal memory aid would improve preschoolers' recall of color. Forty 4-year-old children carried out 2 tasks with the same set of colored objects. Colors were not referred to, nor were children told that their recall would later be tested. One day later, the children were split into 2 groups. One group was given a chart containing both the colors of the objects and distractor colors. The other group was not given a chart. Recall for object color was tested. There was an effect of chart provision; children who used the chart recalled more colors correctly than did those who did not use a chart. This result indicates (a) that even very young children can make use of props to facilitate their recall and (b) that such memory aids need not be exact copies of previously seen objects. Implications of these findings for eyewitness recall are discussed.

  7. Gauge invariance of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Masayasu; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Koma, Yoshiaki; Sekido, Toru

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of non-Abelian color confinement is studied in SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of the Abelian fields and monopoles extracted from non-Abelian link variables without adopting gauge fixing. First, the static quark-antiquark potential and force are computed with the Abelian and monopole Polyakov loop correlators, and the resulting string tensions are found to be identical to the non-Abelian string tension. These potentials also show the scaling behavior with respect to the change of lattice spacing. Second, the profile of the color-electric field between a quark and an antiquark is investigated with the Abelian and monopole Wilson loops. The color-electric field is squeezed into a flux tube due to monopole supercurrent with the same Abelian color direction. The parameters corresponding to the penetration and coherence lengths show the scaling behavior, and the ratio of these lengths, i.e., the Ginzburg-Landau parameter, indicates that the vacuum type is near the border of the type 1 and type 2 (dual) superconductors. These results are summarized in which the Abelian fundamental charge defined in an arbitrary color direction is confined inside a hadronic state by the dual Meissner effect. As the color-neutral state in any Abelian color direction corresponds to the physical color-singlet state, this effect explains non-Abelian color confinement and supports the existence of a gauge-invariant mechanism of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles.

  8. Dissociation of color and figure-ground effects in the watercolor illusion.

    Von der Heydt, Rüdiger; Pierson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Two phenomena can be observed in the watercolor illusion: illusory color spreading and figure-ground organization. We performed experiments to determine whether the figure-ground effect is a consequence of the color illusion or due to an independent mechanism. Subjects were tested with displays consisting of six adjacent compartments--three that generated the illusion alternating with three that served for comparison. In a first set of experiments, the illusory color was measured by finding the matching physical color in the alternate compartments. Figureness (probability of 'figure' responses, 2AFC) of the watercolor compartments was then determined with and without the matching color in the alternate compartments. The color match reduced figureness, but did not abolish it. There was a range of colors in which the watercolor compartments dominated as figures over the alternate compartments although the latter appeared more saturated in color. In another experiment, the effect of tinting alternate compartments was measured in displays without watercolor illusion. Figureness increased with color contrast, but its value at the equivalent contrast fell short of the figureness value obtained for the watercolor pattern. Thus, in both experiments, figureness produced by the watercolor pattern was stronger than expected from the color effect, suggesting independent mechanisms. Considering the neurophysiology, we propose that the color illusion follows from the principles of representation of surface color in the visual cortex, while the figure-ground effect results from two mechanisms of border ownership assignment, one that is sensitive to asymmetric shape of edge profile, the other to consistency of color borders.

  9. Reaction to the Special Issue on Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This reaction article comments on the Major Contribution "Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology." The content analysis of the published literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color from 1998 to 2007 provides much-needed information that will help psychologists set future research agendas and…

  10. Effect of Color Light Stimulation Using LED on Sleep Induction Time

    Seonjin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of color are already being used widely. For this reason, in this study, an attempt was made to use such effects of color to examine the changes in sleep onset through the use of the preferred and nonpreferred color light stimulation. Color light stimulations were randomly presented to the subjects, and based on these colors, the changes in sleep onset were examined through the EEG. Also, to quantify the physiological changes that were caused by each color light stimulation, the changes in the HRV were examined through ECG to determine the level of activation of the autonomous nervous system. The results showed that sleep onset time was changed based on the light stimulation. The result of the EEG analysis showed that sleep onset time was most significantly shortened in preferred color light stimulation. Also, the result of HRV was the fastest change about both the time domain and the frequency domain in the preferred color light stimulation. Therefore, because the preferred color light stimulation activated the parasympathetic nervous system, sleep was induced quickly. Also, by simply using the HRV, the differences in the index of HRV showed changes of sleep onset according to the color light stimulation.

  11. Event-related potentials reveal linguistic suppression effect but not enhancement effect on categorical perception of color.

    Lu, Aitao; Yang, Ling; Yu, Yanping; Zhang, Meichao; Shao, Yulan; Zhang, Honghong

    2014-08-01

    The present study used the event-related potential technique to investigate the nature of linguistic effect on color perception. Four types of stimuli based on hue differences between a target color and a preceding color were used: zero hue step within-category color (0-WC); one hue step within-category color (1-WC); one hue step between-category color (1-BC); and two hue step between-category color (2-BC). The ERP results showed no significant effect of stimulus type in the 100-200 ms time window. However, in the 200-350 ms time window, ERP responses to 1-WC target color overlapped with that to 0-WC target color for right visual field (RVF) but not left visual field (LVF) presentation. For the 1-BC condition, ERP amplitudes were comparable in the two visual fields, both being significantly different from the 0-WC condition. The 2-BC condition showed the same pattern as the 1-BC condition. These results suggest that the categorical perception of color in RVF is due to linguistic suppression on within-category color discrimination but not between-category color enhancement, and that the effect is independent of early perceptual processes. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... methods. Key words: Waterborne varnishes, application methods, wood materials, color change. ... rate in open air conditions (Anderson et al., 1991). .... for topcoat application and they were held for drying for 3 weeks. Finally ...

  13. Effects of protein phosphorylation on color stability of ground meat.

    Li, Meng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Li, Zheng; Li, Guixia; Zhang, Yan; Du, Manting; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2017-03-15

    The influence of protein phosphorylation on meat color stability was investigated in this study. Phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors were added to minced ovine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle to manipulate the global phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The data obtained show that the rate and extent of pH decline, along with lactate accumulation in postmortem muscle, were related to protein phosphorylation. Analysis of meat color and the relative content of myoglobin redox forms revealed that meat color stability was inversely related to the phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Thus, this study suggests that protein phosphorylation may be involved in meat color development by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Translucency Effect of Different Colored Resin Cements used ...

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... color of resin cements and zirconia cores on the translucency parameter (TP) of the restoration that ... physical, mechanical, and esthetic properties. One of the ..... Raptis NV, Michalakis KX, Hirayama H. Optical behavior of.

  15. Learning effective color features for content based image retrieval in dermatology

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai

    We investigate the extraction of effective color features for a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) application in dermatology. Effectiveness is measured by the rate of correct retrieval of images from four color classes of skin lesions. We employ and compare two different methods to learn

  16. Colors vision effect: learning and teaching strategies based on reading nature images

    Castillo, D.; Jiménez, Y.; Vivanco, O.; Cuenca, L.; Granda, C.; Sánchez, A.

    2017-09-01

    The present work shows the teaching and motivation of University students to think about optics and color effects. The methodology consists of studying the different optical phenomena that occur through the sunsets and then do a correlation of this information with the phenomena and optical effects of the color of class presentations; to determine the motivation and attention of students.

  17. Effect of freezing temperature on the color of frozen salmon.

    Ottestad, Silje; Enersen, Grethe; Wold, Jens Petter

    2011-09-01

    New freezing methods developed with the purpose of improved product quality after thawing can sometimes be difficult to get accepted in the market. The reason for this is the formation of ice crystals that can give the product a temporary color loss and make it less appealing. We have here used microscopy to study ice crystal size as a function of freezing temperature by investigating the voids in the cell tissue left by the ice crystals. We have also investigated how freezing temperature affects the color and the visible absorption spectra of frozen salmon. Freezing temperatures previously determined to be the best for quality after thawing (-40 to -60 °C) were found to cause a substantial loss in perceived color intensity during frozen state. This illustrated the conflict between optimal freezing temperatures with respect to quality after thawing against visual appearance during frozen state. Low freezing temperatures gave many small ice crystals, increased light scattering and an increased absorption level for all wavelengths in the visible region. Increased astaxanthin concentration on the other hand would give higher absorption at 490 nm. The results showed a clear potential of using visible interactance spectroscopy to differentiate between poor product coloration due to lack of pigmentation and temporary color loss due to light scattering by ice crystal. This type of measurements could be a useful tool in the development of new freezing methods and to monitor ice crystal growth during frozen storage. It could also potentially be used by the industry to prove good product quality. In this article we have shown that freezing food products at intermediate to low temperatures (-40 to -80 °C) can result in paler color during frozen state, which could affect consumer acceptance. We have also presented a spectroscopic method that can separate between poor product color and temporary color loss due to freezing. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat.

    Orkusz, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions. The aim was realized by determination of total heme pigment concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness); and sensory evaluation of the surface color. The experimental material was White Kołuda goose boneless breast meat with the skin from industrial slaughter. The following 2 protective atmospheres were used in the study: vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) consisting of 80% O2 and 20% CO2. The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage. A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter. The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed. However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 14 d of storage in the muscles packed in vacuum. One can state a decrease of the value of the color parameter a* as well as an increase of the value of the color parameter b* in the samples packed in MA. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum. The obtained data indicated that the surface color of goose breast meat packed in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum packed was maintained for 11 and 14 d, respectively.

  19. Effects of saturation and contrast polarity on the figure-ground organization of color on gray

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure grey than strongly saturated ones and, therefore, appear less " colorful ". Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role o...

  20. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  1. Effect of Bleaching on Color Change and Surface Topography of Composite Restorations

    Pruthi, Gunjan; Jain, Veena; Kandpal, H. C.; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Shah, Naseem

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Esthet X (Dentsply India), and Admira (Voco, Germany). Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS). 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Den...

  2. Effect of sprouting on anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color intensity and color attributes in purple sweet potatoes

    Yudiono, K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes stored in a humid state will generally sprout, leading to them being deemed inedible by customers. During the sprouting process enzyme activities increase and as such it was assumed that there had been changes in the nutrition and secondary metabolism compounds, e.g. anthocyanins. The purpose of this research was to investigate the changes occurred in the characteristics of anthocyanins during the purple sweet potatoes’ sprouting. One-factor Randomized Block Design was used in the research design, i.e. the sprouting time in 6 stages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity is 51.61±2.11%, the highest color intensity is 0.72±0.72, and the lowest hue angle value or the lowest h is 30.75±0.93o, occurring in the 4th week of sprouting. While the highest total anthocyanin is 222.07±2.65 mg/kg wet weight, and the highest red color value or a* is 12.80±0.49, occurring in the 3rd week of sprouting. The major components that compose purple sweet potatoes are Cyanidin-3-0-glucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 286.50 to 287.50 and [M]+ = m/z 449 and Peonidin -3,5-0-diglucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 462.50 to 463.50 and [M]+ = m/z 625.

  3. Effect of colored noise on an overdamped Josephson junction

    Genchev, Z. D.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper my attention is restricted to stochastic differential equation in phase function φ(t), describing an overdamped Josephson junction. I accept the RSJ (resistively shunted junction) modeling, when the contact characterized by resistance R and critical current I c is under the action of a given direct current I and stochastic current source Ĩ(t) (=0) : {ℏ}/{2 eR }{dφ }/{dt }+I csinφ=I+ Ĩ(t). In our case the thermal noise is a Gaussian process and obeys the Johnson-Nyquistr correlation law C(t)== {ℏ}/{2πR}∫ -∞∞dω ω coth{ℏω}/{2k BT }cosωt. The effective Fokker-Planck equation is derived and the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of the Josephson junction are calculated for weakly colored noise. In the limit limℏ→0C(t)= {2k BT }/{R}δ(t) the well-known results for white noise are recovered.

  4. Studies on the radicidation of natural food colorants. Effects of irradiation with γ-ray and electron beam on functional properties of beet red colorant

    Higashimura, Yutaka; Tada, Mikiro

    2002-01-01

    For the practical use of radicidation, we studied on the effects of γ-ray and electron beam on functional properties of beet red colorant, natural colors with low heat stability and high possibility of microbe contamination. Neither γ-ray or electron beam had any significant influence on color contents and color tone of red beet products at less than 10 kGy of irradiation for the practical use. Influence of moisture content at level of less than 20% in powdered product was not observed. The results suggest that both γ-ray and electron beam irradiation is significantly effective in decontamination of powdered beet red products. (author)

  5. The effect of specialization on operational performance

    Halkjær, Søren; Lueg, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    -methods approach that includes proprietary data from the management control system of the hospital, public documentation on the policy change, as well as interviews with key informants. These data suggest that operational deficiency is related to the fact that specialization was externally enforced through......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze how specialization in hospitals affects operational performance, measured by the length of stay and readmission rate. The authors assess a public policy change in the Danish healthcare sector from 2011 which required that some hospital services had...

  6. Color categories and color appearance

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  7. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations.

  8. Validating an Observation Protocol to Measure Special Education Teacher Effectiveness

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Semmelroth, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Kane's (2013) Interpretation/Use Argument (IUA) to measure validity on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool. The RESET observation tool is designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness using evidence-based instructional practices as the basis for evaluation. In alignment with…

  9. Effects of subleading color in a parton shower

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-12-01

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color (LC) approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N c 2 , where N c =3 is the number of colors. In the parton shower event generator DEDUCTOR, we have introduced a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. In this paper, we explore the differences in results between the LC approximation and the LC+ approximation. Numerical comparisons suggest that, for simple observables, the LC approximation is quite accurate. We also find evidence that for gap-between-jets cross sections neither the LC approximation nor the LC+ approximation is adequate.

  10. The phenomenal dissociation between coloration and object-hole effects in the watercolor illusion.

    Tanca, Maria; Pinna, Baingio

    2008-01-01

    The watercolor illusion is a color spreading effect at long-range diffusing from a thin colored contour juxtaposed to a chromatic one of higher contrast and a object-hole effect across a large area (Pinna, 1987; Pinna et al., 2001, 2003; Pinna & Reeves, 2006). The watercolored figure appears evenly colored by an opaque light veil of chromatic tint (coloration effect), with a clear surface color property spreading from the lighter contour. At the same time, the watercolored figure manifests a strong figure-ground organization and a solid figural appearance comparable to a bas-relief illuminated from the top (object-hole effect). It appears similar to a rounded surface segregated in depth, which extends out from the flat surface. The complementary region appears as a hole or empty space. The phenomenal properties of coloration and object-hole effects raise some questions. Can the two effects be considered relatively independent? Under what conditions can a possible dissociation occur? How does the dissociation of one effect, say the coloration, influence the object-hole effect and vice versa? To answer these questions two new effects related to the watercolor illusion were psychophysically studied: (1) the "uneven watercolor," based on a modified watercolor figure without volumetric and three-dimensional properties but with a strong coloration effect and (2) the "watercolor surface capture," where oblique lines within a watercolor figure appear bulging, curved in depth and segregated from those that are perceived as placed in the background or perceived through holes. The results of two experiments suggest that the coloration effect can be dissociated from the object-hole one. These results are discussed in the light of a simple summation hypothesis of the underlying effects composing the whole figurality. This hypothesis can suggest further investigation both in the phenomenal and in the neurophysiological domain.

  11. Support for Lateralization of the Whorf Effect beyond the Realm of Color Discrimination

    Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Ivry, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Whorf effects of language on color discrimination are stronger in the right visual field than in the left. Here we show that this phenomenon is not limited to color: The perception of animal figures (cats and dogs) was more strongly affected by linguistic categories for stimuli presented to the right visual field than…

  12. Effect of pond depth and lining plastic color on growth and nitrogen ...

    Thus, this study evaluated the effect of pond depth and lining plastic colors on nitrogen fixing capacity of Anabaena species strain E3. Factorial combinations of four pond lining plastic colors and two depths were laid out in a complete randomized design with three replications. The ANOVA results revealed that the 20 cm ...

  13. Effects of Color Light and Relaxation Exercise Therapy on Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Rustigan, Carol J.

    In a study at California State University, Sacramento, the effects of color light and relaxation exercise therapy were investigated with 16 students (ages 23 to 48) with learning disabilities. Therapy consisted of either 20 sessions viewing color light through a Lumatron instrument or 20 sessions listening to relaxation exercise tapes. Diagnostic…

  14. Failure to replicate the Mehta and Zhu (2009) color-priming effect on anagram solution times.

    Steele, Kenneth M

    2014-06-01

    Mehta and Zhu (Science, 323, 1226-1229, 2009) hypothesized that the color red induces avoidance motivation and that the color blue induces approach motivation. In one experiment, they reported that anagrams of avoidance motivation words were solved more quickly on red backgrounds and that approach motivation anagrams were solved more quickly on blue backgrounds. Reported here is a direct replication of that experiment, using the same anagrams, instructions, and colors, with more than triple the number of participants used in the original study. The results did not show the Mehta and Zhu color-priming effects, even though statistical power was sufficient to detect the effect. The results call into question the existence of their color-priming effect on the solution of anagrams.

  15. Effective hadronic supersymmetry based on octonionic color algebras

    Catto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Algebraic realizations of dynamical supersymmetry through SU(m/n) type superalgebras are developed. Their application to a bilocal quark/antiquark and quark-diquark systems will be shown. Color algebra based on octonions allows the introduction of a new supermultiplet that puts hadrons, quarks, antiquarks and exotics together, and naturally suppresses quark configurations that are symmetrical in color space and antisymmetrical in remaining flavor, spin and position variables. The authors shall also present preliminary work on the first order relativistic formulation through the spin realization of Wess-Zumino super-Poincare algebra

  16. Tooth color: effects on judgments of attractiveness and age.

    Grosofsky, Alexis; Adkins, Sarah; Bastholm, Robert; Meyer, Leif; Krueger, Lisa; Meyer, Joshua; Torma, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Tooth whitening has become a very popular procedure. Advertisements for whitening products imply that whiter teeth are more attractive than yellower teeth. We tested this idea empirically by manipulating the tooth color of pictures of male and female targets. Participants' ratings of attractiveness were not influenced by tooth color. Exp. 2 yielded a negative correlation between attractiveness and age ratings: targets judged to be older were rated as less attractive. Unless whiter teeth help in some other way, e.g., improved self-esteem or confidence, it seems that tooth whitening procedures or products are not associated with increased attractiveness to others.

  17. Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Gil, Mindy; Da Silva, John D; Wright, Robert; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area. Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of different shades were used in this study with six different artificial gingival colors. Using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye(®) Olympus, Japan), we measured the shade of crowns in cervical areas with each of six different artificial gingiva. The crown color measured in the presence of pink artificial gingiva (control) was compared with the crown color with five other artificial gingiva. color difference values ΔE* were calculated and compared between the control group and test groups and the correlation of the artificial gingival color with the crown color was also assessed. Significant differences were found in the mean L* and a* values of all-ceramic crowns at the cervical regions in all six gingival color groups (pcolors of artificial gingiva generated clinically detectable shade differences in the cervical region of ceramic crowns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of dark-colored maple syrup on cell proliferation of human gastrointestinal cancer cell

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Sato, Kanta; Kubota, Yuika; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener that is commonly consumed worldwide. While maple syrup mainly comprises sucrose, it also contains phytochemicals that present various biological effects. Maple syrup is made by boiling down sap, and its color and composition vary in accordance with the sap collection season. Typically, seasonal progression is associated with darker syrup color, and antioxidant activity is proportional to the increasingly dark color. The authors previously reported that maple syrup demonstrated inhibitory effects on colorectal cancer cell growth and invasion, which correlated with darker maple syrup color. In the present study, they examined the effects of two different grades of maple syrup on gastrointestinal cancer cell proliferation, to investigate whether the dark-color maple syrup was suitable as a phytomedicine for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Administration of dark-color maple syrup significantly inhibited gastrointestinal cancer cell growth as compared to non-treated cancer cells. Moreover, administration of dark-color maple syrup clearly inhibited protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and did not impact mitogen-associated protein kinase phosphorylation. These data suggested that dark-color maple syrup may inhibit cell proliferation through suppression of AKT activation and, thus, may be suitable as a phytomedicine for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. PMID:28685052

  19. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity: No effect of the color red on human mate preferences

    Peperkoorn, Leonard; Roberts, S. Craig; Pollet, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (short-term vs. long-term mating). Experiment 1 involved Dutch participants rating a woman in red, white, and black on (sexual) attractiveness. Exper...

  20. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  1. Effect of Color Shading Procedures and Cyclic Loading on the ...

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... thickness) were divided into 6 groups of 12 discs each. Groups were ... coloring procedures affect the structure of the zirconia framework.[3-5] ... Access this article online .... where I is the intensities at angular position 2θ degrees from the ..... bridges with differing phase stabilizers and quality of sintering.

  2. Flare-related color effects in UV Ceti stars

    Flesch, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The UV Ceti flare stars YZ CMi, BD+16 0 2708, EV Lac, and AD Leo were monitored photoelectrically for flare activity with the 76 centimeter reflecting telescope of the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Observations were carried out from January, 1973 to April, 1975. The instrumentation allowed simultaneous readings to be taken at 3500, 4632, and 6496A with a time resolution of 2 seconds. A total of 15 major events were observed, with 14 of these being observed in all three colors. All events showed the classical fast rise and slower decline that is typical of this type of activity. One event showed peculiar behavior in the red bandpass that may indicate strong dependence of the flare light in some cases on line emission. The data were applied to the fast electron model of flare activity proposed by Gurzadyan. Several serious inconsistencies in the theory were found that would not have been evident in single-channel monitoring. No event could be fitted in all three colors using consistent values of the unknown parameters in the theory. The most serious deficiencies in the theory were the wavelength dependence of the optical depth of the electron cloud and the lack of treatment of line emission behavior. Differential color indices for flare light are calculated and are shown to be essentially constant throughout the entire event for the stronger flares. A color-color plot of the flare light at maximum reveals that 11 of the flares show a linear relation. This relation indicates that the smaller the u-b index, the larger is the b-r index. This is probably directly involved with line emission during flare events. Future research possibilities are discussed, with spectroscopic studies and simultaneous multicolor observations being stressed

  3. Color transparency

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  4. The Early Facilitative and Late Contextual Specific Effect of the Color Red on Attentional Processing

    Tao Xia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that color represents a variety of emotionally meaningful information. Researchers have proposed that context information endows colors with different associated meanings, and elicits corresponding behavior. Others have contended that the color red intensifies the stimulus’ existing valence or motivation tendency in the early processing step. The present study attempts to incorporate these two effects of the color red to explore their differences in a dot probe task, using event-related potential (ERP. Our ERP results indicate that the color red intensifies the initial attention to emotion-congruent conditions, as indicated by the P1 component. However, the colors red and green lead to sustained attention to the expression of anger and happiness, respectively, but not fear, as shown by the late positive complex component (all results are available at: https://osf.io/k3b8c/. This study found the different processing stages of the effect of the color red during attentional processing in a discrete emotional context, using ERPs, and may refine the Color-in-Context theory.

  5. COMBINED EFFECTS OF BINARIES AND STELLAR ROTATION ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS

    Li Zhongmu; Mao Caiyan; Chen Li; Zhang Qian

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Clouds have been confirmed to have broad main sequence, multiple or extended turnoffs, and dual red giant clumps. The observed result seems to be at odds with the classical idea that such clusters are simple stellar populations. Although many models have been used to explain the results via factors such as prolonged star formation history, metallicity spread, differential reddening, selection effect, observational uncertainty, stellar rotation, and binary interaction, the reason for the special color-magnitude diagrams is still uncertain. We revisit this question via the combination of stellar rotation and binary effects. As a result, it shows 'golf club' color-magnitude diagrams with broad or multiple turnoffs, dual red clumps, blue stragglers, red stragglers, and extended main sequences. Because both binaries and massive rotators are common, our result suggests that most color-magnitude diagrams, including extended turnoff or multiple turnoffs, can be explained using simple stellar populations including both binary and stellar rotation effects, or composite populations with two components.

  6. Effect of one-step polishing system on the color stability of nanocomposites.

    Alawjali, S S; Lui, J L

    2013-08-01

    This study was to compare the effect of three different one-step polishing systems on the color stability of three different types of nanocomposites after immersion in coffee for one day and seven days and determine which nanocomposite material has the best color stability following polishing with each of the one-step polishing system. The nanocomposites tested were Tetric EvoCeram, Grandio and Herculite Précis. A total of 120 discs (40/nanocomposite, 8mm×2mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens for each nanocomposite cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other specimens were polished with OptraPol, OneGloss and Occlubrush immersed in coffee (Nescafé) up to seven days. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer at baseline and after one and seven days. Two way repeated measure ANOVA, two way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (P<0.05). The immersion time was a significant factor in the discoloration of the nanocomposites. The effect of three one-step polishing systems on the color stability was also significant. The color change values of the materials cured against Mylar strips were the greatest. The lowest mean color change values were from the Occlubrush polished groups. The effect of the three different types of nanocomposite on the color change was significant. The highest color change values were with Tetric EvoCeram groups. The lowest color change values were with Herculite Précis groups. The color change of nanocomposite resins is affected by the type of composite, polishing procedure and the period of immersion in the staining agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physics of structural colors

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  8. Effect of nightguard vital bleaching gel on the color stability of provisional restorative materials.

    Bajunaid, Salwa Omar

    2016-01-01

    To assess the hypothesis that there was no difference in effect of 10% and 15% tooth bleaching agents on color stability of materials used for provisional fixed dental prosthesis. Fifteen samples from two materials used for provisional fixed dental prosthesis: methacrylate-based and composite-based materials and 15 preformed polycarbonate crowns soaked in bleaching gel or distilled water. Spectrophotometer recorded color of specimens at baseline, after 3, 7, and 14 days. Data were statistically analyzed using two-factor ANOVA test to compare the color stability of tested materials. Methyl-based provisional material exhibited statistically higher color change when exposed to 10% and 15% bleaching gel (delta EFNx01: 9.0 and 11.1, respectively) as compared to distilled water (delta EFNx01: 2.9). Delta EFNx01 of composite-based material specimens exposed to distilled water was statistically higher (6.3) than specimens exposed to 10% and 15% bleaching gel (1.5 and 1.1, respectively). Polycarbonate crowns showed a statistically lower color change when exposed to 15% (0.9) than to 10% bleaching gel (5.1) or distilled water (5.5). Composite-based provisional material showed highest color stability when exposed to vital tooth bleaching gel, whereas methacrylate-based material was the least color stable. Polycarbonate crowns were more color stable when exposed to 15% bleaching gel as opposed to 10% bleaching gel.

  9. [Effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins].

    Xing, Wenzhong; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins. Five resin composite materials were tested in this in vitro study. The five composites were as follow: two indirect composite resins (Adoro SR, Ceramage) and three direct composite resins (Filtek Z350, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Gradia Direct Anterior). For each material, twenty disk-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into five groups according to the color parameters of specimens before bleaching treatment. The composite resin specimens were treated by one of five sample solutions which were at-home bleaching agents (10% and 15% carbarmide peroxide), in- office bleaching agents (38% H(2)O(2) and 35%H(2)O(2)) and deionized water (control group). The color parameters of specimens were measured by spectrophotometer at baseline and after bleaching treatments. The color differences (ΔE values) between baseline and post-treatments were calculated. The data of color differences were evaluated statistically using two-way analysis with a significance level of 0.05. The color changes of the resin composites were less than 2.0 after bleaching agent treatment, therefore were not perceptible. Slight increase of L(*) values and decrease of C(*)ab values in color parameters of specimens were observed. There were statistically significant differences in ΔE values for different bleaching treatments and resin materials (P = 0.001). The bleaching agents did not affect the color of indirect and direct composite resins tested.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of the Visual Effects of Colored Filters

    2015-02-01

    chromaticity coordinates on the MCC under illuminant C. Measurements were taken with and without filters in front of the colorimeter . Note, for the actual...to measure the chromaticity and luminance values of the different components displayed on the calibrated monitor using a spot colorimeter (Minolta CS...of Illuminant C and the chromaticity values for each of the colored squares were measured using a spot colorimeter (Minolta CS-100). Three

  11. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  12. Effect of esthetic core shades on the final color of IPS Empress all-ceramic crowns.

    Azer, Shereen S; Ayash, Ghada M; Johnston, William M; Khalil, Moustafa F; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2006-12-01

    Clinically relevant assessment of all-ceramic crowns supported by esthetic composite resin foundations has not been evaluated with regard to color reproducibility. This in vitro study quantitatively evaluated the influence of different shades of composite resin foundations and resin cement on the final color of a leucite-reinforced all-ceramic material. A total of 128 disks were fabricated; 64 (20 x 1 mm) were made of all-ceramic material (IPS Empress) and 64 (20 x 4 mm) of 4 different shades composite resin (Tetric Ceram). The ceramic and composite resin disks were luted using 2 shades (A3 and Transparent) of resin cement (Variolink II). Color was measured using a colorimeter configured with a diffuse illumination/0-degree viewing geometry, and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L( *)a( *)b( *) values were directly calculated. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and color differences (DeltaE) for the average L( *), a( *) and b( *) color parameters were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean values and SDs between the different color combinations (alpha=.05). The CIE L( *)a( *)b( *) color coordinate values showed no significant differences for variation in color parameters due to the effect of the different composite resin shades (P=.24) or cement shades (P=.12). The mean color difference (DeltaE) value between the groups was 0.8. Within the limitations of this study, the use of different shades for composite resin cores and resin cements presented no statistically significant effect on the final color of IPS Empress all-ceramic material.

  13. Effect of field view size and lighting on unique-hue selection using Natural Color System object colors.

    Shamey, Renzo; Zubair, Muhammad; Cheema, Hammad

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was twofold, first to determine the effect of field view size and second of illumination conditions on the selection of unique hue samples (UHs: R, Y, G and B) from two rotatable trays, each containing forty highly chromatic Natural Color System (NCS) samples, on one tray corresponding to 1.4° and on the other to 5.7° field of view size. UH selections were made by 25 color-normal observers who repeated assessments three times with a gap of at least 24h between trials. Observers separately assessed UHs under four illumination conditions simulating illuminants D65, A, F2 and F11. An apparent hue shift (statistically significant for UR) was noted for UH selections at 5.7° field of view compared to those at 1.4°. Observers' overall variability was found to be higher for UH stimuli selections at the larger field of view. Intra-observer variability was found to be approximately 18.7% of inter-observer variability in selection of samples for both sample sizes. The highest intra-observer variability was under simulated illuminant D65, followed by A, F11, and F2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 3-D Animation, NL Editing & Special Effects Software Lab

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Visual Effects Team of the Indirect Fire Division is a team of highly skilled people with specialized training and experience in Multimedia Production. Utilizing...

  15. The Chemistry behind Special Effects in Film and Television

    Short, Daniel B.; Badger, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry behind practical special effects in the film and television industry is discussed, along with examples of commonly used chemical demonstrations that simulate them in the laboratory. (Contains 3 figures.)

  16. Explaining efficient search for conjunctions of motion and form: evidence from negative color effects.

    Dent, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Dent, Humphreys, and Braithwaite (2011) showed substantial costs to search when a moving target shared its color with a group of ignored static distractors. The present study further explored the conditions under which such costs to performance occur. Experiment 1 tested whether the negative color-sharing effect was specific to cases in which search showed a highly serial pattern. The results showed that the negative color-sharing effect persisted in the case of a target defined as a conjunction of movement and form, even when search was highly efficient. In Experiment 2, the ease with which participants could find an odd-colored target amongst a moving group was examined. Participants searched for a moving target amongst moving and stationary distractors. In Experiment 2A, participants performed a highly serial search through a group of similarly shaped moving letters. Performance was much slower when the target shared its color with a set of ignored static distractors. The exact same displays were used in Experiment 2B; however, participants now responded "present" for targets that shared the color of the static distractors. The same targets that had previously been difficult to find were now found efficiently. The results are interpreted in a flexible framework for attentional control. Targets that are linked with irrelevant distractors by color tend to be ignored. However, this cost can be overridden by top-down control settings.

  17. Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference: a study on Goethe's color circle with RGB color space

    Camgoz, Nilgun; Yener, Cengiz

    2002-06-01

    In order to investigate preference responses for foreground- background color relationships, 85 university undergraduates in Ankara, Turkey, viewed 6 background colors (red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta) on which color squares of differing hues, saturations, and brightnesses were presented. All the background colors had maximum brightness (100%) and maximum saturation (100%). Subjects were asked to show the color square they preferred on the presented background color viewed through a computer monitor. The experimental setup consisted of a computer monitor located in a windowless room, illuminated with cove lighting. The findings of the experiment show that the brightness 100%- saturation 100% range is significantly preferred the most (p-value < 0.03). Thus, color squares that are most saturated and brightest are preferred on backgrounds of most saturated and brightest colors. Regardless of the background colors viewed, the subjects preferred blue the most (p-value < 0.01). Findings of the study are also discussed with pertinent research on the field. Through this analysis, an understanding of foreground-background color relationships in terms of preference is sought.

  18. Special Important Aspects of the Thomson Effect

    Lashkevych, Igor; Velázquez, J. E.; Titov, Oleg Yu.; Gurevich, Yuri G.

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive study of the mechanisms of heating and cooling originating from an electrical current in semiconductor devices is reported. The variation in temperature associated with the Peltier effect is not related to the presence of heat sources and sinks if the heat flux is correctly determined. The Thomson effect is commonly regarded as a heat source/sink proportional to the Thomson coefficient, which is added to the Joule heating. In the present work, we will show that this formulation of the Thomson effect is not sufficiently clear. When the heat flux is correctly defined, the Thomson heat source/sink is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient. In the conditions in which the Peltier effect takes place, the temperature gradient is created, and, consequently, the Thomson effect will occur naturally.

  19. Effects of saturation and contrast polarity on the figure-ground organization of color on gray.

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure gray than strongly saturated ones and, therefore, appear less "colorful."Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role of color saturation in such figure-ground organization has remained unclear. We presented configurations of colored inducers on gray "test" backgrounds to human observers. Luminance and saturation of the inducers was uniform on each trial, but varied across trials. We ran two separate experimental tasks. In the relative background brightness task, perceptual judgments indicated whether the apparent brightness of the gray test background contrasted with, assimilated to, or appeared equal (no effect) to that of a comparison background with the same luminance contrast. Contrast polarity and its interaction with color saturation affected response proportions for contrast, assimilation and no effect. In the figure-ground task, perceptual judgments indicated whether the inducers appeared to lie in front of, behind, or in the same depth with the background. Strongly saturated inducers produced significantly larger proportions of foreground effects indicating that these inducers stand out as figure against the background. Weakly saturated inducers produced significantly larger proportions of background effects, indicating that these inducers are perceived as lying behind the backgrounds. We infer that color saturation modulates figure-ground organization, both directly by determining relative inducer depth, and indirectly, and in interaction with contrast polarity, by affecting apparent background brightness. The results point toward a hitherto undocumented functional role of color saturation in the genesis of

  20. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity : No Effect of the Color Red on Human Mate Preferences

    Peperkoorn, L.S.; Roberts, S. Craig; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by

  1. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  2. Ecological Effects in Cross-Cultural Differences Between U.S. and Japanese Color Preferences.

    Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Schloss, Karen B; Asano, Michiko; Palmer, Stephen E

    2016-09-01

    We investigated cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese color preferences and the ecological factors that might influence them. Japanese and U.S. color preferences have both similarities (e.g., peaks around blue, troughs around dark-yellow, and preferences for saturated colors) and differences (Japanese participants like darker colors less than U.S. participants do). Complex gender differences were also evident that did not conform to previously reported effects. Palmer and Schloss's (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure was used to test the Ecological Valence Theory's (EVT's) prediction that within-culture WAVE-preference correlations should be higher than between-culture WAVE-preference correlations. The results supported several, but not all, predictions. In the second experiment, we tested color preferences of Japanese-U.S. multicultural participants who could read and speak both Japanese and English. Multicultural color preferences were intermediate between U.S. and Japanese preferences, consistent with the hypothesis that culturally specific personal experiences during one's lifetime influence color preferences. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. The Effects of Natural Weathering on Color Stability of Impregnated and Varnished Wood Materials

    Turkay Turkoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of natural weathering on color stability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L. impregnated with some chemicals [tanalith-E (TN-E, adolit-KD5 (AD-KD5, and chromated copper arsenate (CCA] and then varnished [synthetic varnish (SV and polyurethane varnish (PV]. While applying varnish increased lightness, impregnation decreased lightness of the wood specimens before natural weathering. Natural weathering caused greenish, bluish, and dark color tones of the wood surface. Total color change was increased with increasing exposure times in natural weathering. Untreated (control wood specimens exhibited higher color changes than the other wood specimens in all the stages of natural weathering. The total color changes of untreated Oriental beech specimens were less than untreated Scots pine specimens. The color stability of impregnated and varnished wood specimens gave better results than untreated and solely varnished wood specimens after natural weathering. The best color stability was obtained from both Oriental beech and Scots pine wood impregnated with TN-E before PV coating.

  4. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers. - Highlights: • Radiative transfer on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer is modeled. • Spectral reflectance of the printed samples are measured and calculated. • The hue changes with dot area rate because of the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks.

  5. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers.

  6. The effect of background and illumination on color identification of real, 3D objects.

    Allred, Sarah R; Olkkonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    For the surface reflectance of an object to be a useful cue to object identity, judgments of its color should remain stable across changes in the object's environment. In 2D scenes, there is general consensus that color judgments are much more stable across illumination changes than background changes. Here we investigate whether these findings generalize to real 3D objects. Observers made color matches to cubes as we independently varied both the illumination impinging on the cube and the 3D background of the cube. As in 2D scenes, we found relatively high but imperfect stability of color judgments under an illuminant shift. In contrast to 2D scenes, we found that background had little effect on average color judgments. In addition, variability of color judgments was increased by an illuminant shift and decreased by embedding the cube within a background. Taken together, these results suggest that in real 3D scenes with ample cues to object segregation, the addition of a background may improve stability of color identification.

  7. The effect of background and illumination on color identification of real, 3D objects

    Sarah Ray Allred

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the surface reflectance of an object to be a useful cue to object identity, judgments of its color should remain stable across changes in the object's environment. In 2D scenes, there is general consensus that color judgments are much more stable across illumination changes than background changes. Here we investigate whether these findings generalize to real 3D objects. Observers made color matches to cubes as we independently varied both the illumination impinging on the cube and the 3D background of the cube. As in 2D scenes, we found relatively high but imperfect stability of color judgments under an illuminant shift. In contrast to 2D scenes, we found that background had little effect on average color judgments. In addition, variability of color judgments was increased by an illuminant shift and decreased by embedding the cube within a background. Taken together, these results suggest that in real 3D scenes with ample cues to object segregation, the addition of a background may improve stability of color identification.

  8. Effects of cold light bleaching on the color stability of composite resins

    Cao, Liqun; Huang, Lijuan; Wu, Meisheng; Wei, Hua; Zhao, Shouliang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cold light bleaching on the color stability of four restorations using a thermocycling stain challenge. 160 specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from 4 composite resins (Gradia Direct-A, Z350XT, Premisa, and Précis) and divided into 4 subgroups. Color was assessed according to the CIEL*a*b* color scale at baseline, after the first cycle of bleaching, after thermocycling stain challenges, and after the second cycle of bleaching. Mean values were compared using three-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons of the mean values were performed using the Tukey-Kramer test. All groups showed significant color changes after stain challenge, the color change was more significant in Gradia Direct and Z350XT than in Premisa and Précis. After the second cycle of bleaching, color mostly recovered to its original values. The color stability of Gradia Direct and Z350XT was inferior to that of Premisa and Précis. The discoloration of composite resin materials can be partly removed after cold light bleaching. PMID:26309549

  9. Relationship between Spokesperson’s Gender and Advertising Color Temperature in a Framework of Advertising Effectiveness

    Pilelienė Lina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising spokesperson is one of the undeniably important factors affecting advertising effectiveness. However, advertising spokesperson has to have some particular features to be effective. Various previous researches resulted in determination of different features of advertising spokesperson and their effectiveness; i.e. type of a spokesperson (celebrity vs. a regular person; gender and race of a spokesperson; etc. were found to have an impact on the spokesperson’s effectiveness. However, the research on the impact of shooting color temperature on its effectiveness is still scarce. Moreover, an assumption can be made that color temperature might cause a different effect depending on advertising spokesperson’s gender. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between spokesperson’s gender and advertising color temperature in a framework of advertising effectiveness. Neuromarketing research methods were applied to meet the aim and to determine the guidelines for its usage in advertising.

  10. Elemental magic, v.2 the technique of special effects animation

    Gilland, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Design beautiful, professional-level animated effects with these detailed step-by-step tutorials from former Disney animator and animated effects expert Joseph Gilland. Filled with beautiful, full-color artwork, Elemental Magic, Volume II, breaks down the animated effect process from beginning to end-including booming explosions, gusting winds, magical incantations, and raging fires. He also breaks down the process of effects ""clean-up,"" as well as timing and frame rates. The companion website includes real-time footage of the author lecturing as he animates the drawings from the

  11. Effective Practice in Inclusive and Special Needs Education

    Buli-Holmberg, Jorun; Jeyaprathaban, Sujathamalini

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to evaluate the effective teaching practice for children with special learning needs. The research question framed in the present study for investigation is which practice will be effective in different inclusive classroom settings and what are the factors that contribute for effective practices? Qualitative research was…

  12. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion.

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.

  13. The Technique of Special-Effects Cinematography.

    Fielding, Raymond

    The author describes the many techniques used to produce cinematic effects that would be too costly, too difficult, too time-consuming, too dangerous, or simply impossible to achieve with conventional photographic techniques. He points out that these techniques are available not only for 35 millimeter work but also to the 16 mm. photographer who…

  14. Colored Chaos

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  15. The Interactive Effects of Color Realism, Clustering, and Age on Pictorial Recall Memory among Students in Malaysia

    Shaari, Ahmad Jelani

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of clustering or format of presentation (categorized and uncategorized lists), level of color realism of graphics (color pictures, black and white pictures and line drawings), and age (10 year old, 16 year old and adults) on the pictorial recall memory among students in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty students of three age groups were randomly assigned to one of the six stimulus treatments (categorized color, uncategorized color, categorized black and white, ...

  16. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  17. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm - Multiple scattering effects

    Gordon, Howard R.; Castano, Diego J.

    1987-01-01

    Errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm are analyzed. The analysis is based on radiative transfer computations in model atmospheres, in which the aerosols and molecules are distributed vertically in an exponential manner, with most of the aerosol scattering located below the molecular scattering. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates, making it possible to determine the errors along typical CZCS scan lines. Information provided by the analysis makes it possible to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on a variety of applications.

  18. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of resin composites.

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Nagafuji, Junichi; Kotaku, Mayumi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Powers, John M

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of regular, opaque, and enamel shades for each of three resin composites. Two-mm-thick resin disks made with Estelite Σ Quick, Clearfil Majesty, and Beautifil II were final polished with 180-, 1000-, and 3000-grit silicon carbide paper. Surface roughness, gloss, and color were measured one week after curing. Estelite Σ Quick had significantly lower roughness values and significantly higher gloss values as compared with Clearfil Majesty and Beautifil II. The effects of surface roughness and gloss on color (L*a*b*) differed among resin composites and by shade. Correlation coefficients between surface roughness and L*a*b* color factors were generally high for Clearfil Majesty, partially high (i.e., between roughness and L*) for Beautifil II, and low for Estelite Σ Quick. Correlation coefficients between gloss and L*a*b* color parameters were generally high for Beautifil II and low for Estelite Σ Quick and Clearfil Majesty. However, for all resin composites, the values of the color differences between 3000-grit and 180-grit polishing groups for all shades were imperceptible by the naked eye.

  19. Effect of preheat repetition on color stability of methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins.

    Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Gholizadeh, Sarah; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Rezaei, Yashar

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins on their color stability up to 40 times at 55‒60°C. Methods. Seventy-six methacrylate and silorane-based composite resin samples, with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 2 mm, were divided into 4 groups (n=19). After the samples were prepared, their color parameters were determined using a reflective spectrophotometer. The composite resin samples were separately stored in a solution of tea for 40 consecutive days. Then the samples underwent a color determination procedure again using a spectrophotometer and color changes were recorded. Finally two-way ANOVA was used to study the effect of composite temperature on its staining (Pcomposite resin samples compared to non-heated samples at P=0.005 and P=0.029 for silorane-based and Z250 composite resin samples, respectively. Results. Both composite resin type (P=0.014) and preheating (Pcomposite resin samples, up to 55‒60°C for 40 rounds, resulted in more color changes compared with unheated composite resin samples. After storage in a solution of tea the color change rate in the composite resin samples of silorane-based was higher than the Z250 composite resin samples.

  20. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    Garcia, T S; Straus, R; Sih, A [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  1. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    Garcia, T.S.; Straus, R.; Sih, A.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  2. Spatial variation in nutrient and water color effects on lake chlorophyll at macroscales

    Fergus, C. Emi; Finley, Andrew O.; Soranno, Patricia A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient-water color paradigm is a framework to characterize lake trophic status by relating lake primary productivity to both nutrients and water color, the colored component of dissolved organic carbon. Total phosphorus (TP), a limiting nutrient, and water color, a strong light attenuator, influence lake chlorophyll a concentrations (CHL). But, these relationships have been shown in previous studies to be highly variable, which may be related to differences in lake and catchment geomorphology, the forms of nutrients and carbon entering the system, and lake community composition. Because many of these factors vary across space it is likely that lake nutrient and water color relationships with CHL exhibit spatial autocorrelation, such that lakes near one another have similar relationships compared to lakes further away. Including this spatial dependency in models may improve CHL predictions and clarify how well the nutrient-water color paradigm applies to lakes distributed across diverse landscape settings. However, few studies have explicitly examined spatial heterogeneity in the effects of TP and water color together on lake CHL. In this study, we examined spatial variation in TP and water color relationships with CHL in over 800 north temperate lakes using spatially-varying coefficient models (SVC), a robust statistical method that applies a Bayesian framework to explore space-varying and scale-dependent relationships. We found that TP and water color relationships were spatially autocorrelated and that allowing for these relationships to vary by individual lakes over space improved the model fit and predictive performance as compared to models that did not vary over space. The magnitudes of TP effects on CHL differed across lakes such that a 1 μg/L increase in TP resulted in increased CHL ranging from 2–24 μg/L across lake locations. Water color was not related to CHL for the majority of lakes, but there were some locations where water color had a

  3. Effects of saturation and contrast polarity on the figure-ground organization of color on grey

    Birgitta eDresp

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure grey than strongly saturated hues and, therefore, appear less colorful. Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role of color saturation in such figure-ground organization has remained unclear. We presented configurations of colored inducers on grey ‘test’ backgrounds to human observers. Luminance and saturation of the inducers was uniform on each trial, but varied across trials. We ran two separate experimental tasks. In the relative background brightness task, perceptual judgments indicated whether the apparent brightness of the grey test background contrasted with, assimilated to, or appeared equal (no effect to that of a comparison background with the same luminance contrast. Contrast polarity and its interaction with color saturation affected response proportions for contrast, assimilation and no effect. In the figure-ground task, perceptual judgments indicated whether the inducers appeared to lie in front of, behind, or in the same depth with the background. Strongly saturated inducers produced larger proportions of foreground effects indicating that these inducers stand out as figure against the background. Weakly saturated inducers produced significantly larger proportions of background effects, indicating that these inducers are perceived as lying behind the backgrounds. We infer that color saturation modulates figure-ground organization, both directly by determining relative inducer depth, and indirectly, and in interaction with contrast polarity, by affecting apparent background brightness.

  4. The Effects of Fresh Detox Juices on Color Stability and Roughness of Resin-Based Composites.

    Yikilgan, İhsan; Akgul, Sinem; Hazar, Ahmet; Kedıcı Alp, Cemile; Baglar, Serdar; Bala, Oya

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the effects of three fresh detox juices, including an orange, green, and red beverage, on the color stability and surface roughness of three anterior esthetic resin-based composites (RBCs). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared with three different esthetic RBCs (Amaris, G-aenial Anterior, Clearfil Majesty ES-2) according to the manufacturers' instructions. Forty specimens were prepared for each RBC, and all specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 24 hours. The initial color values and surface roughness measurements of the specimens were taken using a spectrophotometer and a profilometer. The specimens were then divided into 4 subgroups (n = 10). All specimens except the control specimens were immersed in their designated fresh detox juices (green, red, or orange) for 10 minutes twice a day. Color and surface roughness measurements were taken on day 15 and day 30, and the results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. The association between color change and surface roughness was evaluated by Spearman's Rank Correlation analysis. Color changes and surface roughness increased upon exposure to fresh detox juices for 15 and 30 days for all of the RBCs. All of the G-aenial and Amaris groups displayed color changes above the threshold of acceptability, whereas Clearfil Majesty ES-2 displayed a color change above the threshold of acceptability only after exposure to the red beverage for 30 days (ΔE > 3.7). With regard to surface roughness, Clearfil Majesty ES-2 outperformed the other RBCs (p  0.001). Exposure to the fresh detox juices used in this study led to similar color changes in the RBCs used in this study. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Abutment Material Effect on Peri-implant Soft Tissue Color and Perceived Esthetics.

    Kim, Aram; Campbell, Stephen D; Viana, Marlos A G; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant abutment material on peri-implant soft tissue color using intraoral spectrophotometric analysis and to compare the clinical outcomes with patient and clinician perception and satisfaction. Thirty patients and four prosthodontic faculty members participated. Abutments were zirconia, gold-hued titanium, and titanium. Peri-implant mucosa color of a single anterior implant restoration was compared to the patient's control tooth. Spectrophotometric analysis using SpectroShade TM Micro data determined the color difference (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*) between the midfacial peri-implant soft tissue for each abutment material and the marginal gingiva of the control tooth. Color difference values of the abutment groups were compared using ANOVA (α = 0.05). Patient and clinician satisfaction surveys were also conducted using a color-correcting light source. The results of each patient and clinician survey question were compared using chi-square analysis (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation analyses identified the relationship between the total color difference (ΔE) and the patient/clinician perception and satisfaction, as well as between ΔE and tissue thickness. Zirconia abutments displayed significantly smaller spectrophotometric gingival color difference (ΔE) compared to titanium and gold-hued titanium abutments (respectively, 3.98 ± 0.99; 7.22 ± 3.31; 5.65 ± 2.11; p abutment materials, and no correlation between ΔE and the patient and clinician satisfaction. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher than clinician, and patient-perceived differences were lower than clinicians' (p abutments demonstrated significantly lower mean color difference compared to titanium or gold-hued titanium abutments as measured spectrophotometrically; however, no statistical difference in patient or clinician perception/satisfaction among abutment materials was demonstrated. Patients were significantly more satisfied than

  6. [A preliminary study on the color effect of IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers].

    Li, Zhi-yong; Cheng, Xiang-rong; Wang, Yi-ning

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the opaquing capacity, color compatibility and stability of IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers. A total of 86 IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers were made for 18 patients. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A was tetracycline teeth, 64 veneers for 5 patients; Group B was non-tetracycline teeth, 22 veneers for 13 patients; Group C was 22 natural vital teeth with normal color as control group. Before and after veneers were inserted, ShadeEye NCC was employed to obtain L * a * b * values of each tooth. The values of cemented veneers used as the baseline, the L * a * b * values of each veneer were measured half a year, 1 year, and 2 years after restoration respectively. All L * a * b * values at different evaluation times were analyzed by SPSS 10.0. Before and after veneers were restored, the L * a * b * values of both Group A and Group B were significantly different, the color difference being 5.01 and 4.15 respectively. The color difference between Group A and selected shade guides was 2.45. Compared with the baseline value, the L * value of Group A significantly decreased 2 years after restoration, but the DeltaE of different evaluation times was not significantly different. The color difference between Group B and Group C was 0.22 and there was no significant color difference after restoration. IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers have excellent opaquing capacity, color compatibility and stability to non-tetracycline teeth. To tetracycline teeth IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers have a certain opaquing capacity, but they cannot completely match with shade guides; the L * value is significantly different after restoration and further studies are needed to evaluate its color effect.

  7. No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy.

    Kanematsu, Erika; Brainard, David H

    2014-08-01

    Some familiar objects have a typical color, such as the yellow of a banana. The presence of such objects in a scene is a potential cue to the scene illumination, since the light reflected from them should on average be consistent with their typical surface reflectance. Although there are many studies on how the identity of an object affects how its color is perceived, little is known about whether the presence of a familiar object in a scene helps the visual system stabilize the color appearance of other objects with respect to changes in illumination. We used a successive color matching procedure in three experiments designed to address this question. Across the experiments we studied a total of 6 subjects (2 in Experiment 1, 3 in Experiment 2, and 4 in Experiment 3) with partial overlap of subjects between experiments. We compared measured color constancy across conditions in which a familiar object cue to the illuminant was available with conditions in which such a cue was not present. Overall, our results do not reveal a reliable improvement in color constancy with the addition of a familiar object to a scene. An analysis of the experimental power of our data suggests that if there is such an effect, it is small: less than approximately a change of 0.09 in a constancy index where an absence of constancy corresponds to an index value of 0 and perfect constancy corresponds to an index value of 1.

  8. Effect of light and sweeteners on color in an amaretto-type liqueur.

    Castañeda-Olivares, F; Pless, R C; González-Jasso, E

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the color loss in an amaretto-type liqueur under controlled light conditions showed a clear dependence of the decoloration rate on the light intensity, and complete color stability in the absence of light. The principal sweetener used in the preparation of the liqueur strongly affected the rate of color loss under irradiation, color stability being much greater for the formulations containing sucrose or no added sweetener instead of fructose 42. These differences were more pronounced in experiments conducted with chemically well-defined mixtures that contained either of the 2 azo dyes used in the coloration of the amaretto, tartrazine, and Allura Red, and various alternative sweeteners, in 28% (v/v) ethanol solution: D-fructose and, to a lesser extent, D-glucose, at concentrations of 14% (w/v), were effective in bringing about photodecoloration, while no color loss was detected in the presence of sucrose, or in the absence of any added sugar. The results are interpreted in terms of a redox reaction of reducing sugars with the diarylazo compounds, the function of the light being the conversion of the azo compound from the predominant trans configuration to the cis configuration, which on geometric grounds lends itself better to a concerted, cyclical redox reaction with the reducing sugar. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime

  10. Progress in digital color workflow understanding in the International Color Consortium (ICC) Workflow WG

    McCarthy, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The ICC Workflow WG serves as the bridge between ICC color management technologies and use of those technologies in real world color production applications. ICC color management is applicable to and is used in a wide range of color systems, from highly specialized digital cinema color special effects to high volume publications printing to home photography. The ICC Workflow WG works to align ICC technologies so that the color management needs of these diverse use case systems are addressed in an open, platform independent manner. This report provides a high level summary of the ICC Workflow WG objectives and work to date, focusing on the ways in which workflow can impact image quality and color systems performance. The 'ICC Workflow Primitives' and 'ICC Workflow Patterns and Dimensions' workflow models are covered in some detail. Consider the questions, "How much of dissatisfaction with color management today is the result of 'the wrong color transformation at the wrong time' and 'I can't get to the right conversion at the right point in my work process'?" Put another way, consider how image quality through a workflow can be negatively affected when the coordination and control level of the color management system is not sufficient.

  11. Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances.

    Mehta, Ravi; Zhu, Rui Juliet

    2009-02-27

    Existing research reports inconsistent findings with regard to the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Some research suggests that blue or green leads to better performances than red; other studies record the opposite. Current work reconciles this discrepancy. We demonstrate that red (versus blue) color induces primarily an avoidance (versus approach) motivation (study 1, n = 69) and that red enhances performance on a detail-oriented task, whereas blue enhances performance on a creative task (studies 2 and 3, n = 208 and 118). Further, we replicate these results in the domains of product design (study 4, n = 42) and persuasive message evaluation (study 5, n = 161) and show that these effects occur outside of individuals' consciousness (study 6, n = 68). We also provide process evidence suggesting that the activation of alternative motivations mediates the effect of color on cognitive task performances.

  12. Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map

    Li, Feng-Guo; Ai, Bao-Quan

    2011-06-01

    Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise.

  13. Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map

    Li Fengguo; Ai Baoquan

    2011-01-01

    Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise. (general)

  14. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  15. The use of color infrared photography for wetlands mapping with special reference to shoreline and waterfowl habitat assessment

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of low altitude oblique photography obtained by hand-held cameras was useful in determining specifications of operational mission requirements for conventional smaller-scaled vertical photography. Remote sensing techniques were used to assess the rapid destruction of marsh areas at Pointe Mouillee. In an estuarian environment where shoreline features change yearly, there is a need for revision in existing area maps. A land cover inventory, mapped from aerial photography, provided essential data necessary for determining adjacent lands suitable for marshland development. To quantitatively assess the wetlands environment, a detailed inventory of vegetative communities (19 categories) was made using color infrared photography and intensive ground truth. A carefully selected and well laid-out transect was found to be a key asset to photointerpretation and to the analysis of vegetative conditions. Transect data provided the interpreter with locally representative areas of various vegetative types. This facilitated development of a photointerpretation key. Additional information on vegetative conditions in the area was also obtained by evaluating the transect data.

  16. A field guide to digital color

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  17. Effects produced by multi-parton interactions and color reconnection in small systems

    Cuautle, Eleazar; Ortiz, Antonio; Paić, Guy

    2016-12-15

    Multi-parton interactions and color reconnection can produce QGP-like effects in small systems, specifically, radial flow-like patterns. For pp collisions simulated with Pythia 8.212, in this work we investigate their effects on different observables like event multiplicity, event shapes and transverse momentum distributions.

  18. Effect of dental drawings and coloring on attitudes of child patients.

    Maruyama, S; Koyazu, T

    1988-01-01

    Young children can feel great anxiety and/or fear when facing their dental examination and treatment, and may refuse to be examined. To help children overcome these emotions, we originated a method called "Dental Drawings and Coloring". We investigated whether the new method might be effective for 207 children between the ages of two and four who had completed treatment and had returned for their first check-up, about three months later. Results showed that using the method of "Dental Drawings and Coloring" worked fairly effectively in alleviating their anxiety and fear.

  19. Top quark mass measurement and color effects at the LHC

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia

    2018-04-01

    . Additionally, a tune for a possible color reconnection between the different multiple parton interaction systems is performed for the recently available QCD-inspired model. The predictions obtained by this tune are able to describe underlying event observables as well as measured charged particle multiplicities. The results are used for a more reliable estimation of the corresponding systematic uncertainty.

  20. Effect of staining solutions and repolishing on color stability of direct composites

    Fabrício Mariano Mundim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the color change of three types of composite resins exposed to coffee and cola drink, and the effect of repolishing on the color stability of these composites after staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen specimens (15 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were fabricated from microhybrid (Esthet-X; Dentsply and Filtek Z-250; 3M ESPE and high-density hybrid (Surefil; Dentsply composites, and were finished and polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex; 3M ESPE. Color of the specimens was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system in a refection spectrophotometer (PCB 6807; BYK Gardner. After baseline color measurements, 5 specimens of each resin were immersed in different staining solutions for 15 days: G1 - distilled water (control, G2 - coffee, G3 - cola soft drink. Afterwards, new color measurement was performed and the specimens were repolished and submitted to new color reading. Color stability was determined by the difference (ΔE between the coordinates L*, a*, and b* obtained from the specimens before and after immersion into the solutions and after repolishing. RESULTS: There was no statistically signifcant difference (ANOVA, Tukey's test; p>0.05 among the ΔE values for the different types of composites after staining or repolishing. For all composite resins, coffee promoted more color change (ΔE>3.3 than distilled water and the cola soft drink. After repolishing, the ΔE values of the specimens immersed in coffee decreased to clinically acceptable values (ΔE<3.3, but remained signifcantly higher than those of the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: No signifcant difference was found among composite resins or between color values before and after repolishing of specimens immersed in distilled water and cola. Immersing specimens in coffee caused greater color change in all types of composite resins tested in this study and repolishing contributed to decrease staining to clinically acceptable

  1. Using P300 to Evaluate the Effect of Object Color Knowledge in Novelty Detection

    Mohammad Amin Khoshlessan1

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: In an oddball experiment, the context in which novel stimuli are presented affects characteristics of novelty P3, i.e. as long as there is a difficult task in which the difference between standard and target stimuli is small, recurrent presentation of a highly discrepant stimulus can lead to P300 highly similar to novelty P3. Effect of stimulus properties on P300 has also been previously examined and it has been shown that it plays a significant role in P300 topography, its amplitude and latency.Here we have examined the effect of surface color of objects of high color-diagnosticity in a visual oddball paradigm. Methods: In two separate conditions, we used pictures of fruits as target and novel stimuli. In condition one, novel stimuli were pictures of fruits in their canonical colors. In the second condition, novel stimuli were the same photo filtered to have a different non-canonical color. P300 was compared among these conditions. Results: Both target P3 and novelty P3 were detected in the two conditions but no significant difference was evident between conditions.Discussion: This result suggests that comparing to shape information; color cue does not play a significant role in detecting context novelty.

  2. Effect of bleaching on color change and surface topography of composite restorations.

    Pruthi, Gunjan; Jain, Veena; Kandpal, H C; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Shah, Naseem

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Esthet X (Dentsply India), and Admira (Voco, Germany). Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS). 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Dentsply) using SEM. Statistical analysis. One way ANOVA and Multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was declared if the P value was .05 or less. Results and conclusion. All the specimens showed significant discoloration (ΔE > 3.3) after their immersion in solutions representing food and beverages. The total color change after bleaching as compared to baseline color was significant in Filtek Z350 (P = .000) and Esthet X (P = .002), while it was insignificant for Admira (P = .18). Esthet X showed maximum surface roughness followed by Admira and Filtek Z350. Bleaching was effective in reducing the discoloration to a clinically acceptable value in all the three groups (ΔE < 3.3).

  3. Effect of Bleaching on Color Change and Surface Topography of Composite Restorations

    Gunjan Pruthi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, Esthet X (Dentsply India, and Admira (Voco, Germany. Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS. 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Dentsply using SEM. Statistical analysis. One way ANOVA and Multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was declared if the P value was .05 or less. Results and conclusion. All the specimens showed significant discoloration (ΔE>3.3 after their immersion in solutions representing food and beverages. The total color change after bleaching as compared to baseline color was significant in Filtek Z350 (P=.000 and Esthet X (P=.002, while it was insignificant for Admira (P=.18. Esthet X showed maximum surface roughness followed by Admira and Filtek Z350. Bleaching was effective in reducing the discoloration to a clinically acceptable value in all the three groups (ΔE<3.3.

  4. EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING ON WOOD LAMINATES COLOR TREATED WITH TWO FINISHING PRODUCTS

    Thais Jacob Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weathering is one of the main reasons for the degradation of wood, especially its color. The application of finishes minimizes these effects. This study aimed to monitor the effect of artificial weathering on wood veneer of the species cumaru (Dipteryx odorata and pau marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum with two finishes, the marine varnish and Cetol, with monitoring using a spectrophotometer. The samples were subjected to cycles of exposure to weathering for 20, 40, 52, 76, 124, 226, 430, 838 and 960 hours. The colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, C and h* were measured before treatment, after application of the products and during the weathering time intervals. The application of finishes darkened veneer of cumaru wood and pau marfim in nature. However, in higher weathering times, both species returned to a lighter color, and even became lighter than the natural wood. The use of Cetol was more efficient, giving greater stability in the conservation of wood color of the species studied.

  5. Cinematic realism and digital special effects in Hollywood cinema

    Güney, Tolga

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Graphic Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical refences. This thesis attempts to understand changing conceptions of realism in entertainment cinema by the emergence of digital special effects as an implication of new modes of production in contemporary Hollywood cinema. It focuses on the reflexive, intertextual, and hyperreal characteristics of contemporary Holl...

  6. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

  7. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: Effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    Sebastian eGeukes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 hours later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word’s meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

  8. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  9. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    Neslihan Tekçe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each. Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE* were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik after 24 hr of storage (baseline and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control (n = 7. In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE* of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61 and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73 showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25 and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40 in black tea (p < 0.05. Conclusions The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages.

  10. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU. The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage. A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB, beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W, and artificial saliva (AS; control. The color change (DE was evaluated before (baseline and after thermocycling (T1, and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2, 3 h (T3, 24 h (T4, 48 h (T5, and 96 h (T6. The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  11. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month.

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p < 0.05). The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages.

  12. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  13. Effective action for reggeized gluons, classical gluon field of relativistic color charge and color glass condensate approach

    Bondarenko, S.; Prygarin, A. [Ariel University, Physics Department, Ariel (Israel); Lipatov, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hamburg University, II Institute of Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss application of formalism of small-x effective action for reggeized gluons (Gribov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26:414, 1968; Lipatov, Nucl. Phys. B 452:369, 1995; Lipatov, Phys. Rep. 286:131, 1997; Lipatov, Subnucl. Ser. 49:131, 2013; Lipatov, Int. J. Mod. Phys. Conf. Ser. 39:1560082, 2015; Lipatov, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 31(28/29):1645011, 2016; Lipatov, EPJ Web Conf. 125:01010, 2016; Lipatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 23:338, 1976; Kuraev et al., Sov. Phys. JETP 45:199, 1977; Kuraev et al., Zh Eksp, Teor. Fiz. 72:377, 1977; Balitsky and Lipatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 28:822, 1978; Balitsky and Lipatov, Yad. Fiz. 28:1597 1978), for the calculation of classical gluon field of relativistic color charge, similarly to that done in CGC approach of McLerran and Venugopalan, Phys. Rev. D 49:2233 (1994), Jalilian-Marian et al., Phys. Rev. D 55:5414 (1997), Jalilian-Marian et al., Nucl. Phys. B 504:415 (1997), Jalilian-Marian et al., Phys. Rev. D 59:014014 (1998), Jalilian-Marian et al., Phys. Rev. D 59:014015 (1998), Iancu et al., Nucl. Phys. A 692:583 (2001), Iancu et al., Phys. Lett. B 510:133 (2001), Ferreiro et al., Nucl. Phys. A 703:489 (2002). The equations of motion with the reggeon fields are solved in LO and NLO approximations and new solutions are found. The results are compared to the calculations performed in the CGC framework and it is demonstrated that the LO CGC results for the classical field are reproduced in our calculations. Possible applications of the NLO solution in the effective action and CGC frameworks are discussed as well. (orig.)

  14. Dissecting stimulus-response binding effects: Grouping by color separately impacts integration and retrieval processes.

    Laub, Ruth; Frings, Christian; Moeller, Birte

    2018-04-23

    In selection tasks, target and distractor features can be encoded together with the response into the same short-lived memory trace, or event file (see Hommel, 2004), leading to bindings between stimulus and response features. The repetition of a stored target or distractor feature can lead to the retrieval of the entire episode, including the response-so-called "binding effects." Binding effects due to distractor repetition are stronger for grouped than for nongrouped target and distractor stimulus configurations. Modulation of either of two mechanisms that lead to the observed binding effects might be responsible here: Grouping may influence either stimulus-response integration or stimulus-response retrieval. In the present study we investigated the influences of grouping on both mechanisms independently. In two experiments, target and distractor letters were grouped (or nongrouped) via color (dis)similarity separately during integration and retrieval. Grouping by color similarity affected integration and retrieval mechanisms independently and in different ways. Color dissimilarity enhanced distractor-based retrieval, whereas color similarity enhanced distractor integration. We concluded that stimulus grouping is relevant for binding effects, but that the mechanisms that contribute to binding effects should be carefully separated.

  15. Introduction to the special issue 'unintended effects of international cooperation'.

    Koch, Dirk-Jan; Schulpen, Lau

    2018-06-01

    The 'Evaluation and Program Planning' journal has contributed to the launch of an academic discussion of unintended effects of international cooperation, notably by publishing in 2016 articles by Bamberger, Tarsilla, & Hesse-Biber and by Jabeen. This special issue aims to take up the academic challenges as laid down by those authors, by providing among others a clear typology and applying it, by outlining various methodological options and testing them, and elaborating on suggestions on how to deal with the barriers that prevent unintended effects being taken into account. This special issue makes clear that it is possible to reduce the share of unforeseen effects of international cooperation. Turning the spotlight on unintended effects that can be anticipated, and aiming to make progress on uncovering those that are particularly difficult to detect and debunking those that are exaggerated is the task that lies ahead of us. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Pragmatic Functions and Cultural Differences of Color Words

    陈俊屹

    2015-01-01

    Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.

  17. Effect of metal chloride solutions on coloration and biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Kwangmin; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Fisher, John G.; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    The effect of three kinds of transition metal dopants on the color and biaxial flexural strength of zirconia ceramics for dental applications was evaluated. Presintered zirconia discs were colored through immersion in aqueous chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions and then sintered at 1450 °C. The color of the doped specimens was measured using a digital spectrophotometer. For biaxial flexural strength measurements, specimens infiltrated with 0.3 wt% of each aqueous chloride solution were used. Uncolored discs were used as a control. Zirconia specimens infiltrated with chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions were dark brown, light yellow and dark yellow, respectively. CIE L*, a*, and b* values of all the chromium-doped specimens and the specimens infiltrated with 0.1 wt% molybdenum chloride solution were in the range of values for natural teeth. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three kinds of metal chloride groups were similar to the uncolored group. These results suggest that chromium and molybdenum dopants can be used as colorants to fabricate tooth colored zirconia ceramic restorations.

  18. COLOR STABILITY FOR WOOD PRODUCTS DURING USE: EFFECTS OF INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES

    Vincent Blanchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress having been achieved in recent years to improve wood’s durability, additional developments are still necessary to increase its color stability. ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to UV absorbers (Tinuvin 477 DW, 292 and 5151 commonly used to stabilize the wood products color. Nanoparticles, with concentrations in the range 1 to 2 wt%, and UV absorbers, using concentrations advised by the manufacturer, were dispersed in a waterborne UV curable polyurethane/polyacrylate resin. Dispersions were carried out with a high speed mixer at 2,500 RPM with micro glass beads or not, depending on the form of the nanoparticles. Nanocomposite coatings were aged with a weather-o-meter (CI 3000+ - Atlas according ASTM G155. Color variations were measured with a colorimeter (BYK Gardner – Color Guide 45/0 working with the CIE L*a*b* system. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inorganic UV absorbers on the stabilization of color under indoor conditions. Results showed that nanoparticles (ZnO, CeO2 absorbed UV light frequencies in a manner similar to common organic molecules. Their efficiency was better at medium durations of light exposure, for which they could achieve the action of organic absorbers. Finally, the simultaneous use of both absorbers seems to create a protective synergy when degradation is due to UV energy alone.

  19. The time course of color- and luminance-based salience effects.

    Isabel C Dombrowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Salient objects in the visual field attract our attention. Recent work in the orientation domain has shown that the effects of the relative salience of two singleton elements on covert visual attention disappear over time. The present study aims to investigate how salience derived from color and luminance differences affects covert selection. In two experiments, observers indicated the location of a probe which was presented at different stimulus-onset-asynchronies after the presentation of a singleton display containing a homogeneous array of oriented lines and two distinct color singletons (Experiment 1 or luminance singletons (Experiment 2. The results show that relative singleton salience from luminance and color differences, just as from orientation differences, affects covert visual attention in a brief time span after stimulus onset. The mere presence of an object, however, can affect covert attention for a longer time span regardless of salience.

  20. Quark pair creation in color electric fields and effects of magnetic fields

    Tanji, Noato

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of a system where a uniform and classical SU(3) color electric field and quantum fields of quarks interact with each other is studied focusing on non-perturbative pair creation and its back reaction. We characterize a color direction of an electric field in a gauge invariant way, and investigate its dependence. Momentum distributions of created quarks show plasma oscillation as well as quantum effects such as the Pauli blocking and interference. Pressure of the system is also calculated, and we show that pair creation moderates degree of anisotropy of pressure. Furthermore, enhancement of pair creation and induction of chiral charge under a color magnetic field which is parallel to an electric field are discussed.

  1. Effect of commercial mannoprotein addition on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition in red wines.

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2008-10-08

    Commercially available mannoprotein preparations were tested in Tempranillo winemaking to determine their influence on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition. No effect was found in the content of grape arabinogalactans, homogalacturonans, and type II rhamnogalacturonans. In contrast, mannoprotein-treated samples showed considerably higher values of high-molecular-weight mannoproteins (bMP) than controls from the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, although these differences diminished as vinification progressed. The bMP decrease observed in the mannoprotein-treated samples coincided with a substantial reduction in their proanthocyanidin content and wine stable color, suggesting a precipitation of the coaggregates mannoprotein-tannin and mannoprotein-pigment. Contrary to what is widely described, these results revealed that at the studied conditions, mannoproteins did not act as stabilizing colloids. Mannoprotein addition did not modify the content and composition of either monomeric anthocyanins or other monomeric phenolics, and it did not affect monomeric anthocyanin color.

  2. Color Reproduction with Juxtaposed Halftoning

    Babaei, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Recently, non-standard inks have begun to make their way into the world of printing. Non-standard inks are printing materials which exhibit unusual effects such as angular color dependence, texture, or fluorescence. They are made of special-effect pigments that play an increasingly important role in the paint, plastic, and cosmetic industries. In the printing industry, due to the challenges they pose, they have restricted applications. A long-held assumption in classic printing is the transp...

  3. The Effects of Using Color Microfiche Upon Achievement in a Course on Interior Home Design.

    Aleamoni, Lawrence M.; And Others

    A study was devised to replicate an earlier study which examined the effects of using color microfiche on achievement in a course on interior home design. The microfiche contained representative slides taken from the class lectures. Subjects, who were 136 college students enrolled in the course, were divided into three groups: Group One was…

  4. Effect of Drying on the Color of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) Leaves

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drying conditions on the color of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures of 40 to 90 °C with a constant airflow of 0.6 m/s. The samples were collected at 7%, 10%, 20%, and 30% moisture content wet basis for evaluation of the

  5. The Effects of Lesson Screen Background Color on Declarative and Structural Knowledge

    Clariana, Roy B.; Prestera, Gustavo E.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental investigation replicates previous investigations of the effects of left margin screen background color hue to signal lesson sections on declarative knowledge and extends those investigations by adding a measure of structural knowledge. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 computer-based lesson treatments…

  6. Mengkaji Penggunaan Software Apple Color untuk Color Grading saat Pasca Produksi

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-production process, there is one process that is not as well known as the video editing process, the addition of animation, special effects enrichment, motion graphics or audio editing and audio mixing, an important process which is rarely realized called Color Correction or Color Grading. Various software have been made to handle this process, ranging from additional filters are already available for free in any editing software, to high-end devices worth billions of dollars dedicated for specifically conducting Color Correction. Apple Color is one of the software included in the purchase of Final Cut Studio package which also include Final Cut Pro for Video Editing, Soundtrack Pro for Sound Editing and Mixing, and Motion for compositing. Apple's Color is specially designed for color correction tasks after previously edited in Final Cut Pro. This paper is designed to introduce Apple's software as well as analyze the feasibility of Apple Color as a professional device in the world of production, especially post-production. Some professional color correction software will be compared briefly with Apple Color to get an objective conclusion. 

  7. Nucleon color oscillations in nuclei and the EMC-effect

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of the EMC-effect is discussed. It is shown that the existence of long-range six-quark clusters in nuclei allows to understand why the nucleon structure function in a nucleus differs from that of a free nucleon

  8. Effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled resin immersed in different media

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT according to different immersion media.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Composite disks (10 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness were prepared for each group (n = 6 using a stainless steel mold. The groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing procedure and immersion media (artificial saliva, artificial juice- KAPO(r Coca-Cola(rflavors: pineapple, orange, strawberry and grape. The finishing and polishing procedures were performed using Super -Snap(r disks. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours (baseline and were analyzed using a color spectrophotometer by CIELab system. Then, they were immersed in different media for 5 minutes, 3 times a day, every 4 hours during 60 days. They were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1°C during the immersion intervals. After this time, new measure of color was performed. The data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis test and Mann- Whitney test. The significance level was 5%.RESULT: The results showed that the finishing/polishing not significantly influence the color stability of resin composite (p > 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the color stability of the studied resin after immersion in different media (p > 0.05.CONCLUSION: The finishing and polishing procedures and the immersion media did not have influence on color stability of nanofilled resin Filtek Z350 XT.

  9. ANALYSIS ON THE INFLUENCE OF ACCUMULATION EFFECT OF LANDSCAPE COLOR ON TRAFFIC SAFETY IN THE FOGGY SECTIONS OF EXPRESSWAYS

    Xilei Li; Boming Tang; Qianghui Song

    2017-01-01

    The landscape color of expressways has a significant impact on a driver's visual response, thus affecting the incidence of expressways traffic accidents. Although this problem has been analyzed and discussed from different angles, there is rare quantitative analysis on the influence of accumulation effect of landscape color on the traffic safety in foggy sections of expressways. In this paper, the color combination and stroboflash of fog lamps on both sides of the road were designed from the ...

  10. Color transparency

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  11. The effect of different shades of specific luting agents and IPS empress ceramic thickness on overall color.

    Terzioğlu, Hakan; Yilmaz, Burak; Yurdukoru, Bengul

    2009-10-01

    The color stability of both porcelain and luting materials is very important for the esthetics of laminate veneers and all-ceramic crowns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different shades of resin-based luting cement and the thickness of IPS Empress ceramics on the final color of the restorations. Resin-based dual-polymerized composite cement in two different shades (RelyX ARC) and ceramic disks of different thicknesses were selected for the study. Forty specimens (ten each of four different thicknesses: 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) were used for the evaluation. Initial specimen color parameters were determined in a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color order system with a colorimeter. Two different shades of the cement were prepared as polymerized layers and applied to one face of the specimens in order. Color changes were calculated between baseline color measurements and measurements after cementation. Color difference data were analyzed statistically. All specimens showed a significant color shift (DE > 3.7) after cementation regardless of the cement shade. However, the differences in the cement shade did not significantly affect the final color of the ceramic specimens for any thickness, and color shifts were not perceivable between the different shades of cement. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:499-505.).

  12. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  13. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  14. The central tendency bias in color perception: effects of internal and external noise.

    Olkkonen, Maria; McCarthy, Patrice F; Allred, Sarah R

    2014-09-05

    Perceptual estimates can be biased by previously seen stimuli in delayed estimation tasks. These biases are often toward the mean of the whole stimulus set. Recently, we demonstrated such a central tendency bias in delayed color estimation. In the Bayesian framework of perceptual inference, perceptual biases arise when noisy sensory measurements are combined with prior information about the world. Here, we investigate this idea in color perception by manipulating stimulus range and stimulus noise while characterizing delayed color estimates. First, we manipulated the experimental prior for stimulus color by embedding stimuli in collections with different hue ranges. Stimulus range affected hue bias: Hue estimates were always biased toward the mean of the current set. Next, we studied the effect of internal and external noise on the amount of hue bias. Internal noise was manipulated by increasing the delay between the reference and test from 0.4 to 4 s. External noise was manipulated by increasing the amount of chromatic noise in the reference stimulus, while keeping the delay between the reference and test constant at 2 s. Both noise manipulations had a reliable effect on the strength of the central tendency bias. Furthermore, there was a tendency for a positive relationship between variability of the estimates and bias in both noise conditions. In conclusion, observers are able to learn an experimental hue prior, and the weight on the prior can be manipulated by introducing noise in the estimation process. © 2014 ARVO.

  15. Effects of Colored Noise on Stochastic Resonance in Sensory Neurons

    Nozaki, D.; Mar, D.J.; Collins, J.J.; Grigg, P.

    1999-01-01

    Noise can assist neurons in the detection of weak signals via a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). We demonstrate experimentally that SR-type effects can be obtained in rat sensory neurons with white noise, 1/f noise, or 1/f 2 noise. For low-frequency input noise, we show that the optimal noise intensity is the lowest and the output signal-to-noise ratio the highest for conventional white noise. We also show that under certain circumstances, 1/f noise can be better than white noise for enhancing the response of a neuron to a weak signal. We present a theory to account for these results and discuss the biological implications of 1/f noise. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Effect of fluoride varnishes on color stability of esthetic restorative materials.

    Autio-Gold, Jaana T; Barrett, Allyson A

    2004-01-01

    (deltaE*=1.19 and deltaL*=-1.03), indicating the effect of the color change was due to absorption. After fluoride varnish applications, Duraphat varnish produced significant changes in all tested materials and shades, resulting in color changes with deltaE greater than (>) 1 but less than (dental literature as clinically acceptable. Fluoride varnishes can be used without adversely affecting the color of restorative materials.

  17. Industrial Color Physics

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  18. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  19. Parton saturation effects to the Drell-Yan process in the color dipole picture

    Betemps, M.A.; Gay Ducati, M.B.; Machado, M.V.T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the results obtained in the study of the parton saturation effects, taken into account through the multi-scattering Glauber-Mueller approach applied to the Drell-Yan (DY) process described in the color dipole picture. As a main result, one shows that those effects play an important role on the estimates of the DY differential cross section at RHIC energies. (author)

  20. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  1. The effect of color on the recognition and use of line drawings by children with severe intellectual disabilities.

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2007-03-01

    Line drawings are commonly used as communication symbols for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. This study investigated the effect of color on the recognition and use of line drawings by young children with severe intellectual disabilities and poor verbal comprehension who were beginning picture users. Drawings where the color of the picture matched the object and where the color of the drawing did not match the object were used, as well as black and white line drawings. Tentative findings suggest that some students with intellectual disabilities may find it more difficult to recognize and line drawings where the color does not match the object compared to line drawings where the color of the drawing does match the color of the object.

  2. The effect of solvents on the stabilities (color and Fe) of anthocyanin isolated from the red-color-melinjo peels

    Tarmizi, Ermiziar, E-mail: uph-ermi@yahoo.com, E-mail: ermitarmizi@gmail.com; Saragih, Raskita, E-mail: raskitasaragih@yahoo.com [Indonesia Institute of Technology (ITI), Raya PuspiptekSerpong, Tangerang Banten 15320 (Indonesia); Lalasari, Latifa Hanum, E-mail: ifa-sari@yahoo.com, E-mail: lati003@lipi.go.id [Research Centre for Metallurgy and Material, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), KawasanPuspiptekSerpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anthocyanin from the red-color-melinjo peels could be isolated using a polar solvent (ethanol) [ermiziar, 2010]. The amount of hydrocarbons in the structure of anthocyanin might cause that anthocyanin could be isolated using a non polar solvent. The purpose of research is to isolate anthocyanin using non polar solvents (hexane and petroleum ether) with maceration steps for 24 hours and separate solvents using rotary evaporator equipment. The stability of anthocyanin could be observed every week (1,2,3 and 4 weeks) in various environmental conditions (with or without light in refrigerator and open or closed storage). The characterization of anthocyanin was analyzed with visual (physic photo) and or using equipments such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for determining functional groups, Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (UV/Vis) with 500-550 nm wavelengths for deciding absorption of anthocyanin and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for analyzing Fe element. The result showed that anthocyanin isolation with hexane solvent has yield higher than petroleum eter solvent. From the results of physic observation for 4 weeks looked that there are changing colors of samples significant after 3 and 4 weeks in cooler with or without light. The stability of anthocyanin color was the best on the storage time until 2 weeks using hexane solvent in refrigerator and closed condition that it has absorption of 0.6740 with 500 nm wavelengths and Fe concentration 6.29 ppm.

  3. The effect of solvents on the stabilities (color and Fe) of anthocyanin isolated from the red-color-melinjo peels

    Tarmizi, Ermiziar; Saragih, Raskita; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin from the red-color-melinjo peels could be isolated using a polar solvent (ethanol) [ermiziar, 2010]. The amount of hydrocarbons in the structure of anthocyanin might cause that anthocyanin could be isolated using a non polar solvent. The purpose of research is to isolate anthocyanin using non polar solvents (hexane and petroleum ether) with maceration steps for 24 hours and separate solvents using rotary evaporator equipment. The stability of anthocyanin could be observed every week (1,2,3 and 4 weeks) in various environmental conditions (with or without light in refrigerator and open or closed storage). The characterization of anthocyanin was analyzed with visual (physic photo) and or using equipments such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for determining functional groups, Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (UV/Vis) with 500-550 nm wavelengths for deciding absorption of anthocyanin and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for analyzing Fe element. The result showed that anthocyanin isolation with hexane solvent has yield higher than petroleum eter solvent. From the results of physic observation for 4 weeks looked that there are changing colors of samples significant after 3 and 4 weeks in cooler with or without light. The stability of anthocyanin color was the best on the storage time until 2 weeks using hexane solvent in refrigerator and closed condition that it has absorption of 0.6740 with 500 nm wavelengths and Fe concentration 6.29 ppm

  4. Effect of sealant agents on the color stability and surface roughness of nanohybrid composite resins.

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Şahin, Onur; Koroglu, Aysegül; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of nanohybrid composite resins is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of 4 nanohybrid composite resin materials. Forty disks (10×2 mm) were fabricated for each nanohybrid composite resin material (Z-550, Tetric EvoCeram, Clearfill Majesty, Ice) (N=160) and divided into 4 surface treatment groups: 1 conventional polishing (control) and 3 different sealant agent (Palaseal, Optiglaze, BisCover) coupling groups (n=10). The specimens were thermocycled, and surface roughness (Ra) values were obtained with a profilometer. Scanning electron microscope images were also recorded. CIELab color parameters of each specimen were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after 7 days of storage in a coffee solution. Color differences were calculated by the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. The data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The surface treatment technique significantly affected the Ra values of the composite resins tested (Pcomposite resin material was also significant for ΔE00 values (Pcomposite resin groups, significant decreases in Ra were observed only for the Palaseal agent coupled composite resin groups (except Ice) compared with the control groups (Pcomposite resin group, except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty (Pcomposite resin groups, significant differences were observed between the color change seen with BisCover and other sealants for Clearfill Majesty composite resin (Pcomposite resins except for Ice produced smoother surfaces. All surface sealant agents provided less discoloration of nanohybrid composite resins after coffee staining compared with conventional polishing except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty composite resin. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Effect of Accelerated Aging on Color Change of Direct and Indirect Fiber-Reinforced Composite Restorations

    Masomeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of artificial accelerated aging (AAA on color change of direct and indirect fiber-reinforced composite (FRC restorations.Materials and Methods: Direct (Z250 and indirect (Gradia composite resins were reinforced with glass (GF and polyethylene fibers (PF based on the manufacturers’ instructions. Forty samples were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n=5. Four groups served as experimental groups and the remaining four served as controls. Color change (∆E and color parameters (∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b* were read at baseline and after AAA based on the CIELAB system. Three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Significant differences were found in ΔE, ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* among the groups after AAA (P<0.05. Most of the studied samples demonstrated an increase in lightness and a red-yellow shift after AAA.Conclusions: The obtained ∆E values were unacceptable after AAA (∆E≥ 3.3. All indirect samples showed a green-blue shift with a reduction in lightness except for Gradia/PF+ NuliteF.Keywords: Aging; Composite Resins; Color

  6. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  7. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    Riccardo Papa

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change.

  8. Color coherent effects in (e,e{prime}N) and (e,e{prime}N,N(h)) processes at CEBAF

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Sargsyan, M.M. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Strikman, M.I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1994-04-01

    The options for investigating color coherent effects and competing nuclear effects of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei, nuclear shell effects in (e, e{prime}N) and (e, e{prime}NN(h)) reactions are considered. They argue that extension of CEBAF energies to reach Q{sup 2} = 10 GeV{sup 2} will allow systematical investigations of color coherent effects in nonperturbative regime of QCD and their interplay with nuclear effects.

  9. Color coherent effects in (e,e'N) and (e,e'N,N(h)) processes at CEBAF

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Sargsyan, M.M.; Strikman, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The options for investigating color coherent effects and competing nuclear effects of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei, nuclear shell effects in (e, e'N) and (e, e'NN(h)) reactions are considered. They argue that extension of CEBAF energies to reach Q 2 = 10 GeV 2 will allow systematical investigations of color coherent effects in nonperturbative regime of QCD and their interplay with nuclear effects

  10. Color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on a discolored composite resin.

    Gul, P; Harorlı, O T; Ocal, I B; Ergin, Z; Barutcigil, C

    2017-10-01

    Discoloration of resin-based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite resin. Fifty disk-shaped dental composite specimens were prepared using A2 shade nanohybrid universal composite resin (3M ESPE Filtek Z550, St. Paul, MN, USA). Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) were tested in this study. Distilled water was used as control group. The color of the samples were measured using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easy shade Compact, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Color changes (ΔE00) were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired samples test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). The staining beverages caused perceptible discoloration (ΔE00 > 2.25). The color recovery effect of all bleaching systems was statistically determined to be more effective than the control group (P OB group was found as the most effective bleaching system, there was no statistically significant difference among HB, OB, and LB groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the highest recovery effect was determined in office bleaching system among all bleaching systems. However, home and laser bleaching systems were determined as effective as office bleaching system.

  11. Effective Connectivity Determines the Nature of Subjective Experience in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Synesthesia provides an elegant model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in subjective experience in humans. In grapheme-color synesthesia, written letters induce color sensations, accompanied by activation of color area V4. Competing hypotheses suggest that enhanced

  12. Color superconductivity

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  13. Color superconductivity

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  14. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  15. Effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef top loin steak color.

    English, A R; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef LM color. Using a randomized complete block design, each beef longissimus lumborum muscle ( = 10; USDA Choice, 3 d postmortem) was equally divided into 3 sections and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods (21, 42, or 62 d at 2°C). After respective aging, each loin section was cut into four 2.5-cm-thick steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging types (PVC, HiOx-MAP [80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide], or CO-MAP [0.4% carbon monoxide, 69.6% nitrogen, and 30% carbon dioxide]). The steaks were displayed under continuous fluorescent lighting for 6 d, and surface color was determined daily using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer and a visual panel. The fourth steak was used to characterize oxygen consumption (OC), lipid oxidation, and metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) on 21, 42, and 62 d (before display). On d 6 display, MRA, OC, and lipid oxidation also were measured. An increase in aging time decreased ( packaging × display time interaction ( packaging types on d 6. At all aging periods, steaks packaged in CO-MAP had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had the least MRA ( packaged in CO-MAP and displayed for 6 d. However, steaks packaged in HiOx-MAP and displayed 6 d had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had a lower ( packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP when aged for 21 d and displayed 6 d. The results indicate that extended aging is detrimental to color stability when packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP. However, steaks in CO-MAP had stable red color during display. Decreased color stability in PVC and HiOx-MAP could be associated, in part, with decreased MRA and OC.

  16. THE EFFECT OF MOUTH RINSES ON THE COLOR STABILITY OF SONICFILL AND A NANOHYBRID COMPOSITE

    Tuğba Toz-Akalın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 mouth rinses on the color stability of two different resin composites. Materials and Methods: A2 shade sonic-activated bulk fill material SonicFill (Kerr and conventional nanohybrid composite Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE were used. Forty disc-shaped specimens (10 mm x 2 mm were fabricated for both composites and finished using 400-grit SiC paper and polished. After polishing and immersing in distilled water for 24h all specimens were subjected to color measurements. The baseline color values (L*, a*, b* of each specimen were measured with a colorimeter. Following baseline measurement each composite group was divided into 5 groups: Oral-B Pro Expert Clinic Line Alcoholfree (Oral-B group, Listerine Tooth Defense Rinse (Listerine group, Pharmol Zn Mouth rinse (Çözümilaç group, Nilera Mouth rinse (Nilera group and Distilled water (control group. The specimens were incubated in mouth rinses (20 ml at 37°C for 12 hours and subjected to color measurement. Two-way ANO VA was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: SonicFill showed significantly higher discoloration when exposed to Oral-B Pro Expert Clinic Line Alcohol-free, Listerine Tooth Defense Rinse and Pharmol Zn Mouth rinse. The color differences of two resin composites were not statistically significant for distilled water and Nilera Mouth rinse. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it can be concluded that the SonicFill showed higher discoloration than nanohybrid resin composite Filtek Z550.

  17. ANALYSIS ON THE INFLUENCE OF ACCUMULATION EFFECT OF LANDSCAPE COLOR ON TRAFFIC SAFETY IN THE FOGGY SECTIONS OF EXPRESSWAYS

    Xilei Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The landscape color of expressways has a significant impact on a driver's visual response, thus affecting the incidence of expressways traffic accidents. Although this problem has been analyzed and discussed from different angles, there is rare quantitative analysis on the influence of accumulation effect of landscape color on the traffic safety in foggy sections of expressways. In this paper, the color combination and stroboflash of fog lamps on both sides of the road were designed from the perspective of the color research of road landscapes, and the cumulative effect of colors and stroboflash of fog lamps on the drivers’ mind was also studied. Then the interactive cumulative model based on landscape color and driving time in heavy-fog environment was established. Finally, multi-group of fog-lamp colors and spacing experiment program allowing a visibility of 200–500m in fog environments was designed by using Tobii eye-movement instrument and the UC-win/Road simulation software. According to the program, simulations were performed on several drivers to test the influence of road-landscape colors in foggy environments on the drivers' visual psychology. The results of the simulation experiment showed that the colors and stroboflash of fog lamps on both sides of the road have a positive effect on the drivers’ safety when the visibility range is 200–500m, and the driving speed is less than 70 km/h, in addition, the red and yellow were found to have the largest influence among all the studied colors. These results show that it is necessary to design landscape colors in the foggy sections of expressways.

  18. Color Sense

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  19. A comparative study of the effect of low laser radiation on mast cells in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia colored and not colored by the toluidine blue

    Sawazaki, Iris

    2001-01-01

    THIS STUDY SHOWS A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE LASER RADIATION IN LOW INTENSITY ON THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION IN INFLAMMATORY FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA WHEN THEY ARE COLORED OR NOT BY THE TOLUIDINE BLUE. THE DYE WAS USED IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE ABSORPTION OF THE LASER LIGHT BY THE TISSUE. THE INJURE WAS DIVIDED IN THREE EQUAL PARTS, AND EACH PART RECEIVED A DIFFERENT KIND OF TREATMENT. ONE OF THEM WAS REMOVED TO BE THE CONTROL, THE SECOND PART WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED AND THE LAST ONE, AFTER BEING SUPERFICIALLY COLORED, WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED . THE ORDER OF THE STAGES WAS RANDOMLY CHANGED , THEN THE TIME BETWEEN THE STAGES WOULD NOT INTERFERE IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES WERE 49% FOR THE CONTROL GROUP, 87% FOR THE LASER GROUP AND 88% FOR THE COLORED/LASER GROUP. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT STATISTICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP LASER TREATED AND THE ONE COLORED/LASER TREATED. HOWEVER, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND THE TREATED GROUP (PS ≤ 0,01). (AUTHOR)

  20. Photonic band gap effect and structural color from silver nanoparticle gelatin emulsion

    Kok, Mang Hin; Ma, Rui; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2005-10-01

    We have fabricated planar structures of silver nanoparticles in monochromatic gelatin emulsion with a continuous spacing ranging from 0.15-0.40 micron using a two-beam interference of a single laser source. Our planar holograms display a colorful “rainbow” pattern and photonic bandgaps covering the visible and IR ranges. We model the planar silver nanoparticle-gelatin composite system using an effective medium approach and good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  1. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  2. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  3. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Ahn, D.U.; Nam, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid

  4. Goldstone boson condensation and effects of the axial anomaly in color superconductivity

    Basler, Hannes Gregor Steffen

    2011-01-12

    One of the central objects of interest in high energy physics is the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter, the behavior of quarks and gluons in dependence of temperature and chemical potential. At very high densities and low temperatures it is expected that quarks form a superconductor, the so-called color superconductor. Such a color superconductor might be realized in the inner core of a neutron star. To study the phase structure of a color superconductor under neutron star conditions the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is used. The diquark condensates appearing in a color superconductor may break the original symmetries and give rise to Goldstone bosons. In this work we study the possible condensation of these Goldstone bosons. On the level of diquark condensates the condensation of Goldstone bosons is realized by a rotation of scalar into pseudoscalar diquark condensates. The phase diagram is studied, including pseudoscalar diquark condensates, for several different values of the lepton number chemical potential. The masses and thereby the condensation of the Goldstone bosons is effected by a six-point interaction that breaks the axial U(1) symmetry. Usually this six-point interaction is implemented in the NJL model in such a way that is does not effect the diquark sector. This can be fixed by adding an second six-point interaction term to the NJL Lagrangian. The coupling strength of this new interaction term has a great influence on the phase digram. In this context also the effect on the chiral phase transition is studied. (orig.)

  5. Effect of irradiation with black light fluorescent lamp on coloration and hardness of strawberry [Fragaria ananassa] fruits

    Higashio, H.; Hirono, H.; Sato, F.; Tokuda, S.; Uragami, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of irradiation by black light fluorescent lamp on the coloration and hardness of detached strawberry fruits was studied. Only the coloring of fruits (var. Toyonoka) that had started to pigment was accelerated by lamp irradiation. Maintaining the irradiation distance and ambient temperature after treatment was very important to obtain the maximum effect, and the action of lamps was restricted to the irradiated parts. The accelerating effect of a lamp on coloration was observed in all 3 of other varieties examined, and in some varieties, the level of anthocyanin concentration in fruits was greater than that in ripening stage. However, the lamp did not affect the hardness of fruits

  6. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  7. Typography and color: effects of salience and fluency on conscious recollective experience.

    Wehr, Thomas; Wippich, Werner

    2004-12-01

    Within one experiment the central assumptions of the distinctiveness/fluency account of recollective experience were tested and contrasted with predictions of processing theory. To manipulate perceptual salience, the typography of words was varied. Effects of conceptual salience were induced by a variation of word color. In the study phase participants generated different word or object images according to presented words. To manipulate perceptual and conceptual fluency one test group underwent a priming procedure in the test phase, consisting of a recognition test, whereby some primes were identical to the target words typographically or by color and others were not. Additionally, all participants were asked to make judgments of recollective experience (remember, know, guess) after the old/new decisions. The results of the data analyses confirm the distinctiveness/fluency account. Words written in an unusual typography or color were judged significantly more often as "remembered" than normal words. The priming procedure uncovered some effects of fluency on reaction times: old/new decisions took less time if prime and target words were perceptually or conceptually identical.

  8. The effects of kinesio taping on the color intensity of superficial skin hematomas: A pilot study.

    Vercelli, Stefano; Colombo, Claudio; Tolosa, Francesca; Moriondo, Andrea; Bravini, Elisabetta; Ferriero, Giorgio; Francesco, Sartorio

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the effects of kinesio taping (KT) -applied with three different strains that induced or not the formation of skin creases (called convolutions)- on color intensity of post-surgical superficial hematomas. Single-blind paired study. Rehabilitation clinic. A convenience sample of 13 inpatients with post-surgical superficial hematomas. The tape was applied for 24 consecutive hours. Three tails of KT were randomly applied with different degrees of strain: none (SN); light (SL); and full longitudinal stretch (SF). We expected to obtain correct formation of convolutions with SL, some convolutions with SN, and no convolutions with SF. The change in color intensity of hematomas, measured by means of polar coordinates CIE L*a*b* using a validated and standardized digital images system. Applying KT to hematomas did not significantly change the color intensity in the central area under the tape (p > 0.05). There was a significant treatment effect (p  0.05). The changes observed along the edges of the tape could be related to the formation of a pressure gradient between the KT and the adjacent area, but were not dependent on the formation of skin convolutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on color stability of fungal pigments.

    Aguilar-Machado, Diederich; Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Raso, Javier; Montañez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on the color stability of a red pigment extract produced by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 suspended in a buffer solution (pH 6) and in a beverage model system (pH 4). Color stability of pigmented extract was evaluated in the range of 60-90 ℃. The degradation pattern of pigments was well described by the first-order (fractional conversion) and Bigelow model. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.009 and 0.088 min -1 in systems evaluated. Significant differences in the rate constant values of the ohmic heating-treated samples in comparison with conventional thermal treatment suggested a possible effect of the oscillating electric field generated during ohmic heating. The thermodynamic analysis also indicated differences in the color degradation mechanism during ohmic heating specifically when the pigment was suspended in the beverage model system. In general, red pigments produced by P. purpurogenum GH2 presented good thermal stability under the range of the evaluated experimental conditions, showing potential future applications in pasteurized food matrices using ohmic heating treatment.

  10. Color transparency

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  11. Effect of opacifiers and UV absorbers on pigmented maxillofacial silicone elastomer, part 1: color stability after artificial aging.

    Han, Ying; Powers, John M; Kiat-Amnuay, Sudarat

    2013-06-01

    Much dissatisfaction with the color instability and reduced lifetime of extraoral maxillofacial prostheses due to degradation has been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a UV mineral-based light protecting agent (LP) on the color stability of pigmented maxillofacial silicone elastomer MDX-4210/Type A after artificial aging to 2 widely used opacifiers. Forty-five groups were established (n=225 total). Three different types of opacifiers (LP, titanium white dry pigment [TW], or silicone intrinsic white [SW]) were added to silicone MDX-4210/type A at 3 concentrations (5%, 10%, or 15%) and subsequently combined with each of 5 colors (no pigments [control], red, blue, yellow, or mixed pigments). Artists' oil pigment was used with LP and TW, while intrinsic silicone pigment was used to color SW. Before and after an energy exposure of 450 kJ/m(2), CIE L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer. The CIELAB 50:50% perceptibility (ΔE*=1.1) and acceptability threshold (ΔE*=3.0) were used to interpret color changes (ΔE*). Color differences after aging were subjected to 3-way ANOVA. Means were compared by the Fisher PLSD intervals at α=.05. The ΔE* values of all groups were below the acceptability threshold of ΔE*=3.0, except for the control group of SW at 10%, which showed the greatest color change (ΔE*=3.1). When mixed pigment groups were considered, at 5% concentration, LP showed the smallest color change, followed by SW and TW (P.05); at 15%, LP showed the smallest color change, followed by TW and SW (P<.05). All 3 opacifiers at all concentrations protected pigmented silicone MDX4-4210/Type A from color degradation. The LP group showed the smallest color changes. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Temperature and Drying Method on Drying Time and Color Quality of Mint

    H Bahmanpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mint (Mentha spicata L. cbelongs to the Lamiaceae family, is an herbaceous, perennial, aromatic and medicinal plant that cultivated for its essential oils and spices. Since the essential oil is extracted from dried plant, choosing the appropriate drying method is essential for gaining high quality essential oil.Vacuum drying technology is an alternative to conventional drying methods and reported by many authors as an efficient method for improving the drying quality especially color characteristics. On the other side, solar dryers are also useful for saving time and energy. In this study the effect of two method of dryings including vacuum-infrared versus solar at three different conventional temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C on mint plant is evaluated while factorial experiment with randomized complete block is applied. Drying time as well as color characteristics areconsidered for evaluation of each method of drying. Materials and Methods Factorial experiment with randomized complete block was applied in order to evaluate the effect of drying methods (vacuum-infrared versus solar and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C on drying time and color characteristics of mint. The initially moisture content of mint leaves measured according to the standard ASABE S358.2 during 24 hours inside an oven at 104 °C. Drying the samples continued until the moisture content (which real time measured reached to 10% wet basis. The components of a vacuum dryer consisted of a cylindrical vacuum chamber (0.335 m3 and a vacuum pump (piston version. The temperature of the chamber was controlled using three infrared bulbs using on-off controller. Temperature and weight of the products registered real time using a data acquisition system. The components of a solar dryer were consisting of a solar collector and a temperature control system which was turning the exhaust fan on and off in order to maintain the specific temperature. A date acquisition system was

  13. Synesthesia and Memory: Color Congruency, Von Restorff, and False Memory Effects

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we explored the influence of synesthesia on memory for word lists. We tested 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who reported an experience of color when reading letters or words. We replicated a previous finding that memory is compromised when synesthetic color is incongruent with perceptual color. Beyond this, we found that,…

  14. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    indicate that gamma radiation can be used for keeping the color. Doses up to 3kGy were efficient for that. Future studies should consider pretreatments to minimize the darkening effects on fruits. Therefore, the results from this study suggest the use of gamma radiation as a quality alternative for keep the color of minimally processed melon and papaya. (author)

  15. Special Effects in Viceregal Festivities in New Spain and Peru

    Solange Alberro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Festivities in the two major American viceroyalties inherited traits from theri forerunners in mainland Spain, which they resembled in may ways. However, the human and cultural contexts were different, so the metropolitan people were replaced by indians and Castes. Each detail in the celebrations carried different messages to awaken in all urban sectors different representations and emotions that would eventually exalt in everybody imperial order in all its facets. These representantion and emotions spanned from admiration to the most rustic hilarity  and childish tenderness, thus the relevance of technologically managed special effects. The fantastic and fabulous went hand in hand with circus tricks, and gunpowder played an essential role in creating atmospheres and scenarios inspiring alternately admiration, laughter, and fear. Forefathers of our current mass events, these festivities managed, with the means at hand, to teach, entertain, and fascinate indian subjects of all levels. The special effects and emotions  sowed in them the idea of a powerful yet human imperial monarchy.

  16. Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size.

    McClain, A D; van den Bos, W; Matheson, D; Desai, M; McClure, S M; Robinson, T N

    2014-05-01

    The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate's rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring on perceived food portion size. In both experiments, participants observed a series of photographic images of paired, side-by-side plates varying in designs and amounts of food. From each pair, participants were asked to select the plate that contained more food. Multilevel logistic regression examined the effects of rim width and coloring on perceived food portion size. Experiment 1: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 5% and the visual area of food portions by 10% on plates with wider rims compared with plates with very thin rims (Pfood portion sizes. Experiment 2: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 1.5% and the visual area of food portions by 3% on plates with rim coloring compared with plates with no coloring (P=0.01). The effect of rim coloring was greater with smaller food portion sizes. The Delboeuf illusion applies to food on a plate. Participants overestimated food portion size on plates with wider and colored rims. These findings may help design plates to influence perceptions of food portion sizes.

  17. Simon and Garner effects with color and location: Evidence for two independent routes by which irrelevant location influences performance.

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Classic theories of attention assume that the processing of a target's featural dimension (e.g., color) is contingent on the processing of its spatial location. The present study challenges this maxim. Three experiments evaluated the dimensional independence of spatial location and color using a combined Simon (Simon & Rudell Journal of Applied Psychology: 51, 300-304, 1967) and Garner (Garner, 1974) design. The results showed that when the stimulus's spatial location was rendered more discriminable than its color (Experiment 1 and 2), both Simon and Garner effects were obtained, and location interfered with color judgments to a larger extent than color intruded on location. However, when baseline discriminabilities of location and color were matched (Experiment 3), no Garner interference was obtained from location to color, yet Simon effects still emerged, proving resilient to manipulations of discriminability. Further correlational and distributional analyses showed that Garner and Simon effects have dissociable effects. A triple-route model is proposed to account for the results, according to which irrelevant location can influence performance via two independent location routes/codes.

  18. Shift Colors

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  19. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  20. Neuropathies of the optic nerve and visual evoked potentials with special reference to color vision and differential light threshold measured with the computer perimeter OCTOPUS.

    Wildberger, H

    1984-10-31

    The contrast evoked potentials (VEPs) to different check sizes were recorded in about 200 cases of discrete optic neuropathies (ON) of different origin. Differential light threshold (DLT) was tested with the computer perimeter OCTOPUS. Saturated and desaturated tests were applied to evaluate the degree of acquired color vision deficiency. Delayed VEP responses are not confined to optic neuritis (RBN) alone and the different latency times obtained from other ON are confluent. The delay may be due to demyelination, to an increasing dominance of paramacular VEP subcomponents or to an increasing dominance of the upper half-field responses. Recording with smaller check sizes has the advantage that discrete dysfunctions in the visual field (VF) center are more easily detected: a correlation between amplitudes and visual acuity is best in strabismic amblyopias, is less expressed in maculopathies of the retina and weak in ON. The absence or reduction of amplitudes to smaller check sizes, however, is an important indication of a disorder in the VF center of ON in an early or recovered stage. Acquired color vision defects of the tritan-like type are more confined to discrete ON, whereas the red/green type is reserved to more severe ON. The DLT of the VF center is reduced in a different, significant and non significant extent in discrete optic neuropathies and the correlation between DLT and visual acuity is weak. A careful numerical analysis is needed in types of discrete ON where the central DLT lies within normal statistical limits: a side difference of the DLT between the affected and the normal fellow eye is always present. Evaluation of visual fatigue effects and of the relative sensitivity loss of VF center and VF periphery may provide further diagnostic information.

  1. [Visual associative memory and the orientation-contingent color after-effect].

    Maksimov, V V; Maksimov, P V

    2004-01-01

    The traditional explanation of the McCollough effect (ME) by selective adaptation of single detectors selective to color and orientation suffers from a number of inconsistencies: 1) the ME lasts much longer (from several days up to 3 months) than the ordinary adaptation, the decay of the effect being completely arrested by night sleep or occluding the eye for a long time; 2) the strength of the ME practically does not depend on the intensity of adapting light; and 3) a set of related pattern-contingent after-effects discovered later required for such an explanation new detectors, specific for other patterns. These properties can be explained, however, in the framework of associative memory and novelty filters. A computational model has been developed, which consists of 1) an input layer of two (left and right eyes) square matrices with two analog receptors (red and green) in each pixel, 2) an isomorphic associative neural layer, each analog neuron being synaptically connected with all receptors of both eyes, and 3) an output layer (novelty filter). The modification of synaptic efficacies conforms to the Hebb learning rule. The function of the model was examined by simulation. After a few presentations of colored gratings, the model displays the ME that is slowly destroyed by subsequent presentations of random pictures. With a sufficiently large receptor matrix, the effect lasts a thousand times longer than the period of adaptation. Continuous darkness does not change the strength of the effect. Like in real ME, the model does not display interocular transfer. The model can account for different pattern-contingent color after-effects without assuming any predetermined specific detectors. Such detectors are constructed in the course of adaptation to specific stimuli (gratings).

  2. Studies on the radicidation of natural food colorants. Effects of electron energy (accelerating voltages) and dose rate of ionizing radiation on functional properties of beet red colorant

    Higashimura, Yutaka; Tada, Mikiro; Furuta, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    In order to the practical use of radicidation of beet red, natural food colorant with low heat stability and high possibility of microbe contamination, we studied on the energy dependency and dose rate effect for the influence on functional properties of the beet red colorant. For the elucidation of energy dependency, the γ-ray (1.33 MeV) and electron beams with different accelerating voltages (0.75, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 MeV) were used. The dose rate effect was studied under the different dose rate by using γ-ray (0.723, 1.91 and 4.55 kGy/h) and electron beams with accelerating voltage of 10 MeV (1.0 x 10 3 , 2.6 x 10 3 , 7.0 x 10 3 , 7.0 x 10 3 , 2.0 x 10 4 and 5.0 x 10 4 kGy/h). The results obtained in this study showed that regardless of these energy and dose rate, the functional properties of the beet red colorant were little affected by irradiation less than 25 kGy of ionizing radiations. (author)

  3. Substantial Effect of Melanin Influencing Factors on Melanogenesis in Muzzle Melanocytes of Differently Colored Hanwoo

    Touseef Amna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, nitric oxide (NO and L-cysteine on melanin production and expression of related genes MC1R, Tyr, Tyrp-1 and Tyrp-2 in muzzle melanocytes of differently colored three native Hanwoo cattle. Muzzle samples were taken from black, brindle and brown Hanwoo and purified melanocytes were cultured with α-MSH, nitric oxide and L-cysteine at 100 nM, 50 µM and 0.07 mg/ml of media respectively. The amounts of total melanin, eumelanin and mRNA expression at Tyr, Tyrp-1, Tyrp-2 and MC1R levels were quantified. α-MSH and nitric oxide significantly increased (p<0.05 the amount of total melanin in black and brindle whereas eumelanin production in brown Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. On the contrary, L-cysteine greatly (p<0.05 depressed the eumelanin production in black color but increased in brown. Simultaneously, up regulation of Tyr by nitric oxide and α-MSH and down regulation of Tyr, Tyrp-2 and MC1R genes by L-cysteine were observed in muzzle melanocytes of all three phenotypes. The results of this study revealed nitric oxide and α-MSH contribute hyper-pigmentation by enhancing eumelanogenesis whereas L-cysteine contributes to pheomelanin production in different colored Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes.

  4. Maceration with stems contact fermentation: effect on proanthocyanidins compounds and color in Primitivo red wines.

    Suriano, Serafino; Alba, Vittorio; Tarricone, Luigi; Di Gennaro, Domenico

    2015-06-15

    Three Primitivo (Vitis vinifera, cv.) red wines were microvinified by means of different winemaking technologies: no stem-contact fermentation destemming 100% of grapes (D100); stem-contact fermentation destemming 75%, 50% of grapes (D75-D50) respectively. The objectives of this work were to improve proanthocyanidins content in wine, to monitor the relationships between anthocyanins/tannins and to detect the effects on the polymerization state of polyphenols after 12 months storage of wines. D100 showed higher anthocyanins content but lower color intensity and phenolic compounds content with respect to the theses D75 and D50, the last two showing lower anthocyanins content due their partial adsorption by grape stems during the fermentation. D75 gave the best results in terms of anthocyanins/color intensity balance and showed a better wine tannin component with respect to D50. Moreover after 12 months storage D50 reached a more advanced and stable polymerization state of colored pigments than the other wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The method for studying of the "magnetic vacuum" effect on color memory in humans].

    Bingi, V N; Zarutskiĭ, A A; Kapranov, S V; Kotel'nikov, S N; Miliaev, V A; Sarimov, R M

    2005-01-01

    The method for studying the effects of weak magnetic fields and "magnetic vacuum" on the psychophysiological state of a human organism is proposed. This method includes the system of the exposure of a human organism to uniform constant and alternating magnetic fields and the system of computerized psychological tests. The influence of the weakening of constant magnetic field on the psychophysiological state of human organisms was studied. The short-term color memory and reaction rates of 30 subjects have been examined in the local geomagnetic field and in a magnetic field which was reduced in 10 and more times. Statistically significant differences in the color memory test was found in the magnetic field 4 +/- 1 microT in comparison with the results in the geomagnetic field. In the magnetic field 0 +/- 1 microT, slight impairment of color memory was found. Preliminary results in the test of reaction rates showed the tendency to slowing down the reaction rates in the weakened magnetic fields.

  6. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  7. The Long-Term Effects of Racial Microaggressions on People of Color in STEM

    Smith, William

    2017-10-01

    People of Color experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in Racial Battle Fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for People of Color, while many Whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered-racism, and Racial Battle Fatigue is a premier challenge of the 21st Century. The term "racial microaggressions" was introduced in the 1970's to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by People of Color. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative workplace experiences of women, people of color, and other marginalized groups in astronomy and planetary science (Clancy et al. 2017). This presentation will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in STEM work environments.

  8. Recognition and use of line drawings by children with severe intellectual disabilities: the effects of color and outline shape.

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Communication symbols for students with severe intellectual disabilities often take the form of computer-generated line drawings. This study investigated the effects of the match between color and shape of line drawings and the objects they represented on drawing recognition and use. The match or non-match between color and shape of the objects and drawings did not have an effect on participants' ability to match drawings to objects, or to use drawings to make choices.

  9. Memory color of natural familiar objects: effects of surface texture and 3-D shape.

    Vurro, Milena; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2013-06-28

    Natural objects typically possess characteristic contours, chromatic surface textures, and three-dimensional shapes. These diagnostic features aid object recognition, as does memory color, the color most associated in memory with a particular object. Here we aim to determine whether polychromatic surface texture, 3-D shape, and contour diagnosticity improve memory color for familiar objects, separately and in combination. We use solid three-dimensional familiar objects rendered with their natural texture, which participants adjust in real time to match their memory color for the object. We analyze mean, accuracy, and precision of the memory color settings relative to the natural color of the objects under the same conditions. We find that in all conditions, memory colors deviate slightly but significantly in the same direction from the natural color. Surface polychromaticity, shape diagnosticity, and three dimensionality each improve memory color accuracy, relative to uniformly colored, generic, or two-dimensional shapes, respectively. Shape diagnosticity improves the precision of memory color also, and there is a trend for polychromaticity to do so as well. Differently from other studies, we find that the object contour alone also improves memory color. Thus, enhancing the naturalness of the stimulus, in terms of either surface or shape properties, enhances the accuracy and precision of memory color. The results support the hypothesis that memory color representations are polychromatic and are synergistically linked with diagnostic shape representations.

  10. Effect of varying core thicknesses and artificial aging on the color difference of different all-ceramic materials.

    Dikicier, Sibel; Ayyildiz, Simel; Ozen, Julide; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians should reserve all-ceramics with high translucency for clinical applications in which high-level esthetics are required. Furthermore, it is unclear whether a correlation exists between core thickness and color change. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different core thicknesses and artificial aging on the color stability of three all-ceramic systems. Ninety disc-shaped cores with different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm and 1.0 mm) were prepared from three all-ceramic systems, In-Ceram Alumina (IC), IPS e.max Press (EM) and Katana (K). The colors of the samples were measured with a spectrophotometer and the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, ΔE) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage) color system before and after aging. The effects of aging on color parameters were statistically significant (p artificial aging affected color stability of the all-ceramic materials tested.

  11. Effect of various de-anodizing techniques on the surface stability of non-colored and colored nanoporous AAO films in acidic solution

    Awad, Ahmed M.; Shehata, Omnia S.; Heakal, Fakiha El-Taib

    2015-12-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is well known as an important nanostructured material, and a useful template in the fabrication of nanostructures. Nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA) with high open porosity was prepared by adopting three de-anodizing regimes following the first anodizing step and preceding the second one. The de-anodizing methods include electrolytic etching (EE) and chemical etching using either phosphoric acid (PE) or sodium hydroxide (HE) solutions. Three of the obtained AAO samples were black colored by electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles in their pores. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to characterize the electrochemical performance of the two sets of the prepared samples. In general, the data obtained in aggressive aerated 0.5 M HCl solution demonstrated dissimilar behavior for the three prepared samples despite that the second anodizing step was the same for all of them. The data indicated that the resistance and thickness of the inner barrier part of nano-PAA film, are the main controlling factors determining its stability. On the other hand, coloring the film decreased its stability due to the galvanic effect. The difference in the electrochemical behavior of the three colored samples was discussed based on the difference in both the pore size and thickness of the outer porous part of PAA film as supported by SEM, TEM and cross-sectional micrographs. These results can thus contribute for better engineering applications of nanoporous AAO.

  12. Effect of various de-anodizing techniques on the surface stability of non-colored and colored nanoporous AAO films in acidic solution

    Awad, Ahmed M. [Chemical Engineering & Pilot Plant Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Shehata, Omnia S. [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Heakal, Fakiha El-Taib, E-mail: fakihaheakal@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Three de-anodization methods were used during two-step fabrication of nanoporous AAO. • Electrolytic etching (EE), chemical etching with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (PE) or NaOH (HE) were adopted. • After the second anodizing step, HE film was the thinnest as compared to EE and HE. • Stability order of nanoporous AAO films in 0.5 M HCl solution was: PE > EE > HE. • For the colored films by electrodeposited Cu atoms, the order was: HE > EE > PE. - Abstract: Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is well known as an important nanostructured material, and a useful template in the fabrication of nanostructures. Nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA) with high open porosity was prepared by adopting three de-anodizing regimes following the first anodizing step and preceding the second one. The de-anodizing methods include electrolytic etching (EE) and chemical etching using either phosphoric acid (PE) or sodium hydroxide (HE) solutions. Three of the obtained AAO samples were black colored by electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles in their pores. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to characterize the electrochemical performance of the two sets of the prepared samples. In general, the data obtained in aggressive aerated 0.5 M HCl solution demonstrated dissimilar behavior for the three prepared samples despite that the second anodizing step was the same for all of them. The data indicated that the resistance and thickness of the inner barrier part of nano-PAA film, are the main controlling factors determining its stability. On the other hand, coloring the film decreased its stability due to the galvanic effect. The difference in the electrochemical behavior of the three colored samples was discussed based on the difference in both the pore size and thickness of the outer porous part of PAA film as supported by SEM, TEM and cross-sectional micrographs. These results can thus contribute for better engineering

  13. Effects of air-polishing powders on color stability of composite resins.

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Duran, Ibrahim; Yücel, Ali Çağin; Ozkan, Pelin

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different air-polishing powders on the color stability of different types of composite resin restorative materials. Thirty cylindrical specimens (15×2 mm) were prepared for each of 7 composite resin restorative materials. All specimens were polished with a series of aluminum oxide polishing discs (Sof-Lex). The prepared specimens of each composite resin were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each, for control (Group-C) and two air-powder applications (Group-CP: Cavitron Prophy-Jet; Group-PS: Sirona ProSmile prophylaxis powder). A standard air-polishing unit (ProSmile Handly) was used. All specimens were air-powdered for 10 s at 4-bar pressure. The distance of the spray nosel from the specimens was approximately 10 mm and angulation of the nosel was 90°. Specimens were stored in 100 mL of coffee (Nescafe Classic) for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurement of all specimens was recorded before and after exposure to staining agent with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300). Color differences (∆E*) between the 2 color measurements (baseline and after 24 h storage) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA test, and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p.05) and these groups demonstrated the highest ∆E* values. For Filtek Silorane and IntenS, the highest ∆E* values were observed in Group-PS. The lowest ∆E* values for all composite resin groups were observed in Group-C. When comparing the 7 composite resin restorative materials, Aelite Aesthetic Enemal demonstrated significantly less ∆E* values than the other composite resins tested. The highest ∆E* values were observed in Quixfil. Except for Quixfil, all control groups of composite resins that were polished Sof-Lex exhibited clinically acceptable ∆E values (<3.7). Air-polishing applications increased the color change for all composite resin restorative materials tested. Composite restorations may require re

  14. Effects of air-polishing powders on color stability of composite resins

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different air-polishing powders on the color stability of different types of composite resin restorative materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty cylindrical specimens (15×2 mm were prepared for each of 7 composite resin restorative materials. All specimens were polished with a series of aluminum oxide polishing discs (Sof-Lex. The prepared specimens of each composite resin were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each, for control (Group-C and two air-powder applications (Group-CP: Cavitron Prophy-Jet; Group-PS: Sirona ProSmile prophylaxis powder. A standard air-polishing unit (ProSmile Handly was used. All specimens were air-powdered for 10 s at 4-bar pressure. The distance of the spray nosel from the specimens was approximately 10 mm and angulation of the nosel was 90°. Specimens were stored in 100 mL of coffee (Nescafe Classic for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurement of all specimens was recorded before and after exposure to staining agent with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300. Color differences (∆E* between the 2 color measurements (baseline and after 24 h storage were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA test, and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p.05 and these groups demonstrated the highest ∆E* values. For Filtek Silorane and IntenS, the highest ∆E* values were observed in Group-PS. The lowest ∆E* values for all composite resin groups were observed in Group-C. When comparing the 7 composite resin restorative materials, Aelite Aesthetic Enemal demonstrated significantly less ∆E* values than the other composite resins tested. The highest ∆E* values were observed in Quixfil. CONCLUSION: Except for Quixfil, all control groups of composite resins that were polished Sof-Lex exhibited clinically acceptable ∆E values (<3.7. Air-polishing applications increased the color change for all composite resin restorative materials

  15. Effect of elimination of nitrogen and/or hypoxia or restricted visual environment on color vision and range of accommodation

    Wolbarsht, M. L.; White, C. W.; Anderson, W. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The effects upon range of accommodation and color vision of reduced atmospheric pressure, at partial and complete elimination of nitrogen, of hypoxia, and of exposure for varying periods of time to restricted visual environment, have been studied alone or in various combinations. Measurements were made on the electroretinogram, the electrooculogram, and the diameter of the retinal vessels as an indicator of blood flow to the retina at the time of total elimination of nitrogen. An objective method was used to test range of accommodation. In the color vision test the flicker colors of a Benham's top were matched with a colorimeter.

  16. Long-term microwaving of denture base materials: effects on dimensional, color and translucency stability

    Nick POLYCHRONAKIS

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While the combined effect of microwave irradiation with cleansing solutions on denture base materials has been investigated, the effects of only using microwave irradiation and, more importantly, in a long-term basis, was not studied yet. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a long-term repeated microwaving on the dimensional, color and translucency stability of acrylic and polyamide denture base materials. Material and Methods Thirty two specimens (32 mm x 10 mm x 2.5 mm from polyamide (Valplast and PMMA (Vertex Rapid Simplified denture base materials were made. Eight specimens from each material were immersed in distilled water (control and 8 were subjected to microwave exposure at 450 W for 3 minutes for a period simulating 224 days of daily disinfection. Linear dimension, color change (ΔE* and translucency parameter (TP were measured at baseline and after certain intervals up to 224 cycles of immersion, using a digital calliper and a portable colorimeter. The results were analysed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA to estimate possible differences among predetermined cycles and material type. Regression analysis was also performed to estimate the trend of changes with time. Statistical evaluations performed at a significance level of 5%. Results Data analysis showed significant changes in length at baseline with an increasing number of cycles (p0.05. TP decreased similarly in both materials following microwave action but in a significantly higher level for Valplast (p<0.001. Conclusions The results indicated that long-term repeated microwaving affects linear dimensional, color and translucency changes of both materials. Differences between PMMA and polyamide material were noted only in dimension and translucency changes.

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Polishing, Oral Beverages and Food Colorants on Color Stability and Surface Roughness of Nanocomposite Resins.

    Kumari, R Veena; Nagaraj, Hema; Siddaraju, Kishore; Poluri, Ramya Krishna

    2015-07-01

    It is beyond doubt that finishing and polishing of a composite restoration enhance its esthetics and, is also essential for the health of the periodontium. A variety of instruments are commonly used for finishing and polishing tooth-colored restorative materials Thus, it is important to understand which type of surface finishing treatments would significantly affect the staining and surface irregularities of the composite resin restoration. Still one of the properties of the composite resins that have to pass the test of time is its color stability. In modern day dentistry, a large emphasis is laid over esthetics. Hence, it is important to understand the various agents capable of adversely affecting the esthetics of a restoration due to its staining capacity. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface polishing, oral beverages and food colorants on the color stability and surface roughness of nanocomposite resins. 90 Disks of nanocomposites resin (Filtek Z350 XT) measuring 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were fabricated using a custom made silicon mold. Pre-polishing surface roughness (Ra1) of all the 90 samples were measured using a Surface Profilometer. The nano-composite disks were then randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 samples in each group. Group I: The samples were not subjected to any polishing procedures. Group II: Sof-Lex group: Samples subjected to polishing using different grits of Sof-Lex disks. Group III: Diamond polishing paste group: Samples were subjected with a polishing paste consisting of diamond particles. Following polishing procedures, the surface roughness of all samples were measured again to obtain change in surface roughness due to polishing procedures (Ra2), pre immersion spectrophotometric value (ΔE1) was also recorded for baseline color of the samples. The samples were then divided into subgroups (A, B, C, D, E), by including every first sample in Subgroup A, second in Subgroup B, third in

  18. Cross Shelf Patterns in Habitat Selectivity of Hawkfish (Family: Cirrhitidae) in the Red Sea; with a Special Case of Varying Color Morphs in Paracirrhites forsteri.

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    and between continental shelf positions. Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus only occurs at the reef slope and Cirrhitus spilotoceps is only found on reef crests. Paracirrhites forsteri was the most abundant species across all reefs and was found in four varying color

  19. Effect of enamel sealants on tooth bleaching and on the color stability of the result.

    Corcodel, N; Hassel, A J; Sen, S; Saure, D; Rammelsberg, P; Lux, C J; Zingler, S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of enamel sealants on bleaching of natural teeth by use of 40 % hydrogen peroxide in a dental surgery. The color stability of the results from bleaching was, furthermore, determined 10 months after the bleaching procedure. In a standardized setting, four sealants (Pro Seal ® , Light Bond™ Sealant, Protecto ® , and Clinpro™ XT Varnish) were applied to and removed from human teeth in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Natural teeth served as medium; half of the teeth were sealed and the others served as controls. Hydrogen peroxide gel (40 %; Opalescence Boost; Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT, USA) was used as bleaching agent. Color measurement was performed with a spectroradiometer (Photoresearch PR670) before the bleaching process (T1) and 24 h (T2) and 10 months (T3) after bleaching. The spectroradiometer results were expressed by use of the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color notation. The L*, a*, and b* values of the sealed and the unsealed surfaces were not significantly different at any time during the study (p > 0.05), irrespective of the sealant used. Ten months after the bleaching process, mean L*, a*, and b* values were lower than at 1-day post-bleaching; the mean value of ΔE between 1-day post-bleaching and 10 months post-bleaching was 2.46 (±3.1). The results of the study suggest that the effectiveness of professional tooth whitening is not appreciably affected by the application of the four sealants tested.

  20. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  1. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  2. Effect of the prefermentative addition of five enological tannins on anthocyanins and color in red wines.

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Liang, Na-Na; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in "Cabernet Sauvignon wines" at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives. The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effects of illumination and packaging on non-heme iron and color attributes of sliced ham.

    Li, H; Li, C B; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of illumination and packaging on color of cooked cured sliced ham during refrigeration, and the possibility of decomposition of nitrosylheme under light and oxygen exposure. Three illumination levels and three packaging films with different oxygen transmission rates (OTRs) were used in two separate experiments during 35 days storage, and pH value, a* value, nitrosylheme, residual nitrite and non-heme iron were evaluated. Packaging OTRs had significant effects (P0.05) nitrosylheme concentration during storage. For both groups, storage time had a significant effect (P<0.01) on a* value and nitrosylheme. Negative relationships between nitrosylheme and nitrite in the illumination group, and between nitrosylheme and non-heme iron in the packaging group were observed. Therefore, illumination level and packaging OTR had limited effects on overall pigment stability, but more discoloration and loss of redness occurred on the surface of products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Color Complexity in Still Photographs on Mental Effort and Memory.

    Gilbert, Kathy; Schleuder, Joan

    For each work assignment, photojournalists must decide whether to use black-and-white or color film and how to frame the picture. These decisions are considered crucial, yet little is known about how the presence of color and design complexity affect how people process the information in photographs. A study tested whether color and design…

  5. Effect of Color-Coded Notation on Music Achievement of Elementary Instrumental Students.

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study of color-coded notation to teach music reading to instrumental students. Finds no clear evidence that color-coded notation enhances achievement on performing by memory, sight-reading, or note naming. Suggests that some students depended on the color-coding and were unable to read uncolored notation well. (DK)

  6. Effect of nightguard vital bleaching gel on the color stability of provisional restorative materials

    Salwa Omar Bajunaid

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Composite-based provisional material showed highest color stability when exposed to vital tooth bleaching gel, whereas methacrylate-based material was the least color stable. Polycarbonate crowns were more color stable when exposed to 15% bleaching gel as opposed to 10% bleaching gel.

  7. Race/ethnicity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence: the moderating effects of multicultural counseling training.

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Wei, Meifen; Good, Glenn E; Flores, Lisa Y

    2011-01-01

    Increasing trainees' multicultural counseling competence (MCC) has been a hot topic in counseling. Scholars have identified predictors (e.g., race/ethnicity, color-blindness) of MCC, and educators provide multicultural training for trainees. Using a sample of 370 psychology trainees, this study examined whether multicultural training (a) moderated racial/ethnic differences on MCC and (b) changed the relationship between color-blindness and MCC. Results indicated a significant interaction effect of race/ethnicity (i.e., White vs. ethnic minority) and multicultural training on multicultural awareness, but not on multicultural knowledge. Specifically, at lower levels of training, racial/ethnic minority trainees had significantly higher multicultural awareness than their White counterparts; at higher levels of training, no significant difference was found. Described differently, more training significantly enhanced Whites' multicultural awareness, but did not enhance racial/ethnic minority trainees' awareness. Additionally, there was a significant interaction effect of color-blindness and multicultural training on multicultural knowledge, but not on multicultural awareness. The association between color-blindness and multicultural knowledge was stronger at higher levels of multicultural training than at lower levels of training. Alternatively, the effect of training on enhancing knowledge was stronger for those with lower color-blindness than for those with higher color-blindness.

  8. P2-2: Effects of Color Preview History on Inter-Trial Inhibition of Selective Attention

    Eunsam Shin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The distractor previewing effect (DPE refers to the phenomenon that search times for target colors that were previewed (target preview or TP in a preceding target-absent display (TAD are slower than for distractor colors that were previewed (distractor preview, DP in the TAD. The DPE is explained as attentional inhibition for the features associated with TADs. We investigated history effects of this inter-trial inhibition by manipulating color preview history and examined the DPE using RT and the N2pc (an electrophysiological index of attention allocation. The TAD, ranging from 0 to 2, was followed by a target-present display in which participants responded to the shape of a color-oddball. For the 2TADs, a single color (red or green was repeated twice or the two colors were alternated, resulting in TTP, DDP, TDP, and DTP conditions depending on which color (target or distractor in the search display was previewed. The 1TADs resulted in the TP and the DP, and the 0TADs comprised immediate search trials. RTs showed: (a the TP was slower than the DP; (b the TTP and DDP were slowest and fastest, respectively, and between these the DTP was slower than the TDP; (c the TTP-DDP difference doubled the TP-DP difference due to the RT increase in the TTP. The conditions with slower RTs corresponded with late onsets and smaller amplitudes in the N2pc. These results suggest that effects of color preview history are cumulative with weight on more recent events and support the idea of inter-trial inhibition of target selection.

  9. Effect of binary fraction on color-magnitude diagram of NGC 1904

    Li, Zhongmu; Deng, Yangyang

    2018-05-01

    The age of a southern globular cluster in Milky Way, NGC 1904, was shown to be larger than the typical age of the universe, around 13.7 Gyr, by some photometric studies which assumed all stars as single stars. Besides the uncertainties in photometry, isochrone and fitting technique, the neglect of binary stars possibly distorted the result. We study the effect of binary fraction on the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 1904, via a new tool for CMD studies, Powerful CMD, which can determine binary fraction, age, metallicity, distance modulus, color excess, rotating star fraction and star formation history simultaneously. We finally obtain the youngest age of 14.1±2.1 Gyr with a zero-age binary fraction of 60 percent for cluster NGC 1904. The result is consistent with the age of the universe. Although our result suggests that binary fraction affects the determination of age slightly, it can improve the fitting to observed CMD, in particular blue stragglers. This suggests us to consider the effect of binaries in the studies of star clusters.

  10. Effects of traffic noise on tree frog stress levels, immunity, and color signaling.

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Mondy, Nathalie; Dumet, Adeline; Arcanjo, Caroline; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of noise pollution on acoustic communication. Surprisingly, although it is known that noise exposure strongly influences health in humans, studies on wildlife remain scarce. In order to gain insight into the consequences of traffic noise exposure, we experimentally manipulated traffic noise exposure as well as the endocrine status of animals to investigate physiological and phenotypic consequences of noise pollution in an anuran species. We showed that noise exposure increased stress hormone level and induced an immunosuppressive effect. In addition, both traffic noise exposure and stress hormone application negatively impacted H. arborea vocal sac coloration. Moreover, our results suggest profound changes in sexual selection processes because the best quality males with initial attractive vocal sac coloration were the most impacted by noise. Hence, our study suggests that the recent increases in anthropogenic noise worldwide might affect a broader range of animal species than previously thought, because of alteration of visual signals and immunity. Generalizing these results to other taxa is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity in an increasingly noisy world. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Disruptive coloration in woodland camouflage: evaluation of camouflage effectiveness due to minor disruptive patches

    Selj, Gorm K.; Heinrich, Daniela H.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from an observer based photosimulation study of generic camouflage patterns, intended for military uniforms, where three near-identical patterns have been compared. All the patterns were prepared with similar effective color, but were different in how the individual pattern patches were distributed throughout the target. We did this in order to test if high contrast (black) patches along the outline of the target would enhance the survivability when exposed to human observers. In the recent years it has been shown that disruptive coloration in the form of high contrast patches are capable of disturbing an observer by creating false edges of the target and consequently enhance target survivability. This effect has been shown in different forms in the Animal Kingdom, but not to the same extent in camouflaged military targets. The three patterns in this study were i) with no disruptive preference, ii) with a disruptive patch along the outline of the head and iii) with a disruptive patch on the outline of one of the shoulders. We used a high number of human observers to assess the three targets in 16 natural (woodland) backgrounds by showing images of one of the targets at the time on a high definition pc screen. We found that the two patterns that were thought to have a minor disruptive preference to the remaining pattern were more difficult to detect in some (though not all) of the 16 scenes and were also better in overall performance when all the scenes were accounted for.

  12. Effect of Vermifiltration on COD and Color Removal from Textile Factories’ Waste Water

    Rabbani D.1 PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Textile industries are among the manufactures which produce the highly polluted waste water. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of vermifiltration on COD and color removal from textile waste water. Materials & Methods This experimental research was performed March to August 2014 in one of the textile factories of Kashan region, Iran. The glass cubic kits with- without Eisenia fetida were used to filter the waste water samples. Data was analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and two-way analysis of variance in SPSS 19 statistical software. Findings The mean of COD concentration in the raw waste water samples was 1324.24±757.01mg/l which was decreased to 598.22±349.33 and 831.32±445.19mg/l after the experimental and control kits usage, respectively (p<0.001. The mean of color intensity in raw waste water samples was 51.2±30.6% which was decreased to 27.8±15.0 and 27.4±15.1% (p=0.635 in experimental and control kits, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between COD removal and hydraulic loads (p<0.001; r=-0.804 and a significant negative correlation between color removal and hydraulic loads (p<0.001; r=- 0.278 in both experimental and control kits. Conclusion The most important risk groups in our study were abattoir workers, butchers, housewives and students who handle infected animals.

  13. Quark Loop Effects on Dressed Gluon Propagator in Framework of Global Color Symmetry Model

    ZONG Hong-Shi; SUN Wei-Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the global color symmetry model (GCM), a method for obtaining the quark loop effects on the dressed gluon propagator in GCM is developed. In the chiral limit, it is found that the dressed gluon propagator containing the quark loop effects in the Nambu-Goldstone and Wigner phases are quite different. In solving the quark self-energy functions in the two different phases and subsequent study of bag constant one should use the above dressed gluon propagator as input. The above approach for obtaining the current quark mass effects on the dressed gluon propagator is quite general and can also be used to calculate the chemical potential dependence of the dressed gluon propagator.

  14. Stroop effects from newly learned color words : effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words...

  15. Effects of adhesive used as modeling liquid on the stability of the color and opacity of composites.

    Araujo, Fernanda Santos; Barros, Mellany Cristie Ramos; Santana, Márcia Luciana Carregosa; de Jesus Oliveira, Ludmila Smith; Silva, Paula Fernanda Damasceno; Lima, Giana da Silveira; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adhesive type used as modeling liquid on the stability of the color and opacity of composites submitted to thermal cycling in staining solutions followed by a bleaching procedure. Thirty cylinder-shaped composite specimens (10 mm diameter × 1.5 mm thickness) were built using or not using (control) an adhesive (Adper Universal or Scotchbond Multipurpose) as the modeling liquid. After polishing procedures, the color and opacity were measured, and the specimens were submitted to 200 thermal cycles with 10 s of dwell time in baths of grape juice at 5°C, water at 37°C, and coffee at 55°C. Changes in opacity and color caused by the staining solutions were measured. Then, the specimens were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 45 minutes followed by color/opacity measurements. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The use of modeling liquids did not affect the initial color and opacity of composite. Reduced changes to color (E 00  = 3.44) and opacity (+2.67%) were observed for specimens modeled using Adper Universal. Bleaching procedures reduced the color (E 00  = 1.9-3.8) and opacity (-2.3 to 3.1%) alterations caused by staining solutions but were unable to restore the values observed at baseline. The use of universal adhesive as modeling liquid significantly reduced the color and opacity changes caused by staining solutions, and the bleaching procedure partially re-established the opacity and color of the composites. This study evaluates whether using adhesive systems for modeling a composite affects the color and opacity changes caused by staining solutions followed by a bleaching procedure. The findings suggest that the use of a universal adhesive as modeling liquid can reduce the alterations in optical properties caused by staining solutions, and the application of high-concentrated hydrogen peroxide over the composite reduce the color changes without fully recover the initial color. © 2018

  16. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a{sup *} and b{sup *} which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results indicate that gamma radiation can be used for keeping the color. Doses up to 3kGy were efficient for that. Future studies should consider pretreatments to minimize the darkening effects on fruits. Therefore, the results from this study suggest the use of gamma radiation as a quality alternative for keep the color of minimally processed melon and papaya. (author)

  17. Affective color palettes in visualization

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  18. Colored polyethylene soil covers and grafting effects on cucumber flowering and yield

    Fonseca Inês Cristina de Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most cultivated vegetable crops in plastic greenhouses in Brazil because of the short cycle and its high economic value in off-season harvests. To better understand this management technique the effect of different colored polyethylene soil covers was evaluated in relation to flowering and yield of the hybrid cucumber 'Yoshinari' grafted or not on the hybrid squash 'Ikky'. The polyethylene cover colors were black, white on black and green plus a control without cover. Covered but not grafted crops had a more uniform flowering distribution. The number of flowers was greater for the white/black grafted treatment. All the polyethylene covers favored flowering for the non grafted plants. Grafting reduced flowering for the black or green polyethylene covers treatments. The fruit set increased with the use of polyethylene cover but was not influenced by grafting. The uniform distribution of flowering remained during fruiting only for grafted plants and soil covered with black or green polyethylene. Both polyethylene cover and grafting favored early harvesting. The 'Yoshinari'/'Ikky' graft caused taller plants but fruit were thicker and smaller and did not meet the commercial standard. The best quality fruit and highest yields were obtained in the black and white/black treatments, without grafting.

  19. Effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on blue color expression of cyanidin derivatives and their metal chelates.

    Sigurdson, G T; Robbins, R J; Collins, T M; Giusti, M M

    2017-11-01

    Mechanisms to recreate many anthocyanin blue hues in nature are not fully understood, but interactions with metal ions and phenolic compounds are thought to play important roles. Bluing effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on cyanidin and chelates were investigated by addition of the acids to triglycosylated cyanidin (0-50×[anthocyanin]) and by comparison to hydroxycinnamic acid monoacylated and diacylated Cy fractions by spectrophotometry (380-700nm) and colorimetry in pH 5-8. With no metal ions, λ max and absorbance was greatest for cyanidin with diacylation>monoacylation>increasing [acids]. Hydroxycinnamic acids added to cyanidin solutions weakly impacted color characteristics (ΔEacid attachment) resulted in ΔE 5-15. Triglycosylated cyanidin expressed blue color (pH 7-8), suggesting glycosylation pattern also plays a role. Al 3+ chelation increased absorbance 2-42× and λ max ≳40nm (pH 5-6) compared to added hydroxycinnamic acids. Metal chelation and aromatic diacylation resulted in the most blue hues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of alcohols on fluorescence intensity and color of a discharged-obelin-based biomarker.

    Alieva, Roza R; Belogurova, Nadezhda V; Petrova, Alena S; Kudryasheva, Nadezhda S

    2014-05-01

    Photoproteins are responsible for bioluminescence of marine coelenterates; bioluminescent and fluorescent biomarkers based on photoproteins are useful for monitoring of calcium-dependent processes in medical investigations. Here, we present the analysis of intensity and color of light-induced fluorescence of Ca(2+)-discharged photoprotein obelin in the presence of alcohols (ethanol and glycerol). Complex obelin spectra obtained at different concentrations of the alcohols at 350- and 280-nm excitation (corresponding to polypeptide-bound coelenteramide and tryptophan absorption regions) were deconvoluted into Gaussian components; fluorescent intensity and contributions of the components to experimental spectra were analyzed. Five Gaussian components were found in different spectral regions-ultraviolet (tryptophan emission), blue-green (coelenteramide emission), and red (hypothetical indole-coelenteramide exciplex emission). Inhibition coefficients and contributions of the components to experimental fluorescent spectra showed that presence of alcohols increased contributions of ultraviolet, violet, and red components, but decreased contributions of components in the blue-green region. The effects were related to (1) changes of proton transfer efficiency in fluorescent S*1 state of coelenteramide in the obelin active center and (2) formation of indole-coelenteramide exciplex at 280-nm photoexcitation. The data show that variation of fluorescence color and intensity in the presence of alcohols and dependence of emission spectra on excitation wavelength should be considered while applying the discharged obelin as a fluorescence biomarker.

  1. When Did Coloring Books Become Mindful? Exploring the Effectiveness of a Novel Method of Mindfulness-Guided Instructions for Coloring Books to Increase Mindfulness and Decrease Anxiety

    Michail Mantzios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been associated with the use of coloring books for adults; however, the question of whether they do increase mindfulness has not been addressed. In two studies, we attempted to identify whether mindfulness is increased, and whether there is a need for ongoing guidance while coloring, similar to mindfulness meditation. In the first randomized controlled experiment, university students (n = 88 were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., described in mainstream literature as a mindfulness practice or to a free-drawing group. Measurements of state mindfulness and state anxiety were taken pre- and post- experiment. Results indicated no change in mindfulness or anxiety. In the second randomized controlled experiment, university students (n = 72 were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., same as Experiment 1, or, to a mindfulness-guided coloring group (i.e., same as the unguided coloring group with a mindfulness practitioner guiding participants as in mindfulness breathing meditation, with instructions modified and applied to coloring. Results indicated that the mindfulness-guided mandala coloring group performed better in decreasing anxiety, but no change was observed in mindfulness. Exit interviews revealed that some participants did not like the voice guiding them while coloring, which suggested further differing and significant findings. While mindfulness-guided coloring appears promising, guidance or instructions on how to color mindfully may require further development and adjustment to enhance health and wellbeing.

  2. When Did Coloring Books Become Mindful? Exploring the Effectiveness of a Novel Method of Mindfulness-Guided Instructions for Coloring Books to Increase Mindfulness and Decrease Anxiety.

    Mantzios, Michail; Giannou, Kyriaki

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with the use of coloring books for adults; however, the question of whether they do increase mindfulness has not been addressed. In two studies, we attempted to identify whether mindfulness is increased, and whether there is a need for ongoing guidance while coloring, similar to mindfulness meditation. In the first randomized controlled experiment, university students ( n = 88) were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., described in mainstream literature as a mindfulness practice) or to a free-drawing group. Measurements of state mindfulness and state anxiety were taken pre- and post- experiment. Results indicated no change in mindfulness or anxiety. In the second randomized controlled experiment, university students ( n = 72) were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., same as Experiment 1), or, to a mindfulness-guided coloring group (i.e., same as the unguided coloring group with a mindfulness practitioner guiding participants as in mindfulness breathing meditation, with instructions modified and applied to coloring). Results indicated that the mindfulness-guided mandala coloring group performed better in decreasing anxiety, but no change was observed in mindfulness. Exit interviews revealed that some participants did not like the voice guiding them while coloring, which suggested further differing and significant findings. While mindfulness-guided coloring appears promising, guidance or instructions on how to color mindfully may require further development and adjustment to enhance health and wellbeing.

  3. The effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences in CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    Al Ben Ali, Abdulaziz; Kang, Kiho; Finkelman, Matthew D; Zandparsa, Roya; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences (ΔE) for different shades of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate glass ceramics. A pilot study suggested n = 10 as an appropriate sample size for the number of lithium disilicate glass ceramic cylinders per group. High-transparency (HT) and low-transparency (LT) cylinders (diameter, 12 mm; length, 13 mm) were fabricated in three ceramic shades (BL1, A2, C3) using CAD/CAM technology and were cut into specimen disks (thickness, 1.2 mm; diameter, 12 mm) for placement on Natural Die (ND1 and ND4) backgrounds. Four combinations of translucency and background color were evaluated in terms of color differences for the three ceramic shades: group 1 (HT ND1, reference), group 2 (HT ND4), group 3 (LT ND1), and group 4 (LT ND4). A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color differences. Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis tests) were used to evaluate the color differences among the tested groups, and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction were used as post hoc tests. Furthermore, for each ceramic shade, the HT groups were compared to the LT groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Significant differences were present among the tested groups of the same ceramic shade (p glass ceramic color among the BL1, A2, and C3 ceramic shades. Changing the underlying color from a lighter background to a darker background resulted in increased color differences. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Combined effects of gamma radiation doses and sodium nitrite content on the lipid oxidation and color of mortadella.

    Dutra, Monalisa Pereira; Cardoso, Giselle Pereira; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Silva, Douglas Roberto Guimarães; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Ramos, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-12-15

    The effects of different doses of gamma radiation (0-20kGy) on the color and lipid oxidation of mortadella prepared with increasing nitrite levels (0-300ppm) were evaluated using a central composite rotatable design. Higher radiation doses increased the redox potential, promoted the lipid oxidation and elevating the hue color of the mortadellas. Nevertheless, higher addition of sodium nitrite elevated the residual nitrite content, reduced the lipid oxidation and promoted the increase of redness and the reduce of hue color of the mortadellas, regardless of the radiation dose applied. Nitrite addition had a greater effect than irradiation on the quality parameters evaluated, and even at low levels (∼75ppm), its use decreased the deleterious effects of irradiation at doses as high as 20kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Sobral, Mar; Losada, Mar?a; Veiga, Tania; Guiti?n, Javier; Guiti?n, Jos?; Guiti?n, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (p...

  6. The effect of background and illumination on color identification of real, 3D objects

    Allred, Sarah R.; Olkkonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    For the surface reflectance of an object to be a useful cue to object identity, judgments of its color should remain stable across changes in the object's environment. In 2D scenes, there is general consensus that color judgments are much more stable across illumination changes than background changes. Here we investigate whether these findings generalize to real 3D objects. Observers made color matches to cubes as we independently varied both the illumination impinging on the cube and th...

  7. Bias effects of short- and long-term color memory for unique objects.

    Bloj, Marina; Weiß, David; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-04-01

    Are objects remembered with a more saturated color? Some of the evidence supporting this statement comes from research using "memory colors"-the typical colors of particular objects, for example, the green of grass. The problematic aspect of these findings is that many different exemplars exist, some of which might exhibit a higher saturation than the one measured by the experimenter. Here we avoid this problem by using unique personal items and comparing long- and short-term color memory matches (in hue, value, and chroma) with those obtained with the object present. Our results, on average, confirm that objects are remembered as more saturated than they are.

  8. The effect of memory and context changes on color matches to real objects.

    Allred, Sarah R; Olkkonen, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Real-world color identification tasks often require matching the color of objects between contexts and after a temporal delay, thus placing demands on both perceptual and memory processes. Although the mechanisms of matching colors between different contexts have been widely studied under the rubric of color constancy, little research has investigated the role of long-term memory in such tasks or how memory interacts with color constancy. To investigate this relationship, observers made color matches to real study objects that spanned color space, and we independently manipulated the illumination impinging on the objects, the surfaces in which objects were embedded, and the delay between seeing the study object and selecting its color match. Adding a 10-min delay increased both the bias and variability of color matches compared to a baseline condition. These memory errors were well accounted for by modeling memory as a noisy but unbiased version of perception constrained by the matching methods. Surprisingly, we did not observe significant increases in errors when illumination and surround changes were added to the 10-minute delay, although the context changes alone did elicit significant errors.

  9. An effective image classification method with the fusion of invariant feature and a new color descriptor

    Mansourian, Leila; Taufik Abdullah, Muhamad; Nurliyana Abdullah, Lili; Azman, Azreen; Mustaffa, Mas Rina

    2017-02-01

    Pyramid Histogram of Words (PHOW), combined Bag of Visual Words (BoVW) with the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) in order to add location information to extracted features. However, different PHOW extracted from various color spaces, and they did not extract color information individually, that means they discard color information, which is an important characteristic of any image that is motivated by human vision. This article, concatenated PHOW Multi-Scale Dense Scale Invariant Feature Transform (MSDSIFT) histogram and a proposed Color histogram to improve the performance of existing image classification algorithms. Performance evaluation on several datasets proves that the new approach outperforms other existing, state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Visual half-field presentations of incongruent color words: effects of gender and handedness.

    Franzon, M; Hugdahl, K

    1986-09-01

    Right-handed (dextral) and left-handed (sinistral) males and females (N = 15) were compared for language lateralization in a visual half-field (VHF) incongruent color-words paradigm. The paradigm consists of repeated brief (less than 200 msec) presentations of color-words written in an incongruent color. Presentations are either to the right or to the left of center fixation. The task of the subject is to report the color the word is written in on each trial, ignoring the color-word. Color-bars and congruent color-words were used as control stimuli. Vocal reaction time (VRT) and error frequency were used as dependent measures. The logic behind the paradigm is that incongruent color-words should lead to a greater cognitive conflict when presented in the half-field contralateral to the dominant hemisphere. The results showed significantly longer VRTs in the right half-field for the dextral subjects. Furthermore, significantly more errors were observed in the male dextral group when the incongruent stimuli were presented in the right half-field. There was a similar trend in the data for the sinistral males. No differences between half-fields were observed for the female groups. It is concluded that the present results strengthen previous findings from our laboratory (Hugdahl and Franzon, 1985) that the incongruent color-words paradigm is a useful non-invasive technique for the study of lateralization in the intact brain.

  11. Color Algebras

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  12. Ocean Color

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  13. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  14. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  15. Effect of the melting conditions on the properties of radiation color centers in lanthanum phosphate glasses

    Karapetyan, G.O.; Rusan, V.V.; Yashchurzhinskaya, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the spatial effects of ionizing radiation on the radiation processes in phosphate glasses to make a comparative estimate of the radiation yield from the radiation color centers (RCC) of different types. A study is made of their behavior under thermal decoloration. The results of a comparison of the integrated intensities of the ESR signal from trapping centers are given. The ESR spectrum of the glasses are presented--one differs slightly from the others. On the basis of the result of processing the ESR and optical spectra of gamma-irradiated lanthanum phosphate glasses synthesized under various conditions, the radiation yield of the RCC and the behavior of the intensity of their absorption under thermodecoloration are significantly affected by the conditions of synthesis of the glass.

  16. Effective equilibrium states in mixtures of active particles driven by colored noise

    Wittmann, René; Brader, J. M.; Sharma, A.; Marconi, U. Marini Bettolo

    2018-01-01

    We consider the steady-state behavior of pairs of active particles having different persistence times and diffusivities. To this purpose we employ the active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, where the particles are driven by colored noises with exponential correlation functions whose intensities and correlation times vary from species to species. By extending Fox's theory to many components, we derive by functional calculus an approximate Fokker-Planck equation for the configurational distribution function of the system. After illustrating the predicted distribution in the solvable case of two particles interacting via a harmonic potential, we consider systems of particles repelling through inverse power-law potentials. We compare the analytic predictions to computer simulations for such soft-repulsive interactions in one dimension and show that at linear order in the persistence times the theory is satisfactory. This work provides the toolbox to qualitatively describe many-body phenomena, such as demixing and depletion, by means of effective pair potentials.

  17. Color naming

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the color and texture parameters of refrigerated Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) tail meat.

    Canto, A C V C S; Lima, B R C C; Cruz, A G; Lázaro, C A; Freitas, D G C; Faria, Jose A F; Torrezan, R; Freitas, M Q; Silva, T P J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of applying high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the instrumental parameters of color and texture and sensory characteristics of alligator meat were evaluated. Samples of alligator tail meat were sliced, vacuum-packed, pressurized and distributed into four groups: control, treated with 200 MPa/10 min, 300 MPa/10 min and 400 MPa/10 min, then stored at 4°C±1°C for 45 days. Instrumental color, texture profile and a sensory profiling using quantitative descriptive analysis were carried out on the 1st, 15th, 30th and 45th days of storage. HHP was shown to affect the color and texture of the product, and the sensory descriptors (pmeat, especially low pressures (200 MPa) which can have positive effects on the quality of the product. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of metal opaquer on the final color of 3 ceramic crown types on 3 abutment configurations.

    Arif, Rabia; Yilmaz, Burak; Mortazavi, Aras; Ozcelik, Tuncer B; Johnston, William M

    2018-04-30

    The effect of a recently introduced metal opaquer when used to mask the color of a titanium abutment under ceramic crown systems is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the color coordinates of 3 ceramic crown types-characterized monolithic lithium disilicate (LDC) (IPS e.max; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), layered lithium disilicate (LDL) (IPS e.max; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and layered zirconia (ZL) (H.C. Starck)-on 3 abutment configurations, nonopaqued titanium (Ti), resin opaqued titanium (Op), and zirconia (Zir). In addition, the color differences (CIEDE2000) were evaluated among the 3 crown types on 3 different abutment substrates. Ten Ti disks (10×1 mm) were fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) to represent the Ti abutments. Five Ti specimens were opaqued (Op) (whiteMetal Opaquer wMO; Blue Sky Bio), and 5 were not opaqued (Ti). Ten zirconia disks were fabricated with CAD-CAM and sintered (10×1.2 mm). Five disks were used as backings to represent Zir abutments, and 5 disks were layered with 1 mm of porcelain (B1, IPS e.Max Ceram; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) to represent layered zirconia crowns (ZL). Ten lithium disilicate plates (14×14×1.2 mm) were sectioned from CAD blocks (B1 IPS e.Max CAD; Ivoclar Vivadent AG). Five plates were layered with the same porcelain (B1, 1 mm), and 5 plates were surface characterized and glazed. An LDL crown on a Zir abutment configuration was used as the control. The 3 simulated crown types (n=5) were optically connected to each of the 3 abutment types, and the color of the 9 groups was measured using a spectroradiometer. Measured data were reported in CIELab coordinates. CIELab data were used to calculate color differences between the control and the 8 experimental groups. Color data were summarized for each group, and analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. For pairwise comparisons, a Bonferroni correction of t tests was used, and for interpretive analysis of resulting color difference

  20. Color engineering in the age of digital convergence

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1998-09-01

    Digital color imaging has developed over the past twenty years from specialized scientific applications into the mainstream of computing. In addition to the phenomenal growth of computer processing power and storage capacity, great advances have been made in the capabilities and cost-effectiveness of color imaging peripherals. The majority of imaging applications, including the graphic arts, video and film have made the transition from analogue to digital production methods. Digital convergence of computing, communications and television now heralds new possibilities for multimedia publishing and mobile lifestyles. Color engineering, the application of color science to the design of imaging products, is an emerging discipline that poses exciting challenges to the international color imaging community for training, research and standards.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Route Special Education Teacher Preparation

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Dewey, James F.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Corbett, Nancy L.; Denslow, David; Lotfinia, Babik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors estimated costs of alternative route preparation to provide states a basis for allocating training funds to maximize production. Thirty-one special education alternative route program directors were interviewed and completed cost tables. Two hundred and twenty-four program graduates were also surveyed. The authors…

  2. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns

    Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. RESULTS L*, a*, and b* values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE*ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. CONCLUSION No significant differences were observed between the L*, a*, and b* values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE*ab values. PMID:24049574

  3. Effects of Room Color on Mirror-Tracing by Junior High School Girls.

    Bross, Cindy; Jackson, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Girls in Grades 7, 8, and 9 practiced mirror-tracing in a neutral colored room to a criterion before being tested in their preferred or nonpreferred colored rooms. The errors decreased significantly in the preferred room, while the time to complete changed minimally. (Author)

  4. Coloring versus Drawing: Effects of Cognitive Demand on Mood Repair, Flow, and Enjoyment

    Forkosh, Jennifer; Drake, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether using drawing to distract, by either coloring a design or drawing a design, improves mood more than drawing to express feelings. We manipulated levels of cognitive demand in the first 2 conditions by asking participants to color a design (low cognitive demand) or draw a design (high cognitive demand). After a sad mood…

  5. The effects of jig color and lunar bright on coastal squid jigging ...

    Squid jigging experiments were carried out to determine whether differences occurred between different colors and lunar brightness in Middle Eastern coast of Aegean Sea. Five different colors of jigs (red, blue, green, orange and white) were used together in same angle. According to one-way analysis of variance results, ...

  6. Effects of Ethephon Application on Color Development of ‘Gala Must’ Apples

    Ananie PESTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of “Gala Must” apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.

  7. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  8. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The

  9. Animal coloration research: why it matters.

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-05

    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Modern racism attitudes among white students: the role of dominance and authoritarianism and the mediating effects of racial color-blindness.

    Poteat, V Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2012-01-01

    Among 342 white college students, we examined the effects of social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and racial color-blindness on modern racism attitudes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism attitudes through color-blind racial attitudes. We found strong indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism through racial color-blindness. We did not find support for an alternative model, in which we tested racial color-blindness as a moderator of the effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism. Findings suggest that highly dominant and authoritarian white students endorse color-blind racial attitudes, although likely for different reasons. In turn, this predicts their modern racism attitudes. These findings indicate racial color-blindness is important to address as part of anti-racism education.

  11. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock. PMID:27014509

  12. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Mar Sobral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii Do mutualists (pollinators and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  13. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success.

    Sobral, Mar; Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  14. Effect of Asymmetric Potential and Gaussian Colored Noise on Stochastic Resonance

    Han Yinxia; Li Jinghui; Chen Shigang

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable nonlinear system is studied when the system is driven by the asymmetric potential and additive Gaussian colored noise. Using the unified colored noise approximation method, the additive Gaussian colored noise can be simplified to additive Gaussian white noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated according to the generalized two-state theory (shown in [H.S. Wio and S. Bouzat, Brazilian J. Phys. 29 (1999) 136]). We find that the SNR increases with the proximity of a to zero. In addition, the correlation time τ between the additive Gaussian colored noise is also an ingredient to improve SR. The shorter the correlation time τ between the Gaussian additive colored noise is, the higher of the peak value of SNR.

  15. Safety sign designs for children by considering effect of the colors preferences: A case study

    Iftadi, Irwan; Nugraha, Dian Cahya; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Color has become a major consideration in ergonomics. Color conveys a message and it is an important element in safety signs. The importance of colors usage in safety sign designs makes the colors research into one of the things that must be done before designing them. So far, research in the related field only focused on the adult's perspective without involving children's perspective in designing the safety signs. This paper aims to find out how children's perception towards colors affects the safety sign designs. This study consist of eight sections which are literature study, direct observation, determining referents and other parameters, determining research respondents, making the booklet, assessing the colors preferences, determining the design's parameter value and creating the safety sign designs. Limitation of the research are the objects are the students with the age of 10 - 11 years old in Grade IV and then the research is conducted in the school day and hours that apply to the school. Chi square test and odds ratio are employed to assess the colors preferences. Twelve safety sign designs are proposed by considering the children's colors perception. The designs are grouped into three types of sign which are Mandatory Action Sign, Warning Sign and Prohibition Sign. Six colors are used to draw the safety signs i.e. red, orange, yellow, green, blue and black. On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the colors that often appears in safety signs is green with the percentage of 75% and that rarely appears is red with the percentage of 8.33%.

  16. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  17. The Speed Death of the Eye: The Ideology of Hollywood Film Special Effects

    Blackmore, Tim

    2007-01-01

    In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, increased computing power has made possible extraordinary leaps in film special effects. This article argues that special effects developed since the beginning of digital animation, when coupled with standard editing room techniques (jump cuts, cutaways), have brought us to an era where the eye cannot…

  18. Viewing-position effects in the Stroop task: Initial fixation position modulates Stroop effects in fully colored words.

    Perret, Patrick; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    In two experiments that we conducted with adult (Experiment 1) and child (Experiment 2) participants, we experimentally controlled the eyes' first fixation in the word using a variable viewing-position technique in a classical all-letter-coloring Stroop procedure. We explored the impact of initial-fixation position (optimal viewing position [OVP] vs. end of the word) on the magnitude of Stroop effects (both interference and facilitation). The results showed that both interference and facilitation effects were reduced when the first fixation was located at the end of the word rather than at the OVP. These data make a new contribution to the study of the role of low-level processes in Stroop effects and add support to the growing body of research indicating that oculomotor processes can act as moderators of cognitive processes in the determination of Stroop effects.

  19. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  20. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions

    Maiara Justo Polli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of finishing/polishing methods and staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were fabricated using a stainless steel mold and polyester strips. The samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the finishing and polishing performed: Control group (no surface treatment was performed, Diamond Pro group, Diamond burs group, Enhance group, and SiC paper group. After finishing and polishing, six samples from each group were immersed in coffee, red wine, or water for 30 days. The color measurements were obtained using digital photography before immersion and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. The red, green, and blue values provided by the Adobe Photoshop software were converted into CIELab values. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The finishing and polishing methods, staining solutions, immersion times, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change (P = 0.00. Coffee and red wine caused intense staining. Among the polishing methods, the highest color change value was observed in the control group (P < 0.05 and the Diamond Pro disks provided the most stain-resistant surfaces (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The finishing and polishing method, staining solution, and immersion time influences the color stability. Finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

  1. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  2. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  3. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  4. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  5. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  6. Tuning the colors of c-Si solar cells by exploiting plasmonic effects

    Peharz, G.; Grosschädl, B.; Prietl, C.; Waldhauser, W.; Wenzl, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The color of a crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell is mainly determined by its anti-reflective coating. This is a lambda/4 coating made from a transparent dielectric material. The thickness of the anti-reflective coating is optimized for maximal photocurrent generation, resulting in the typical blue or black colors of c-Si solar cells. However, for building-integrated photovoltaic (BiPV) applications the color of the solar cells is demanded to be tunable - ideally by a cheap and flexible coating process on standard (low cost) c-Si solar cells. Such a coating can be realized by applying plasmonic coloring which is a rapidly growing technology for high-quality color filtering and rendering for different fields of application (displays, imaging,…). In this contribution, we present results of an approach for tuning the color of standard industrial c-Si solar cells that is based on coating them with metallic nano-particles. In particular, thin films (green and brownish/red. The position of the resonance peak in the reflection spectrum was found to be almost independent from the angle of incidence. This low angular sensitivity is a clear advantage compared to alternative color tuning methods, for which additional dielectric thin films are deposited on c-Si solar cells.

  7. Enviromental Effects on Internal Color Gradients of Early-Type Galaxies

    La Barbera, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Gal, R. R.; Busarello, G.; Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2007-05-01

    One of the most debated issues of observational and theoretical cosmology is that of how the environment affects the formation and evolution of galaxies. To gain new insight into this subject, we have derived surface photometry for a sample of 3,000 early-type galaxies belonging to 163 clusters with different richness, spanning a redshift range of 0.05 to 0.25. This large data-set is used to analyze how the color distribution inside galaxies depends on several parameters, such as cluster richness, local galaxy density, galaxy luminosity and redshift. We find that the internal color profile of galaxies strongly depends on the environment where galaxies reside. Galaxies in poor and rich clusters are found to follow two distinct trends in the color gradient vs. redshift diagram, with color gradients beeing less steep in rich rather than in poor clusters. No dependence of color gradients on galaxy luminosity is detected both for poor and rich clusters. We find that color gradients strongly depend on local galaxy density, with more shallow gradients in high density regions. Interestingly, this result holds only for low richness clusters, with color gradients of galaxies in rich clusters showing no dependence on local galaxy density. Our results support a reasonable picture whereby young early-type galaxies form in a dissipative collapse process, and then undergo increased (either major or minor) merging activity in richer rather than in poor clusters.

  8. Juxtaposed color halftoning relying on discrete lines.

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D

    2013-02-01

    Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e., the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks, such as metallic inks, iridescent inks, or pigmented inks, are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e., printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for placing any desired number of colorant layers side by side without overlapping. The method uses a monochrome library of screen elements made of discrete lines with rational thicknesses. Discrete line juxtaposed color halftoning is performed efficiently by multiple accesses to the screen element library.

  9. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Mouthrinses on the Color Stability of One Type of Glass Ionomer, Compomer and Giomer

    Shaghayegh Razavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four commercially available mouthrinses on the color stability of one type of glass ionomer, giomer and compomer. Method: 60 disc-shaped specimens, 180 in total (7*2mm, fabricated from each of the following materials: A resin modified glass ionomer Fuji II LC (GC International Corp, a giomer Beautifil II (SHOFU INC and a compomer Ionosit (DMG. All specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37˚C for 24 hours in an incubator. The initial colour value (L*,a*,b* were recorded with spectrophotometer according to CIELAB scale. After baseline evaluation, the specimens were divided into five subgroups, according to the testing and control storage solutions (n=12. Randomly selected specimens from each material were immersed in 20 ml of the treatment solutions (Oral-B Pro Expert, Listerine, Colgate Plax, Irasha at 37˚c for 24 hours. Each specimen was then subjected to second color measurement. The collected data was statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD at a significance level of 0.05. Results: All samples displayed color changes after immersion in the mouthrinses. The observed color difference showed that mouthrinses have a significant effect on the color shift of tested materials. A significant interaction was found between the materials and the mouthrinses. Overall, discoloration with all mouthrinses was significant when compared to the control specimens stored in artificial saliva. Oral-B induced the highest level of discoloration (ΔE*= 11.62 in Compomer and the least discoloration was found with Irsha (ΔE*= 1.47 in RMGI. Conclusions: All tested restorative materials showed a color shift after immersion in mouthrinses, amongst which compomer displayed the highest change. Discolorations were clinically perceptible in most of the cases. Thus it can be concluded that daily use of mouthrinses increases the stainability of tested materials.

  11. Color Analysis

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  12. Effect of different polishing systems and drinks on the color stability of resin composite.

    Berber, Asll; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Baseren, Meserret; Gurgan, Sevil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks. Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M(™) ESPE(™) St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated significantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated significantly lowest color change. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit. Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

  13. On color transparency

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  14. The Color of Lobsters

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  15. THE EFFECT OF DRY MERGERS ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dry merging on the color-magnitude relation (CMR) of galaxies and find that the amount of merging predicted by a hierarchical model results in a red sequence that compares well with the observed low-redshift relation. A sample of ∼ 29,000 early-type galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 shows that the bright end of the CMR has a shallower slope and smaller scatter than the faint end. This magnitude dependence is predicted by a simple toy model in which gas-rich mergers move galaxies onto a 'creation red sequence' (CRS) by quenching their star formation, and subsequent mergers between red, gas-poor galaxies (so-called 'dry' mergers) move galaxies along the relation. We use galaxy merger trees from a semianalytic model of galaxy formation to test the amplitude of this effect and find a change in slope at the bright end that brackets the observations, using gas fraction thresholds of 10%-30% to separate wet and dry mergers. A more realistic model that includes scatter in the CRS shows that dry merging decreases the scatter at the bright end. Contrary to previous claims, the small scatter in the observed CMR thus cannot be used to constrain the amount of dry merging.

  16. COLOR CONCEPTS IN WARDROBE PLANNING

    Dr. Mrs Kirti Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Fashion trends point out colors to wear but individuality should never be overlooked An impression of fine colors in dress will be gained if they are becoming to the person who is to wear them, if they are right for the occasion and if they are selected and arranged so as to make a pleasing ensemble.The larger the area the duller a color should be specially for business wear, but foe an evening or sports wear, it should be modified. The colors should be bright then, provided the wearer is not...

  17. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  18. Colored operads

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  19. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  20. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    2010-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage rate...

  1. The effect of uniform color on judging athletes' aggressiveness, fairness, and chance of winning.

    Krenn, Bjoern

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others' judgments.

  2. Color metallography

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  3. Effect of Whitening Toothpastes with Different Whitening Agents on the Color Stability of Orthodontic Clear Elastic Ligatures

    Ghufran K Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The demand for invisibility appearance of fixed orthodontic appliances result in increase the use of ceramic brackets with clear auxiliaries. Elastic ligatures are one of the most widely used materials in fixed orthodontic treatment and susceptible for discoloration. The aims of this study were the evaluation and comparison the effect of brushing orthodontic clear elastic ligatures by whitening toothpastes with different whitening agents on the color stability of them. Materials and method: The sample consisted of whitening toothpastes: Kin Progressive White (Fabrique par, Barcelona, Spain, Lacalut White (Germany, Silca Brilliant White (Germany, and Opalescence White (UT, USA, also Kin Regular (Fabrique par, Barcelona, Spain (control. Sixty Ormco Clear Ligatures (Scafati, Italy used in the study, these ligatures exposed 1 hour daily to dietary media (Mixture of tea, coffee, turmeric, and mineralized water (pH=4.6 and each 10 specimens brushed with one type of toothpaste, except 10 elastics without brushing. After 4 weeks, the ligatures were assessed by a cellular attachable microscope that connected to the mobile phone according to CIE L*a*b* color system by the Adobe Photoshop program. Results: The resulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD tests which showed that the highest mean value of color change was observed in no brushing ligatures followed by Silca Brilliant White, Lacalut White, Kin Progressive White, Opalescence White, the lowest value of color change was Kin Regular. Furthermore, the increased mean value of color change was mainly affected by (CIE b* axis. Conclusion: Kin Regular toothpaste without whitening agents decreased the color change of clear ligatures more than others after exposure to staining media.

  4. [Effect of ceramic thickness and resin cement shades on final color of heat-pressed ceramic veneers].

    Ren, D F; Zhan, K R; Chen, X D; Xing, W Z

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To analyze the effect of ceramic materials thickness and resin cement shades on the final color of ceramic veneers in the discolored teeth, and to investigate the color agreement of try-in pastes to the corresponding resin cements. Methods: Sixty artificial maxillary central incisor teeth (C2 shade) were used to simulate the natural discolored teeth and prepared according to veneer tooth preparation protocol. Veneers of different thickness in the body region (0.50 and 0.75 mm) were fabricated using ceramic materials (LT A2 shade, IPS e.max Press). The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded to the artificial teeth using the 6 shades of resin cements (Variolink Veneer: shades of LV-3, LV-2, HV+3; RelyX™ Veneer: shades of TR, A3, WO) ( n= 5). A clinical spectrophotometer was used to measure the color parameters of ceramic veneers at the cervical, body and incisal regions. Color changes of veneers before and after cementation were calculated and registered as ΔE1, and the changes between try-in paste and the corresponding resin cements were registered as ΔE2. Results: Three-way ANOVA indicated that ΔE1 and ΔE2 values were significantly affected by the ceramic thickness, resin cement shades and measuring regions ( Pceramic veneers were cemented with resin cements in shades of HV+3 and WO. The ΔE2 values of six shades ranged from 0.60-2.56. The shades of HV+3, WO and A3 resin cements were more than 1.60. Conclusions: Different thickness of ceramic materials, resin cement shades and measuring regions could affect the final color of ceramic veneers. The color differences of some resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes might be observed in clinical practice.

  5. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  6. COLOR IMAGES

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  7. The effect of time and stirring on product white colorant from titanium dioxide

    Ratnawati; Linda A; Yoshi; Zaenal K; Andri Y

    2018-01-01

    White Colorant is the main raw material in the paint making process in the depots. It made from TiO 2 pigment. The process of making white colorant requires a great stirring time and energy to mix the materials such as binders, pigments, solvents, and additives. The aim of this study is to get the optimum stirring time and speed from mixing the materials needed to obtain white colorant from TiO 2 pigment that meet the specification desired by paint Factory in Tangerang that is particle size of TiO 2 (10 μm to 30 μm), viscosity 1000 cps to 6000 cps, total solids 79 % to 83 %, DE color is 0.5, and CR is 80 % to 100 %. Variations made were stirring speed (1000, 1100 and 1200) rpm and stirring time(10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) minutes. The optimum results obtained are particle size of 15 μm, viscosity 1900 cps, total solids 81.81 %, color DE 0.49 and color CR 98.12 % at stirring condition 1200 rp min 15 minutes. (author)

  8. The Effect of Badges on the Engagement of Students with Special Educational Needs: A Case Study

    Sitra, Ourania; Katsigiannakis, Vangelis; Karagiannidis, Charalampos; Mavropoulou, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the perceived benefits from gamification in the context of special education. It presents the findings of a study evaluating the effects of a specific gamification element (badges) on the engagement of five students with special learning needs, through online courses developed on the Moodle Learning Management System (LMS).…

  9. Estimating the Effectiveness of Special Education Using Large-Scale Assessment Data

    Ewing, Katherine Anne

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in large scale assessment and accountability programs has provided new opportunities to examine the impact of special education services on student achievement. Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin (1998, 2002) evaluated the effectiveness of special education programs by examining students' gains on a large-scale…

  10. Effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains from kidney bean, field pea and chickpea.

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Thakur, Sheetal

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains of kidney bean, field pea and chickpea varieties/accession. Color of grains of different pulses was enhanced after canning. Grains L* (lightness) decreased while a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) increased after canning in all the pulses. Protein profiling of grains of different pulses after canning revealed that kidney bean and chickpea, respectively, had the least and the most thermally susceptible polypeptides. Kidney bean and chickpea showed higher Percentage washed drained weight (PWDW) than field pea. Pulse with more grain hardness and PWDW showed higher degree of grain splitting during canning. Grain splitting was also higher in dark colored accessions/varieties as compared to the light colored. Ferulic acid was the most predominant compound present in raw grains of different pulses. Raw kidney bean grains showed higher accumulation of catechin, chlorogenic, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid than those of chickpea and field pea. Canning caused reduction in all the phenolic compounds except gallic acid and most prominent effect of canning on protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic and ferulic acid was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L on the basic color stability of thermoplastic nylon resin dentures

    Amiyatun Naini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nylon thermoplastic resin is material of choice for the making of flexible. This denture do not use wire retention, but has the physical properties of water absorption. In the oral cavity, it will always be in contact with food and beverages consumed. One of the foods that are consumed by the public is chocolate. This study aimed to determine the effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L on color stability of the thermoplastic nylon denture base. The study sample was thermoplastic nylon (valplast with a size of 10x10x2 mm soaked in the chocolate solution for 7 and 14 days. As the control, the sample soaked with distilled water. The color testing stability used was densitometer. There were significant differences between the control group (distilled water and the chocolate solution. This was due to dissolved components/tannin having a capillary flow diffusion into thermoplastic nylons that causing discoloration. The conclusion of this study, there was the effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L against the color stability of the nylon thermoplastic denture base. The longer time of immersion of nylon thermoplastic the greater the change in color.

  12. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  13. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado; Colli, Celia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe) concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks) were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 deg C for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe) concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L * , a * , and b * values. (author)

  14. Chromium containing silica: effect of ultrasonic and purification methods on color products

    Martines, M.A.U.; Jafelicci Junior, M.; Davolos, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium containing silica has numerous applications, such as: fiber-optics, luminescent materials, catalysts and pigments. In paint and ceramic pigments, chromate and dichromate ions, and silica are largely used. In this paper, it has been investigated the effect of pH, heating methods, and ultrasonic stirring on chromium oxidation states coprecipitated with silica. The material has been obtained from the coprecipitation of an aqueous diluted sodium silicate solution and acid chromium nitrate solution, purified by extractions and dialysis, and dried with microwave oven. Products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy and nitrogem adsorption isotherm (BET). Coprecipitates are non cristalline and the specific surface area value for sample obtained by conventional heating is smaller than the one for sample obtained by ultrasonic method. It is possible to obtain silica with different colors from blue due to the Cr(III), to yellow due to the Cr (VI), depending on the precipitation, purification and drying methods. (author) [pt

  15. Effects of a shade-matching light and background color on reliability in tooth shade selection.

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Vahidi, Farhad; Janal, Malvin N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a shade-matching light (Rite-Lite-2, AdDent) and different viewing backgrounds on reliability in a test of shade tab matching. Four members of the Prosthodontic faculty matched 10 shade tabs selected for a range of shades against the shade guide. All raters were tested for color blindness and were calibrated prior to the study. Matching took place under four combinations of conditions: with operatory light or the shade-matching light, and using either a pink or a blue background. Reliability was quantified with the kappa statistic, separately for agreement of value, hue, and chroma for each shade tab. In general, raters showed fair to moderate levels of agreement when judging the value of the shade tabs, but could not agree on the hue and chroma of the stimuli. The pink background led to higher levels of agreement than the blue background, and the shade-matching light improved agreement when used in conjunction with the pink but not the blue background. Moderate levels of agreement were found in matching shade tab value. Agreement was generally better when using the pink rather than the blue background, regardless of light source. The use of the shade-matching light tended to amplify the advantage of the pink background.

  16. Stroop effects in Alzheimer's disease: selective attention speed of processing, or color-naming? A meta-analysis.

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Tewari, Anita; Shakuf, Vered; Van Lieshout, Pascal H H M

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention, an essential part of daily activity, is often impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Usually, it is measured by the color-word Stroop test. However, there is no universal agreement whether performance on the Stroop task changes significantly in AD patients; or if so, whether an increase in Stroop effects reflects a decrease in selective attention, a slowing in generalized speed of processing (SOP), or is the result of degraded color-vision. The current study investigated the impact of AD on Stroop performance and its potential sources in a meta-analysis and mathematical modeling of 18 studies, comparing 637 AD patients with 977 healthy age-matched participants. We found a significant increase in Stroop effects for AD patients, across studies. This AD-related change was associated with a slowing in SOP. However, after correcting for a bias in the distribution of latencies, SOP could only explain a moderate portion of the total variance (25%). Moreover, we found strong evidence for an AD-related increase in the latency difference between naming the font-color and reading color-neutral stimuli (r2 = 0.98). This increase in the dimensional imbalance between color-naming and word-reading was found to explain a significant portion of the AD-related increase in Stroop effects (r2 = 0.87), hinting on a possible sensory source. In conclusion, our analysis highlights the importance of controlling for sensory degradation and SOP when testing cognitive performance and, specifically, selective attention in AD patients. We also suggest possible measures and tools to better test for selective attention in AD.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on chemical composition and color of raspberries (Rubus Idaeus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) cultivated in South of Chile

    Urbina P, M.C.; Manquian T, N.

    1988-01-01

    Raspberries and blueberries grown in the X th Region, Valdivia, were irradiated in a 137 Cs irradiador BPCDI (Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development irradiator) with dosis of 1,5 KGy and 2,5 KGy in order to measure the effect on the chemical composition and the changes of color due to pigments damage using a colorimetric method. Analysis of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C were made. Color was analized comparing the pink color of the diluted fruit juice with a color scale of different concentrations of a cobalt scale of different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Results demonstrated that the radurization treatment does not affect chemical composition with dosis up to 2,5 KGy. It was possible to detect differences of color in raspberries and not in blueberries because of the less sensitivity of color pigments to radiation. (author)

  18. Directional effect on coloration in LiF crystal by H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ion bombardment

    Mingle, Gan; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Jianer, Zeng; Takeshita, Hidefumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    In the present paper, the first results are reported about the coloration in LiF crystals induced by bombardments of single hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) and molecular hydrogen ions (H{sub 2}{sup +}) with the same velocity under the <100> aligned and random conditions. For the single hydrogen ion irradiation, the coloration is rather simple. The F-type color center absorption under the <100> aligned condition becomes larger than that under the random condition with the dose increase because of larger fraction of electronic energy loss under channeling condition. On the contrary, the coloration for the molecular ions does not show big channeling effect. In the low dose region some difference can be seen but the difference of coloration is not observed any more with the dose increase. The pronounced coloration for molecular ions under the channeling condition is observed in comparison with that for single ions. (author)

  19. Effect of special features of nuclear power plants

    Scharf, H.

    1986-01-01

    Special features of nuclear power plants are reported with the Muelheim-Kaerlich pressurized water reactor as the reference plant. This nuclear reactor uses 'Once Through Steam Generators (OTSG)' with 'Integrated Economizer' to provide the turbine with superheated steam. The implementation of OTSG allows to operate the plant with constant steam pressure over the entire power range, and with constant main coolant temperature over a power range from 15% power to 100% power. Control of the plant during power operation is provided by the 'Integrated Control System', which simultaneously sends signals to the plant's subsystems reactor, OTSG, and turbine to get optimum response of the plant during power transients. The characteristics of this 'Integrated Control System' and its different modes of operation are presented. (orig./GL)

  20. Beyond mean allelic effects: A locus at the major color gene MC1R associates also with differing levels of phenotypic and genetic (co)variance for coloration in barn owls.

    San-Jose, Luis M; Ducret, Valérie; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    The mean phenotypic effects of a discovered variant help to predict major aspects of the evolution and inheritance of a phenotype. However, differences in the phenotypic variance associated to distinct genotypes are often overlooked despite being suggestive of processes that largely influence phenotypic evolution, such as interactions between the genotypes with the environment or the genetic background. We present empirical evidence for a mutation at the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, a major vertebrate coloration gene, affecting phenotypic variance in the barn owl, Tyto alba. The white MC1R allele, which associates with whiter plumage coloration, also associates with a pronounced phenotypic and additive genetic variance for distinct color traits. Contrarily, the rufous allele, associated with a rufous coloration, relates to a lower phenotypic and additive genetic variance, suggesting that this allele may be epistatic over other color loci. Variance differences between genotypes entailed differences in the strength of phenotypic and genetic associations between color traits, suggesting that differences in variance also alter the level of integration between traits. This study highlights that addressing variance differences of genotypes in wild populations provides interesting new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms and the genetic architecture underlying the phenotype. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  2. The Effect of Color (Red versus Blue) on Assimilation versus Contrast in Prime-to-Behavior Effects

    Smeesters, Dirk; Liu, Elke

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper examines whether color can modify the way that primed constructs affect behavior. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that, compared to the color white, blue is more likely to lead to assimilative shifts in behavior, whereas red is more likely to lead to contrastive changes in behavior. In our experiment, previous findings were replicated in the white color condition: participants' behavior assimilated to primed stereotypes of (un)intelligence and contras...

  3. The effects of color cues on typically developing preschoolers' speed of locating a target line drawing: implications for augmentative and alternative communication display design.

    Thistle, Jennifer J; Wilkinson, Krista

    2009-08-01

    This research examined how the presence of color in relation to a target within an augmentative and alternative communication array influenced the speed with which typically developing preschoolers located a target line drawing. Fifteen children over the age of 4 years (from 4;2 [years;months] to 5;4) and 15 children under the age of 4 years (2;10-3;11) participated. Participants were asked to find a target line drawing of foods (e.g., banana and tomato) among an array of 12. The reaction time of locating the target was measured across 4 conditions in which the foreground color and the background color of the line drawing were manipulated. For all participants, line drawings featuring foreground color provided greater advantages in the speed of locating the target compared with drawings featuring only background color. Younger participants demonstrated faster reaction times when color was limited to the foreground. Clinicians should consider incorporating color in the foreground of the line drawing when constructing visual displays. Targets that contain only background color but no foreground color appear to have a negative effect on the speed with which younger children can locate a target. Further research is needed to determine the effects in children with disabilities.

  4. Colored leptons

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  5. What is Color Blindness?

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  6. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL AND COLOR CHANGE OF BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA WOOD FLOUR

    Yao Chen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120ºC in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and chromaticity indexes were examined. Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis (DRUV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra were used to characterize the changes of chromophores upon heating. The study demonstrated that the pH values decreased after heat treatment, and it was lower when the heat treated was in oxygen than in nitrogen. The L* decreased significantly, while a* and b* increased. The total color difference ΔE* increased with increasing initial MC until a plateau was reached after 30% MC. The color change was greater in oxygen than in nitrogen. The hydroxyl groups decreased after heat treatment. The releases of acid and formation of quinoid compounds and carboxylic groups during heat treatment were confirmed. Discoloration of wood is due mainly to the condensation and oxidation reactions, which are accelerated by oxygen. Higher MCs are required to obtain the greatest color change of wood in inert atmosphere.

  7. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    Ignacio García-Estévez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS. Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L* values and higher chroma (C*ab values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  8. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products.

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Puente, Víctor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-11-23

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C* ab ) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  9. The Effect of Chitosan Dosage Againts Liquid Waste Water Color on "Oriens Handicraft" Sasirangan Home Industry, Landasan Ulin

    Arifin Arifin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of sasirangan fabricated prodution has brought positive impact on the welfare of Banjarnese people.  On the other hand, it also have negative impacts in the form environmental pollution as a result of sasirangan industrial liquid waste disposal without any proper treatment proccess. This study aims to determine the effect of chitosan dosage againts liquid waste water color on "Oriens Handicraft" sasirangan home industry. This is an experimental study, the test was conducted in the chemistry laboratory of environmental health department while the color level examination conducted at the Banjarbaru Industrial Standardization and Research Center. One way anova test with α = 0,05% was used for analyzed the data while chitosan regression statistic test with 84% deacetylation degree can be utilized as coagulant material for environmentally friendly sasirangan wastewater treatment with dose variation from 600, 650,700, 750 untill to 800 mg / lt. The highest color concentration eduction occurred at 750 mg / lt doses with 50,5% reduction and the lowest control at 650 mg/lt dose by 43%. The results showed that there were significant differences between color level and chitosan dose. Therefore, the government needs to play a significant role in sasirangan liquid waste treatment by using natural and environmentally friendly coagulant materials such as chitosan.

  10. Surface-illuminant ambiguity and color constancy: effects of scene complexity and depth cues.

    Kraft, James M; Maloney, Shannon I; Brainard, David H

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study how scene complexity and cues to depth affect human color constancy. Specifically, two levels of scene complexity were compared. The low-complexity scene contained two walls with the same surface reflectance and a test patch which provided no information about the illuminant. In addition to the surfaces visible in the low-complexity scene, the high-complexity scene contained two rectangular solid objects and 24 paper samples with diverse surface reflectances. Observers viewed illuminated objects in an experimental chamber and adjusted the test patch until it appeared achromatic. Achromatic settings made tinder two different illuminants were used to compute an index that quantified the degree of constancy. Two experiments were conducted: one in which observers viewed the stimuli directly, and one in which they viewed the scenes through an optical system that reduced cues to depth. In each experiment, constancy was assessed for two conditions. In the valid-cue condition, many cues provided valid information about the illuminant change. In the invalid-cue condition, some image cues provided invalid information. Four broad conclusions are drawn from the data: (a) constancy is generally better in the valid-cue condition than in the invalid-cue condition: (b) for the stimulus configuration used, increasing image complexity has little effect in the valid-cue condition but leads to increased constancy in the invalid-cue condition; (c) for the stimulus configuration used, reducing cues to depth has little effect for either constancy condition: and (d) there is moderate individual variation in the degree of constancy exhibited, particularly in the degree to which the complexity manipulation affects performance.

  11. Effective equilibrium states in the colored-noise model for active matter I. Pairwise forces in the Fox and unified colored noise approximations

    Wittmann, René; Maggi, C.; Sharma, A.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M.; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U.

    2017-11-01

    The equations of motion of active systems can be modeled in terms of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes (OUPs) with appropriate correlators. For further theoretical studies, these should be approximated to yield a Markovian picture for the dynamics and a simplified steady-state condition. We perform a comparative study of the unified colored noise approximation (UCNA) and the approximation scheme by Fox recently employed within this context. We review the approximations necessary to define effective interaction potentials in the low-density limit and study the conditions for which these represent the behavior observed in two-body simulations for the OUPs model and active Brownian particles. The demonstrated limitations of the theory for potentials with a negative slope or curvature can be qualitatively corrected by a new empirical modification. In general, we find that in the presence of translational white noise the Fox approach is more accurate. Finally, we examine an alternative way to define a force-balance condition in the limit of small activity.

  12. Effect of magnetic fields on green color formation in frog skin

    H. Kashiwagi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on a dynamic and efficient optical control system that is made possible by investigation of the body surfaces of various animals. Specifically, we expect Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica skin to provide a model for a flexible display device actuator mechanism. Tree frogs change body color from their original green to other colors in response to background colors. The color formation is controlled not only by chromatophores, but also by guanine microcrystals in iridophores. We collected sample microcrystals from the frog’s dorsal skin and made a model display sheet using the green skin layers. The transparent chamber that contained the crystal suspension was layered to enhance light reflection. Sheet color was observed while the angle of light incidence was varied, with and without magnetic field exposure at 0.3 T. A slight increase in red and green intensity was detected. Additionally, reflected intensity increased with increasing angle of incidence. These results indicate that the guanine crystal platelets in frog skin can efficiently switch the reflected light direction under application of a magnetic field. This in turn suggests that a several-micron-sized microcrystal of this type is a candidate material for development of flexible optical chips for ambient light control.

  13. Effect of salt on color and warmed over flavor in charqui meat processing

    Youssef Elza Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of salt (NaCl high concentration and curing salt was investigated for their role in warmed-over flavor (WOF and color changes during charqui meats processing. WOF was measured by TBARS method in uncured charqui meat (CH and in cured charqui known in Brazil as Jerked beef (JB. WOF occurred substantially in CH and sodium nitrite was able to inhibit 40-45% (p<0.05 in JB samples stored for 30 days. Color parameters also changed as evaluated by CIELAB system. The a*/b* ratio showed that CH samples presented brown color indicating the formation of metmyoglobin (Fe3+ whilst JB samples presented deep red color an indication of nitrosylmyoglobin (Fe2+ formation. Under cooking, a*/b* ratio indicated the presence of denatured metmyoglobin (Fe3+ in CH and formation of nitrosylmyochromogen (Fe2+ in JB samples. The actual iron state influenced the color of charqui meat and apparently nitrite was able to chelate Fe ions, thus inhibiting development of WOF.

  14. Animal Detection in Natural Images: Effects of Color and Image Database

    Zhu, Weina; Drewes, Jan; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID) that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagued the widely used COREL images. Color and grayscale images picked from the ANID and COREL databases were used. In all experiments, color images induced a greater N1 EEG component at earlier time points than grayscale images. We suggest that this influence of color in animal detection may be masked by later processes when measuring reation times. The ERP results of go/nogo and forced choice tasks were similar to those reported earlier. The non-animal stimuli induced bigger N1 than animal stimuli both in the COREL and ANID databases. This result indicates ultra-fast processing of animal images is possible irrespective of the particular database. With the ANID images, the difference between color and grayscale images is more pronounced than with the COREL images. The earlier use of the COREL images might have led to an underestimation of the contribution of color. Therefore, we conclude that the ANID image database is better suited for the investigation of the processing of natural scenes than other databases commonly used. PMID:24130744

  15. [Effects of white organic light-emitting devices using color conversion films on electroluminescence spectra].

    Hou, Qing-Chuan; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Qi, Qing-Jin; Li, Lan; Yin, Shou-Gen

    2010-06-01

    The authors report a novel white organic light-emitting device (WOLED), which uses a strategy of exciting organic/ inorganic color conversion film with a blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The luminescent layer of the blue OLED was prepared by use of CBP host blended with a blue highly fluorescent dye N-BDAVBi. The organic/inorganic color conversion film was prepared by dispersing a mixture of red pigment VQ-D25 and YAG : Ce3+ phosphor in PMMA. The authors have achieved a novel WOLED with the high color stability by optimizing the thickness and fluorescent pigment concentration of the color conversion film. When the driving voltage varied between 6 and 14 V, the color coordinates (CIE) varied slightly from (0.354, 0.304) to (0.357, 0.312) and the maximum current efficiency is about 5.8 cd x A(-1) (4.35 mA x cm(-2)), the maximum brightness is 16 800 cd x m(-2) at the operating voltage of 14 V.

  16. The color of money

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  17. Defense Special Weapons Agency Advisory Panel on the Nuclear Weapon Effects Program

    1998-01-01

    We performed the audit in response to allegations made to the Defense Hotline concerning conflicts of interest among members of the Defense Special Weapons Agency Advisory Panel on the Nuclear Weapon Effects Program...

  18. Effects of mathematics computer games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability

    Bakker, M.; Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.H.A.M. van den; Robitzsch, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a teacher-delivered intervention with online mathematics mini-games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability (multiplication and division). The games involved declarative, procedural, as well as conceptual knowledge of multiplicative

  19. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  20. The effectiveness of a near-infrared vascular imaging device to support intravenous cannulation in children with dark skin color : a cluster randomized clinical trial

    van der Woude, Olga C P; Cuper, Natascha J; Getrouw, Chavalleh; Kalkman, Cor J; de Graaff, Jurgen C

    BACKGROUND: Poor vein visibility can make IV cannulation challenging in children with dark skin color. In the operating room, we studied the effectiveness of a near-infrared vascular imaging device (VascuLuminator) to facilitate IV cannulation in children with dark skin color. METHODS: In the

  1. The effect of isometric exercise of the hand on the synovial blood flow in patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by color Doppler ultrasound

    Ellegaard, Karen; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Lund, Hans

    2013-01-01

    made it possible to investigate the direct effect on blood supply in the synovium after training. In this case-control study, 24 patients with RA with USD activity in the wrist joint participated. The USD activity was measured by the color fraction (CF) (CF = colored pixels/total number of pixels...

  2. Red radiators versus red tulips : the influence of context on the interpretation and effectiveness of color-based ambient persuasive technology

    Lu, S.; Ham, J.R.C.; Midden, C.J.H.; Meschtscherjakov, A.; De Ruyter, B.; Fuchsberger, V.; Murer, M.; Tscheligi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colors are widely used as feedback in ambient persuasive technology. In current research, we argue that the information that colorbased feedback carries is highly context dependent. Two studies investigated effects of context (in which color-based feedback was presented) on user’s interpretation of

  3. EFFECTS OF DISTANCE SPECIALIZATION ON THE BACKSTROKE SWIMMING KINEMATICS

    Cortesi Matteo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate different biomechanical variables of backstroke technique in swimmers specialized in different distance events, in order to investigate the capacity to modify the timing of the arm stroke when changing the swimming velocity from sub-maximal to maximal. Two 25-m backstroke trials respectively at 70% of maximum velocity (V70 and at 100% of maximum velocity (Vmax were performed by 9 200-m distance swimmers and 9 50-m distance swimmers. Swimming velocity, stroke length, stroke rate, duration of different phases of the arm stroke and selected kinematic variables were assessed in both cases. In the 50-m distance swimmers, the duration of the propulsive phase at Vmax, expressed as a percentage of the duration of the total underwater arm stroke, increased significantly (p = 0.001 with increasing swimming velocity. Specifically, both the pull and push phases were fundamental in the increase of duration of the propulsive phase. When compared to 200-m specialists, 50-m distance swimmers seem to be more able to modify their arm stroke phases duration when increasing the swimming velocity in backstroke

  4. Color transparency study group

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  5. The Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Mouth Washes on Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch Wires At Different Time Intervals (An in Vitro Study

    Lubna Maky Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The color stability of aesthetic arch wires is an important factor in the success of an aesthetic orthodontic treatment, but the color of these arch wires tends to change with time.This study was performed to assess the effect of two types of mouth washes on the color  stability of different types of aesthetic arch wires at different time intervals. Materials and methods:Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires were used: epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit.Thirty six samples were prepared, each sample contains ten halves of the aesthetic arch wires. They were divided into three groups according to the immersion media (distilled water as a control media, Listerine with fluoride and Listerine without fluoride and immersed for 30 seconds twice daily according to manufacturer's instructions to measure color change after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system. Results:It was found that there were highly significant differences in color change values of aesthetic arch wires among all immersion media at different time intervals and color change value increases as the time of immersion increases.Additionally, Listerine with fluoride mouth wash caused higher color change values of aesthetic arch wires than Listerine without fluoride and Hubit aesthetic arch wires were the least color stable while Orthotechnology aesthetic arch wires were the most color stable. Conclusions: We can conclude that the daily use of Listerine mouth washes could affect on the color stability of aesthetic arch wires. Although all tested aesthetic arch wires revealed color changes at variable degrees but some of these changes were not  visible and the others were clinically acceptable while the remaining were clinically unacceptable.

  6. P1-5: Effect of Luminance Contrast on the Color Selective Responses in the Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons of the Macaque Monkey

    Tomoyuki Namima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between color signal and luminance signal is an important problem in visual perception, relatively little is known about how the luminance contrast affects the responses of color selective neurons in the visual cortex. In this study, we examined this problem in the inferior temporal (IT of the awake monkey performing a visual fixation task. Single neuron activities were recorded from the anterior and posterior color selective regions in IT cortex (AITC and PITC identified in previous studies where color selective neurons are accumulated. Color stimuli consisted of 28 stimuli that evenly distribute across the gamut of the CRT display defined on the CIE- xychromaticity diagram at two different luminance levels (5 cd/m 2or 20 cd/m 2 and 2 stimuli at white points. The background was maintained at 10 cd/m 2gray. We found that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selectivity was markedly different between AITC and PITC. When we examined the correlation between the responses to the bright stimuli and those to the dark stimuli with the same chromaticity coordinates, most AITC neurons exhibited high correlation whereas many PITC neurons showed no correlation or only weak correlation. In PITC, the effect was specifically large for neutral colors (white, gray, black and for colors with low saturation. These results indicate that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selective responses differs across different areas and suggest that the separation between color signal and luminance signal involves a higher stage of the cortical color processing.

  7. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  8. Cross Shelf Patterns in Habitat Selectivity of Hawkfish (Family: Cirrhitidae) in the Red Sea; with a Special Case of Varying Color Morphs in Paracirrhites forsteri.

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Not much is known about hawkfish worldwide including those that occur in the understudied Red Sea reef system. Hawkfishes are small reef predators that perch in ambush-ready positions and shelter within or on various substrates including live and dead coral. The aim of this study was to look at the distribution and abundance patterns of Red Sea hawkfishes across an inshore and offshore gradient and to investigate the use of benthic habitats. This study was conducted on three inshore, four midshore, and two offshore reefs with surveys at 8 meters and along the reef crest. In total, three species were documented: Paracirrhites forsteri, Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, and Cirrhitus spilotoceps. We found clear distinctions between depth zones and between continental shelf positions. Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus only occurs at the reef slope and Cirrhitus spilotoceps is only found on reef crests. Paracirrhites forsteri was the most abundant species across all reefs and was found in four varying color morphs. Morph 1 showed the most evidence of being a generalist as it utilized the greatest number of substrates. All three species were more abundant on midshore and offshore reefs which have healthier, intact coral communities. Coral cover is a good indicator of hawkfish abundance even when the species in question does not utilize live coral directly.

  9. The Effect of Color (Red versus Blue) on Assimilation versus Contrast in Prime-to-Behavior Effects

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); J. Liu (Elke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines whether color can modify the way that primed constructs affect behavior. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that, compared to the color white, blue is more likely to lead to assimilative shifts in behavior, whereas red is more likely to lead to contrastive changes

  10. Aging effect on the pigment composition and color of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat wines. Contribution of the main pigment families to wine color.

    Boido, Eduardo; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Carrau, Francisco; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julian C

    2006-09-06

    Red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat grapes are known to possess high contents of tannins and intense color, features that are responsible for the originality of these wines. This work aimed to study the evolution of the pigment composition and CIELAB color parameters as Tannat wines become older, as well as to establish the contribution to wine color of the main pigment families. Tannat wines produced in Uruguay from grapes of the same vineyard in six consecutive vintages (1998-2003) and Tannat grapes of the 2003 harvest were analyzed by means of HPLC-DAD-MS and UV-vis spectrometric techniques. The correlations between the different pigment families and the CIELAB parameters revealed the importance of the variations of the percentage, found in anthocyanins and flavanol-anthocyanin acetaldehyde-mediated condensation products (decrease) and pyranoanthocyanins and direct condensation products (increase), in the modification of the color from purple-red hues to more orange-red ones. The color suffered qualitative rather than quantitative changes, that is, the hue (h*ab) increased, whereas the chroma (C*ab) and lightness (L) did not show a defined trend with time.

  11. Health-related biological effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields with special reference to nonthermal effects

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1993-02-01

    This expert report is a supplement to the report by L. von Klitzing (The actions and effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields in man with special reference to athermal effects) and concerns in particular the biological effects on cationic homeostasis and cell regulation with special reference to calcium and the effects on the pineal gland. The report concludes with statements on teratogenicity, concerogenicity, mutagenicity and a bibliography of literature. (VHE) [de

  12. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the chemical and color change of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia) wood flour

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC) on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120°C in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and...

  13. 78 FR 27242 - Updated Special Advisory Bulletin on the Effect of Exclusion From Participation in Federal Health...

    2013-05-09

    ...] Updated Special Advisory Bulletin on the Effect of Exclusion From Participation in Federal Health Care... release of an updated Special Advisory Bulletin on the effect of exclusion from participation in Federal health care programs by OIG. The updated Special Advisory Bulletin describes the scope and effect of the...

  14. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Effects of irrigation frequency and grit color on the germination of lodgepole pine seeds

    Jeremy R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese; Douglas R. Cobos

    2009-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices during germination can be highly variable between existing production facilities. Although nursery guidebooks suggest keeping seeds moist, there are no known scientific answers indicating what sufficient moisture levels are. This study objective was to characterize differing irrigation regimes and grit color choices on different germination...

  16. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: the effect of source on quantification

    W. K. Oestreich; N. K. Ganju; J. W. Pohlman; S. E. Suttles

    2015-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM...

  17. Effect of lures and colors on capture of lady beetles (coleoptera: coccinellidae) in tedders pyramidal traps

    Purposeful attraction and/or aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and/or pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if ...

  18. The Effect of Gamma and Chroma on the Perception of Color Images

    Dijk, J.; Verbeek, P.W.; Walraven, J.; Young, I.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of experiments in which we manipulated color images in the CIELAB space by first applying a scaling factor on chroma (C*). After this we applied a gamma transformation (an exponent relating the input to the output) to the luminance (Y) in XYZ space, while keeping the

  19. Effect of Therapist Color-Blindness on Empathy and Attributions in Cross-Cultural Counseling

    Burkard, Alan W.; Knox, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Empathy and attributions of client responsibility for the cause of and solution to a problem were examined for 247 psychologists who were identified as having low, moderate, and high color-blind racial attitudes. Participants responded to 1 of 4 vignettes that controlled for client race (i.e., African American, European American) and client…

  20. Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite

    Giovanni Parolari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months, showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen.

  1. Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite.

    Parolari, Giovanni; Aguzzoni, Agnese; Toscani, Tania

    2016-04-29

    Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3-4 °C) and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue) and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months), showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color) under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen.

  2. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  3. The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference

    Koolen, Ruud; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly…

  4. Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite

    Parolari, Giovanni; Aguzzoni, Agnese; Toscani, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C) and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue) and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months), showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color) under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen. PMID:28231128

  5. Effect of kernel characteristics on color and flavor development during peanut roasting: two years of data

    Experiments with Crop Year (CY) 2014 samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) revealed that color and flavor profile development were related to kernel moisture content (MC) during dry roasting. That work was repeated with CY 2015 UPPT samples with additional replication. Raw MC, ...

  6. Addressing the oral healthcare needs of special needs children: pediatric nurses' self-perceived effectiveness.

    Parish, Carrigan L; Singer, Richard; Abel, Stephen; Metsch, Lisa R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the oral health knowledge and practices of pediatric nurses who coordinate healthcare services for special needs children and to identify those factors that influenced their perceived effectiveness in managing their patients' oral health needs. Self-reported data were collected from 376 nurses employed at Children's Medical Services who responded to an online survey. Likert scale scores were used to specifically assess the nurses' perceived effectiveness in addressing the oral health needs of special needs children. Characteristics significantly associated with special needs pediatric nurses who described themselves as "effective or very effective" included: the self-perception of being very knowledgeable about basic oral health, receiving four or more hours of continuing education training, and securing dental appointments for the majority of their pediatric special needs patients with minimal waiting times. Findings reveal that oral health knowledge significantly influenced nurses' perceived effectiveness in addressing the oral health needs of special needs children, as well as their ability to secure timely dental appointments. These results support the need to incorporate oral health education into nursing curricula and expand upon the dental workforce available and willing to treat disabled patients. © 2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Special relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Raogudimetla, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a great need to develop a system that can measure accurately atmospheric wind profiles because an accurate data of wind profiles in the atmosphere constitutes single most input for reliable simulations of global climate numerical methods. Also such data helps us understand atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics better. Because of this need for accurate wind measurements, a space-based Laser Atmospheric Winds Sounder (LAWS) is being designed at MSFC to measure wind profiles in the lower atmosphere of the earth with an accuracy of 1 m/s at lower altitudes to 5m/s at higher altitudes. This system uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and received frequencies to estimate the atmospheric wind velocities. If a significant return from the ground (sea) is possible, the spacecraft speed and height are estimated from it and these results and the Doppler shift are then used to estimate the wind velocities in the atmosphere. It is expected that at the proposed wavelengths, there will be enough backscatter from the aerosols but there may no be significant return from the ground. So a coherent (heterodyne) detection system is being proposed for signal processing because it can provide high signal to noise ratio and sensitivity and thus make the best use of low ground return. However, for a heterodyne detection scheme to provide the best results, it is important that the receiving aperture be aligned properly for the proposed wind sounder, this amounts to only a few microradians tolerance in alignment. It is suspected that the satellite motion relative to the ground may introduce errors in the order of a few microradians because of special relativity. Hence, the problem of laser scattering off a moving fixed target when the source and receiver are moving, which was not treated in the past in the literature, was analyzed in the following, using relativistic electrodynamics and applied to the

  8. Minuutit (Colors).

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  9. Animal detection in natural images: effects of color and image database.

    Weina Zhu

    Full Text Available The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagued the widely used COREL images. Color and grayscale images picked from the ANID and COREL databases were used. In all experiments, color images induced a greater N1 EEG component at earlier time points than grayscale images. We suggest that this influence of color in animal detection may be masked by later processes when measuring reation times. The ERP results of go/nogo and forced choice tasks were similar to those reported earlier. The non-animal stimuli induced bigger N1 than animal stimuli both in the COREL and ANID databases. This result indicates ultra-fast processing of animal images is possible irrespective of the particular database. With the ANID images, the difference between color and grayscale images is more pronounced than with the COREL images. The earlier use of the COREL images might have led to an underestimation of the contribution of color. Therefore, we conclude that the ANID image database is better suited for the investigation of the processing of natural scenes than other databases commonly used.

  10. Color tejido

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  11. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    G. D. Nayak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01 in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH was significant (p<0.05 for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05 for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05 on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling

  12. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  13. A Propensity Score Matching Analysis of the Effects of Special Education Services.

    Morgan, Paul L; Frisco, Michelle; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2010-02-01

    We sought to quantify the effectiveness of special education services as naturally delivered in U.S. schools. Specifically, we examined whether children receiving special education services displayed (a) greater reading or mathematics skills, (b) more frequent learning-related behaviors, or (c) less frequent externalizing or internalizing problem behaviors than closely matched peers not receiving such services. To do so, we used propensity score matching techniques to analyze data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal-Study Kindergarten Cohort, 1998-1999, a large scale, nationally representative sample of U.S. schoolchildren. Collectively, results indicate that receipt of special education services has either a negative or statistically non-significant impact on children's learning or behavior. However, special education services do yield a small, positive effect on children's learning-related behaviors.

  14. A Propensity Score Matching Analysis of the Effects of Special Education Services

    Morgan, Paul L.; Frisco, Michelle; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We sought to quantify the effectiveness of special education services as naturally delivered in U.S. schools. Specifically, we examined whether children receiving special education services displayed (a) greater reading or mathematics skills, (b) more frequent learning-related behaviors, or (c) less frequent externalizing or internalizing problem behaviors than closely matched peers not receiving such services. To do so, we used propensity score matching techniques to analyze data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal—Study Kindergarten Cohort, 1998–1999, a large scale, nationally representative sample of U.S. schoolchildren. Collectively, results indicate that receipt of special education services has either a negative or statistically non-significant impact on children’s learning or behavior. However, special education services do yield a small, positive effect on children’s learning-related behaviors. PMID:23606759

  15. Effect of ultrasound irradiation on the evolution of color properties and major phenolic compounds in wine during storage.

    Zhang, Qing-An; Wang, Ting-Ting

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasound irradiation were investigated on the evolution of color properties and major phenolic compounds during wine storage. The results indicate that the changing trends of color parameters are very similar in both the ultrasonically-treated and untreated wines, meanwhile the evolutions of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, monomeric flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids also demonstrate some similar patterns in all wines during storage, respectively. In summary, the ultrasound irradiation does not only temporally influence the color characteristics and phenolic compounds of wine, but also have a longer effect on their evolutions during wine storage. Furthermore, the ultrasonically-treated wine had a quicker changing trend than that of the untreated wine regarding the studied parameters. All these results indicate that the ultrasound might be as a feasible and promising novel technology for wineries to produce more red wines with the similar quality as the traditionally-aged wine in a shorter time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advance Organizers in Secondary Special Education Resource Classrooms: Effects on Student Engagement Behaviors

    King, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…

  17. The Differential Effect of Skin Color on Attractiveness, Personality Evaluations, and Perceived Life Success of African Americans

    Wade, T. Joel; Bielitz, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Skin color in relation to perceived attractiveness, personality ratings, and perceived life success of African Americans was investigated in a 2 (sex of participant) 2 (skin color of stimulus person) 2 (sex of stimulus person) design. Based on prior research, Skin Color Sex of Stimulus Person and Sex of Participant Skin Color interactions were…

  18. 1 COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND SPECIAL EFFECTS: A CREATIVE ...

    Microsoft

    2012-07-01

    Jul 1, 2012 ... entire digital effects and animation industry are still in their infancy in Nigeria. Igbo .... studios around the country opened for business. .... creativity, ideas, innovation and a coordinated strategic plan” in the industry.12 ... Hundreds of computer animators, model makers, explosives experts, puppeteers and.

  19. Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.

    National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

    The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

  20. The Effects of Specialization and Sex on Anterior Y-Balance Performance in High School Athletes.

    Miller, Madeline M; Trapp, Jessica L; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinicians should be aware that single-sport male athletes may display deficits in dynamic balance, potentially

  1. THE EFFECTS OF EPISODIC STAR FORMATION ON THE FUV-NUV COLORS OF STAR FORMING REGIONS IN OUTER DISKS

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dowell, Jayce D., E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jdowell@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and Hα colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; τ model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and Hα observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10{sup –8} to 4 × 10{sup –9} yr{sup –1}. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L{sub H{sub α}}/L{sub FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing τ and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ∼2 × 10{sup –6} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical

  2. Special Education--Non-Special Education Achievement Gap in Math: Effects of Reporting Methods, Analytical Techniques, and Reclassification

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Wu, Yi-Chen; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulations indicate that the achievement gap must be closed between subgroups, including the gap between special education and non-special education students. We explored the ways in which achievement trends are influenced by three methods of reporting (cross-sectional, cohort-static, and cohort-dynamic). We also investigated (a) the ways…

  3. The Effect of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ pre-treatment on the color of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis leaves

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of alkaline blanching followed by an immersion in salt solutions of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ on color preservation of Yerba Maté leaves. The concentration of NaOH in the alkaline solution influenced all of the color parameters. Ion concentration and dipped time influenced only some color parameters. The color parameters of the product obtained with different treatments were different from the control sample (blanched with boiling water instead of alkaline blanching and from the product obtained via industrial processing. The green color in the pre-treated and control samples was more intense (greater values of -a and darker (low values of L and b. Ionic and ash content in the leaves increased with the treatments.

  4. 19 CFR 200.735-123 - Effect of employees' and special Government employees' statements on other requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of employees' and special Government... Employment and Financial Interests § 200.735-123 Effect of employees' and special Government employees... statements required of employees and special Government employees are in addition to, and not in substitution...

  5. Ricotta Cheese Whey-Fruit-Based Beverages: Pasteurization Effects on Antioxidant Composition and Color

    Anna Rizzolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW. Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red: blueberry, strawberry and pasteurization conditions on color and antioxidants, four fruit-RCW-based beverages (juice/RCW ratio: 80/20, 14% soluble solids content were prepared and divided into two lots, and each lot was pasteurized according to different times/temperatures. After pasteurization, no formation of precipitate was observed in the bottles, even if some turbidity, ranging from 25 NTU (pear-RCW to 190 NTU (blueberry-RCW, was observed. The blending of juices with RCW caused color darkening in apple, pear, and strawberry blends, and brightening in the blueberry one. The pasteurization conditions had a greater impact on the color changes of ‘yellow’ beverages than those of the ‘red’ ones. With a lethal rate F 100 10 = 14 , there was a greater decrease in the total phenolic content (TPC in blueberry-, strawberry-, and apple-RCW beverages, and a greater decrease in the monomeric anthocyanin pigment (MAP and a smaller increase in the percent of polymeric color, in the blueberry-RCW beverage. Results on the antioxidant activity suggested that the Maillard reaction products formed in response to thermal treatment and/or the formation of anthocyanin polymers, likely compensate for the loss of antioxidant activity due to TPC and MAP degradations.

  6. Effects of different surface treatments on the color stability of various dental porcelains

    Isil Sarikaya

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that feldspathic and low-fusing porcelain specimens were found to be more color-stable for glazed specimens versus polished specimens regardless of whether they were stained with the coffee solution. Glazed and polished specimens with different polishing materials demonstrated that the ΔE values were at an acceptable level for all of the porcelain materials tested (1 < ΔE < 3.7.

  7. UV-vis light transmittance through tinted contact lenses and the effect of color on values.

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2014-06-01

    To assess the transmittance, in the 200-700nm electromagnetic radiation spectrum, by popularly used tinted soft contact lenses (CLs). The spectra transmittances of ultraviolet (UV)-blocking (I Day Acuvue Define, Freshlook ONE DAY) and non-UV-blocking (Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo) tinted soft CLs were tested. The transmittance of each lens, including nine different colors of Freshlook CL was recorded on spectrophotometer, and the data used to also calculate a UV protection factor (PF) for each lens brand tested, with a higher value indicating a higher level of protection. The UV-blocking CLs significantly reduced UVC, UVB & UVA transmission and thereby meet the American National Standards Institution standard for class 2 UV blockers: a maximum of 30% transmittance of UVA and 5% transmittance of UVB wavelengths. In contrast, the Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo CLs demonstrated negligible UV-blockage. The Acuvue Define CL offered the greatest protection from UVC (PF=69) and UVB (PF=55), but with only 35% luminous transmittance, while the Freshlook CL (especially gemstone green) offered the best protection from UVA (PF=24) and showed about 55% translucency. Overall, the UV-blocking CLs performed equally well across the UV spectrum. Different colors of Freshlook CL transmitted statistically and clinically significantly different amounts of visible light but similar amounts of UVR. Freshlook and Acuvue Define CLs which are designated as UV-blockers significantly reduced UVR transmission to safe levels whereas Tutti, NeoCosmo and Durasoft 3 did not. Transmission within the Freshlook CL family was more dependent on color in the visible light spectrum, but not in the UV-spectrum, where the gemstone green performing best among the tested colors. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  9. The Effects of Storage Conditions on Lycopene Content and Color of Tomato Hot Pot Sauce

    He Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant (k value of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The k value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1 packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The k value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of L⁎, a⁎, and a⁎/b⁎ and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation upon the mutation of skin color of the Fuji apple cultivar

    Yoshida, Yoshio

    1984-03-01

    The new apple cultivar Fuji was bred at the Morioka Branch, Fruit Tree Research Station, in 1958. Although the quality of the Fuji fruits is high, the skin color is not very attractive. In 1963 and 1964, the Fuji cultivar was irradiated with gamma ray in the growing tree stage and the state of dormant scions. Some promising mutants of the color sport were selected. In 1963, two year old Fuji saplings grafted to Marubakaido were planted in a gamma field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, and exposed to the dose from a Co-60 source from 200 to 12.5 R per day for 223 days, thereafter they were transplanted in the Morioka Branch in 1964. The dormant scions of the Fuji cultivar were sealed in polyethylene bags, and placed at different distances from a Co-60 source. The treatment in 1963 was at 6000 or 3000 R for one day, and in 1964, at 6000, 3000, 1200 and 600 R for one day, two, five and ten days, respectively, thus the total dose was 6000 R in all cases. Thereafter, they were grafted to Marubakaido. All trees which received over 20,000 R in total died, and those which received less than 5000 R produced no mutant. The scions except 600 R/day x 10 days group produced mutants. 15 color sports and 3 spur type mutants were selected in this experiment. (J.P.N.).

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation upon the mutation of skin color of the 'Fuji' apple cultivar

    Yoshida, Yoshio

    1984-01-01

    The new apple cultivar ''Fuji'' was bred at the Morioka Branch, Fruit Tree Research Station, in 1958. Although the quality of the Fuji fruits is high, the skin color is not very attractive. In 1963 and 1964, the Fuji cultivar was irradiated with gamma ray in the growing tree stage and the state of dormant scions. Some promising mutants of the color sport were selected. In 1963, two year old Fuji saplings grafted to Marubakaido were planted in a gamma field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, and exposed to the dose from a Co-60 source from 200 to 12.5 R per day for 223 days, thereafter they were transplanted in the Morioka Branch in 1964. The dormant scions of the Fuji cultivar were sealed in polyethylene bags, and placed at different distances from a Co-60 source. The treatment in 1963 was at 6,000 or 3,000 R for one day, and in 1964, at 6,000, 3,000, 1,200 and 600 R for one day, two, five and ten days, respectively, thus the total dose was 6,000 R in all cases. Thereafter, they were grafted to Marubakaido. All trees which received over 20,000 R in total died, and those which received less than 5,000 R produced no mutant. The scions except 600 R/day x 10 days group produced mutants. 15 color sports and 3 spur type mutants were selected in this experiment. (J.P.N.)

  12. [Aging of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins: effects on color and translucency].

    Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie; Lin, Hong; Shen, Song

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the color stability and translucency of silorane-based low shrinkage composite after in vitro aging procedures of thermal cycling and water storage respectively, and to compare with those of conventional methacrylate-based posterior composite. Three light-cured composite resins, dimethacrylate-based composite A (Filtek™ Z350), B (Filtek™ P60) and silorane-based composite C (Filtek™ P90), were tested in this study. Ten specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in height) of each composite were prepared. The ten specimens in each group were then divided into two subgroups (n = 5). One subgroup underwent thermal cycling [(5.0 ± 0.5)~(55.0 ± 1.0) °C, 10 000 cycles] and the other was stored in 37 C° distilled water for 180 days. With a spectrophotometer, the CIE L * a * b * parameters of the specimens were tested before and after artificial aging against white, medium grey and black backgrounds, respectively. △E, TP and △TP were calculated and data were analyzed using independent-samples t test and partial analysis (P composite showed color alteration above the clinically acceptable levels (△E > 3.3), and also showed higher △E with a statistically significant difference in comparison with the other composites (B and C) (P composite C showed more alteration compared with composite B (P composite underwent greater alteration with regard to color stability and translucency.

  13. Design and assessment of compact optical systems towards special effects imaging

    Shaoulov, Vesselin Iossifov

    A main challenge in the field of special effects is to create special effects in real time in a way that the user can preview the effect before taking the actual picture or movie sequence. There are many techniques currently used to create computer-simulated special effects, however current techniques in computer graphics do not provide the option for the creation of real-time texture synthesis. Thus, while computer graphics is a powerful tool in the field of special effects, it is neither portable nor does it provide work in real-time capabilities. Real-time special effects may, however, be created optically. Such approach will provide not only real-time image processing at the speed of light but also a preview option, allowing the user or the artist to preview the effect on various parts of the object in order to optimize the outcome. The work presented in this dissertation was inspired by the idea of optically created special effects, such as painterly effects, encoded in images captured by photographic or motion picture cameras. As part of the presented work, compact relay optics was assessed, developed, and a working prototype was built. It was concluded that even though compact relay optics can be achieved, further push for compactness and cost-effectiveness was impossible in the paradigm of bulk macro-optics systems. Thus, a paradigm for imaging with multi-aperture micro-optics was proposed and demonstrated for the first time, which constitutes one of the key contributions of this work. This new paradigm was further extended to the most general case of magnifying multi-aperture micro-optical systems. Such paradigm allows an extreme reduction in size of the imaging optics by a factor of about 10 and a reduction in weight by a factor of about 500. Furthermore, an experimental quantification of the feasibility of optically created special effects was completed, and consequently raytracing software was developed, which was later commercialized by Sm

  14. Color vision test

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  15. Effects of Fibers on Color and Translucency Changes of Bulk-Fill and Anterior Composites after Accelerated Aging

    Ali Riza Tuncdemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glass and polyethylene fibers on the color and translucency change of bulk-fill and anterior composites before and after artificial accelerated aging (AAA. Two types of teflon molds were used to fabricate samples which were 13 mm in diameter and, respectively, 2 mm and 4 mm in height. Polyethylene fiber (PF and glass fiber (GF were incorporated in the middle of the composite samples. Color and translucency changes of each composite were evaluated before and after AAA with spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc statistical analysis were used at a significance level of 0.05. Before AAA (for anterior composites, there were no significant differences in L* and b* parameters among the three groups (p>0.05; there were no significant differences in L* parameter between PF and GF groups or in TP between GF and control groups (p>0.05 (for bulk-fill composites. After AAA, there were no significant differences in L* parameter between GF and control groups, in a* parameter between PF and control groups, in b* parameter among all groups, or in TP parameter between GF and control groups (p>0.05. Fiber reinforcement led to color and TP change in both anterior and bulk-fill resin composites.

  16. Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels.

  17. Influence of PVA and CMC on the Properties of Pigment Coating Colors and their Effects on Curtain Stability

    Eun Heui Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC on the properties of ground calcium carbonate (GCC and clay coating colors, as well as its effect on curtain stability during the coating process was investigated. Based on the experimental results of the zeta potential, sediment porosity, rheological measurements, the floc formation mechanisms of the cobinders were proposed. The zeta potential decreased with an increase in the amount of added PVA, while it barely changed when CMC was added. This was attributed to the adsorption of PVA onto the pigment surface, while the adsorption of CMC was hindered by electrostatic repulsion. CMC cobinder increased the low-shear viscosity, but it resulted in relatively low viscosity under high-shear conditions, indicating the disruption of the formed flocs under high shear. The destabilization mechanism of the curtain coating differed depending on the type of cobinder. The PVA cobinder flocculates the coating color via a gelling mechanism, while the CMC cobinder flocculates the colors via a depletion flocculation mechanism.

  18. Effects of three-dimensional and color patterns on nest location and progeny mortality in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Guédot, Christelle; Bosch, Jordi; James, Rosalind R; Kemp, William P

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT In alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed production where high bee densities are released, alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), females may enter several nesting holes before locating their nests. Such levels of "wrong hole" visits lead to an increase in the time spent by females locating their own nests, thereby decreasing alfalfa pollination efficiency and possibly healthy brood production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different nesting board configurations in commercial alfalfa leafcutting bee shelters (separating nesting boards, applying a three-dimensional pattern to the boards, applying a color contrast pattern, or applying a combination of three-dimensional and color contrast patterns) on nest location performance, on the incidence of chalkbrood disease, and on the incidence of broodless provisions. Separating the nesting boards inside shelters improved the ability of females to locate their nests. An increase in nest location performance also occurred in boards with the three-dimensional pattern and the combined three-dimensional and color contrast pattern, compared with the uniform board (a standard configuration currently used commercially). The percentage of provisioned cells that were broodless was not statistically different between treatments, but the percentage of larvae infected with chalkbrood decreased by half in the three-dimensional board design, compared with the uniform board.

  19. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  20. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness, gloss and color of resin-based composites.

    Paravina, Rade D; Roeder, Leslie; Lu, Huan; Vogel, Karin; Powers, John M

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of different finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness, gloss and color of five resin composites: two experimental microhybrid composites - FZ-Dentin (FZD) and FZ-Enamel (FZE), one commercial microhybrid composite - Esthet-X (EX), and two microfilled composites - Heliomolar (HM) and Renamel Microfill (RM). Surface roughness, gloss and color of the disc-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2-mm thick) were measured as Mylar (baseline), 16-fluted carbide bur and polishing were completed. Sixteen specimens of each composite were randomized to four groups of four. After finishing with a 16-fluted finishing bur, each group was polished by a different system: 1. Astropol (A), 2. Sof-lex disc (S), 3. Po-Go (P), 4. Enhance (E). Average surface roughness (Ra) was measured with a profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using small-area glossmeter, while color coordinate values were recorded using a spectrophotometer. A deltaE*abgloss ranked according to polishing system (for all five composites together) was: P > E > A > S. The order of gloss values for the polished composites (for each of four polishing systems) was: RM > FZD > FZE > HM > EX. Fisher's PLSD intervals at the 0.05 level of significance for comparisons of means of surface roughness among five composites and four polishing systems were 0.01 and 0.01 microm, respectively. Fisher's PLSD intervals at the 0.05 level of significance for comparisons of means of gloss among five composites and four polishing systems were 6 and 5 GU, respectively. Color differences (deltaE*ab) among five composites and four polishing methods were found to range from 0.2 to 1.1.

  1. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Inácio, Filomena; Araújo, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks - a surface and a knowledge verification task - using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the differences between typical and atypical color objects in each task. In the color knowledge task, we found two significant clusters that were consistent with the N350 and late positive complex (LPC) effects. Atypical color objects elicited more negative ERPs compared to typical color objects. The color effect found in the N350 time window suggests that surface color is an important cue that facilitates the selection of a stored object representation from long-term memory. Moreover, the observed LPC effect suggests that surface color activates associated semantic knowledge about the object, including color knowledge representations. We did not find any significant differences between typical and atypical color objects in the surface color verification task, which indicates that there is little contribution of color knowledge to resolve the surface color verification. Our main results suggest that surface color is an important visual cue that triggers color knowledge, thereby facilitating object identification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum.

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad

    2013-02-01

    Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures.

  3. Colors in French, American and British dictionaries | Williams | Lexikos

    Colors have senses specific to particular fields such as physics and printing, in addi-tion to senses used in everyday life. This article examines the specialized information found in color definitions in French, American and British dictionaries. We explore whether specialized and non-specialized definitions are lumped or split ...

  4. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate.

    Dikmen, S; Dahl, G E; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2017-03-01

    Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. Three variants with moderate effects on the () gene were identified in 2 Larson blue cows. Despite being lighter in color, there was no difference in daily variation in vaginal temperature between Larson Blue and other Holsteins when recorded during the summer for cows housed in free-stall barns with shade, fans, and sprinklers. Similarly, there was no effect of the Larson Blue phenotype on seasonal variation in milk yield. Therefore, the phenotype confers no advantage in terms of response to heat stress when cattle are housed in facilities with extensive cooling.

  5. Effect of light irradiation on tooth whitening: enamel microhardness and color change.

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Francci, Carlos; Medeiros, Igor Studart; De Godoy Froes Salgado, Nívea Regina; Riehl, Heraldo; Marasca, José Milton; Muench, Antônio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light exposure associated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) or 15% hydrogen peroxide (BriteSmile, Discus, Culver City, CA, USA) on the microhardness and color changes of bovine enamel. Experimental groups were Britesmile + Light (BL) (15% hydrogen peroxide + plasm arc; 4 x 20 minutes), Britesmile + No Light (BN) (BL, no light), Pola office + Light (PL) (35% hydrogen peroxide + LED; 4 x 8 minutes), and Pola office + No light (PN) (PL, no light). Color changes (DeltaE) and the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage, L* a* b* color system) parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were assessed with a spectrophotometer before (B), immediately (A), 1 day and 7 days after bleaching. The microhardness was measured before (B) and after (A), the obtained data were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance, and DeltaE were submitted to t-test for each period. Only Pola Office, in which the peroxide is associated with the light, improved DeltaE when evaluated immediately after bleaching (p enamel microhardness was not altered after bleaching for BriteSmile. However, enamel microhardness was reduced after bleaching for Pola Office, 283 MPa (+/-21) and 265 MPa (+/-27), respectively. It was concluded that these two bleaching systems were efficient regardless of the light systems used. However, the 35% hydrogen peroxide altered the enamel microhardness. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Enamel microhardness was affected by a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching therapy. Moreover, the in-office bleaching outcome was not improved by using the light associated with systems tested in this study. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:387-396, 2009).

  6. Effect of two different bleaching regimens on the gloss of tooth colored restorative materials.

    Yalcin, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2005-05-01

    Vital tooth bleaching with peroxide is one of the most common cosmetic procedures in dentistry and can be accomplished using a variety of methods or regimens. Recently, new generation of tooth color restorative materials were introduced to market. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the gloss changes of three different tooth color restorative materials: Flowable composite (Filtek Flow/3M), packable composite (Filtek P60/3M) and ormocer (Definite/DEGUSSA) after two different bleaching regimens (Vivastyle/VIVADENT) and (Crest Professional Whitestrips/PROCTER and GAMBLE). 16 specimens 30 x 30 x 2 mm size were fabricated from each restorative material. After gloss values were measured with gloss meter, at two different angles of illumination (20 and 60 degrees ), 10% carbamide peroxide (Vivastyle) was applied for 2 h per day for fourteen days to the half of the specimens while 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip bands (Crest Professional Whitestrips) were applied to the remaining eight of the specimens for 30 min twice daily for 14 days. During the test period the specimens were stored in 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity. At the end of bleaching regimen the gloss measurements were repeated and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test analysis revealed that the gloss values were affected by both bleaching regimens (P=0.012). Whitestrips decreased the gloss values of Filtek P60 (at 20 and 60 degrees , Pgloss values of Definite did not show any significant change between Vivastyle and Whitestrips application (at 20 degrees P=0.279; at 60 degrees , P=0.279, Mann-Whitney U Test). The gloss values of materials were significantly different before (at 20 degrees Pgloss of tooth colored restorative materials could be affected by bleaching regimens, it is necessary to consider the type of the material before starting the treatment.

  7. The combined effect of food-simulating solutions, brushing and staining on color stability of composite resins

    Silva, Tânia Mara Da; Sales, Ana Luísa Leme Simões; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the effect of food-simulating media associated with brushing and coffee staining on color stability of different composite resins. Materials and methods: Eighty specimens were prepared for each composite: Grandio SO (Voco), Amaris (Voco), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE), Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE). They were divided into four groups according to food-simulating media for 7 days: artificial saliva (control), heptane, citric acid and ethanol. The composite surface was submitted to 10,950 brushing cycles (200 g load) in an automatic toothbrushing machine. The specimens were darkened with coffee solution at 37 °C for 24 h. After each treatment, color measurements were assessed by spectrophotometry, using CIE L*a*b* system. The overall color change (ΔE) was determined for each specimen at baseline (C1) and after the treatments (food-simulating media immersion/C2, brushing/C3 and dye solution/C4). Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p composites (p = .001), time (p = .001) and chemical degradation (p = .002). The mean of ΔE for composites were: Z350XT (5.39)a, Amaris (3.89)b, Grandio (3.75)bc, P90 (3.36)c. According to food-simulating media: heptane (4.41)a, citric acid (4.24)a, ethanol (4.02)ab, artificial saliva (3.76)b. For the treatments: dye solution (4.53)a, brushing (4.26)a, after food-simulating media (3.52)b. Conclusions: The composite resin Filtek Z350XT showed significantly higher staining than all other composite resin tested. The immersion in heptane and citric acid produced the highest color alteration than other food-simulating media. The exposure of samples to brushing protocols and darkening in coffee solution resulted in significant color alteration of the composite resins. PMID:28642926

  8. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2015-09-01

    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  9. Non-Abelian color dielectric - towards the effective model of the low energy QCD

    Wereszczynski, A.; Slusarczyk, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lattice motivated triplet color scalar field theory is analyzed. We consider non-minimal as well as covariant derivative coupling with SU(2) gauge fields. Field configurations generated by external electric sources are presented. Moreover non-Abelian magnetic monopoles are found. Dependence on the spatial coordinates in the obtained solutions is identical as in the usual Abelian case. We show also that after a decomposition of the fields a modified Faddeev-Niemi action can be obtained. It contains explicit O(3) symmetry breaking term parameterized by the condensate of an isoscalar field. Due to that Goldstone bosons observed in the original Faddeev-Niemi model are removed. (orig.)

  10. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  11. Nitrite-embedded packaging film effects on fresh and frozen beef color development and stability as influenced by meat age and muscle type.

    Claus, James R; Du, Chen

    2013-11-01

    Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Psoas major, PM, semitendinosus, ST) were aged (2, 9d postmortem), cut into steaks, anaerobically packaged (nitrite-embedded film, NEF), and displayed (fresh, 19d; frozen, 39d). Fresh NEF increased (PMeat age influenced NEF color. Intact NEF maintained acceptable red color throughout display. Residual nitrite and nitrate associated with fresh NEF and nitrate in NEF cooked LL were found (Pmeat age and muscle differences. NEF packaging has potential to extend fresh beef color display life. NEF appears to offer the opportunity to display bright red beef in frozen display by limiting typical effects of photooxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing Repetition Priming Effects in Words and Arithmetic Equations: Robust Priming Regardless of Color or Response Hand Change

    Ailsa Humphries

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that stimulus repetition can lead to reliable behavioral improvements. Although this repetition priming (RP effect has been reported in a number of paradigms using a variety of stimuli including words, objects, and faces, only a few studies have investigated mathematical cognition involving arithmetic computation, and no prior research has directly compared RP effects in a linguistic task with an arithmetic task. In two experiments, we used a within-subjects design to investigate and compare the magnitude of RP, and the effects of changing the color or the response hand for repeated, otherwise identical, stimuli in a word and an arithmetic categorization task. The results show that the magnitude of RP was comparable between the two tasks and that changing the color or the response hand had a negligible effect on priming in either task. These results extended previous findings in mathematical cognition. They also indicate that priming does not vary with stimulus domain. The implications of the results were discussed with reference to both facilitation of component processes and episodic memory retrieval of stimulus–response binding.

  13. Comparing Repetition Priming Effects in Words and Arithmetic Equations: Robust Priming Regardless of Color or Response Hand Change.

    Humphries, Ailsa; Chen, Zhe; Neumann, Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulus repetition can lead to reliable behavioral improvements. Although this repetition priming (RP) effect has been reported in a number of paradigms using a variety of stimuli including words, objects, and faces, only a few studies have investigated mathematical cognition involving arithmetic computation, and no prior research has directly compared RP effects in a linguistic task with an arithmetic task. In two experiments, we used a within-subjects design to investigate and compare the magnitude of RP, and the effects of changing the color or the response hand for repeated, otherwise identical, stimuli in a word and an arithmetic categorization task. The results show that the magnitude of RP was comparable between the two tasks and that changing the color or the response hand had a negligible effect on priming in either task. These results extended previous findings in mathematical cognition. They also indicate that priming does not vary with stimulus domain. The implications of the results were discussed with reference to both facilitation of component processes and episodic memory retrieval of stimulus-response binding.

  14. Effects of Short-Term Presalting and Salt Level on the Development of Pink Color in Cooked Chicken Breasts

    Jeong, Jong Youn

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of short-term presalting on pink color and pigment characteristics in ground chicken breasts after cooking. Four salt levels (0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%) were presalted and stored for 0 and 3 d prior to cooking. Cooking yield was increased as salt level was increased. However, no significant differences in pH values or oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of cooked chicken breasts were observed. Cooked products with more than 2% of salt level ha...

  15. THE EFFECT OF BRAND IMAGE ON OVERALL SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY INTENTION IN THE CONTEXT OF COLOR COSMETIC

    Stephen L. Sondoh Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of brand image benefits on satisfaction and loyalty intention in the context of color cosmetic product. Five brand image benefits consisting of functional, social, symbolic, experiential and appearance enhances were investigated. A survey carried out on 97 females showed that functional and appearance enhances significantly affect loyalty intention. Four of brand image benefits: functional, social, experiential, and appearance enhances are positively related to overall satisfaction. The results also indicated that overall satisfaction does influence customers' loyalty. The results imply that marketers should focus on brand image benefits in theireffort to achieve customer loyalty.

  16. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteri...

  17. Histological and histochemical studies on liver of rat subjected to synergistic effect of natural and synthetic food colorants and/or gamma irradiation

    Soliman, O.; Hafez, M. N.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to detect some histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rats after oral administration of a mixture of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and/ or gamma-irradiation (5 Gy). The possible ameliorative effect of the natural food colorant beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) orally administered with the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and irradiation was evaluated. Rats were divided into five groups: 1- Control group. 2- Group received a food colorant mixture of tartrazine and brilliant blue (100 mg/ kg body wt). 3- Group received gamma-irradiation at 5 Gy. 4-Animals received the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were irradiated. 5- Animals received beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) with the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were then irradiated (5 Gy). Administration of tartrazine and brilliant blue caused histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver of rat manifested by haemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, dilatation of blood sinusoids, scattered necrotic areas and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharides content. The radiation caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area, necrosis with pyknosis and karyolysis of nuclei and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharide content of hepatic cells 1 and 3 days post-irradiation. The present work also showed that the natural food colorant beta-carotene reduced the toxicity of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and gamma-irradiation when the natural pigment was given together with the synthetic dyes used as food additives. In conclusion, synthetic food colours and/ or radiation induced histopathological and histochemical disturbances in rats. On the other hand, administration of the natural food colorant beta-carotene had a significant protective role against the damaging effects induced by these synthetic colours mixture

  18. Establishment in treeshelter. II. Effect of shelter color on gas exchange and hardiness

    Kjelgren, R.; Montague, D.T.; Rupp, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the microclimate, gas exchange, and growth of feild-grown Norway maple (Acerplatanoides L.) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees nonsheltered, and in brown and white shelters. Shelter microclimate-air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and radiation -and tree leaf area, growth in diameter, stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthesis were measured during the first growing season after bare-root transplanting. Bark temperatures in midwinter were also measured. Treeshelter microclimate was greenhouse-like compared to ambient conditions, as shortwave radiation was lower, and midday Ta and relative humidity were higher. Although trees in shelters had greater shoot elongation and higher gs than trees grown without shelters, photosynthesis was not different. White shelters allowed 25% more shortwave radiation penetration and increased Ta by 2 to 4 degrees C and VPD by 0.5-1 kPa over brown shelters. However, tree growth and gas exchange generally were not affected by shelter color. Winter injury was increased for trees in shelters and varied with species and shelter color. Both species exhibited shoot dieback in shelters the spring following a winter where bark temperatures varied 40 to 50 degrees C diurnally. More new growth died on maple, particularly in white shelters where several trees were killed. These data suggest that supra optimal summer and winter temperatures may reduce vigor and interfere with cold tolerance of some species grown in shelters

  19. Effect of accelerated aging on the microhardness and color stability of flexible resins for dentures

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resins have been widely used due to their acceptable esthetics and desirable characteristics such as easy handling, good thermal conductivity, low permeability to oral fluids and color stability. Flexible resins were introduced on the market as an alternative to the use of conventional acrylic resins in the construction of complete and partial removable dentures. Although these resins present advantages in terms of esthetics and comfort, studies assessing chromatic and microhardness alterations of these materials are still scarce in the related literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chromatic and microhardness alterations of two commercial brands of flexible resins in comparison to the conventional resin Triplex when submitted to accelerated aging. The resins were manipulated according to manufacturers' instructions and inserted into a silicone matrix to obtain 21 specimens divided into 3 groups: Triplex, Ppflex and Valplast. Triplex presented the highest microhardness value (p < 0.05 for all the aging periods, which was significantly different from that of the other resins, followed by the values of Valplast and Ppflex. Comparison between the flexible resins (Ppflex and Valplast revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 as regards color. The flexible resin Ppflex and the conventional resin Triplex presented no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 as regards aging. The accelerated aging significantly increased the microhardness values of the resins, with the highest values being observed for Triplex. Valplast presented the greatest chromatic alteration after accelerated aging.

  20. Flavor production in PB(160 AGEV) on PB collisions: Effect of color ropes and hadronic rescattering

    Sorge, H.

    1995-09-01

    Collective interactions in the preequilibrium quark matter and hadronic resonance gas stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework fo the transport theoretical approach RQMD. The paper reviews string fusion into color ropes and hadronic rescattering which serve as models for these interactions. Hadron production in central Pb(160 AGeV) on Pb collisions has been calculated. The changes of the final flavor composition are more pronounced than in previous RQMD studies of light ion induced reactions at 200 AGeV. The ratio of created quark pairs s anti s/(u anti u+d anti d) is enhanced by a factor of 2.4 in comparison to pp results. Color rope formation increases the initially produced antibaryons to 3 times the value in the 'NN mode', but only one quarter of the produced antibaryons survives because of subsequent strong absorption. The differences in the final particle composition for Pb on Pb collisions compared to S induced reactions are attributed to the hadronic resonance gas stage which is baryon-richer and lasts longer. (orig.)

  1. 60Co irradiation effect on color in minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica spp)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Michels, Robert; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation is a well-established process with clearly documented safety and efficacy. Consumers require a quality product that is convenient and has fresh-like characteristics and take product appearance, like color, into consideration as a primary criterion; it is considered a key role in food choice, food preference and acceptability. The objective of the present work was to investigate color degradation of cauliflower treated with gamma radiation during 14 days. Cauliflower irradiated samples with 0 and 1.5 kGy showed significant differences for value 'L' on the 10th and 14th day, respectively for value 'b' only the 0 kGy sample showed significant difference on day 10 of storage. On day 10 of shelf-life the irradiated cauliflower with doses of 1 and 1.5 kGy became more yellow compared to the control. The authors concluded that the treatment with low gamma radiation doses keeps the quality of fresh-cut vegetables. (author)

  2. {sup 60}Co irradiation effect on color in minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica spp)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: thaisecfnunes@hotmail.com; Michels, Robert [Hydrofarm Comercio e Representacao de Produtos Agricolas Ltda., Sao Roque, SP (Brazil); Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation is a well-established process with clearly documented safety and efficacy. Consumers require a quality product that is convenient and has fresh-like characteristics and take product appearance, like color, into consideration as a primary criterion; it is considered a key role in food choice, food preference and acceptability. The objective of the present work was to investigate color degradation of cauliflower treated with gamma radiation during 14 days. Cauliflower irradiated samples with 0 and 1.5 kGy showed significant differences for value 'L' on the 10th and 14th day, respectively for value 'b' only the 0 kGy sample showed significant difference on day 10 of storage. On day 10 of shelf-life the irradiated cauliflower with doses of 1 and 1.5 kGy became more yellow compared to the control. The authors concluded that the treatment with low gamma radiation doses keeps the quality of fresh-cut vegetables. (author)

  3. Effect of two fluoride varnishes on the color stability of three resin-based restorative materials: an in vitro study.

    Tafaroji, Raha; Biria, Mina; Ameri, Farhad; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Qahari, Pasha; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two fluoride varnishes on color stability of three resin-based restorative materials. Fifty-four discs (14.5 × 1.7 mm) were fabricated from A2 and A3 shades of a compomer (F2000), a flowable composite (Z350), and a hybrid composite (Z250), and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Dura Shield (colored) and Fluor Protector (colorless) fluoride varnishes were applied onto the discs. The coating was cleaned using a low-speed handpiece and nylon bristle brush after 24 h of storage in distilled water. A second coating was then applied. A control group with no coating was immersed in distilled water and used. The CIE L*a*b* color scale was measured before the treatments and following each cleaning utilizing a spectrophotometer. The colored fluoride varnish exhibited the highest overall color change (∆E) after the first and the second cleaning procedures in all the materials. Among these, the greatest color change was observed in the A3 shade of F2000, followed by the A3 shade of Z-250. The ∆E was less than 3.3 in all groups, and was therefore clinically acceptable. Color changes following the application of fluoride varnishes were found to be clinically acceptable in all groups. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The application of color Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    Xu-Jun Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the correlations between hemodynamic parameters, penile rigidity grading, and the therapeutic effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors using color Doppler flow imaging after intracavernosal injection in patients with erectile dysfunction. This study involved 164 patients. After intracavernosal injection with a mixture of papaverine (60 mg, prostaglandin E 1 (10 mg, and lidocaine (2%, 0.5-1 ml, the penile vessels were assessed using color Doppler flow imaging. Penile rigidity was classified based on the Erection Hardness Score system as Grades 4, 3, 2 or 1 (corresponding to Schramek Grades V to II. Then, the patients were given oral sildenafil (50-100 mg and scored according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire. The number of patients with penile rigidities of Schramek Grades II to V was 14, 18, 21, and 111, respectively. The IIEF-5 score was positively correlated with the refilling index of the penile cavernosal artery (r = 0.79, P< 0.05, the peak systolic velocity (r = 0.45, P< 0.05, and penile rigidity (r = 0.75, P< 0.05, and was negatively correlated with the end diastolic velocity (r = −0.74, P< 0.05. For patients with erectile dysfunction, both the IIEF-5 score after sildenafil administration, which is correlated with penile rigidity, and the hemodynamic parameters detected using color Doppler flow imaging may predict the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment and could provide a reasonable model for the targeted-treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  5. Combined effects of high hydrostatic pressure and sodium nitrite on color, water holding capacity and texture of frankfurter

    Jonas, G.; Csehi, B.; Palotas, P.; Toth, A.; Kenesei, Gy; Pasztor-Huszar, K.; Friedrich, L.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure on the color, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture characteristics of frankfurter. Three hundred, 450 and 600 MPa (5 minutes; 20 °C) and 50, 75, 100 and 125 ppm (calculated on weight of meat) sodium nitrite were applied. Parameters were measured right after the pressure treatment. Data were evaluated with two-way analysis of variance (p 0.05) with pressure levels and sodium nitrite amounts as factors. Nitrite reduction significantly increased lightness (L*) and resulted in decreased redness (a*) value. The pressure treatments decreased the lightness at all nitrite concentrations and did not significantly affect the red color of frankfurters. Fifty and 75 ppm nitrite and pressurization at 300 or 450 MPa improved the water holding property of frankfurter. The pressure treatment did not significantly affect the WHC but changing the nitrite amount had significant effect on it. Interactive effect occurred between pressure levels and nitrite concentrations for hardness. The pressure treatment increased and the nitrite reduction decreased hardness. Significant changes were found in cohesiveness at 450 and 600 MPa in frankfurters containing 50 and 75 ppm nitrite: pressure treatment at higher levels and nitrite reduction decreased the value of cohesiveness.

  6. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits.

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-08-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.

  7. Special effects used in creating 3D animated scenes-part 1

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In present, with the help of computer, we can create special effects that look so real that we almost don't perceive them as being different. These special effects are somehow hard to differentiate from the real elements like those on the screen. With the increasingly accesible 3D field that has more and more areas of application, the 3D technology goes easily from architecture to product designing. Real like 3D animations are used as means of learning, for multimedia presentations of big global corporations, for special effects and even for virtual actors in movies. Technology, as part of the movie art, is considered a prerequisite but the cinematography is the first art that had to wait for the correct intersection of technological development, innovation and human vision in order to attain full achievement. Increasingly more often, the majority of industries is using 3D sequences (three dimensional). 3D represented graphics, commercials and special effects from movies are all designed in 3D. The key for attaining real visual effects is to successfully combine various distinct elements: characters, objects, images and video scenes; like all these elements represent a whole that works in perfect harmony. This article aims to exhibit a game design from these days. Considering the advanced technology and futuristic vision of designers, nowadays we have different and multifarious game models. Special effects are decisively contributing in the creation of a realistic three-dimensional scene. These effects are essential for transmitting the emotional state of the scene. Creating the special effects is a work of finesse in order to achieve high quality scenes. Special effects can be used to get the attention of the onlooker on an object from a scene. Out of the conducted study, the best-selling game of the year 2010 was Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. This way, the article aims for the presented scene to be similar with many locations from this type of games, more

  8. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks.

  9. Orange as a perceptual representation of the Dutch nation : effects on perceived national identification and color evaluation

    Lakens, D.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that colors carry meaning, experimental research about individual, situational, and cultural differences in the meaning of colors is scarce. The current research examines whether the Dutch national color functions as a perceptual representation of The Netherlands. A

  10. The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

    2009-02-01

    Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size.

  11. Small scale homelike special care units and traditional special care units : effects on cognition in dementia; a longitudinal controlled intervention study

    Kok, Jeroen S.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Berg, Ina J.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence shows that living in small scale homelike Special Care Units (SCU) has positive effects on behavioural and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. Effects on cognitive functioning in relation to care facilities, however, are scarcely investigated. The purpose of this

  12. Juxtaposed Color Halftoning Relying on Discrete Lines

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e. the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks such as metallic inks, iridescent inks or pigmented inks are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e. printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for pla...

  13. A Sensor-Based Visual Effect Evaluation of Chevron Alignment Signs’ Colors on Drivers through the Curves in Snow and Ice Environment

    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to quantitatively evaluate the visual feedback of drivers has been considered as the primary research for reducing crashes in snow and ice environments. Different colored Chevron alignment signs cause diverse visual effect. However, the effect of Chevrons on visual feedback and on the driving reaction while navigating curves in SI environments has not been adequately evaluated. The objective of this study is twofold: (1 an effective and long-term experiment was designed and developed to test the effect of colored Chevrons on drivers’ vision and vehicle speed; (2 a new quantitative effect evaluation model is employed to measure the effect of different colors of the Chevrons. Fixation duration and pupil size were used to describe the driver’s visual response, and Cohen’s d was used to evaluate the colors’ psychological effect on drivers. The results showed the following: (1 after choosing the proper color for Chevrons, drivers reduced the speed of the vehicle while approaching the curves. (2 It was easier for drivers to identify the road alignment after setting the Chevrons. (3 Cohen’s d related to different colors of Chevrons have different effect sizes. The conclusions provide evident references for freeway warning products and the design of intelligent vehicles.

  14. Effect of Job Specialization on the Hospital Stay and Job Satisfaction of ED Nurses

    Shamsi; Mahmoudi; Sirati Nir; Babatabar Darzi

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the increasing crowdedness of the emergency departments has posed various problems for patients and healthcare systems worldwide. These problems include prolonged hospital stay, patient dissatisfaction and nurse burnout or job dissatisfaction. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emergency department (ED) nurses’ job specialization on their job satisfaction and the length ...

  15. The Effects of "Second Step" and Inclusion on Special Education Students' Social Skills

    Machado, Andrea Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Many students lack social skills that hinder their success in school; students in special education are even more at risk. Social-emotional curricula have been developed to help build these social skills school-wide. Most research on the effects of social-emotional curricula has been conducted on general education students. The first purpose of…

  16. Developing Effective Programs for Special Education Students Who Are Homeless. ERIC Digest #E504.

    Heflin, L. Juane

    This digest, based on a larger document titled, "Homeless and in Need of Special Education," by L. Juane Heflin and Kathryn Rudy, focuses on educational aspects of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. Briefly discussed are: the effects of homelessness on children (e.g., increased health problems); the educational implications…

  17. Effects of the Leadership Roles of Administrators Who Work at Special Education Schools upon Organizational Climate

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effects of the leadership roles of administrators who work at special education schools upon organizational climate. This research has been conducted using the case study technique, which is a kind of qualitative research approach. The study group of this research consists of four administrators including three…

  18. The Effectiveness of Special Education Teacher Evaluation Processes: Perspectives from Elementary Principals

    Glowacki, Heather; Hackmann, Donald G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of Illinois public elementary school principals regarding the effectiveness of their school districts' evaluation systems for special education teachers in promoting professional development and job performance accountability. Using an online questionnaire, 330 of the state's 1,551 elementary principals responded to…

  19. The Effects of Special Education Support on Young Australian School Students

    Dempsey, Ian; Valentine, Megan; Colyvas, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of many special education interventions is most difficult because of the practical and ethical limitations associated with assigning participants to a control or non-treated group. Using Longitudinal Study of Australian Children data, this article utilised eight different propensity score analysis methods to determine…

  20. Effectiveness of Special Nursery Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Corness, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of three local authority early teaching interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was studied. Thirty-three children (2:6 to 4:0 years old) received one of three early teaching interventions: a 1:1 home-based programme, and two different forms of special nursery placement. Measures from the…