WorldWideScience

Sample records for speaking european countries

  1. Higher Education Institutions and International Students' Hindrances: A Case of Students from the African Portuguese-Speaking Countries at Two European Portuguese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Susana; Marques, João Filipe; Santos, Lucília; Doutor, Catarina

    2017-01-01

    We present a study to comprehend if the support given by higher education institution (HEI) to international students coming from the Portuguese-Speaking African Countries meets their academic and social hindrances. Our starting point was a set of semi-structured interviews focused on the perspectives of these students, their Professors and Course…

  2. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  3. Education in European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Petcu, N.

    2010-01-01

    Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - t...

  4. HIGHER CHOREOGRAPHIC EDUCATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF GERMAN-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

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    Iryna Tkachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of higher choreographic education and features of professional training of choreographers in the German-speaking countries, in particular Austria, Germany and Switzerland were analyzed. It is found that most of the German-speaking countries are Germany, Austria and Switzerland, which became the object of study. The considered the structure of higher choreographic education in the German-speaking countries. Universities, higher dance schools and higher art schools are functioning in Germany. Universities and academies are functioning in Austria and Switzerland. The institutions of theatre sciences, faculty of pedagogy and psychology, departments of performing arts are the structural units of the universities. The institutions of higher education have both private and state ownership. It is found out that the main areas for which training is future choreographers in the German-speaking countries there is a "Dance", "Dance pedagogy", "Modern dance", "Science of dance", "Choreography". German-speaking countries recognized by the training of specialists in the specialty choreography of Modern dance that has no analogues in Ukraine. The term of study is four (bachelor and two (master years. Higher choreographic education in these countries has a different approach and aims at mastering a separate specialty that provides future dance instructors completely and thoroughly master the basic knowledge and skills in this specialty. Specific conditions and rules of admission to the higher educational institutions of German-speaking countries.

  5. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  6. The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. A New Forum of Coordination and Cooperation

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    Frigdiano Álvaro Durántez Prados

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP in Lisbon, July 1996, represented the culmination of the manifest willingness for association among the Portuguese-speaking nations on different continents. As an exponent of the currents of international solidarity founded on cultural and historical bases, the countries of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and Santo Tome and Principe formalized a new forum for dialogue, reflection and cooperation that merits the attention in and of itself, as a new formalized scheme for political-diplomatic coordination and privileged cooperation among its members.At the same time, the manifest identification of the historical processes, conceptualizations, principles, objectives and the identifiable reference points of this Community with the Latin American Community of Nations (comprised of Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries on the American and European continents, besides the many reciprocal interconnections and parallelisms, point to the need –perhaps the historical opportunity– of considering a substantial and formalized coming together of all members and parts toarticulate a forum or general space for “Iberian”-speaking countries, in which the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries could be one of the primary elements for coherence.

  7. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...... microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless...... the redistributive tastes of the government are extreme. In contrast, the in-work benefit reform is desirable in a very wide set of cases...

  8. [Building and teaching bioethics in French-speaking countries: at the crossroads of disciplines and practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Moubé, Zéphirin

    2013-01-01

    It is inmportant to emphasize three aspects concerning the construction and teaching of 'French bioethics: the maintenance and promotion ofa multidisciplinary approach; a greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs; positioning a power of attraction and development in French-speaking countries. Bioethics is defined as a field of interdisciplinary studies at the junction of the health sciences and the humanities and, more importantly, directly connected to the reality of the health community, research and public Policy. A greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs is also capital. The danger of being dominated by one discipline involved whether medicine, law, philosophy, theology is real and prevents from promoting methodological approaches that are both theoretical and empirical. Finally, compliance with local and national, but also disciplinary diversity is essential to the construction and teaching of French bioethics. As such, the University of Montreal has positioned itself as a leader in the French-speaking countries: at the junction of North America and European countries, Quebec has developed its own specificity in bioethics, which is a force of attraction for many countries of the French-speaking world. In this context, the Bioethics Programs at the University of Montreal rely heavily on knowledge transfer to other cultures. Moreover, the internationalization of training programs in French bioethics is a major issue in the current context of globalization and transmission of knowledge.

  9. Population genetic structure of Helicobacter pylori strains from Portuguese-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleastro, Mónica; Rocha, Raquel; Vale, Filipa F

    2017-08-01

    The human gastric colonizer Helicobacter pylori is useful to track human migrations given the agreement between the bacterium phylogeographic distribution and human migrations. As Portugal was an African and Brazilian colonizer for over 400 years, we hypothesized that Portuguese isolates were likely genetically closer with those from countries colonized by Portuguese in the past. We aimed to characterize the population structure of several Portuguese-speaking countries, including Portugal, Brazil, Angola, and Cape Verde. We included strains isolated in Portugal from Portuguese and from former Portuguese colonies. These strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for seven housekeeping genes. We also retrieved from Multi Locus Sequence Typing Web site additional housekeeping gene sequences, namely from Angola and Brazil. We provided evidence that strains from Portuguese belong to hpEurope and that the introgression of hpEurope in non-European countries that speak Portuguese is low, except for Brazil and Cape Verde, where hpEurope accounted for one quarter and one half of the population, respectively. We found genetic similarity for all strains from Portuguese-speaking countries that belong to hpEurope population. Moreover, these strains showed a predominance of ancestral Europe 2 (AE2) over ancestral Europe 1 (AE1), followed by ancestral Africa 1. H. pylori is a useful marker even for relative recent human migration events and may become rapidly differentiated from founder populations. H. pylori from Portuguese-speaking countries assigned to hpEurope appears to be a hybrid population resulting from the admixture of AE1, AE2 and ancestral hpAfrica1. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The rise of medical training in Portuguese speaking African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Sidat, Mohsin; Fresta, Mário; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Belo, Celso; Kahuli, Cezaltina; Rodrigues, Maria Alexandra; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-11-03

    Medical training has shown to be strategic for strengthening health systems, especially in those countries identified to have critical shortage of human resources for health. In the past few years, several studies have been conducted to characterize and identify major challenges faced by medical schools worldwide, and particularly in Africa. Nevertheless, none has previously addressed medical training issues in Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PSAC). The aim of this study was to establish baseline knowledge of the PSAC's medical schools in terms of creation and ownership, programmes offered, applicants and registered students, barriers to increased intake of students, teaching workforce and available resources. A quantitative, observational, multicentric, cross-sectional study of all medical schools active in 2012 in the PSAC. An adapted version of the questionnaires developed by Chen et al. (2012) was sent to all medical schools electronically. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of nine medical schools answered the questionnaire (three from Angola, two from Guinea Bissau and four from Mozambique). Since 2006 an effort has been made to increase the number of medical trainees. Besides the medical degree offered by all schools, some offered other undergraduate and postgraduate training programmes. The number of applicants to medical schools largely outnumbers the available vacancies in all countries but insufficient infrastructures and lack of teaching personnel are important constraints to increase vacancies. The teaching personnel are mainly trained abroad, employed part-time by the medical school and do not have a PhD qualification. Governments in the PSAC have significantly invested in training to address medical shortages. However, medical schools are still struggling to give an adequate and effective response. Developing a local postgraduate training capacity for doctors might be an important strategy to help retain medical doctors

  11. System towards the touristic information sharing amongst portuguese speaking countries

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    M. M. M. Moura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Global and efficient communication has always been a goal to expanding touristic destinations in order to potentiate the growth of the sector and the sustainable development of the regions concerned. With the emergence of the new information technologies, the creation of networks for information sharing became a reality. This facilitated the implementation of benchmarking actions and programs between touristic destinations involved in cooperation projects. The Internet development, as an inexpensive infrastructure, allowed breaking many access barriers faced by many touristic destinations, due to the lack of investment funds in these areas. The inherent cost of design, installation and maintenance of networked computer systems are currently a fraction of the initial implementation cost of a traditional system, even allowing for the standardization of all the technology applied. The article exposes the problematical issues concerning the creation of networks for information sharing and proposes a model for the development of a distributed information system as the support infrastructure to such a network. Thus, the organized exploitation of a decentralized information flow allows the creation of synergies amongst the agents involved and, at the same time, the maximization of the development of the emerging touristic destinations. Such s network towards the sustainable development of the touristic destinations of Portuguese speaking countries of enables the development of processes of continuous enhancement of the global performance, processes that are oriented to the pursuit of competitivity, sustainability and quality of touristic products.

  12. Leisure values of Europeans from 46 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines to what extent Europeans find ‘relaxing’ and ‘learning something new’ is important in their leisure time and explains variation in these leisure values by individual and country-level characteristics. These values reflect possible responses to a perceived ‘time crunch’ resulting

  13. Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Noorderhaven (Niels); A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with differences in the rate of self-employment (business ownership) in 15 European countries for the period 1978-2000, focusing on the influence of dissatisfaction and using the framework of occupational choice. Using two different measures of dissatisfaction, in

  14. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  15. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  16. Care for Young Children in Four English-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, Jo Ann; Thomas, George; Ruciman, Carol; McNaughton, Kathryn; Iversen, Sandra

    As the interdependence of nations becomes increasingly evident and necessary, so too must our understanding about education become shared property. This monograph examines the early childhood education and care systems in four English-speaking nations with strong elements of common heritage. Systems in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada,…

  17. Reporting about disability evaluation in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de

    2014-01-01

    To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured

  18. Ecological taxes in some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and consumption of fossil fuels is one of the major causes of the green house effect, which is in economics known as a form of ecological externality. Fiscal solution, as one way of internalization of externalities, is based on polluters-pay principle and the imposition of tax on emission. Although the implementation of ecological tax was intensified during the previous decade, fiscal revenues are modest and account for only 5% of the total fiscal revenues of the European Union. Taxes on energetic products, accounting for 76%, are dominant among ecological taxes. Since the EU Directive 82/92 imposes minimum excise rates on oil products, during the last decade Central Eastern European countries have increased excise rates on fossil fuels and fully engaged in the field of ecological policy.

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Silvia Marginean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relation between degree of economic globalization and the impact of economic crisis for developed and emerging European countries. We measure economic globalization through indexes based on share of external trade in GDP and FDI intensity (% of FDI inflows and outflows divided by GDP. The complexity of current economic and financial crisis could be evaluated through GDP growth rate, inflation rate, unemployment, public debt, budget deficit, balance of payments, exchange rate, etc. For the purpose of this paper we used GDP growth rate as a measure of economic crisis impact on national economies.

  20. Medicines registration in Portuguese-speaking African countries, focusing in the following countries: Angola, Cap Verde and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Alina Maria Moreira de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to present the regulation perspective on the medicines registration in PALOPs – Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (Portuguese‐speaking African countries), their regulatory requirements, constraints and opportunities, focusing on the following countries: Angola, Cape Verde and Mozambique. This thesis has as purpose to deepen and systematize knowledge with regard to the registration procedure of medicines in the selected countries. Regulatory pers...

  1. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  2. Challenges to web-based learning in pharmacy education in Arabic language speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez M Alkoudmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based learning and web 2.0 tools which include new online educational technologies (EdTech and social media websites like Facebook® are playing crucial roles nowadays in pharmacy and medical education among millennial learners. Podcasting, webinars, and online learning management systems like Moodle® and other web 2.0 tools have been used in pharmacy and medical education to interactively share knowledge with peers and students. Learners can use laptops, iPads, iPhones, or tablet devices with a stable and good Internet connection to enroll in many online courses. Implementation of novel online EdTech in pharmacy and medical curricula has been noticed in developed countries such as European countries, the US, Canada, and Australia. However, these trends are scarce in the majority of Arabic language speaking countries (ALSC, where traditional and didactic educational methods are still being used with some exceptions seen in Palestine, Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE, and Qatar. Although these new trends are promising to push pharmacy and medical education forward, major barriers regarding adaptation of E-learning and new online EdTech in Arab states have been reported such as higher connectivity costs, information communication technology (ICT problems, language barriers, wars and political conflicts, poor education, financial problems, and lack of qualified ICT-savvy educators. More research efforts are encouraged to study the effectiveness and proper use of web-based learning and emerging online EdTech in pharmacy education not only in ALSC but also in developing and developed countries.

  3. Erasmus Students Using English as a "Lingua Franca": Does Study Abroad in a Non-English-Speaking Country Improve L2 English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Àngels; Arnó, Elisabet; Mancho-Barés, Guzman

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the impact of study abroad (SA) on the development of L2 English when students study in non-anglophone countries. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by examining 39 Catalan/Spanish students who, as part of an Erasmus exchange, spent a term at universities in non-English-speaking European countries. In…

  4. Radiotherapy staffing in the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (HERO) project has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The first milestone was to assess ......, but also the stage in technology adoption along with treatment complexity and the different professional roles and responsibilities within each country. Our data underpin the need for accurate prediction models and long-term education and training programmes........5 (0-12.6) for dosimetrists, 26.6 (1.9-78) for RTTs and 14.8 (0.4-61.0) for radiotherapy nurses. The combined average for physicists and dosimetrists is 9.8 per million inhabitants and 36.9 for RTT and nurses. Radiation oncologists on average treat 208.9 courses per year (range: 99.9-348.8), physicists...... and dosimetrists conjointly treat 303.3 courses (range: 85-757.7) and RTT and nurses 76.8 (range: 25.7-156.8). In countries with higher GNI per capita, all personnel categories treat fewer courses per annum than in less affluent countries. This relationship is most evident for RTTs and nurses. Different clusters...

  5. When in London ...: differences in disability language preferences among English-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, C D

    1995-04-01

    With increases in world-wide travel and communication, cultural sensitivity becomes increasingly important. Professionals in English-speaking countries vary considerably in their preference of disability language. For example, the phrase person with mental retardation, although widely accepted in the United States, is offensive to many Britons. On the other hand, learning disability, the current British equivalent of mental retardation, is confusing to Americans. Differences in language preferences such as these can interfere with international communication. In this paper, language standards of disability organizations in four English-speaking countries were surveyed for similarities and differences. Recommendations were made to facilitate communication across cultures.

  6. Mortality from circulatory diseases by specific country of birth across six European countries: test of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhopal, Raj S.; Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Giampaoli, Simona; Hammar, Niklas; Harding, Seeromanie; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Primatesta, Paola; Rey, Gregoire; Rosato, Michael; Wild, Sarah; Kunst, Anton E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Important differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality by country of birth have been shown within European countries. We now focus on CVD mortality by specific country of birth across European countries. Methods: For Denmark, England and Wales, France, The Netherlands, Scotland

  7. Speaking

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, James

    2011-01-01

    Make yourself understood in business. This brand new self-study book is the perfect way for business people who spend a lot of time on the phone or in meetings and want to improve their spoken English, getting their message across effectively. The focus is on the key language required to speak English accurately in business. 'Collins English for Business' is a new series of self-study skills books which focus on the language you really need to do business in English - wherever you are in the world. Each title includes tips on how to communicate effectively and how to communicate inter-culturally. Other titles in the series: Listening and Writing. * Powered by COBUILD - using the real language of business English * Contents: Twenty 4-page units cover the key areas, such as Networking and Small Talk, Telephoning, Telephone and Video Conferencing, Presentations and Interviews. * Each unit contains: - Exercises focused on vocabulary or key structures - Grammar tips - Key phrases * Audio CD: dialogues are recorded...

  8. nalysis of the criminalization of cybercrime in Spanish-speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Parra, Jaime Hernán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of the criminalization and prosecution of criminal conduct related to cybercrime in each of the 20 spanish-speaking countries worldwide, as well as the description of the normalization of its laws regarding instruments and international agreements related to the regulation of the use of information technology. This analysis is done from the following three perspectives: study of existing criminal law and force, identification of established computer crime, selection of computer crime with greater penalties and participation of each of the countries investigated in the agreement cybercrime Budapest (as a world reference in this field. It also, offered the tables and graphs comparisons between the countries being studied, whereby countries with major and minor amount of established computer crime and the range of maximum and minimum in each of the same penalty are identified countries.

  9. TRENDS IN AUTHORITARIANISM: EVIDENCE FROM 31 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Sabrina de Regt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, few studies have been conducted on trendsin authoritarian attitudes,despite the importance of this research in our understanding of undemocraticmovements in society. Studies that have surveyed trends in authoritarianism arealready rather outdated, often based on student samples and conducted in only alimited number of countries. Furthermore, until now, no study had tested whetherthe meaning of authoritarianism is invariant acrosstime. Using theEuropeanValues Study,we examined trends in authoritarianism in 31 European countriesover the last decade (1999-2008, based on representative samples. It was foundthat in many Western European countries, with the exception of the Netherlands,authoritarianism declined significantly over the last decade. However, in some,mostly Eastern European countries, levels of authoritarianism actually increasedsignificantly during the last decade. Changing levels of authoritarianism werelinked to extreme-right and anti-democratic sentiment in European societies.

  10. The supply of the European community countries with enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    A discussion is given of a survey regarding the supply of enriched uranium to the countries of the European Community. Costs of enriched uranium imports were not available but import values were calculated using world market prices. (R.L.)

  11. Radiotherapy equipment and departments in the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Documenting the distribution of radiotherapy departments and the availability of radiotherapy equipment in the European countries is an important part of HERO - the ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project. HERO has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base...... of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The aim of the current report is to describe the distribution of radiotherapy equipment in European countries. METHODS: An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European...... countries, principally through their national societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy departments and equipment (questionnaire items 26-29), analyzed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis is based...

  12. European investment projects in third countries: Legally green?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Ratsiborinskaya (Daria)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article provides an overview of the corporate self-regulation by five European-based multilateral financial institutions where European environmental acquis is applied in investment projects in the third countries. Academic research on environmental standards suffers from a certain

  13. The prevalence of known diabetes in eight European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Casteren, V. van

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has been proposed as a European Community Health Indicator. The prevalence of diabetes known to general practitioners (GPs) in different European countries has been investigated and the usefulness of sentinel practice networks in delivering prevalence data on diabetes has

  14. Coercion within Danish psychiatry compared with 10 other European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Aggernæs, Karin Helle

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) criticized the use of mechanical restraint in Denmark and referred to it as ill-treatment. What do other European countries do better? To answer this question, we compa...

  15. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  16. Socioeconomic Gradients in Eastern European Countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses educational inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES) in 12 Eastern European countries that participated in the International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. Economies and educational systems of these countries have undergone critical transformations since the fall of communism. The authors' analyses, using data…

  17. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  18. Regulatory risk in the utilities industry: An empirical study of the English-speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    The economic theory on regulation suggests that firms subject to incentive regulation, such as price cap, bear more risk than firms subject to cost plus regulation, such as rate of return regulation. This hypothesis is tested empirically using a sample of 93 regulated companies operating in six English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA, during the period 1995-2004. I replicate the methodology of the existing literature and also apply panel data techniques to my sample. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis that price cap regulation imposes more risk. (author)

  19. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Bhopal, Raj S.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Harding, Seeromanie; Hammar, Niklas; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Primatesta, Paola; Rosato, Michael; Rey, Gregoire; Wild, Sarah H.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Stirbu, Irene; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. We obtained national death and population data

  20. Research on return to work in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, L; Gehanno, J-F

    2012-04-01

    Research on return to work (RTW) is increasing. It is important to benefit from studies originating from different countries since certain factors influencing the RTW process are specific to each country. To compare RTW research in Europe with the USA and to describe research on RTW in Europe. Medline was scanned with specific search strings to identify studies concerning RTW in Europe, in the USA and in the rest of the world. Characteristics of the European studies were analyzed with two specific tools for bibliometrics research. Four thousand five hundred and twenty-five studies were identified (1100, 1005 and 2420 coming from Europe, the USA and the rest of the world, respectively). The European countries producing the greatest number of research papers standardized for population of that country were Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland and Denmark. Sweden was 5.7 times more prolific than the USA. Specialties covered by the European publications included occupational medicine (the subject of 66% of the articles), neurology (36%), environment and public health (32%), physical medicine and rehabilitation (26%) and rheumatology (24%). There is a worldwide trend upwards in the number of publications on RTW. Europe recently overtook the USA in the number of publications per head of population, although there were large differences in publication rates among the European countries. The publications of European researchers on RTW are spread over a wide variety of journals, making access to this research difficult.

  1. The changing psychology of culture in German-speaking countries: A Google Ngram study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nadja; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-05-05

    This article provides evidence for the long-term affiliation between ecological and cultural changes in German-speaking countries, based on the assumptions derived from social change and human development theory. Based on this theory, the increase in urbanisation, as a measure of ecological change, is associated with significant cultural changes of psychology. Whereas urbanisation is linked to greater individualistic values and materialistic attitudes, rural environments are strongly associated with collectivistic values like allegiance, prevalence of religion, and feelings of belonging and benevolence. Due to an increase in the German urbanisation rate over time, our study investigates whether Germany and the German-speaking countries around show the presumed changes in psychology. By using Google Books Ngram Viewer, we find that word frequencies, signifying individualistic (collectivistic) values, are positively (negatively) related to the urbanisation rate of Germany. Our results indicate that predictions about implications of an urbanising population for the psychology of culture hold true, supporting international universality of the social change and human development theory. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a predicted reversal for the time during and after World War II, reflecting Nazi propaganda and influence. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Peer-reviewed public health journals from Arabic-speaking countries: An updated snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Basil H; Bernstein, Joshua; Bowser, Jacquelyn E

    2017-02-01

    There is a positive association between availability of regional peer-reviewed public health information systems and progressive change in community and population health. The objective of this brief report was to identify public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries actively publishing as of 2016. We conducted an electronic search in several electronic database records for public health journals using a combination of search terms. We excluded journals that focused on human medicine, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other discipline-specific or clinical health professions. We identified twenty-five public health journals for review. Five journals were interrupted or discontinued. Only three journals had a consistent, uninterrupted active publication history of greater than 20 years. Most journals were not in the regional native language. Introduction of regional public health-dedicated journals with in-print and electronic availability and also to be published in region-native languages may require interdisciplinary partnerships. Region-wide public health journals such as the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal could serve as an ideal model for the establishment of additional local and regional public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries.

  3. Dermatologic relationships between the United States and German-speaking countries: part 2--the exodus of Jewish dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2013-09-01

    The rise to power of the National Socialist (Nazi) party led by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent tumultuous 12 years of their rule in Germany resulted in catastrophes including World War II, the most destructive war ever, and the premeditated and systematic murder of 5 to 6 million European Jews. Despite their notable contributions to the academic excellence that existed in German-speaking countries at that time, Jewish physicians were particularly vulnerable to persecution and death. Between 1933 and 1938, a series of repressive measures eliminated them from the practice of medicine in Germany and other countries. Although some died in concentration camps and others committed suicide, many were able to emigrate from Europe. Dermatology in the United States particularly benefited from the influx of several stellar Jewish dermatologists who were major contributors to the subsequent flowering of academic dermatology in the United States. A number of representative biographies of these immigrants are briefly recounted to illustrate their lasting influence on our specialty.

  4. Impact of Euro Adoption on Emerging European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vodenska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of the euro on emerging European countriesby investigating three country groups: (1 seventeen Eurozonecountries, (2 seven EU Eastern and Central European (ECEmembers using local currencies, and (3 six EU Candidates. Weanalyze macroeconomic indicators and propose models to investigatewhether similar or different indicators influence sovereigndebt for each group. We find that exports and unemployment arepositively related to sovereign debt while market capitalizationshows negative relation with sovereign debt. We argue that the recentEuropean sovereign debt crisis has raised serious challengesfor the Eurozone, and propose that EU ECE members and eu candidatesdelay the adoption of the euro.

  5. How Green Are European Curricula? A Comparative Analysis of Primary School Syllabi in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Anna; Rank, Astrid; Seeber, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-national curriculum analysis as part of a European Union Comenius project regarding the implementation of an online tool to foster environmental education (EE) in primary schools. The overall goal was to determine the extent and intensity that EE is embedded in the syllabi of five European countries. To this end, the…

  6. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  7. TEACHING ENGLISH IN SEVERAL CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European countries find themselves at present, following a period of transition in all domains, education included. One of the greatest challenges is providing sufficient foreign language education so as to meet the growing demand especially after along period of time when foreign languages were seriously and damagingly neglected. This paper is an attempt to briefly present the way English language is taught in several Central and Eastern European Countries as well as to underline the importance of this educational process and maybe to offer some applicable solutions to teaching English in Romania

  8. Stimulating Creativity Methods And Innovative Performance In European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şipoş Gabriela Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A widely debated topic during the last decades focuses on the companies’ opportunities to acquire corporate competitiveness due to research, innovation and development. Thus, in the context of increased competition and current global challenges, fostering creativity and innovation is a way to boost economic growth and welfare of European countries. New and original ideas, skills, competencies and innovations they all could enable to achieve competitive advantages. Creative ideas and innovative solutions are crucial for the European countries in order to overcome the current economic crisis.

  9. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  10. Speaking with forked tongues - Swedish public administration and the European employment strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Casula Vifell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand how decision making processes within the EU comes to affect the structures for national policy making within the employment field. The paper addresses the question of how the process of writing new employment guidelines for the EES – European employment strategy, has affected the work of the Swedish public administration. Through applying a neo-institutionalist perspective, it contributes to the understanding of effects that the increased embededness of states, often characterized as Europeanization, invoke on national administrations. I argue that the way the process has been managed can be analyzed from an organizational perspective where conflicting demands on the Swedish state has led to a certain organization of the work activities. On the one hand, Swedish representatives have to act according to the norms of the European cooperation in order to be seen as a legitimate actor. On the other hand, EU and European influence on Swedish employment policy is not a legitimate concept at national level. In order to satisfy these two seemingly incompatible demands the organizing principle of decoupling is being used to create space for maneuvering for the administration. However, through participation at EU-level organizational identities are partly transformed which in time leads to a situation where changed practices are not met by changes in formal structures. As a consequence the Swedish representatives are in a manner ‘speaking with forked tongue’ and obscuring the new way in which policy making is conducted thus introducing democratic shortcomings in terms of transparency and accountability.

  11. Primary care management of diabetes mellitus in five European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To compare management of DM in general practice in five European countries in order to assess whether differences in management of DM can be related to differences in national guidelines for general practitioners (GPs) and to differences in health care system.Methods Retrospective study in

  12. Primary care management of diabetes mellitus in five european countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.; Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare management of DM in general practice in five European countries in order to assess whether differences in management of DM can be related to differences in national guidelines for general practitoners (GPs) and to differences in health care system. Design: Retrospective study in

  13. Inclusive Education in Progress: Policy Evolution in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Fiona; Shevlin, Michael; Buchner, Tobias; Biewer, Gottfried; Flynn, Paula; Latimier, Camille; Šiška, Jan; Toboso-Martín, Mario; Rodríguez Díaz, Susana; Ferreira, Miguel A. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to compare the evolution of inclusive education policy in the four countries of an EU-funded research project (QualiTYDES) operating under the shared policy environment of the UN, EU and European Commission. A shared policy cannot of course be assumed to result in common legislative or provisional outcomes at national level. The…

  14. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...

  15. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  16. Racial Preferences in Online Dating across European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda

    Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we

  17. Cross-age friendship in 25 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on individual and country-level circumstances shaping friendships between young and old to gain insight into conditions for intergenerational solidarity. Using European Social Survey data, findings show that relatively few people have cross-age friendships (18%

  18. The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different

  19. Isoflavone intake in four different European countries : The VENUS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp-Baart, M.A.J. van; Brants, H.A.M.; Kiely, M.; Mulligan, A.; Turrini, A.; Sermoneta, C.; Kilkkinen, A.; Valsta, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the level of isoflavone intake (total isoflavones, daidzein and genistein) in four European countries: Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands and the UK. For this purpose national food composition databases of isoflavone content were created in a comparable way, using

  20. INCIDENCE OF KAWASAKI DISEASE IN NORTHERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Eeva; Griffiths, Elizabeth P.; Farstad, Teresa; Schiller, Bodil; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Uehara, Ritei; Best, Brookie M.; Burns, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to compare the epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in three Northern European countries and Japan. Methods Data were obtained from discharge databases for hospitals in Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1999–2009 and from nationwide epidemiologic surveys in Japan from 1998–2008. Annual incidence for each country was calculated using regional census data. Results During the 11-year period, 1,390 KD patients were recorded in the registries of the three Northern European countries. Average annual incidence rates per 100,000 children less than 5 years were: Finland 11.4, Norway 5.4, and Sweden 7.4. Overall, 86.4% of Japanese KD patients were less than 5 years compared to only 67.8% in the four Northern European countries (p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of KD in Northern Europe was constant over the study period and much lower than in Japan. There was a significant age difference between Northern European and Japanese KD patients that remains unexplained. PMID:22726311

  1. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs

  2. Teaching medicine to non-English speaking background learners in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2009-06-01

    Teaching abroad exposes medical educators to unfamiliar teaching methods and learning styles that can enhance their overall teaching repertoire. Based on the author's experience teaching residents for one month at a community hospital in Japan and a review of the non-English speaking background (NESB) educational literature, pedagogical principles and lessons for successful international NESB instruction are outlined. These methods include understanding the dissimilar linguistic, cultural, and academic backgrounds of the learners, emphasizing pace and clarity of speech, presenting a conceptual framework instead of detailed discourse on subjects, and regular visual reinforcement of spoken words. The limitations introduced by the language barrier and the use of interpreters are briefly discussed. As society and institutions of higher learning become more global and multicultural, clinician-educators may benefit from teaching in other countries in order to enhance their teaching skills with NESB learners, both abroad and in their own institutions.

  3. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  4. Comparison of Radiation Protection Training in European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Practice and implementation of radiation protection in European countries and in majority of other countries all over the world relies on common principles and recommendations established by international organisations. These principles and recommendations were incorporated in national legislation ensuring similar and compatible standards of protection for occupationally exposed workers and members of the public. One of the basic requirements derived from international recommendations is also formal request for training of occupationally exposed workers. The final goals of the training are defined only indirectly through standards of safety and protection. Therefore national regulation regarding radiation protection training in particular country is a result of general approach to education and training, historical circumstances, influence and importance of nuclear technology and other factors influencing health protection and national well-being in general. The result is variety of national regulations ranging from very stringent and detailed to rather general and flexible. Nevertheless, results of implemented training do not differ sufficiently to significantly affect achieved standards of radiation protection. According to available information European countries implement radiation protection training in dissimilar ways. Institutions and organisations involved, as well as form and duration of training varies from country to country. Therefore, it is not possible to determine common rules just by reviewing radiation protection training in different countries. It is the intention of this contribution to analyse and discuss available information regarding radiation protection training and point out the necessity of international co-operation in this field, especially in the sense of the future trends. (author)

  5. Why is the 'healthy immigrant effect' different between European countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullan, Yasser; Jusot, Florence

    2014-08-01

    Even if health status of immigrants constitutes an important public health issue, the literature provides contradictory results on the existence of a 'healthy migrant' effect in Europe. This study proposes to explore the heterogeneity of the health gap between migrants and natives across four European countries. Based on several harmonized national health interview surveys, the association between migratory status and self-assessed health was firstly explored separately in Belgium, France, Spain and Italy. To explore whether differences in health gap between countries reflect differences in health status of immigrants between host countries or whether they are because of differences in health status of natives between host countries, the association between the host country and health was secondly analysed separately among a pooled sample of immigrants and one of natives, controlling for socio-economic status and country of origin. After controlling for socio-economic status, immigrants report a poorer health status than natives in France, Belgium and Spain, whereas they report a better health status than natives in Italy, among both women and men. A North-South gradient in immigrants' health status appears: their health status is better in Italy and in Spain than in France and Belgium. Conversely, health status of natives is poorer in Italy and in Belgium than in France and in Spain. Differences in health gap reflect differences in health status of both natives and immigrants between host countries. This suggests differences in health selection at migration and in immigrants' integration between European countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. The current state of midwifery and development of midwifery research in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Ans G; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Oblasser, Claudia; Perrenoud, Patricia; Gross, Mechthild M

    2013-05-01

    to describe the current state of midwifery and explore the development of midwifery research during the last two decades in four non-English speaking European countries in order to understand what factors influenced the course of establishing research as a professional activity. qualitative collective case study. Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. with the ICM Workshop in Germany in 1989 as a central starting point for midwifery research in all four countries, different courses, in timing as well as content, characterised its development in the individual countries. Major factors contributing to this development during the last decades involved the history and character of midwifery, initiatives of individual midwifery researchers, alliances with other professions and the transition of midwifery programmes into higher education. Whereas midwifery research is currently established as a professional role in all countries, future challenges involve the creation of its own profile and identity, while building up its own academic workforce and strengthening the role of midwifery in multidisciplinary alliances. although a common vision was shared between the four countries in 1989, midwifery research developed as a context-specific phenomenon related to the character of midwifery and education in each country. These factors have to be taken into account in the further development of midwifery as an academic discipline at a national as well as at an international level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Population access to new vaccines in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Sardos, Christelle Saint; Patris, Julien; Szucs, Thomas D

    2013-06-12

    Time from registration to population access to new vaccines can take considerable time in European countries. Reasons might be found in the regulatory framework, decision-making processes or the assessment of vaccines by evaluating bodies. The aim of this study was to determine whether some decision-making processes can explain between-country differences in the time to population access to new vaccination programs. Information gathered from a survey among European National Vaccine Industry Groups was combined with information from official health authorities, vaccine manufacturers and literature published. Firstly, a retrospective survey was conducted to measure access time to new vaccines against three diseases in 17 European countries. Secondly, qualitative information on the country-specific decision-making frameworks for the introduction of new "vaccination programs" was identified in a cross-sectional survey. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used for data analysis. The median access time to new vaccines was 6.4 years (95% confidence interval: 5.7-7.1 years) post marketing authorization. National assessments underlying immunization policy decisions (recommendation phase) absorbed most of the access time. Correlation analysis suggested that processes with established timelines and clarity in regard to vaccine evaluation criteria used could ameliorate the effectiveness of the decision-making process. In order to reduce the time to access for new, beneficial vaccines, the underlying vaccination recommendation, implementation and funding process needs to be understood and optimized, where necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Stirbu, Irina; Roskam, Albert-Jan R

    2008-01-01

    to education level and occupational class from census-based mortality studies. Deaths were classified according to cause, including common causes, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer; causes related to smoking; causes related to alcohol use; and causes amenable to medical intervention......, such as tuberculosis and hypertension. Data on self-assessed health, smoking, and obesity according to education and income were obtained from health or multipurpose surveys. For each country, the association between socioeconomic status and health outcomes was measured with the use of regression-based inequality...... in others. Inequalities in mortality were small in some southern European countries and very large in most countries in the eastern and Baltic regions. These variations among countries appeared to be attributable in part to causes of death related to smoking or alcohol use or amenable to medical...

  9. Analyzing the Composition of HDI in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupac-Ulici Maria-Lenuţa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Development Index (HDI measures development in a country by combining indicators of life expectancy, education level and income. In 2013, 187 countries were included in this index, which aims to expand the coverage area as additional statistics become more available. HDI, which is published by UNDP, may be the most comprehensive indicator, but it is not fully compatible enough to measure the human development level in a global perspective. Human Development Index explicitly explains the development of a country as being more than an economic growth tool or material wealth. In this way, this index is distinguished from many other performance indicators. This article aims to analyze the proportion of the three indicators on 37 European countries.

  10. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Le Manach

    Full Text Available The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements, while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  11. Standardization in library and information science in selected European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Standardization plays an important role in library and information science (LIS), because it gives rules to identify, classify, access, select, exploit, communicate, exchange and preserve information. Standards are developed by national, European and international organizations. The objective of the study is to present the situation of standardization in library and information science in the countries that joined the European Union in 2004. The research covered Technical Committees that take the problems of LIS, their cooperation with European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The second part of the study is an analysis of LIS standards published in the last 10 years. Data on published documents were gathered from online standards directories. The documents were searched using International Classification for Standards. Retrieved standards were analyzed for their origin and status. The research illustrates the changes in the national standardization, most popular topics and the growing importance of international cooperation in standardization.

  12. Privatization of Industry in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bălan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the fall of the communist regime in the early 1990s, the Central and South Eastern European countries (CEE have gone through several phases of transition, having a mail goal the liberalization of their economies. Experiences taken from centralized planned economy to a market economy, economists have offered an opportunity to study both theoretically and in practical point of view. The economists are still debating various strategies and their economic transition, because the problems of transition in CEE countries are not fully resolved. The purpose of this article was the theoretical and empirical analysis of the privatization of the industry of Central and Eastern Europe, the current European Union Member States and the main economic indicators are built into the process, to identify structural weaknesses in the economies of emerging post communist.

  13. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  14. Clinical PET activities in European and Asia-Oceanian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Ito, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kubota, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hidetada; Moser, E.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. Therefore, sociomedical evaluation is very important for spread of clinical PET. In this report, sociomedical situation in European and Asia-Oceanian countries, especially concerning transportation of 18 F-FDG and reimbursement of medical costs for clinical PET indications, is reported. It seems that UK, Germany and Belgium are the most advanced in clinical PET in Europe. In these countries, many PET investigations are reimbursed though systems are different among the countries. In UK, both public and private insurance gives authorization for clinical PET to some extent. In Germany, private health insurance companies give authorization but public insurance has not. In Belgium, private health insurance does not exist and public insurance gives authorization for clinical PET. Other European countries seem to be in transitional stages. Transportation of 18 F-FDG has been already started in almost every country in Europe and Asia-Oceania. In Japan, neither transportation of FDG nor full reimbursement of clinical PET has not started yet and this situation seems to be exceptional. To promote clinical PET in Japan, there is the need of at least establishing a list of clinical indications for PET investigations and establishing commercial-based 18 F-FDG supplying system. They could be regarded as a kind of infrastructure for spread of clinical PET. (author)

  15. Epidemiology of Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cambronero-Cortinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease results from infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and was presviously described as an endemic disease focused in populations living in poor rural areas of Latin American countries. Currently, migrant populations and some modes of transmission such as blood and organ donation or vertical transmission from infected mothers to their children have caused the spread of this disease beyond its natural geographical boundaries. In Europe, Spain, with over half of these migrants, is undoubtedly the most important recipient, followed by Italy, France and United Kingdom. However, in non-endemic countries there is no universal screening systems and also physicians are often poorly trained in recognizing this disease. So far, few countries are aware of the emergence of this disease and only few European countries have established changes in their health system to address this disease. The National European Health authorities should take part to this model-of-care, adapting in this new epidemiological scenario with screening this pathology in blood donors, organ donations or vertically from mother to child at birth. These mechanisms are the main forms of human infestation in nonendemic countries and are, therefore, the major targets for reduction of spread.

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the aim to highlight the impact of innovation on sustainable development in Eastern and Central European countries. In this wiew, a sinthetic measure of sustainability in these countries is calculated, taking into account ten statistical indicators (related to socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, primary energy consumption, share of renewable energy in final consumption energy, sustainable transport, official development assistance granted to these countries from EUROSTAT database. A comparative analysis of the level of sustainability during 2005-2014 in Eastern and Central Europe is followed by an analysis of the impact of innovation (measured by eco-innovation index on sustainable development, using panel data techniques. The findings show that eco-innovation had a positive impact on sustainability in these countries in the examined period.This result could be used as a rationale for policy makers from these countries in designing measures for eco-innovation stimulation, aiming in this way to move forward for achieving the planned national targets within the European Union Sustainable Development Strategy (EU-SDS.

  17. Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunado, Juncal; Gracia, Fernando Perez de

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)

  18. PRODUCTION POTENTIAL AND AGRICULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Baer-Nawrocka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the relation between agricultural production factors and effectiveness in European Union’s agriculture. For each country two synthetic coefficients were calculated using TOPSIS method. The first one characterises production factors relations, the latter one displays effectiveness of production factors. The objective of the research was to verify the correlation between these indices. The analysis proved that in many analysed countries the agricultural potential is correlated positively with the agricultural effectiveness. 

  19. [Studies of psychopathology of homeless individuals in European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondraki, P; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    Most research on the homeless is coming from the US, where the prevalence of mental disorders concerning this population was pointed out. The surveys for the homeless in European countries focus on the mental state and community care of the homeless very early, since the 1980's. Homelessness is gradually developing in these countries, while in the countries of North America the phenomenon is much older. The prevalence of mental disorders in European countries is higher in the homeless population, with rates of 58% -100% compared with the general population. In countries like Germany, Spain, Holland, France, Switzerland, where the phenomenon of homelessness has been studied, one of the most striking features was the high prevalence of substance abuse disorders, emotional disorders, while small percentages were reported for psychotic disorders. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was very high in Germany, perhaps because it is easily accessible and less expensive than in other countries. Limited use by homeless of relevant health services was also very common in this country. The same observation was also recorded in Spain, France and the Netherlands. High rates in these countries was reported for comorbidity, most often concerning the combination of substance abuse disorder and emotional disorders. Another interesting finding in the European countries is the high prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders and the low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. The low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder is in contrast with studies from North America according to some authors who compared their samples with samples of homeless people in Los Angeles. The level of abuse of illegal substances was also found high in countries such as England. In Spain affective disorders was reported to be very high among the homeless population. The homeless population faces many complex mental health problems compared with those of the

  20. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national death...... (MRR = 1.15), and for East and West sub-Saharan Africans in England and Wales (MRRs 1.28 and 1.39) and France (MRRs 1.24 and 1.22). Low ratios were observed for East Asians in France, Scotland and Sweden (MRRs 0.64-0.50). Sex-specific analyses showed results of similar direction but different effect...... by geographical region/COB within six EU countries. Excess mortality was observed for some migrant populations, less for others. Reliable pan-European data are needed for monitoring and understanding mortality inequalities in Europe's multiethnic populations....

  1. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lefévre, François; Kraigher, Hojka; Westergren, Marjana

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we ...

  2. Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)

  3. Status of National Minorities in Developed European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Raduški

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve sp...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES IN THE DEVELOP EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nesterova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined. The shares of premiums of insurance intermediaries in the volume of insurance premiums and in the GDP of the insurance markets of European countries are defined. The number of employees who are involved in insurance intermediary in the European countries is investigated. The European experience of insurance agents and insurance brokers in non-life insurance and life insurance is considered. It's analyzed the activity of insurance brokers in the Ukraine. The main trends and problems of the development of insurance intermediaries in the insurance market of Ukraine are defined.

  5. Forming Professional Competency of Education Managers in Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovkanets Oksana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of forming education managers’ professional competency in the context of European integration educational processes. The peculiarities of education managers’ competences as well as directions of their professional training in motivational, cognitive and metacognitive spheres have been theoretically justified. The performed analysis of curricula in higher education institutions of Central European countries has proved their use of the complex approach to forming professional competences of education managers. The author has revealed the peculiarities of education managers’ professional training while mastering accredited specialized courses in School Management in the Centre for Lifelong Education at Faculty of Education at Palacký University in Olomouc, the Czech Republic; a Bachelor’s degree in Education Specialization (School Management at Charles University in Prague, the Czech Republic; in the context of the project launched by the European Social Fund (EFS called “The Development of Education Managers’ Competences in Schools and Educational Institutions in the Hradec Králové Region – the Model of Professional Education”, the Czech Republic. It has been concluded that higher education institutions of Central European countries focus on the development of pedagogical and managerial competencies. It has been highlighted that the complication of training content and the modernization of disciplines will allow to form thinking and actions of education managers as comprehensively educated specialists able to successfully deal with professional tasks using their educational and intellectual potential.

  6. Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Brodzka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting The aim of the paper is to bring closer Country-by-Country Reporting and outline possible future amendments of the introduced anti-tax avoidance measures. The article presents the motives of implementing the international CbC initiative, aimed at increasing transparency of the biggest multinational enterprises, with particular emphasis on the specificity of the European Union. Part 2 of the paper analyses the Euro-pean legal bases for companies’ financial reporting. It also gives an overview of the main findings of Directive 2016/881, which implements Country-by-Country Reporting and allows for the exchange of information between tax authorities. Part 3 deals with the national perspective, presenting the CbC solu-tions implemented to the Polish legal system; the paper also attempts to assess the potential impact of tax information disclosures, both from the perspective of taxpayers and the tax administration. The final part presents conclusions and tries to draft future developments of the Country-by-Country Reporting system. In the paper, the following research methods have been used: critical analysis and deduction, with partic-ular reference to the source materials and legal acts, as well as the reports of the European Commission, consulting companies, and NGOs. Although the article deals with tax matters, CbC Reporting is an im-portant and relevant issue from the point of view of researchers and accounting specialists. Reporting this phenomenon is part of the accounting science as a universal tool for recording economic phenomena. The author examined all relevant sources and took into account all important factors in order to obtain a com-prehensive picture of CbC Reporting and to prepare a paper that may serve as a reference for future research.

  7. Status of National Minorities in Developed European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Raduški

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve special attention due to their seriousness, they remain exclusively under those countries’ jurisdiction, as opposed to countries in transition that are in the focus of interest and intervention of the international community. In developed countries, the method of regulating the minority question greatly depends on the position of that country on the world economic and political scene, apart from numerous historical and political factors. In each of these countries, there are specific models of coexistence of majority and minority population conditioned by numerous factors, so there does not exist a universal model that would be valid for all countries. Respecting basic human rights, as well as national minority protection, represent the basic factors of the stability, and democratic and socio-economic development of every country.

  8. Tobacco smoking in countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold; Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Sulkowska, Urszula; West, Robert; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Existing smoking prevalence comparisons between the 'old' and 'new' members of the European Union (EU) give a misleading picture because of differences in methodology. A major EU project designed to find ways of closing the health gap between the member states, included the first ever comparison of smoking prevalence between these countries using a methodology that minimises potential biases. A detailed analysis of methods and data from the most recent nationwide studies was conducted in the adult population of 27 countries of the European Union and Russia as an external comparator. To maximise comparability, daily smoking in the age range 20-64 was used. Prevalence of current daily smoking, former smoking and never smoking were age-standardised and calculated separately for males and females. The European map of smoking prevalence shows that male smoking prevalence is much higher in the new than the old members of the EU, whereas in females the reverse is true, but there are also very large differences in smoking rates between particular countries within the same region. Sweden clearly has the lowest prevalence, and the prevalence in the United Kingdom (UK) at the time of the surveys emerges as near the average for old-Europe but higher than, for example, Ireland. Restricting the analysis to daily smokers aged 20-64 produces a map of Europe in which variation in prevalence between individual countries within regions is as important as variation across regions. Survey methods need to be harmonised across countries to enable comparisons involving all ages and non-daily as well as daily smokers.

  9. Hospital care for persons with AIDS in European-Union countries; a cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Kornarou, H; Paparizos, V; Leidl, R M; Tolley, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Jager, Johannes C

    This paper compares AIDS hospital care in several European-Union countries. For this purpose hospital-care utilisation studies on inpatient days and outpatient contacts were analysed in a generic approach controlling for severity stages of AIDS. Lifetime hospital-care needs for AIDS are derived,

  10. Disagreements among cohabiting and married couples in 22 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Van der Lippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross-national research suggests that married people have higher levels of well-being than cohabiting people. However, relationship quality has both positive and negative dimensions. Researchers have paid little attention to disagreements within cohabiting and married couples. Objective: This study aims to improve our understanding of the meaning of cohabitation by examining disagreements within marital and cohabiting relationships. We examine variations in couples' disagreements about housework, paid work and money by country and gender. Methods: The data come from the 2004 European Social Survey. We selected respondents living in a heterosexual couple relationship and aged between 18 and 45. In total, the study makes use of data from 22 European countries and 9,657 people. Given that our dependent variable was dichotomous, we estimated multilevel logit models, with (1 disagree and (0 never disagree. Results: We find that cohabitors had more disagreements about housework, the same disagreements about money, but fewer disagreements about paid work than did married people. These findings could not be explained by socio-economic or demographic measures, nor did we find gender or cross-country differences in the association between union status and conflict. Conclusions: Cohabiting couples have more disagreements about housework but fewer disagreements about paid work than married people. There are no gender or cross-country differences in these associations. The results provide further evidence that the meaning of cohabitation differs from that of marriage, and that this difference remains consistent across nations.

  11. INTEGRATION AND INEQUALITIES IN THE EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN COPCEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Union, regional economic performance and economic development respect the principles of the core-periphery model, with core-countries in Northern and Western Europe and periphery-countries as the Southern and Eastern European states. Thus, although treaties and cohesion policies promote balanced development throughout the European Union, it continues to be a divided entity. Despite the efforts of both public institutions at both the national and EU level, and the private sector, inequality still persists and in some cases is increasing. In analyzing the causes of these perpetuating disparities and especially in shaping solutions to ensure balanced development throughout Europe, one should take into account that when joining the European Union, its Member States should be treated as regions of a supranational organization. Hence, it follows that development and growth programs, as well as the allocation of cohesion funds must consider the dissimilar socio-economic and cultural backgrounds encountered in the Member States, the ‘one size fits all’ approach threatening to intensify Europe’s North-South division. Using panel data, this paper provides an empirical study of the inequality determinants, aiming to identify convergence or divergence trends across countries and regions of Eastern Europe. Our findings partially confirm the theory, indicating that, in the long run, the new EU Member States recorded a process of convergence, reducing the gap between rich and poor regions, even if in the short-term, and especially in times of economic crisis, the economic disparities may widen. M

  12. Competitiveness of renewable energies. Comparison of major European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, Francois; Lamla, Michael

    2011-06-15

    This paper aims at presenting the support schemes promoting the development of renewable energies in five major European countries, namely Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. At first the reader will find brief country profiles, followed by a comparison of their competitiveness with regard to the type of public support available for project developers, the current level of feed-in tariffs, the stability of the regulatory framework, the quality of the wind or solar resource available, etc. Finally, a mapping will give a quick overview of the competitiveness of the five countries for each renewable energy reviewed in this study. The paper focuses on four technologies generating electricity from renewable sources: Onshore wind, Offshore wind, Photovoltaic solar energy and Concentrating solar power (''CSP'', also known as solar thermoelectric power). (orig.)

  13. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  14. The Situation of the Female Workforce in the Field of Scientific Research in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying if and to what extent we can speak of the existence of gender imbalances in the field of scientific research in the European Union as a whole, but also comparatively between different countries, including the situation in Romania. After a short overview of the context in which this preoccupation appeared in European gender studies and of the possible causes which can determine this imbalance, the paper continues with a presentation of the general situation of the female/male workforce in the member states, followed by a analysis of the educational levels of women compared with men, with respect to stages of education. The study also analyzes the data on the participation of women in the field of scientific research from the point of view of share of the total, broken down by sectors of activity and scientific fields. A related focus is the participation of women in the field of higher education, according to hierarchical levels, from the perspective of access to research financing, of expenses per researchers, etc., focusing on the gender imbalances pointed out earlier and on the specificity of former communist countries.

  15. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMERS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are considered, within the European vision, the “life force” of the economy. Although the technological means are increasingly available, both European SMEs and consumers are still suspicious of conducting cross-border trade. Single European market has the potential to become the largest market in the world. Currently, it remains largely fragmented along national borders, forming 27 mini-markets. The European Commission’s aim is to achieve a more integrated internal market such that consumers from each Member State have an equally high level of confidence in products, traders, selling methods, as well as consumer protection – no matter where they decide to make their purchases within the EU. The paper presents a secondary analysis of data regarding the many differences in terms of Europeans’ consumption patterns for different product categories (as a percentage of total expenditures. For example, the share of household budget used to purchase food is highest in our country and lowest in Luxembourg.. Also, the largest proportion of family budget allocated for utilities (water, electricity, gas we find in Bulgaria, and for cultural activities – in Austria.

  16. Genetics in clinical practice: general practitioners' educational priorities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julian-Reynier, C.; Nippert, I.; Calefato, J.M.; Harris, H.J.; Kristoffersson, U.; Schmidtke, J.; Kate, L. ten; Anionwu, E.; Benjamin, C.; Challen, K.; Plass, A.M.; Harris, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess how general practitioners (GPs) from European countries prioritized their genetic educational needs according to their geographic, sociodemographic, and educational characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional survey, random and total samples of GPs in five European countries

  17. Determinants of SME Finance: Evidence from Three Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ashiqur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.

  18. Gender inequality indices for the European partnership countries comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E I Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming gender inequality is a serious challenge for many countries all over the world. Different reforms aiming at reduction of gender inequality are often a necessary condition for joining international alliances and associations. The article presents an example of comparative analysis of gender statuses in European partnership countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Russian Federation (1 on the one hand, and Iceland - on the other hand due to the latter leading position in the Global Gender Gap ranking. This ranking as well as the results of the comparative analysis can be useful for lecturers in the courses on gender inequality, international comparative studies and others. The author provides a definition of the concept “gender inequality”, an overview of existing methodological approaches to the international gender inequality measurement and interpretation. Based on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI author describes men and women positions in the countries mentioned above in such socially important fields as politics, economy, education, and life expectancy; provides her own explanations of the current situation and perspectives for its development. The study shows that for all the countries under consideration the most problematic are (1 political sphere in the terms of women’s empowerment and (2 the sphere of healthcare from the point of quality and duration of men’s lives. The most unproblematic field from the comparative gender analysis point of view is educational sphere. According to the results of the comparative analysis, the most egalitarian country seems to be Moldova, while the least egalitarian - Azerbaijan. This article is based on the data of the International project ReSET «European visions and divisions: comparative studies in improving of teaching sociology” (supported by OSI HESP in 2010-2012.

  19. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET IN SEVERAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The global organic market is increasing constantly, organic sales reaching over USD 5 billion per year. Organic Monitor estimates that international sales amounted to about USD 38.6 billion in 2006, more than the double of USD 18 billion in 2000. The organic demand is concentrated in North America and Europe, these two regions comprising 97% of the global revenues. The European organic food and beverage market is the largest and most complex in the world, evaluated at USD 20 billion in 2006. Many European countries offer grants to organic farms to support organic production. This production-oriented strategy will have guaranteed success if the market structures and the marketing channels will be able to face the rapidly increasing demand and if the sellers adapt their products, sales channels and prices to the consumers’ demand.

  20. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  1. Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...... on disposable income of different "events" such as illness, unemployment, injuries from work and retirement. Maternity benefits and family allowances are also included. The information of the 5th edition is for 1995. The contents are updated on an annual basis....

  2. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  3. Hepatitis E and blood donation safety in selected European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanović, Dragoslav; Tedder, Richard; Blümel, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    for such immunosuppressed patients is exposure to undercooked infected pork products and blood transfusion. We summarised the epidemiology of HEV infections among blood donors and also outlined any strategies to prevent transfusion-transmitted HEV, in 11 European countries. In response to the threat posed by HEV...... and related public and political concerns, most of the observed countries determined seroprevalence of HEV in donors and presence of HEV RNA in blood donations. France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK) reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV. Ireland and the UK have already implemented HEV RNA...... screening of blood donations; the Netherlands will start in 2017. Germany and France perform screening for HEV RNA in several blood establishments or plasma donations intended for use in high-risk patients respectively and, with Switzerland, are considering implementing selective or universal screening...

  4. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.

    2010-01-01

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use.

  5. A comparative analysis of policies addressing rural oral health in eight English-speaking OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Leonard A; Goldberg, Lynette R; Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    documents in this study. When the language of concepts related to rural oral health was examined, the qualitative analysis identified four discourse themes related to both causality and solutions. These ranked discourse themes focused on service models, workforce issues, social determinants of health, and prevention. None of the policies addressed the structural economic determinants of unequal rural oral health, nor did they specifically assert the rights of children in rural communities to equitable oral health care. This study documented the limited focus on rural oral health that existed in national oral health policies from eight different English-speaking countries. It supports the need for an increased focus on rural oral health issues in oral health policies, particularly as increased oral health is clearly associated with increased general health. It speaks to the critical importance of periodic analysis of the content of oral health policies to ensure that issues of inequality are addressed. Further, it reinforces the need for research findings about effective oral health care to be translated into practice in the development of practical and financially viable policies to make access to oral health care more equitable, particularly for people living in rural and remote areas.

  6. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF GRADUATE ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITIES IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rolim Ensslin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates there is a shortage of professors of accounting. For some researchers this lack is related to the high price paid to obtain an advanced degree in this area. According to the American Accounting Association (AAA, graduate programs need to be more attractive, less stressful and less expensive for students. Therefore, the objective of this study is to map the characteristics of the selection process, the courses offered and the requirements to obtain a master’s degree in accounting from universities located in English-speaking. This study can be classified as descriptive, with a theoretical-conceptual nature and a qualitative approach. We rely on secondary sources and apply inductive logic. The main results are that in the United States, 71% of the programs require candidates to have knowledge of accounting, finance, economics, taxes, statistics and mathematics; 75% of Australian universities require a minimum score on the TOEFL for foreign students, 20% have a minimum GPA and 10% require taking the GMAT; and no Canadian university requires a letter of recommendation. Regarding the purpose of the courses, 88% of the institutions that offer master programs in accounting focus on improved professional qualification of accountants. In Australia, 30% of the programs last 18 months, while in Canada this figure is 66% and in New Zealand, 50% of the programs last at least two years. With respect to the graduation requirements, 82% of the universities require between 4 and 9 mandatory disciplines. In conclusion, the master programs in the United States and United Kingdom are relatively more demanding with respect to the degree requirements than in the other countries investigated.

  8. The scientific studies on smart grid in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Serhat Orkun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a power system consisting of many transmission and distribution systems subjected to an automation which are efficient, reliable and coordinated with each other. As a nature friendly technology, Smart grid come into prominence due to the increasing energy consumption and limited renewable energy sources around the world. In the near future, the use of renewable energy sources is not expected to grow rapidly; but the transmission and distribution systems will be enhanced by Smart grid technologies. Considering these significant benefits, the studies have been increased on Smart grid technologies to meet the energy requirement in each country. Herewith, the aim of this study is to analyse the scientific studies in developed European countries such as Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, France and Spain to find out the increment rate of the importance devoted to the Smart grid technologies in academicals manner. The scientific researches on Smart grid are achieved from the Web of Science database and the statistical analysis have been made by utilizing proper SQL queries in combination with Excel Power Pivot for these countries. The correlation between the scientific studies on smart grid and the virtual smart grid applications are also outlined for each selected country.

  9. Determinants of debt rescheduling in Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušev Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes Panel Logit Models applied to a set of macroeconomic, financial, and political variables to estimate the debt rescheduling probabilities of 15 Eastern European countries during the transition period from 1990-2005. These transition economies became a very attractive region for foreign investment. Specifically, the region became the largest recipient of net non-FDI flows among all emerging market regions in 2005. Therefore, it is relevant for policy makers and institutional and private foreign investors to investigate factors that influence debt rescheduling probabilities, as these may directly affect the size of and return on investments in these countries. Our findings suggest that policy efforts focused on reducing government expenditure, attracting foreign direct investment, increasing export revenues, and keeping a good repayment record result in low debt rescheduling probabilities and, in turn, decrease the cost of debt for these countries. This is a common finding for all countries in the sample, including those that have become EU members.

  10. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  11. European-French Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and Pretest in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Kaeser, Sylvie; Satink, Ton; Andresen, Mette; Martini, Rose; Thommen, Evelyne; Bertrand, Anne Martine

    2015-05-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version does not. To produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07 for use in areas of Europe where French is spoken and to test its cultural relevance in French-speaking Switzerland. Cross-cultural adaptation was done using established guidelines. Cultural relevance was analyzed with cognitive interviews of thirteen parents of children aged 5.0 to 14.6 years (mean age: 8.5 years, SD = 3.4), using think-aloud and probing techniques. Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the European-French, the Canadian-French, and the original versions of the DCDQ'07. Despite correct translation and expert committee review, cognitive interviews revealed that certain items of the European-French version were unclear or misinterpreted and further modifications were needed. After rewording items as a result of the outcomes of the cognitive interview, the European-French version of the DCDQ'07 is culturally appropriate for use in French-speaking Switzerland. Further studies are necessary to determine its psychometric properties.

  12. A review of national public funding programmes in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, Tonia; Reid, Kirsty; Rogiers, Vera; Webb, Simon; Wilkins, David

    2008-01-01

    A survey of publicly funded research specifically targeting alternatives to animal testing was conducted over 2006/2007. Responses were received from 16 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). The responses were compiled by national agencies or national consensus platforms. The current annual total across the 16 countries was estimated as EUR 17 million. The largest contribution came from Germany with EUR 4.6 million (27% of the total). Also collated was information on the existence of a national strategy on alternatives research, the focus of any such strategies, the research priority setting process, stakeholder consultation in that process, project funding preferences or limits, coordination mechanisms and the separation of responsibilities of competent authorities (i.e. for research support, laboratory animal welfare and chemicals management). Countries with national strategies (France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) are skewed towards the higher end of the spending distribution. These 6 countries account for over EUR 12 million, i.e. >70% of the overall total of national spending identified. Most countries have national consensus platforms. These should help to both stimulate stakeholder consultation and further national spending on alternatives research. The situation regarding the separation of responsibilities of competent authorities (i.e. for research support, laboratory animal welfare and chemicals management) is mixed. A degree of overlap exists in many cases. A research strategy that is receptive to and reflects regulatory developments - such as REACh with its marked resultant increase in animal use - is an obvious need that is as yet unmet in many of the countries surveyed. The need for a mechanism to collate details of active research projects within Europe as a whole was also

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  14. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2018-02-05

    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education - a survey in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, S; Sobotta, A; Hahn, P; Kiessling, C; Härtl, A

    2017-08-01

    Teaching communication is perceived to be of importance in dental education. Several reports have been published worldwide in the educational literature describing modifications of the dental curriculum by implementing the teaching of communication skills. Surveys which evaluate the current state of training and assessment of communication skills in dental education in different countries exist already in some countries, but little information is available about German-speaking countries. In a cross-sectional study with the aim of a census, all 36 dental schools in Germany (30), Austria (3), and Switzerland (3) were surveyed. The present survey revealed that at 26 of the 34 dental schools (76%), communication skills training has been implemented. Training of communication skills mainly takes place between the 6th and the 9th semester. Ten schools were able to implement a partly longitudinal curriculum, while the other sites only offer stand-alone courses. Of the 34 dental schools, six assess communication skills in a summative way. Three of those schools also use formative assessments for their students. Another seven sites only use formative assessment. From the various formats of assessment, OSCE is mentioned most frequently. The necessity to train and assess communication skills has reached German-speaking dental schools. The present survey allows an overview of the training and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education in German-speaking Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Basic characteristics of livestock insurance in Serbia: With reference to the some elements of this type of insurance in some non-European and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock insurance is a part of agricultural insurance. This type of insurance is also part of a non-life insurance. The livestock insurance is undeveloped in Serbia. In general, a very small number of farms (5% of total decided for the conclusion of livestock insurance contracts. This paper analyzes the basic characteristics of this type of insurance, and the authors pay attention to the implementation of this type of insurance in other countries. Special attention is paid to the livestock insurance in Mongolia, India, Mexico and Ireland who are defined livestock insurance programs that have contributed to a greater number of contracts concluded in this field. Also, the authors speaking about livestock insurance in some European countries. Finally, the authors criticize the way in which is regulated livestock insurance in Serbia, by proposing a series of measures that should be implemented by the insurance companies and state.

  17. [Scientific communication in the age of globalization. Trends, challenges and initial solutions for dentistry in German-speaking countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedbichler, Michael; Friedbichler, Ingrid; Türp, Jens Christoph

    2008-01-01

    In a world which is shrinking at a dramatic pace the need for international communication is constantly rising. In this global setting, the English language has increasingly become the "lingua franca" in which most scientific exchange takes place among professionals worldwide. The present paper investigates the impact of the all-pervasive role of English on the language of medicine and dentistry in the German-speaking countries as well as recent efforts to overcome some of the major obstacles associated with international communication. Possible approaches how non-anglophone dental communities can participate in scientific communication worldwide without starving their own language are assessed. The authors demonstrate that there is no alternative to bilingual competence in professional contexts and emphasize the need for strategies to promote bilingualism in scientific communication. Integrating bilingual language training at dental schools and in continuing education seems indispensable. A survey of bilingual models at medical and dental schools in other countries reveals significant deficits at German-speaking universities in this field. Promising new bilingual approaches in dental journals, lexicography, and other terminology resources are discussed, particularly the so-called KWiC-Web concept, a new semi-bilingual language guide to dental English, which helps German-speaking dental professionals to acquire and master the relevant language skills.

  18. Radon remediation and prevention status in 23 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, O.; Arvela, H.; Collignan, B.; Jiranek, M.; Ringer, W.

    2013-01-01

    Radon remediation and prevention aim at reducing indoor radon concentrations in the existing and new buildings. This paper gives an estimate of the number of dwellings where remediation or preventive measures have been applied so far in Europe. Questionnaires were sent to contact persons in national radiation protection authorities and radon-related research institutes. Answers from 23 European countries were obtained. Approximately 26 000 dwellings have been remediated in total. Millions of dwellings remain to be remediated and the number is increasing due to the rare use of radon prevention. These facts imply a need for an efficient radon strategy to promote radon remediation. Moreover, the importance of radon prevention in new construction and the regulations concerning radon in the national building codes should be emphasised. (authors)

  19. Environmental policy is a joint task of all European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pag-Kuhn, S.; Schmuck, O.

    1987-01-01

    The volume presents material illustrating European environmental policy and the situation in the various countries, and is intended among others for use as a teaching aid at school or in adult courses. A documentation of newspaper articles and other material is the center piece of the volume, arranged by environmental problems and cases, covering also basic text parts from the fields of law and politics. The six main subjects dealt with include: Pollution of the Rhine river, the Sandoz accident; - Nuclear power, Chernobyl and Cattenom; - Forest decline, acid rain and motor vehicle off-gas; - Toxic waste, Seveso and no end to be seen; - Agriculture and ecology; - Environmental impact statement, an EC Directive. The documentation has been selected so as to reflect a broad spectrum of political opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Management of low adhesion on railway tracks in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Andersen, Henning Boje

    This report presents approaches of selected European countries to the management of low adhesion problems. It spans approaches addressing different levels of the problem, including preventive measures focusing on the tasks aimed at removing or reducing low adhesion, mitigative technical measures...... aimed at improving wheel performance in low adhesion conditions, as well as mitigative measures for driving and operating trains under these conditions. The report thus spans measures that are often managed by different organisations, mainly infrastructure managers and train operators. The report...... focuses on management of low adhesion and will not go into detail with the characteristics and generation of the low adhesion layer but will touch on this only to the extent that this determines or is directly linked with the specific low adhesion measures taken. Neither will the report go into detail...

  1. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  2. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  3. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.

  4. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…

  5. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, L; Drumright, L N; Kruijshaar, M E; Abubakar, I; Rice, B; Delpech, V; Hollo, V; Amato-Gauci, A; Manissero, D; Ködmön, C

    2011-12-01

    In order to ensure the availability of resources for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV management and control, it is imperative that countries monitor and plan for co-infection in order to identify, treat and prevent TB-HIV co-infection, thereby reducing TB burden and increasing the years of healthy life of people living with HIV. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Data on the burden of HIV infection in TB patients and risk factors for TB-HIV co-infection in the EU/EEA were extracted from studies that collected information in 1996 and later, regardless of the year of initiation of data collection, and a narrative synthesis presented. The proportion of HIV-co-infected TB patients varied from 0 to 15%. Western and eastern countries had higher levels and increasing trends of infection over time compared with central EU/EEA countries. Groups at higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection were males, young adults, foreign-born persons, the homeless, injecting drug users and prisoners. Further research is needed into the burden and associated risk factors of co-infection in Europe, to help plan effective control measures. Increased HIV testing of TB patients and targeted and informed strategies for control and prevention could help curb the co-infection epidemic.

  6. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  7. Development of site remediation technologies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunno, T.J.; Hyman, J.A.; Pheiffer, T.

    1988-01-01

    Site remediation is a pressing issue in European countries due to limited availability of land. Therefore, much progress is being made in the development of effective technologies for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of this program was to investigate the most successful and innovative technologies for potential application into US markets. This EPA-sponsored project was based on a 9-month research effort which identified 95 innovative technologies in use or being researched in foreign countries. The most promising technologies were studied in-depth through personal interviews with the engineers who research and apply these technologies, and tours of laboratory models and full-scale installations. The most successful full-scale technologies investigated were developed in Holland, West Germany and Belgium. These technologies include vacuum extraction of hydrocarbons from soil, in situ washing of cadmium-polluted soil, rotating biocontractors for treating pesticides in ground water, high-temperature slagging incineration of low-level radioactive wastes, in situ steam stripping, and a number of landfarming and soil washing operations. The paper provides description of 13 site remediation techniques that have shown such promise in laboratory studies or in practice to warrant consideration of their use in the US

  8. Acute pancreatitis in five European countries: etiology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Lucio; Migliori, Marina; Oláh, Attila; Farkas, Gyula; Levy, Philippe; Arvanitakis, Constantine; Lankisch, Paul; Beger, Hans

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, many advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis that have lead to a significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality; however, knowledge of the etiology and of the relation between etiology and mortality is far from complete. To obtain a more comprehensive view of the etiology and mortality of acute pancreatitis in Europe than has been given by previous single-center studies. The study comprised 1,068 patients in five European countries who were admitted to hospitals for acute pancreatitis from January 1990 to December 1994. Data for each patient were collected on a standardized form. Of the 1,068 patients (692 men, 376 women; mean age, 52.8 years; range, 10-95 years), 589 had edematous pancreatitis, and 479 the necrotic form. Cholelithiasis (37.1%) and alcohol (41.0%) were the most frequent etiologic factors. In Germany, cholelithiasis and alcohol occurred with similar frequency (34.9 and 37.9%, respectively); in Hungary, alcohol predominates over cholelithiasis (60.7 vs. 24.0%); in France, a small predominance of alcohol was seen (38.5 vs. 24.6%); and in Greece and Italy, there was a clear predominance of cholelithiasis over alcohol (71.4 vs. 6.0% and 60.3 vs. 13.2%, respectively). The differences in the frequency of cholelithiasis and alcohol between Greece and Italy and the other countries were statistically significant (p relationship between mortality and age.

  9. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in twelve European countries results of the European cardiac rehabilitation registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzer, Werner; Rauch, Bernhard; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Results from EuroCaReD study should serve as a benchmark to improve guideline adherence and treatment quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 2.054 CR patients in 12 European countries were derived from 69 centres. 76% were male. Indication for CR...... were under medication according to current guidelines for the treatment of CV risk factors. A wide range of CR programme designs was found (duration 3 to 24weeks; total number of sessions 30 to 196). Patient programme adherence after admission was high (85%). With reservations that eCRF follow-up data...

  11. Preventive youth health care in 11 European countries: An exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieske, R.C.N.; Nijnuis, M.G.; Carmiggelt, B.C.; Wagenaar-Fischer, M.M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify similarities and differences in the way preventive youth health care (YHC) is organized in 11 European countries. Method Questionnaire survey to EUSUHM (European Union for School and University Health and Medicine) representatives. Results The greatest

  12. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, François; Koskela, Jarkko; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C; Schüler, Silvio; Bozzano, Michele; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Bakys, Remigijus; Baldwin, Cathleen; Ballian, Dalibor; Black-Samuelsson, Sanna; Bednarova, Dagmar; Bordács, Sándor; Collin, Eric; de Cuyper, Bart; de Vries, Sven M G; Eysteinsson, Thröstur; Frýdl, Josef; Haverkamp, Michaela; Ivankovic, Mladen; Konrad, Heino; Koziol, Czesław; Maaten, Tiit; Notivol Paino, Eduardo; Oztürk, Hikmet; Pandeva, Ivanova Denitsa; Parnuta, Gheorghe; Pilipovič, Andrej; Postolache, Dragos; Ryan, Cathal; Steffenrem, Arne; Varela, Maria Carolina; Vessella, Federico; Volosyanchuk, Roman T; Westergren, Marjana; Wolter, Frank; Yrjänä, Leena; Zariŋa, Inga

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess and monitor forest conservation efforts. The pan-European network has 1967 conservation units, 2737 populations of target trees, and 86 species of target trees. We detected a poor coincidence between FGR conservation and other biodiversity conservation objectives within this network. We identified 2 complementary strategies: a species-oriented strategy in which national conservation networks are specifically designed for key target species and a site-oriented strategy in which multiple-target units include so-called secondary species conserved within a few sites. The network is highly unbalanced in terms of species representation, and 7 key target species are conserved in 60% of the conservation units. We performed specific gap analyses for 11 tree species, including assessment of ecogeographic, demographic, and genetic criteria. For each species, we identified gaps, particularly in the marginal parts of their distribution range, and found multiple redundant conservation units in other areas. The Mediterranean forests and to a lesser extent the boreal forests are underrepresented. Monitoring the conservation efficiency of each unit remains challenging; however, conserved populations seem to be at risk of extinction. On the basis of our results, we recommend combining species-oriented and site-oriented strategies. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. The Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries Organization : A Strategic Analysis as a Security Enhancement Intergovernmental Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoso, José Carlos Pinto

    2012-01-01

    The current wide-ranging and complex relations in the international environment demand a comprehensive approach to challenges in world security. Regional organizations play a decisive role in the peaceful settlement of disputes and conflict prevention. This is especially important in Africa given the many enduring problems that affect this continent. Considering that security is a basic condition for development and prosperity, this study aims to assess the Community of Portuguese Speaking...

  14. Representation of Nursing Scientists from German-speaking countries in High Impact Journals. A bibliometric publication analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Julian; Buhtz, Christian; Mersdorf, Benedikt; Meyer, Gabriele

    2018-02-01

    Background: The frequency of publications by nursing scientists from the German-speaking area in journals with a high impact factor is an indicator for participation of the discipline in the international discourse. Previous publication analyses focused on nursing science journals only and regularly found an underrepresentation of experimental studies and clinical topics. Aim: To identify and analyse the number of publications by nursing scientists from Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland in international high impact journals. Method: The Journal Citation Reports were used to identify nursing relevant categories of journals in which the highest 10 % of the years 2010 to 2014 were selected according to the 5-year Impact Factor. Inclusion of publications and data extraction were carried out by two independent persons. Results: 106939 publications from 126 journals were screened; 100 publications were identified with 229 contributions by 114 nursing scientists. 42 % of studies are observational and 11 % are experimental. The majority of studies are clinically oriented (55 %). More than 50 % have been published in the past two years. Conclusions: The number of publications by nursing scientists from the German-speaking countries in High Impact Journals is low. There is an increase throughout the observation period. In opposite to former analyses a higher proportion of clinical research has been found.

  15. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Цокова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have  been analyzed;  and , basing on the  dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the  capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers  range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment  of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55

  16. HOUSING MARKETS IN SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gostkowska-Drzewicka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the changes taking place in housing markets in selected European countries and in the USA. The basic research period covers the years 1998-2009. However, wherever availability of data allowed so, we covered with our research also the years 1963-2010. The development of domestic housing markets is determined both by specific features of local markets and by macroeconomic factors influencing the economic situation. The availability of capital to finance investment is of primary importance for the changes taking place in housing markets. This factor can be expressed by the volume of mortgage debt related to GDP and inflation and the level of interest rates on mortgage loans. The evaluation of the changes occurring in domestic housing markets was based on the identification of such structural characteristics as: the volume of the housing stock, the number of ready-to-use flats, the number of issued building permits, the indices of housing prices, and the number of transactions concerning purchase of flats or houses.

  17. Cloud computing and public administration: approaches in several European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia-Rădulescu Adrian-Mihai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Agenda for Europe 2020 has more objectives from increasing the participation of its citizens and consumers in the digital society to creating a fully interconnected society. These objectives can be supported through a high degree of digitization achieved at public administration level and an increased performance in delivering public services. Cloud computing is one of the ICT areas with a fast growth in the last years that presents a big promise for achieving the objectives of the Digital Agenda for Europe 2020. This paper aims to present what cloud computing is and how it can help the public administration to increase its performance. From Infrastructure as a Service continuing with Platform as a Service and moving up to Software as a Service each level of cloud computing is presented in here with its strong and weak points and how it is suitable for a given use case in public administration. The challenges and the risks of moving to cloud and the differences between public, private and hybrid cloud are also presented in the paper. The research done by the author is both theoretical and literature review and combines knowledge from different areas. An analysis and examples of cloud computing approach and implementation in several European Union countries are presented in this paper to facilitate the understanding of the subject. Cloud computing can help public administration to decrease costs, standardize services in different locations, integrate public resources and provide a higher transparency in the government act.

  18. Who Speaks for the European Border Security Industry? A Network Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on the European border security industry with a network analysis of a new bipartite data set. The network is composed of speakers and their speech topics at a European border security conference taking place from 2008 to 2015. Speakers are linked to

  19. An Initial Cross-Cultural Comparison of Adult Playfulness in Mainland China and German-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Dandan; Proyer, René T

    2018-01-01

    Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western culture, there are hints in Chinese culture that being playful has negative connotations (e.g., associations with laziness and seeing play as the opposite of work). The aim of this study was to compare expressions of playfulness in one sample from German-speaking countries ( n = 143) and two samples from China (Guangzhou: n = 176; Beijing: n = 100). Participants completed one playfulness scale developed in the West (Short Measure of Adult Playfulness, SMAP) and one from the East (Adult Playfulness Questionnaire, APQ). Additional ratings of the participants were collected to measure: (a) the level of playful behavior expressed by people in different situations (e.g., when being around family members, in public, or on social media), and (b) individuals' perceptions of society's expectations concerning the appropriateness of being playful in the given situations. Overall, the results of the comparisons were mixed. Although SMAP scores did not vary significantly across the three samples, people from German-speaking countries tended to score higher on some facets of the APQ and some situational ratings. Stronger effects were found when comparing only the German-speaking sample and the Guangzhou sample. In addition to the cross-cultural differences that we expected, we also detected Chinese regional variations (North vs. South). We conclude that societal rules and cultural factors may impact expressions of playfulness in a society.

  20. An Initial Cross-Cultural Comparison of Adult Playfulness in Mainland China and German-Speaking Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western culture, there are hints in Chinese culture that being playful has negative connotations (e.g., associations with laziness and seeing play as the opposite of work. The aim of this study was to compare expressions of playfulness in one sample from German-speaking countries (n = 143 and two samples from China (Guangzhou: n = 176; Beijing: n = 100. Participants completed one playfulness scale developed in the West (Short Measure of Adult Playfulness, SMAP and one from the East (Adult Playfulness Questionnaire, APQ. Additional ratings of the participants were collected to measure: (a the level of playful behavior expressed by people in different situations (e.g., when being around family members, in public, or on social media, and (b individuals’ perceptions of society’s expectations concerning the appropriateness of being playful in the given situations. Overall, the results of the comparisons were mixed. Although SMAP scores did not vary significantly across the three samples, people from German-speaking countries tended to score higher on some facets of the APQ and some situational ratings. Stronger effects were found when comparing only the German-speaking sample and the Guangzhou sample. In addition to the cross-cultural differences that we expected, we also detected Chinese regional variations (North vs. South. We conclude that societal rules and cultural factors may impact expressions of playfulness in a society.

  1. Experience of International Education of East Asian Students in English-speaking Countries: A four-dimensional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global participation in international education in the last two decades has increased exponentially. International students face difficulties in adjusting to the culture of their host country due to their unique needs (Bertram, Poulakis, Elsasser & Kumar, 2014. This article presents themes comprising the international education phenomenon involving the experiences of East Asian international students in English-speaking countries. The literature reviewed for this article pertains to many aspects of international education, covering the factors that influence the decision to embark on the international education journey to the adjustment experienced by students to the host culture. The authors suggest that the international education experience is comprised of four dimensions: structural, linguistic, internal, and external. We also posit that Confucianism, which many East Asian students follow, influences not only the psycho-social dimension of the international education experience but also their instructional preferences within the structural dimension. We further contend that students’ actual and perceived proficiency (or the lack thereof in the host country’s language greatly shapes all aspects of the student’s international education experience, which then determines the degree of acculturative stress involved and plays a key role in each of the three dimensions. Because of the anticipated continued growth in the number of international students from East Asia attending higher education institutions in English-speaking countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, and parts of Africa, it is important to examine how each of the dimensions proposed impact each other. Approaching the study of the international education experience one dimension at a time, as many scholars have done, does not completely address all of the unique needs of international students. We suggest that research in this area be conducted holistically by

  2. Occupational Structure in European Countries: What do Forecasts Predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vishnevskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the future occupational structure of the labour force in European members of the Organisation for Co-operation and Development (OECD. Occupational structure forecasts allow researchers to evaluate the quality of job openings and, consequently, overall future labour market performance. Identification of demand for certain occupations in Europe can facilitate assessment of whether processes occurring in the Russian labour market are consistent with global trends. The paper discusses the methodology of labour force forecasting and basic research approaches to the prediction of occupational structure changes. It emphasizes the dynamics of demand for representatives of certain occupations in Europe by identifying the fastest growing and declining occupations and suggests possible reasons for changing demand. The paper demonstrates that the main occupational trend over the next decade will consist in the increasing importance of professionals, as well as technicians and associate professionals. The increase in demand for health professionals and representatives of occupations providing scientific and technological innovation will be most significant. At the same time, it is expected that demand for elementary occupations will also rise. This process will evolve simultaneously with the decrease in the total number of skilled and semi-skilled blue-collar occupations due to globalization and the reduction of industrial production in developed economies. The ongoing “mechanization” of many job functions will not eliminate the need for occupations such as cleaners, labourers, domestic servants or personal workers. The need for these jobs allow employees with low levels of education to enter the labour market rather than depending on the social benefit system. Another tendency for all countries with developed economies will be reduced demand for many whitecollar occupations as modern computer technologies and the automation of many

  3. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    a collaboration formed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with European HIV cohorts and surveillance agencies, we constructed a standardized, 4-stage continuum of HIV care for 11 European Union countries for 2013. Stages were defined as (1) number of people living with HIV...

  4. Reinstitutionalisation in mental-health care : comparison of data on service provision from six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S; Badesconyi, A; Fioritti, A; Hansson, L; Kilian, RT; Torres-Gonzales, F; Turner, T; Wiersma, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective To establish whether reinstitutionalisation is occurring in mental health care mid, if so, with What variations between Western European countries. Design Comparison of data on changes in service provision. Setting Six European countries with different traditions of mental health care that

  5. Comparison of radiation protection courses in European countries. What can we learn from them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.; Stritar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents legal background and recent activities of international organisations in the field of radiation protection training in Europe. Approach to radiation protection training in some European countries has been also presented. Because of legal requirements and necessity to harmonise and standardise training, European countries are taking first steps. Slovenia must not stay away from this process. (author)

  6. Antibiotic use in infants in the first year of life in five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Grueber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Aim: To assess in infants the number of illness episodes treated with antibiotics and prescription rates in five European countries. Methods: This study was embedded in a multicenter nutritional intervention study and was conducted in five European countries. Infants were followed until 1 year of

  7. Measurement invariance of the Portrait Values Questionnaire across 25 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    . Hence, most direct comparisons of PVQ raw scores and sample statistics between European countries are valid without correction. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the ten values measured by the PVQ are invariant across European countries in terms of their relative position on the quasi......-circumplex hypothesised by the theory of basic human values....

  8. The EU factor in the trade policies of Central European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej

    1999-01-01

    The author examines the development of foreign trade institutions and policies in Central European countries invited to negotiate their accession to the European Union. With the dismantling of state trading, conditions of market access have been dramatically liberalized. However, except for Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the Czech Republic, most Central European countries have followed a policy of bilateral rather than multilateral trade liberalization. The fall in tariff rates on preferent...

  9. Analysis of Six Reviews on the Quality of Instruments for the Evaluation of Interprofessional Education in German-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Jan P; Kaap-Fröhlich, Sylvia; Mahler, Cornelia; Scherer, Theresa; Huber, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Background: More and more institutions worldwide and in German-speaking countries are developing and establishing interprofessional seminars in undergraduate education of health professions. In order to evaluate the different didactic approaches and different outcomes regarding the anticipated interprofessional competencies, it is necessary to apply appropriate instruments. Cross-cultural instruments are particularly helpful for international comparability. The Interprofessional Education working group of the German Medical Association (GMA) aims at identifying existing instruments for the evaluation of interprofessional education in order to make recommendations for German-speaking countries. Methods: Systematic literature research was performed on the websites of international interprofessional organisations (CAIPE, EIPEN, AIPEN), as well as in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Reviews focusing on quantitative instruments to evaluate competencies according to the modified Kirkpatrick competency levels were searched for. Psychometrics, language/country and setting, in which the instrument was applied, were recorded. Results: Six reviews out of 73 literature research hits were included. A large number of instruments were identified; however, their psychometrics and the applied setting were very heterogeneous. The instruments can mainly be assigned to Kirkpatrick levels 1, 2a & 2b. Most instruments have been developed in English but their psychometrics were not always reported rigorously. Only very few instruments are available in German. Conclusion: It is difficult to find appropriate instruments in German. Internationally, there are different approaches and objectives in the measurement and evaluation of interprofessional competencies. The question arises whether it makes sense to translate existing instruments or to go through the lengthy process of developing new ones. The evaluation of interprofessional seminars with quantitative instruments remains mainly on

  10. Analysis of Six Reviews on the Quality of Instruments for the Evaluation of Interprofessional Education in German-Speaking Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers, Jan P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: More and more institutions worldwide and in German-speaking countries are developing and establishing interprofessional seminars in undergraduate education of health professions. In order to evaluate the different didactic approaches and different outcomes regarding the anticipated interprofessional competencies, it is necessary to apply appropriate instruments. Cross-cultural instruments are particularly helpful for international comparability. The Interprofessional Education working group of the German Medical Association (GMA aims at identifying existing instruments for the evaluation of interprofessional education in order to make recommendations for German-speaking countries.Methods: Systematic literature research was performed on the websites of international interprofessional organisations (CAIPE, EIPEN, AIPEN, as well as in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Reviews focusing on quantitative instruments to evaluate competencies according to the modified Kirkpatrick competency levels were searched for. Psychometrics, language/country and setting, in which the instrument was applied, were recorded. Results: Six reviews out of 73 literature research hits were included. A large number of instruments were identified; however, their psychometrics and the applied setting were very heterogeneous. The instruments can mainly be assigned to Kirkpatrick levels 1, 2a & 2b. Most instruments have been developed in English but their psychometrics were not always reported rigorously. Only very few instruments are available in German.Conclusion: It is difficult to find appropriate instruments in German. Internationally, there are different approaches and objectives in the measurement and evaluation of interprofessional competencies. The question arises whether it makes sense to translate existing instruments or to go through the lengthy process of developing new ones. The evaluation of interprofessional seminars with quantitative instruments

  11. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...

  12. Forms of Supporting Local Innovative Business Activity in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Fedirko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates contemporary trends of innovation policy of European countries, describes the essence of contemporary mechanisms and tools for supporting local innovative development. The following most powerful tools for facilitating scientific and technical and innovative business activity are discovered: direct support of private R&D, financing of innovative enterprises, governmental and private cooperative scientific and research projects. A trend is identified for decreasing the share of institutional financing of R&D, and increasing of weight of competitive financing of academic institutions. A conclusion is made as for spreading of technologies commercialization processes support, especially on final stages thereof; the share of these has increased in respect of governmental programs focused on early stages of scientific and research projects. An insight is that within the last two decades the tools for facilitating local innovative business activities have been diversified in the EU: alongside with long-term collaborative governmental and private R&D and initiatives for developing innovative science intensive clusters, short-term tools have been significantly spread, such as innovation projects vouchers and science intensive start-ups support. Given that, it is established that traditionally developed toolkit for supporting small and medium enterprises is being complimented with scaled programs of large companies direct financing. A general trend is identified for increasing the weight of collaborative programs, while the share of individual subsidies and grants for R&D and that of companies innovative activity has substantially decreased. Higher effectiveness of start-ups facilitation measures is concluded, as well as that of venture investments, in comparison with individual subsidies. The leading role of start-ups in EU economy is determined by a range of advantages originating from dynamic process of formation thereof

  13. Improved outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in an Eastern European country: Lithuanian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiene, Igne; Pasauliene, Ramune; Lipunova, Nadezda; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Rageliene, Lina; Rascon, Jelena

    2017-10-01

    The reported treatment outcomes of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries are inferior to those in Northern/Western Europe. We hypothesized that recent survival rates could be comparable to the current standards and performed a population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Lithuania, a small Eastern European country. Children childhood cancer, with an overall survival (OS) rate of > 80% in high-income countries. The difference in survival rates between Northern/Western and Eastern European countries as well as between high- and middle-/low-income countries is as much as 20%. Recently, the 5-year event-free survival rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has reached > 60% in high-income countries. The survival rates for myeloproliferative diseases were the lowest in Eastern European countries. • The reported inferior survival rates were calculated based on outcome data of patients treated until 2007. The recent survival rates in Eastern European countries are unknown. What is New: • Being a small Eastern European country, Lithuania has experienced good economic growth during the last decade. We hypothesized that economic growth and gain of experience could result in better survival rates of children treated for cancer in our country in recent years. • A population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood AML treated in Lithuania in the recent years was performed for the first time. The survival rates of childhood AML in Lithuania are comparable to those of other high-income countries. Current survival rates of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries could be comparable to the best current standards contributing to better European survival rates of childhood cancer in general.

  14. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Compassionate use' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of 'compassionate use' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726/2004/EC is clear on the intentions of 'compassionate use' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that 'compassionate use' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for 'compassionate use' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions 'Compassionate use' is a misleading term and should be replaced with 'expanded access'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes. PMID:21073691

  15. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitfield, Kate

    2010-11-12

    Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.

  16. [Historical Development of the Wool and Colour Plate Tests for Screening for Colour Vision Deficiencies in German Speaking Countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J

    2017-07-01

    Colour vision is a complex visual function that can be affected by congenital and/or acquired disorders. The frequency of congenital colour vision deficiencies has been investigated in rail and navy staff since the 1870s. Various test methods have been developed. Wool tests, flor contrast tests and colour plate tests have been used. A published colour plate test, based on Stilling's pseudo-isochromatic plates in combination with a flor contrast test, has been a common screening method for colour vision testing in German-speaking countries. This test is intended to detect congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies in a simple and safe manner. More modern options, such as Internet and tablet PC have technical limitations, but will increasingly be used for screening for colour vision deficiencies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. ...

  18. Present situation and prospect of medical knowledge based systems in German-speaking countries: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, Cord; Spitzer, K; Honekamp, W

    2012-01-01

    After a decrease of interest in classical medical expert systems, the publication activity concerning the medical application of Artificial Intelligence and the interest in medical decision support have markedly increased. Nonetheless, no systematic exploratory study has yet been carried out, which directly considers the actual fields of applications, exemplary approaches, obstacles, challenges, and future prospect as seen by pioneering users and developers in a given region. This paper reports the results of an online survey designed to fill this gap with the "Knowledge Based Systems" working group of the German Society for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (GMDS) in 2010. The survey was based on an online questionnaire (5 single and multiple choice questions, 8 Likert-scaled items, 7 free text questions) consented to by the working group. The answers were analyzed by descriptive statistics and a qualitative analysis (bottom-up coding). All academic institutions of Medical Informatics in the German-speaking countries and contributors reporting KBS-related projects at the relevant scientific conferences and in a journal specialized in the field were invited to participate. The survey reached a response rate of 33.4%. The results show a gap between the reported obstacles of medical KBS (mainly low acceptance and rare use in clinical practice) and their future prospect as stated by the participants. Problems previously discussed in the literature like low acceptance, integration, and sustainability of KBS projects were confirmed. The current situation was characterized by naming exemplary existing systems and specifying promising fields of application. The field of KBS in medicine is more diversified and has evolved beyond expectations in the German-speaking countries.

  19. China’s Relations with Portuguese-speaking Countries: A Growing but Unnoticed Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Brazil and China Expand Satellite Program and African Countries Receive data from CBERS) Ministerio da Ciencia e Tecnologia do Brasil (Brazilian Ministry...Washington D.C. Ministerio da Ciencia e Tecnologia do Brasil (Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology). “Brasil e China Ampliao Base do Programa CBERS

  20. Medical Informatics Specialty in the Developed English-Speaking Countries: The Terminology Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the development process of medical informatics specialty terminology as the ground for further research into foreign countries' experience, including the Canadian one, of specialists' professional training in the field of MI. The study determines the origin and chief stages of the formation and development of the medical…

  1. Variations in the Prevalence of Obesity among European Countries, and a Consideration of Possible Causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blundell, John E.; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Boyland, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the prevalence of obesity across the European continent has in general been rising. With the exception of a few countries where a levelling-off can be perceived, albeit at a high level, this upward trend seems likely to continue. However, considerable country to country var...

  2. The effectiveness of organ donor policies in 10 European countries: a widening gap?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Blok, G.A.; Smit, M.C.; Gevers. J.K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Each country has a shortage of organ donors. Therefore, countries develop policies to support the efficient use of potential donors. Nonetheless, there is a large variety in the numbers of organ donors amongst different European countries. This presumes there are differences between

  3. Comparison of perceived barriers to entrepreneurship in Eastern and Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovleva, T.A.; Kolvereid, L.; M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); Sørhaug, Ø

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis qualitative study among 591 business students from four European countries investigated cross-country differences in the kind of barriers people perceive to business start-up. In line with institutional theory, the most important perceived barriers in all countries related to

  4. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  5. Specificities of Ischemic Stroke Risk Factors in Arab-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Halim; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Arauz, Antonio; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Bryer, Alain; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Lavados, Pablo M; Massaro, Ayrton; Mattle, Heinrich P; Munoz Collazos, Mario; Rothwell, Peter M; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Vicaut, Eric; Yamouth, Bassem; Amarenco, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is largely preventable, and therefore, a better understanding of risk factors is an essential step in reducing the population stroke rate and resulting disease burden in Arab countries. We performed 2 separate analyses in 2 similar populations of patients with noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. This first involved 3,635 patients in the Outcomes in Patients with TIA and Cerebrovascular disease (OPTIC) registry (followed for 2 years), with baseline collection of the usual risk factors and 5 socioeconomic variables (unemployment status, residence in rural area, living in fully serviced accommodation, no health-insurance coverage, and low educational level). The second involved patients in the PERFORM trial (n = 19,100 followed up for 2 years), with baseline collection of the usual risk factors and 1 socioeconomic variable (low educational level). The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death. Stroke risk factors were more prevalent in patients in Arab countries. The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE; age- and gender-adjusted) was higher in Arab countries (OPTIC, 18.5 vs. 13.3%; PERFORM, 18.4 vs. 9.7%; both p ≤ 0.0001). These results remained significant after adjustment on risk factors and were attenuated in OPTIC after further adjustment on socioeconomic variables (hazard ratio 1.24; 95% CI 0.98-1.55; p = 0.07). Key Messages: Patients with ischemic stroke living in Arab countries had a lower mean socioeconomic status, a much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and a higher rate of MACE compared with patients from non-Arab countries. This finding is partly explained by a higher prevalence of risk factors and also by a high prevalence of poverty and low educational level. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  7. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    to healthcare financing decisions can improve the allocative efficiency of scarce resources. However, few CEE countries have a clear roadmap for HTA implementation. Examples from high-income countries may not be directly relevant, as CEE countries cannot allocate so much financial and human resources......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...

  8. Mycophilic or Mycophobic? Legislation and Guidelines on Wild Mushroom Commerce Reveal Different Consumption Behaviour in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Mešić, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour. PMID:23704957

  9. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Peintner

    Full Text Available Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  10. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity in 15 European countries between 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristina; de Gelder, Rianne; Hu, Yannan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity increased dramatically in many European countries in the past decades. Whether the increase occurred to the same extent in all socioeconomic groups is less known. We systematically assessed and compared the trends in educational inequalities in obesity in 15...... different European countries between 1990 and 2010. METHODS: Nationally representative survey data from 15 European countries were harmonized and used in a meta-regression of trends in prevalence and educational inequalities in obesity between 1990 and 2010. Educational inequalities were estimated by means...... in obesity in lower education groups particularly, and an equity perspective in population-based obesity prevention strategies....

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); I. Stirbu (Irina); A-J.R. Roskam (Albert-Jan); M.M. Schaap (Maartje); G. Menvielle (Gwenn); M. Leinsalu (Mall); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Comparisons among countries can help to identify opportunities for the reduction of inequalities in health. We compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality and self-assessed health among 22 countries in all parts of Europe. METHODS: We obtained data on mortality

  12. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. The Network's initial focus is on men's relations to home and work, social exclusion, violences, and health. Some of findings on the Network's second phase of work, namely the review...

  13. Managing Business in Europe. Specific Issues in the Eastern and Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tescasiu, B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European business environment became a well-defined one. Specific elements such as: European cultural values, euro-clusters, European marketing, strategies for Europe, etc. can be found now in the specific literature, and almost all the firms working in European Union take into consideration specific aspects on doing business in this part of the world. This article tries to point out some of these aspects and it intend to apply some of them in the new economic context created by the Central and Eastern European Countries accession to EU.

  14. Selected psychological and social influences on health in European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, Vladimír; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.; Šolcová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011) ISSN 0887-0446. [European Health Psychology Conference: Engaging with Other Health Professions: Challenges and Perspectives /25./. 20.09.2011-24.09.2011, Hersonissos, Kréta] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : sick leave * Gini coefficient * psychosocial influences Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Forming Professional Competency of Education Managers in Central European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkanets, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming education managers' professional competency in the context of European integration educational processes. The peculiarities of education managers' competences as well as directions of their professional training in motivational, cognitive and metacognitive spheres have been theoretically justified. The…

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among enterococci from pigs in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    Enterococci from pigs in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and copper and the presence of selected resistance genes. The greatest levels of resistance were found among isolates from Spain and Denmark compared to those from Sweden, which corresponds...... to the amounts of antimicrobial agents used in food animal production in those countries. Similar genes were found to encode resistance in the different countries, but the tet(L) and let(S) genes were more frequently found among isolates from Spain. A recently identified transferable copper resistance gene...... was found in all copper-resistant isolates from the different countries....

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococci from Pigs in Three European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Moreno, Miguel; Herrero, Inmaculada A.; Domínguez, Lucas; Finn, Maria; Franklin, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Enterococci from pigs in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and copper and the presence of selected resistance genes. The greatest levels of resistance were found among isolates from Spain and Denmark compared to those from Sweden, which corresponds to the amounts of antimicrobial agents used in food animal production in those countries. Similar genes were found to encode resistance in the different countries, but the tet(L) and tet(S) genes were more frequently found among isolates from Spain. A recently identified transferable copper resistance gene was found in all copper-resistant isolates from the different countries. PMID:12147518

  18. 2017 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension in primary health care in Portuguese-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de; Mendes, Miguel; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Morais, João; Filho, Osni Moreira; Coelho, Armando Serra; Capingana, Daniel Pires; Azevedo, Vanda; Soares, Irenita; Menete, Alda; Ferreira, Beatriz; Soares, Miryan Bandeira Dos Prazeres Cassandra; Fernandes, Mário

    2017-11-01

    The World Health Organization goal's to reduce mortality due to chronic non-communicable diseases by 2% per year demands a huge effort from member countries. This challenge for health professionals requires global political action on implementation of social measures, with cost-effective population interventions to reduce chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Systemic arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in Portuguese-speaking countries, and is a major risk factor for complications such as stroke, acute myocardial infarction and chronic kidney disease, rivaling dyslipidemia and obesity in importance for the development of atherosclerotic disease. Joint actions to implement primary prevention measures can reduce outcomes related to hypertensive disease, especially ischemic heart disease and stroke. It is essential to ensure the implementation of guidelines for the management of systemic hypertension via a continuous process involving educational actions, lifestyle changes and guaranteed access to pharmacological treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pampuri, O.; Czabanowska, K.; Hysa, B.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Pampuri O, Czabanowska K, Hysa B, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country (Original research). SEEJPH 2015, posted: 10 February 2015. DOI 10.12908/SEEJPH-2014-40

  20. Reports submitted by participants from central and eastern european countries and the new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, V.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.; Yatsevich, V.; Soljan, V.; Valcic, I.; Saar, J.; Abraitis, M.; Bieliauskas, V.; Szkultecka, E.; Cutoiu, D.; Chirica, M.T.; Karasev, A.V.; Pospisil, M.; Zlatnansky, J.; Kot, Y.; Shvytai, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this communication are grouped the reports submitted by participants from central and eastern European countries and the new independent states, concerning their government legislation relative to the nuclear liability in the event of a nuclear accident. (N.C.)

  1. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  2. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André

    2013-01-01

    floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed...

  3. Average level of satisfaction in 10 European countries: explanation of differences

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    1996-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with life-domains are highest in North-Western Europe, medium in Southern Europe and lowest in the East-European nations. Cultural measurement bias is unlikely to be involved. The country differences in average ...

  4. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries in response to the global financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. Methods: We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated informat...

  5. Consumer eating quality acceptance of new apple varieties in different European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbo, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Hoeller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    During January and February 2007 a European consumer test of eight new apple varieties and three standard ones was carried out in different European countries. The most common apple varieties were compared to new ones, focusing on consumer acceptance and the potential for increasing apple

  6. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  7. Volume and diagnosis: an approach to cross-border care in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, P.; Suñol, R.; van Beek, B.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Bruneau, C.; Vlcek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Mobility of patients is a pertinent issue on the European Union's agenda. This study aimed to estimate the volume and main diagnoses of cross-border care in eight European countries, in order to provide policy makers with background information about the nature of patient mobility in Europe. This

  8. Volume and diagnosis: an approach to cross-border care in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, P.; Sunol, R.; van Beek, B.; Lombarts, M.J.M.H.; Bruneau, C.; Vicek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Mobility of patients is a pertinent issue on the European Union's agenda. This study aimed to estimate the volume and main diagnoses of cross-border care in eight European countries, in order to provide policy makers with background information about the nature of patient mobility in

  9. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Schwendimann, R.; Zander, B.; Matthews, A.; Kozka, M.; Ensio, A.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno Casbas, T.; Ball, J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the European population ages, the demand for nursing care increases. Yet, a shortage of nurses at the labour market exists or is predicted for most European countries. There are no adequate solutions for this shortage yet, and recruitment of future nurses is difficult. Therefore,

  10. Culture and end of life care: a scoping exercise in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysels, M.; Evans, N.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Pasman, H.R.; Higginson, I.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence

  11. Culture and End of Life Care: A Scoping Exercise in Seven European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysels, M.; Evans, N.C.; Menaca, A.; Andrew, E.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Higginson, I.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence

  12. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: Evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Methods: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590

  13. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. METHODS: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES IN THE DEVELOP EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    D. Nesterova; N. Kudriavska

    2016-01-01

    The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined...

  15. Personal UVR exposure of farming families in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, M; Harrison, G I; Philipsen, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main risk factor for skin cancer is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Farming families living in rural areas with easy outdoor access may experience excessive UVR exposure. Differences between countries in latitude, altitude and sun behaviour could result in different personal UVR...

  16. Students as Stakeholders in Quality Assurance in Eight European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2013-01-01

    How are stakeholders represented in higher education institutions' decision-making bodies that influence the quality of education, and are their viewpoints taken into account? This paper addresses this question taking into account the empirical evidence from eight countries in Europe. Findings indicate that formal barriers are largely absent, that…

  17. SPECTS REGARDING PUBLIC DEBT SHARE IN GDP AT THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and it will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the dregree of indebtedness and its implications on the social wellness are very present at national level as also at the European Union level. In this paper it is presented the share of public debt in the Gross Domestic Product in the member countries of European Union, and, respectively, the degree of indeptedness of each member country of the European Union, at the level year of 2013.

  18. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  19. National immunization strategies targeting migrants in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Cristina; Del Manso, Martina; Dalla Zuanna, Teresa; Riccardo, Flavia; Bella, Antonino; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Baka, Agoritsa; Caks-Jager, Nuska; Melillo, Tanya; Mexia, Ricardo; Petrović, Goranka; Declich, Silvia

    2018-02-06

    Over the last three years an unprecedented flow of migrants arrived in Europe. There is evidence that vaccine preventable diseases have caused outbreaks in migrant holding centres. These outbreaks can be favored by a combination of factors including low immunization coverage, bad conditions that migrants face during their exhausting journey and overcrowding within holding facilities. In 2017, we conducted an online survey in Croatia, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Slovenia to explore the national immunization strategies targeting irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. All countries stated that a national regulation supporting vaccination offer to migrants is available. Croatia, Italy, Portugal and Slovenia offer to migrant children and adolescents all vaccinations included in the National Immunization Plan; Greece and Malta offer only certain vaccinations, including those against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Croatia, Italy, Malta and Portugal also extend the vaccination offer to adults. All countries deliver vaccinations in holding centres and/or community health services, no one delivers vaccinations at entry site. Operating procedures that guarantee the migrants' access to vaccination at the community level are available only in Portugal. Data on administered vaccines is available at the national level in four countries: individual data in Malta and Croatia, aggregated data in Greece and Portugal. Data on vaccination uptake among migrants is available at national level only in Malta. Concluding, although diversified, strategies for migrant vaccination are in place in all the surveyed countries and generally in line with WHO and ECDC indications. Development of procedures to keep track of migrants' immunization data across countries, development of strategies to facilitate and monitor migrants' access to vaccinations at the community level and collection of data on vaccination uptake among migrants should be

  20. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  1. Tax Reform and Fiscal Sustainability in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isadora LAZĂR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, as response to the economic crises, most European Union member states resorted to tax reforms in order to support the financial sector, to sustain demand and reduce internal balances. Considering the even more challenging context of Central and East European countries we aim at determining the effects of tax reform on fiscal sustainability, with the purpose of bringing light, and therefore solutions, regarding future developments. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of fiscal sustainability and tax reform implemented in some Central and Eastern European countries that are also the most recent members that adhered to the European Union (Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia. Based on the results of the analysis, we conclude on the influence of tax reform on fiscal sustainability, one of the most stringent issued faced by most countries.

  2. [Scientific publications from 10 Central European countries in the leading foreign periodicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallár, I; Hulesch, H; Hajagos, M; Samu, K; Marton, J

    1997-11-09

    The life science publication output of ten mid-size European countries was investigated in the outstanding foreign journals of 37 disciplines. The activities corrected with the populations show differences of order magnitude. The publication activities of the late communist countries in the leading foreign scientific journals are far below the average, especially in the field of clinical medicine.

  3. Association between educational level and vegetable use in nine European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prättälä, Ritva; Hakala, Samu; Roskam, Albert-Jan R.; Roos, Eva; Helmert, Uwe; Klumbiene, Jurate; van Oyen, Herman; Regidor, Enrique; Kunst, Anton E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationship of socio-economic status and vegetable consumption is examined in nine European countries. The aim is to analyse whether the pattern of socio-economic variation with regard to vegetable consumption is similar in all studied countries with high v. low vegetable

  4. Social Impact of the "Digital Divide" in a Central-Eastern European Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae-George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the social impact of the digital divide in Central-Eastern European countries as well as between them and industrialized developed countries, based on experiences in Romania. Highlights include facts relating to digital divide worldwide; transition to a democratic and market-based economy and from socialism to capitalism; barriers to…

  5. Analysis of Medicine Prices in New Zealand and 16 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Kilpatrick, Kate; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2015-06-01

    To compare prices of medicines, both originators and generics, in New Zealand and 16 European countries. Ex-factory price data as of December 2012 from New Zealand and 16 European countries were compared for a basket of 14 medicines, most of which were at least partially funded by the state in the 17 countries. Five medicines had, at least in some countries, generic versions on the market whose prices were also analyzed. Medicine price data for the 16 European countries were provided by the Pharma Price Information service. New Zealand medicine prices were retrieved from the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Schedule. Unit prices converted into euro were compared at the ex-factory price level. For the 14 medicines surveyed, considerable price differences at the ex-factory price level were identified. Within the European countries, prices in Greece, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Spain ranked at the lower end, whereas prices in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden were at the upper end. The results for New Zealand compared with Europe were variable. New Zealand prices were found in the lowest quartile for five medicines and in the highest quartile for seven other products. Price differences between the originator products and generic versions ranged from 0% to 90% depending on the medicine and the country. Medicine prices varied considerably between European countries and New Zealand as well as among the European countries. These differences are likely to result from national pricing and reimbursement policies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NSCLC molecular testing in Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, Ales; Berzinec, Peter; Brcic, Luka; Cufer, Tanja; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Gottfried, Maya; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olszewski, Włodzimierz; Oz, Buge; Plank, Lukas; Timar, Jozsef

    2018-03-09

    The introduction of targeted treatments for subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has highlighted the importance of accurate molecular diagnosis to determine if an actionable genetic alteration is present. Few data are available for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) on mutation rates, testing rates, and compliance with testing guidelines. A questionnaire about molecular testing and NSCLC management was distributed to relevant specialists in nine CEE countries, and pathologists were asked to provide the results of EGFR and ALK testing over a 1-year period. A very high proportion of lung cancer cases are confirmed histologically/cytologically (75-100%), and molecular testing of NSCLC samples has been established in all evaluated CEE countries in 2014. Most countries follow national or international guidelines on which patients to test for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements. In most centers at that time, testing was undertaken on request of the clinician rather than on the preferred reflex basis. Immunohistochemistry, followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmation of positive cases, has been widely adopted for ALK testing in the region. Limited reimbursement is a significant barrier to molecular testing in the region and a disincentive to reflex testing. Multidisciplinary tumor boards are established in most of the countries and centers, with 75-100% of cases being discussed at a multidisciplinary tumor board at specialized centers. Molecular testing is established throughout the CEE region, but improved and unbiased reimbursement remains a major challenge for the future. Increasing the number of patients reviewed by multidisciplinary boards outside of major centers and access to targeted therapy based on the result of molecular testing are other major challenges.

  7. Relevance of Low Inflation in the Southeastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Slobodan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the assumption that the significant reduction of the inflation problem is a result of the long-term dynamics of economic growth in countries with developing markets and, as a result, operational inability of multinational companies to increase accumulation through the policy of raising prices by creating space for their full expansion. We believe that in such circumstances civil theories on the causes of inflation are dominantly of class character. We check negative repercussions of low inflation on the examples of the countries of South-East Europe, in the regimes with fixed and flexible exchange rates, and with different strategies of monetary policy. We conclude that destructive implications of the financial crisis and psychological factors have a negative impact on a sustainable low-inflation environment, regardless of the monetary-exchange regime. We propose that low and stable inflation rates can be followed by a series of negative implications for the overall economic system, which our analysis of the observed countries proves.

  8. Overweight and obesity epidemic among children. Answer from European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I

    2004-01-01

    of overweight in European children. Thus, overweight was significantly increased among 13 y olds of both sexes in Finland, Ireland, and Greece, and in Portuguese girls. Among 15 y olds, the prevalence of overweight was significantly increased in Greek boys, and in Danish and Portuguese girls. On the contrary......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods and results used and conclusions found in available published papers on childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. SURVEYS: This paper compares the two available published papers on the prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in Europe....... The first paper was published in November 2003 and was based on 20 previously conducted surveys performed from 1992 to 2001. The other paper was published in January 2004 and was based on data from the WHO collaborative survey 'Health Behaviour in School Children', which collected the data in 1997...

  9. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  10. Education, training, and professional issues of radiographers in six European countries: a comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. Prentakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiographers constitute an important part of a multidisciplinary radiation-based imaging and therapy chain. However, is there a common framework for assuring high education, training, and subsequent practice of profession among European countries? A study was conducted, based on a questionnaire that consisted of three parts, concerning education and training (Part A, national registry (Part B, and professional issues (Part C. Analysis of the collected data suggested that a common policy is generally followed in the countries investigated; however, differences were not negligible. A common framework of educational programmes among European countries could form the basis for overall standardisation at national and international level.

  11. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  12. Comparison of energy intensities in European Union countries. Results of a structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Duarte, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This work proposes an input-output structural decomposition analysis model to identify the sources of the differences in the energetic intensities of the European Union countries. Given an economic structure, a determined composition of the final demand and determined direct energy intensities by countries, the work studies to what extent these factors explain the difference in aggregate energy intensities that are observed for different European Union countries. On the basis of this information, indicators are constructed by sectors and countries that allow us to identify the role that each sector or country plays as an energy consumer. The results show that the aggregate/total energy differences in Europe are strongly influenced by the direct energy intensity effect and by the demand effect, without the different economic structures of the countries being an important factor in the explanation of these differences. The metallurgical and manufacturing products sectors are identified as the most intensive in the aggregate energy intensity

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in the Enlarged European Union: An Eleven Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Graham John

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to study corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting from organisations whose base country is in one of eleven countries in the proposed enlarged European Union (EU). Five of the countries awaiting formal entry to the EU, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia, whilst the other six have been members for a number of years, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Ireland, Spain and Portugal. The paper investigates the reporting of...

  14. Public evaluation of health services across 21 European countries : The role of culture

    OpenAIRE

    Borisova, Liubov; Martinussen, Pål E.; Rydland, Håvard T.; Stornes, Per; Eikemo, Terje A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This work examined the role of cultural values in understanding people’s satisfaction with health services across Europe. Methods: We used multilevel linear regression analysis on the seventh round of the European Social Survey from 2014, including c. 40,000 respondents from 21 countries. Preliminary intraclass correlation analyses led us to believe that some explanations of variance in the dependent variable were to be found at the country level. In search of country level explanations...

  15. Culture and End of Life Care: A Scoping Exercise in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, Marjolein; Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Andrew, Erin; Toscani, Franco; Finetti, Sylvia; Pasman, H. Roeline; Higginson, Irene; Harding, Richard; Pool, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Aim Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries. Methods We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages. We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type (reviews, original studies, opinion pieces) and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes. Results A total of 868 papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. The frequencies of themes varied considerably between countries. Sub-themes reflected issues characteristic for specific countries (e.g. culture-specific disclosure in the southern European countries). The work from the seven European countries concentrates on cultural traditions and identities, and there was almost no evidence on ethnic minorities. Conclusion This scoping review is the first comparative exploration of the cultural differences in the understanding of EoL care in these countries. The diverse body of evidence that was identified on socio-cultural issues in EoL care, reflects clearly distinguishable national cultures of EoL care, with differences in meaning, priorities, and expertise in each country. The diverse ways that EoL care is understood and practised forms a necessary part of what constitutes best evidence for the improvement of Eo

  16. Culture and end of life care: a scoping exercise in seven European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Gysels

    Full Text Available AIM: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries. METHODS: We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages. We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type (reviews, original studies, opinion pieces and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: A total of 868 papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. The frequencies of themes varied considerably between countries. Sub-themes reflected issues characteristic for specific countries (e.g. culture-specific disclosure in the southern European countries. The work from the seven European countries concentrates on cultural traditions and identities, and there was almost no evidence on ethnic minorities. CONCLUSION: This scoping review is the first comparative exploration of the cultural differences in the understanding of EoL care in these countries. The diverse body of evidence that was identified on socio-cultural issues in EoL care, reflects clearly distinguishable national cultures of EoL care, with differences in meaning, priorities, and expertise in each country. The diverse ways that EoL care is understood and practised forms a necessary part of what constitutes best evidence for

  17. Culture and end of life care: a scoping exercise in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, Marjolein; Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Andrew, Erin; Toscani, Franco; Finetti, Sylvia; Pasman, H Roeline; Higginson, Irene; Harding, Richard; Pool, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries. We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages. We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type (reviews, original studies, opinion pieces) and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes. A total of 868 papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. The frequencies of themes varied considerably between countries. Sub-themes reflected issues characteristic for specific countries (e.g. culture-specific disclosure in the southern European countries). The work from the seven European countries concentrates on cultural traditions and identities, and there was almost no evidence on ethnic minorities. This scoping review is the first comparative exploration of the cultural differences in the understanding of EoL care in these countries. The diverse body of evidence that was identified on socio-cultural issues in EoL care, reflects clearly distinguishable national cultures of EoL care, with differences in meaning, priorities, and expertise in each country. The diverse ways that EoL care is understood and practised forms a necessary part of what constitutes best evidence for the improvement of EoL care in the future.

  18. Effectiveness of macroprudential policies in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Dumicic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the available datasets on the use of macroprudential policies in CEE countries, and provides an econometric assessment of the effectiveness of these policies in mitigating financial stability risks associated with excessive credit growth before the global financial crisis. The model results imply that macroprudential policies were more effective in slowing credit to households than credit to the non-financial corporate sector, mainly because the latter had access to nonbank and cross-border credit in addition to domestic bank credit.

  19. Cancer drugs in 16 European countries, Australia, and New Zealand: a cross-country price comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Vitry, Agnes; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2016-01-01

    Cancer drugs challenge health-care systems because of their high prices. No cross-country price comparison of cancer drugs for a large number of countries has been published. We aimed to survey the prices of cancer drugs in high-income countries (Europe, Australia, and New Zealand). Based on comparability in terms of the economic situation and of the pharmaceutical system, we surveyed official list prices per unit at ex-factory price level of 31 originator cancer drugs in 16 European countries, Australia, and New Zealand as of June, 2013. Drug price data for the European countries were provided by the Pharma Price Information (PPI) service; Australian and New Zealand drug price data were retrieved from the respective pharmaceutical schedules. In Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, and the UK, price information was available for all or all but one drug surveyed whereas the availability of price data was restricted for some drugs in other countries, especially in New Zealand and Portugal. The difference of a drug price between the highest priced country and the lowest priced country varied between 28% and 388%. A few drugs had lower outliers, especially Greek and UK prices, and upper outliers (particularly prices in Switzerland, Germany, and Sweden). Overall, Greek prices ranked at a low level, whereas Sweden, Switzerland, and Germany showed price data in similarly high ranges. Our results showed variations in ex-factory prices of originator cancer drugs in the 18 surveyed countries. However, the surveyed prices do not include discounts negotiated by funding organisations because these discounts are confidential. Because pricing authorities can also only use these official undiscounted prices when they set prices through the common policy of external price referencing, they risk overpaying. Our findings provide an evidence base for policy makers to decide whether further policy measures related to drug prices are needed. None. Copyright © 2016

  20. Regional Strategies Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle and HLRW in Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hózer, Z.; Gadó, J.; Grishin, A.; Borovitskiy, S.; Spitsin, A.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2009 a regional meeting on national strategies concerning nuclear fuel cycle and high level radioactive waste (HLRW) was held in Budapest with the participation of Central and Eastern European countries, Russia and France. Following the meeting a Task Force was set-up with fuel cycle experts from different countries in order to analyse the possible fuel cycle strategies in the region. The Task Force produced an Opinion Paper in spring 2010 on the Regional Strategies Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle and HLRW in Central and Eastern European Countries with several recommendations. The Opinion Paper emphasizes that the countries in the Central and Eastern European region are small, and they have modest NPP capacities compared to large nuclear countries. Spent fuel reprocessing facilities are not available in the region, but Russia and France offer such services for these countries. Deep geological repositories are not in operation in any of these countries, and in some of the countries the geological conditions do not allow to design such facilities. For these reasons the countries of the region may need special services and a regional approach could produce common benefit for waste management. (author)

  1. The Economic Crisis and Labour Migration Policy in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kuptsch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews changes in migration policies as a response to the 2008 financial and economic crisis and examines issues of migration governance. Countries in Europe opted to make new immigration more difficult, protected their labour markets for native born workers, encouraged the return of migrant workers and intensified efforts to curb irregular migration. Clear patterns or reasons for variation in policy responses are not discernible, but it is safe to say that only countries with a significant recent influx of migrants have taken high profile measures at all. The crisis has led to a shift in perspective of the State and its role in economics which is now seen as useful instead of undesired. Previously prevailing neo-liberal thought relegated the State to the “high politics” of sovereignty and security issues. The crisis has highlighted labour market issues, and migrants are now increasingly portrayed as economic agents instead of security threats. This offers room for the State to assert its protective role vis-à-vis migrant workers – a welcome development. The analysis has an International Relations/Political Economy perspective and is largely based on (official news releases and secondary sources.

  2. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-01-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  3. Variation in term birthweight across European countries affects the prevalence of small for gestational age among very preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Bonamy, Anna Karin Edstedt; Piedvache, Aurelie; Cuttini, Marina; Barros, Henrique; Van Reempts, Patrick; Mazela, Jan; Jarreau, Pierre Henri; Gortner, Ludwig; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Maier, Rolf F.; Martens, E.; Martens, Guy; Boerch, Klaus; Hasselager, Asbjoern; Huusom, Lene; Pryds, Ole; Weber, Tom; Toome, Liis; Varendi, Heili; Ancel, Pierre Yves; Blondel, Beatrice; Burguet, Antoine; Truffert, P.; Misselwitz, Bjoern; Schmidt, S.; Baronciani, Dante; Gargano, G.; Agostino, Rocco; DiLallo, D.; Franco, Francesco; Carnielli, Virgilio; Koopman-Esseboom, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14117739X; van Heijst, A.; Nijman, J.; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Graça, Luis M.; Ceu Machado, Maria; Carrapato, M. R.G.; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa; Norman, Mikael; Wilson, E.; Boyle, Elaine M.; Manktelow, B. N.; Fenton, A. C.; Milligan, David W A; Marques-Bonet, T.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. Methods: We generated country-specific and common European intrauterine growth references for 11 European countries, according to Gardosi's

  4. Volunteers in Palliative Care - A Comparison of Seven European Countries: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitha, Kathrin; Hasselaar, Jeroen; van Beek, Karen; Radbruch, Lukas; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Vissers, Kris

    2015-07-01

    In Europe, volunteers have an important role in the delivery of palliative care. As part of the EU co-funded Europall project, 4 aspects of volunteering in palliative care were studied for 7 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain). These included (1) involvement of volunteers in palliative care, (2) organization of palliative care volunteering, (3) legal regulations concerning volunteering, and (4) education and training of palliative care volunteering. A literature search combined with an interview study. Information from the scientific literature, and country-specific policy documents were obtained and completed, along with data of consecutive semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of palliative care in the participating countries. In all countries, volunteers appeared to be involved in palliative care, yet their involvement across health care settings differed per country. England, for example, has the highest number of volunteers whereas Spain has the lowest number. Volunteering is embedded in law and regulations in all participating countries except for England and the Netherlands. In all participating countries, training programs are available and volunteers are organized, both on a national and a regional level. This study provides a descriptive overview of volunteer work in palliative care in 7 European countries, with a focus on the organizational aspects. Further research should concentrate on the roles and responsibilities of volunteers in the care for the terminally ill in different European health systems. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Reinstitutionalisation in mental health care: comparison of data on service provision from six European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Badesconyi, Alli; Fioritti, Angelo; Hansson, Lars; Kilian, Reinhold; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Turner, Trevor; Wiersma, Durk

    2005-01-01

    Objective To establish whether reinstitutionalisation is occurring in mental health care and, if so, with what variations between western European countries. Design Comparison of data on changes in service provision. Setting Six European countries with different traditions of mental health care that have all experienced deinstitutionalisation since the 1970s—England, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden. Outcome measures Changes in the number of forensic hospital beds, involuntary hospital admissions, places in supported housing, general psychiatric hospital beds, and general prison population between 1990-1 and 2002-3. Results Forensic beds and places in supported housing have increased in all countries, whereas changes in involuntary hospital admissions have been inconsistent. The number of psychiatric hospital beds has been reduced in five countries, but only in two countries does this reduction outweigh the number of additional places in forensic institutions and supported housing. The general prison population has substantially increased in all countries. Conclusions Reinstitutionalisation is taking place in European countries with different traditions of health care, although with significant variation between the six countries studied. The precise reasons for the phenomenon remain unclear. General attitudes to risk containment in a society, as indicated by the size of the prison population, may be more important than changing morbidity and new methods of mental healthcare delivery. PMID:15567803

  6. Reinstitutionalisation in mental health care: comparison of data on service provision from six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Badesconyi, Alli; Fioritti, Angelo; Hansson, Lars; Kilian, Reinhold; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Turner, Trevor; Wiersma, Durk

    2005-01-15

    To establish whether reinstitutionalisation is occurring in mental health care and, if so, with what variations between western European countries. Comparison of data on changes in service provision. Six European countries with different traditions of mental health care that have all experienced deinstitutionalisation since the 1970s--England, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden. Changes in the number of forensic hospital beds, involuntary hospital admissions, places in supported housing, general psychiatric hospital beds, and general prison population between 1990-1 and 2002-3. Forensic beds and places in supported housing have increased in all countries, whereas changes in involuntary hospital admissions have been inconsistent. The number of psychiatric hospital beds has been reduced in five countries, but only in two countries does this reduction outweigh the number of additional places in forensic institutions and supported housing. The general prison population has substantially increased in all countries. Reinstitutionalisation is taking place in European countries with different traditions of health care, although with significant variation between the six countries studied. The precise reasons for the phenomenon remain unclear. General attitudes to risk containment in a society, as indicated by the size of the prison population, may be more important than changing morbidity and new methods of mental healthcare delivery.

  7. Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2006-12-01

    We wanted to examine how the acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in Western Europe has changed in the last decades, and we wanted to look for possible explanations. We analysed data from the European Values Surveys, held in 1981, 1990, and 1999-2000 in 12 West European countries. In each country, representative samples of the general public were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire in all countries. Euthanasia was explained in the questionnaires as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick'. A total of 46 199 respondents participated in the surveys. A significant increase in acceptance of euthanasia could be observed in all countries except (West) Germany. While the average increase in euthanasia acceptance was 22%, the increase was particularly obvious in Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. Although changes in several characteristics of respondents, such as decrease in religious beliefs, rising belief in the right to self-determination, and (to a lesser extent) rise in levels of education, were associated with growing acceptance of euthanasia, they could only partly explain the increase of euthanasia acceptance over the years. An increase of euthanasia acceptance among the general public took place over the last two decades in almost all West European countries, possibly indicating a growing support for personal autonomy regarding medical end-of-life decisions. If this trend continues, it is likely to increase the public and political debate about the (legal) regulation of euthanasia under certain conditions of careful medical practice in several West European countries.

  8. Climate policy in other countries of the European Union. An outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, P.

    2005-08-01

    Within the framework of the second evaluation memorandum on climate policy in the Netherlands an overview is given of the climate policy in 15 other countries of the European Union. The overview is mainly based on progress reports on greenhouse gases emission, issued by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and a database of policy and measures in the field of climatic change, maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Next to EU Directives as an important base for policy in the 15 countries, the the covenant on CO2 emission for new cars between ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association) and the European Commission is considered to be an important agreement for climate policy in the EU counties [nl

  9. Effects of regulation on youth unemployment: Evidence from European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic trends in recent years have led to rising unemployment across Europe. This trend is particularly evident among youth. At the same time, the negative demographic trends in many countries show that the number of young people is decreasing. Problems among young people are the reflection of the future state of the nation. Therefore there is a need to analyse whether the government can reduce youth unemployment rate using available regulatory tools. In this paper, the authors have analysed the impact of three groups of factors on the youth unemployment rate by using multiple regression analysis and controlling the long-term determinants of unemployment. The results show that the level of unemployment is largely impacted by a tax rate on low wages, primarily in the mid-term. Factors related to the general rate of unemployment, as well as the other demographic factors have showed no statistically significant impact on mid-term and long-term youth unemployment rate.

  10. Gender inequalities in mental wellbeing in 26 European countries: do welfare regimes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Stefanie; Gerlinger, Thomas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Nature and extent of welfare regimes and social policies are important determinants of health and health inequalities. This study examines the association of gender and mental wellbeing in European countries and investigates whether type of welfare regime plays a role in this association. Data of 19 366 women and 14 338 men of the third round of the European Quality of Life Survey (2011-12) was used to analyse mental wellbeing, assessed by the World Health Organization 5-Mental Wellbeing Index. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the association between gender and good mental wellbeing first at country-level, and secondly the between country variation was analysed and welfare regimes were included as explanatory variables. We observed cross-national variation in good mental wellbeing. At country levels gender inequalities in good mental wellbeing were observed in 7 out of 26 countries. In analyses considering all countries together gender inequalities in good mental wellbeing were identified independent of further individual socio-demographic variables and independent of the welfare regimes that people lived in [women vs. men: OR = 0.76; (95% CI = 0.71-0.81)]. Gender inequalities in good mental wellbeing were not modified by welfare regimes. There are cross-national differences in good mental wellbeing between European countries. Gender inequalities with a lower prevalence of good mental wellbeing among women are common in European countries. This study suggests that welfare regimes do not modify these gender inequalities in mental wellbeing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventive youth health care in 11 European countries: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Rosemarie C N; Nijnuis, Marianne G; Carmiggelt, Bettie C; Wagenaar-Fischer, Margreet M; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M

    2012-06-01

    To systematically identify similarities and differences in the way preventive youth health care (YHC) is organized in 11 European countries. Questionnaire survey to EUSUHM (European Union for School and University Health and Medicine) representatives. The greatest similarities were found in the age range of the YHC target group and the separation of curative and preventive services. Croatia, Germany and Switzerland show the greatest differences when compared to other European countries, for example, in the access to medical records, YHC professional input and the number of examinations, immunizations and screenings. In eight countries YHC is financed by national insurances or taxation. In Germany, FYR Macedonia, the Netherlands, Russia and Switzerland, different forms of financing exist in parallel. The results should be interpreted as a preliminary step in mapping organizational features of YHC in Europe.

  12. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  13. LINGUODIDACTIC BASIS OF THE FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF THE SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE CONDITIONS OF MULTILINGUISM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF GERMAN SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Купчик

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available basis of the analysis of language didactic approaches of foreign language teaching at the end of the XX – the beginning of the XXI century in schools of German-speaking countries it highlights the dissemination of communicative language didactics. Besides, the author distinguishes the key principles of modern foreign language didactics, such as learner autonomy, cooperative learning, authentic teaching material. It is highlighted in the article that early foreign language learning stimulates the use of playing methods and their use is advantageous at foreign language lessons. The plurilingualism of society brings changes into foreign languages teaching as the language repertoire of pupils has increased, namely: the formula “mother tongue + two foreign languages” has been introduced in the schools of German speaking countries that foresees the use of tertiary language didactics.

  14. Nursing care for stroke patients: A survey of current practice in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies 2006 and to examine to what extent the European Stroke Strategies have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Optimal organisation of interdisciplinary stroke care is expected to ameliorate outcome after stroke. Consequently, universal access to stroke care based on evidence-based guidelines is a priority. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire comprising 61 questions based on the European Stroke Strategies and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: organisation of stroke services, management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and secondary prevention. Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hr after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start mobilisation after 24 hr when patients are stable, and 89% assess patients' ability to swallow. Change of position for immobile patients is followed by 73%, and postvoid residual urine volume is measured by 85%. Some aspects needed improvement, for example, staff education (70%), education for patients/families/carers (55%) and individual care plans in secondary prevention (62%). The participating European countries comply well with the European Stroke Strategies guidelines, particularly in the acute stroke care, but not all stroke units have reached optimal development in all aspects of stroke care nursing. Our study may provide clinical administrators and nurses in stroke care with information that may contribute to improved compliance with the European Stroke Strategies and evidence

  15. Friend or Foe? Attitudes Towards Immigration from Other European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Salamońska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades Europe has become a destination for different groups of migrants, including mobile citizens from the European Union Member States. At the same time European citizens have become more mobile with a growing number of cross-border practices connecting them to places and people abroad through migration, travel, social networks or consumption practices. The main contribution of this study is in analysing to what extent processes of Europeanization, at an individual and country level, matter for sentiments towards immigration. Data suggest that social globalization processes may produce a sense of threat, but individual transnationalism seems to provide a remedy against prejudice.

  16. Taking Scholarly Books into Account. Current Developments in Five European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez-Toledo, Elea; Manana-Rodrıguez, Jorge; Engels, Tim C. E.

    2016-01-01

    several European countries to develop custom built information systems for the registration of scholarly books, as well as weighting and funding allocation procedures. For the first time, these systems make the assessment of books as a research output feasible. The present paper summarizes the main...... features of the registration and/or assessment systems developed in five European countries / regions (Spain, Denmark, Flanders, Finland and Norway), focusing on the processes involved in the collection and processing of data on book publications, their weighting, as well as the application in the context...

  17. Isothiazolinones are still widely used in paints purchased in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Andreas V.; Schwensen, Jakob F.; Bossi, Rossana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI) has been seen, caused, in particular, by cosmetic products and paints. A study from 2015 showed that 93.0% of paints bought in five European countries contained MI. New regulations have been discussed for paints...... in the EU, which may have influenced this market. OBJECTIVES: To re-evaluate the use and concentrations of MI and four other isothiazolinones in water-based wall paints. METHODS: Water-based white wall paints (n = 60) were purchased in retail stores in five European countries: Denmark, France, Germany...

  18. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...] Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States AGENCY... measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and several other countries. Currently, garlic may be imported from these countries into the United States...

  19. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  20. Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungwook; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

  1. Country-Specific Dietary Patterns and Associations with Socioeconomic Status in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin; Pala, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary...... patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES....... Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing...

  2. Income inequality in post-communist Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ROSE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality has become an important issue in Central and Eastern European countries during their transition process. This study constructs a model incorporating different categories of factors that impact inequality and tests whether the wealth of a country makes a difference in these relationships. This article shows that different income categories of Central and Eastern European transition countries do experience different relationships between income inequality and its contributing factors: economic, demographic, political, and cultural and environmental. The resulting Random Effects models of the best fit incorporate economic and political factors and show differences in magnitude, direction, and in their significance. These findings add to the literature by taking a cross-country and cross-income view on the impact of various factors.

  3. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  4. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: social network analyses in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, Hein

    2009-11-01

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled for. The sample consisted of 7704 adolescents participating in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study. The design was longitudinal with four observations. The main measurements were friendship ties, adolescents smoking behavior, parental smoking behavior, and sibling smoking behavior. Results indicated that in each country adolescents preferred selecting friends based on similar smoking behavior. Support for the influence of friends was found in only two countries. A similarity in smoking behavior between friends was explained more strongly by smoking-based selection processes than by the influence of friends in each of the six countries. Prevention programs need to address aspects that drive peer selection, and reinforce non-smoking attitudes in adolescents.

  5. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  6. Cancer survival differences between European countries and an urban population from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    The EUROCARE study has disclosed large variations of survival across Europe, with the magnitude varying, depending on cancer site. Comparisons of these rates with those from the developing countries are rare, but important in evaluating international cancer care discrepancies. This study aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of cancer survival in a Philippine urban population, and to compare these with those observed in the European countries. Using the results from the EUROCARE-4 study, the survival estimates of the European patients who were diagnosed in 1995-99 and followed till December 2003 were abstracted. From randomly selected samples drawn from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, 5-year survival was estimated for nine common cancers. Age-adjusted survival estimates were then compared between the Philippine population and Europeans. In comparison to the European mean, survival estimates for the Philippine residents were lower for most cancers, with differences ranging from 2 to 40% units. Differences with European country-specific estimates were large for cancers of the breast and cervix, where early detection is possible, and for leukaemia, where treatment regimens are costly, highlighting the importance of health care. Smaller discrepancies were observed for stomach, liver and lung cancers, with the 5-year relative survival being similar to the Philippines and to many European countries. A survival advantage was seen though for the Philippine residents for ovarian cancer. Apart from efforts to prevent cancers, improvements in cancer control and making early diagnosis and treatment more accessible remain major challenges, both in the Philippines and in the European nations.

  7. Legal aspects of the association of overseas countries and territories with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruškovic Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with an issue in European law that is historically derived from the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community. The aim is to illuminate the functions and objectives of the European Union that correspond to the provisions of Part Four of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories. The basic provisions are laid down in the primary law of the European Union but there are also other documents and legislative acts that lay down more detailed provisions on the given issue and reveal a more complex perspective. The article focuses on the existing legislation regulating the association of overseas countries and territories with the Union. The author first draws attention to the key provisions of the Treaty establishing the EEC that define the purpose, objectives and fundamental principles applied between the Union and the overseas countries and territories. The main purpose of the article, however, is to analyse the current legal basis of association and to highlight the need for a new legislative framework of cooperation. New legislation should take into account not only the interests of the Union, but also the desire of the overseas countries and territories for a new quality of mutual cooperation. The author argues that the best way to improve the association mechanism based on the Lisbon Treaty is to modernise the Union’s existing secondary legislation in this area. In this regard the author analyses issues related to Council decision 2001/822/EC on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community and the proposal for a Council decision (COM/2012/362 of 16 July, 2012.

  8. Labor force participation, unemployment and occupational attainment among immigrants in West European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gorodzeisky

    Full Text Available The present paper examines modes of immigrants' labor market incorporation into European societies with specific emphasis on the role played by immigrant status (i.e. first-generation immigrants, immigrant descendants and native born without migrant background, region of origin, and gender. The data were obtained from the European Union Labour Forces Survey 2008 Ad-Hoc Module for France, Belgium, UK and Sweden. In order to supplement the results from the country-specific analysis, we replicated the analysis using pooled data from the five rounds of the European Social Survey conducted between 2002 and 2010, for nine 'old immigration' Western European countries together. The analysis centered on two aspects of incorporation: labor force status and occupation. Multinominal, binary logistic as well as linear probability regression models were estimated. The findings suggest that in all countries non-European origin is associated with greater disadvantage in finding employment not only among first-generation immigrants, but also among sons and daughters of immigrants (i.e. second-generation. Moreover, the relative employment disadvantage among immigrant men of non-European origin is especially pronounced in the second-generation. The likelihood of attaining a high-status job is influenced mostly by immigrant status, regardless of region of origin and gender. The results of the study reveal that patterns of labor force incorporation vary considerably across origin groups and across generations. The patterns do not vary as much across countries, despite cross-country differences in welfare state regimes, migration integration policy and composition of migration flows.

  9. Discounts and rebates granted to public payers for medicines in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Habl, Claudia; Piessnegger, Jutta; Bucsics, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview about the existence and types of discounts and rebates granted to public payers by the pharmaceutical industry in European countries. Data were collected via a questionnaire in spring 2011. Officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network provided the information and reviewed the compilation. Information is available from 31 European countries. Discounts and rebates granted to public payers by pharmaceutical industry were reported for 25 European countries. Such discounts exist both in the in- and out-patient sectors in 21 countries and in the in-patient sector only in four countries. Six countries reported not having any regulations or agreements regarding the discounts and rebates granted by industry. The most common discounts and rebates are price reductions and refunds linked to sales volume but types such as in-kind support, price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also in place. A mix of various types of discounts and rebates is common. Many of these arrangements are confidential. Differences regarding types, the organizational and legal framework, validity and frequency of updates and the amount of the discounts and rebates granted exist among the surveyed countries. In Europe, discounts and rebates on medicines granted by pharmaceutical industry to public payers are common tools to contain public pharmaceutical expenditure. They appear to be used as a complimentary measure when price regulation does not achieve the desired results and in the few European countries with no or limited price regulation. The confidential character of many of these arrangements impedes transparency and may lead to a distortion of medicines prices. An analysis of the impact on these measures is recommended.

  10. Regulations and practices for systematic radiological screening within countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1987-01-01

    The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip

  11. Participation and integration from the perspective of persons with SCI from five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruoranen, K.; Post, MWM; Juvalta, S.; Reinhardt, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the subjective understanding of participation and integration of persons with spinal cord injuries from 5 European countries and to compare these findings with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)’s conceptualization of participation. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 54 persons with acquired spinal cord injuries and 3 with spina bifida from 5 countries were examined using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Integration w...

  12. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  13. A comparative analysis of health policy performance in 43 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-01

    It is unknown whether European countries differ systematically in their pursuit of health policies, and what the determinants of these differences are. In this article, we assess the extent to which European countries vary in the implementation of health policies in 10 different areas, and we exploit these variations to investigate the role of political, economic and social determinants of health policy. We reviewed policies in the field of tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; fertility, pregnancy and childbirth; child health; infectious diseases; hypertension detection and treatment; cancer screening; road safety and air pollution. We developed a set of 27 'process' and 'outcome' indicators, as well as a summary score indicating a country's overall success in implementing effective health policies. In exploratory regression analyses, we related these indicators to six background factors: national income, survival/self-expression values, democracy, government effectiveness, left-party participation in government and ethnic fractionalization. We found striking variations between European countries in process and outcome indicators of health policies. On the whole, Sweden, Norway and Iceland perform best, and Ukraine, Russian Federation and Armenia perform worst. Within Western Europe, some countries, such as Denmark and Belgium, perform significantly worse than their neighbours. Survival/self-expression values and ethnic fractionalization were the main predictors of the health policy performance summary score. National income, survival/self-expression values and government effectiveness were the main predictors of countries' performance in specific areas of health policy. Although many new preventive interventions have been developed, their implementation appears to have varied enormously among European countries. Substantial health gains can be achieved if all countries would follow best practice, but this probably requires the removal of barriers related to both

  14. The Fundamentals of Innovativeness - a Comparative Analysis of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tusińska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovativeness is one of the key determinants of total output and welfare used by contemporary economists to measure economic performance. The aim of the article is to assess the position of European Union (EU countries in terms of selected indicators characterizing their potential for innovativeness. This paper proposes the application of taxonomic tools for the study of the differentiation within the level of fundamentals of innovativeness in EU countries on the basis of the chosen model

  15. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Gralepois; Corinne Larrue; Mark Wiering; Ann Crabbé; Sue Tapsell; Hannelore Mees; Kristina Ek; Malgorzata Szwed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with th...

  16. Alcohol consumption in elderly people across European countries: Results from the Food in Later Life project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living...... circumstances. The phenomenon of alcohol consumption within these countries and cultures is compared in order to gain a better understanding of similarities and differences....

  17. Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montserrat; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2014-10-01

    To analyse the association between alcohol advertising restrictions and the prevalence of hazardous drinking among people aged 50-64 years in 16 European countries, taking into account both individual and contextual-level factors (alcohol taxation, availability, etc.). Cross-sectional study based on SHARE project surveys. A total of 27 773 subjects, aged 50-64 years, from 16 European countries who participated in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project. We estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking (through adaptation of the SHARE questions to the scheme used by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) for each country. To determine whether the degree of advertising restrictions was associated with prevalence of hazardous drinking, we fitted robust variance multi-level Poisson models, adjusting for various individual and contextual variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. The observed prevalence of hazardous drinking was 24.1%, varying by sex and country. Countries with greater advertising restrictions had lower prevalence of hazardous drinking: 30.6% (95% CI = 29.3-31.8) in countries with no restrictions, 20.3% (95% CI = 19.3-21.2) in countries with some restrictions and 14.4% (95% CI = 11.9-16.8) in those with greatest restrictions. The PR found (with respect to countries with greatest restrictions) were 1.36 (95% CI = 0.90-2.06) for countries with some restrictions and 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.91) for those with no advertising restrictions. The extent of advertising restrictions in European countries is associated inversely with prevalence of hazardous drinking in people aged 50-64 years. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Peeters, P H M; Mulligan, A A; Navarro, C; Slimani, N; Mattisson, I; Lundin, E; McTaggart, A; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Haftenberger, M; Lagiou, P; Kalapothaki, V; Evangelista, A; Frasca, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der Schouw, Y T; Engeset, D; Skeie, G; Tormo, M J; Ardanaz, E; Charrondière, U R; Riboli, E

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5-12%) of all cohorts in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL. In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day-1 for men; 1.9 g day-1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups. Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.

  19. Marketing approaches at European level – The case of Southern-European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca TESCAŞIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The specialization of Marketing refers not only on specific focus on some domains, but, also, to its adaptation on regional issues. During the globalization process, marketers adapted their activity to new trends, such as: standardization, integrated distribution, production transfer, comparative advantage, etc. The common aspects of some regional markets determined the marketers to approach differently some homogeneous regions in the World economy. In this sense, the article intends to establish the main differences and the common aspects of a very important area in the European economy – The South East of Europe.

  20. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  1. FDIs and investment policy in some European countries after their EU accession. Challenges during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out to what extent the accession countries will be able to benefit from an increase in the quality of foreign direct investments (FDIs that they receive due to EU membership. Although there will be some investment in new affiliates resulting in greenfield subsidiaries, transnational companies (TNCs may divest their operations in response to better location advantages elsewhere in the EU (as Spain and Portugal are experiencing because their low-cost advantages are eroded. In many Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, the share of foreign ownership in total capital stock is already typically much higher than in older EU member states, but we can already observe a trend of relocating TNCs’ subsidiaries to other emerging countries in order to diminish the costs, in the context of the present crisis and we believe that this trend will continue in the future, especially in the crisis context when the inceptive burden is heavy for governments. The conclusion of this paper is that the CEE countries haven’t faced quite similar conditions as the Southern European countries that acceded to the EU in the ‘80s. So, their benefits have considerably diminished and the present crisis didn’t help them at all to reduce their economic gaps comparing to the developed European countries.

  2. COMPULSORY SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES NOT MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of the "details" of the pension system in our country can only be known if the essential, defining characteristics of pension systems in European Union countries and most developed countries in the world. Among the defining elements of any pension scheme among the most important are (a the share of social contributions and (2 tax base. In the present social security contributions will be applied in the following countries are not EU Member States: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, Turkey, Ukraine, Japan, United States of America. For a better comparison and social security contributions are presented in Romania. In the vast majority of these countries (a base contributions is the gross income, (2 are used to calculate the progressive contribution rates for retirement, particularly in most developed countries, (3 pension contribution is supported both by the employee (employee and employer, almost equally.

  3. Future Electricity Demand of the Emerging European Countries and the CIS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Bayramoglu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the leading factors used in the evaluation of a country’s economic development is energy consumption. Because of economic growth, demand for energy is also increasing. In this study, the emerging European countries’ (the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Turkey and the CIS countries’ (Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan  electricity consumption has been forecasted for five years period (2015-2019. In the study, GM(1,1 Rolling Model, which is developed in the framework of Grey System Theory is used as a mathematical model for real-time forecasting. The results of the study show that there will not be a significant change in electricity demand in this two area during the 2015-2109 period.

  4. Trans fatty acids in dairy and meat products from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Antoine, J.M.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Reykdal, O.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dairy products and meat from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. In cow's milk, butter, and cheese the proportions oftransfatty acids ranged between 3.2 and 6.2% of fatty acids. C18:1 isomers comprised about 60% and C16:1 and

  5. Popular Explanations of Poverty in Europe: Effects of Contextual and Individual Characteristics across 28 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepianka, D.; Gelissen, J.; van Oorschot, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we describe and explain the differences in popular poverty attributions that exist within and between 28 European countries. On the basis of the existing literature we distinguish five predictors: awareness of the existence of poverty, personal experience of disadvantage,

  6. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsitsika, A.; Janikian, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavela, E.C.; Olafsson, K.; Wojcik, S.; Macarie, G.F.; Tzavara, C.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N= 13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8 – 0.7) of 14–17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of

  7. Variations in the development of psychological therapy in three European Union countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgrim, D.; Champion, F.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Garnoussi, N.; Dijk, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the similarities and differences in the development of psychological therapies in three European Union countries (the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and France) in the context of national policies about health services and public mental

  8. Elementary Teacher Education in the Top Performing European TIMSS Countries: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzed elementary teacher education (hereafter 'TED') programs in the top performing European (TIMSS) countries to help inform future elementary TED policy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodological emphasis revolved around how much emphasis should be placed on general content knowledge (GCK), as opposed to general pedagogical…

  9. The Link between Unemployment and Returns to Education: Evidence from 14 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernhard A.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…

  10. Average level of satisfaction in 10 European countries: explanation of differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with

  11. Mental health care institutions in nine European countries, 2002 to 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick; Gaddini, Andrea; Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Munk-Jorgensen, Povl; Walsh, Dermot; Wiersma, Durk; Wright, Donna

    Objective: Although mental health reforms in the 20th century were characterized by deinstitutionalization, previous research suggested a new era of reinstitutionalization in six European countries between 1990 and 2002. This study aimed to establish whether there has been a trend in Europe toward

  12. The associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lä hteenmä ki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  13. Participation and integration from the perspective of persons with SCI from five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruoranen, K.; Post, MWM; Juvalta, S.; Reinhardt, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the subjective understanding of participation and integration of persons with spinal cord injuries from 5 European countries and to compare these findings with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)’s conceptualization of participation.

  14. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Espelt (Albert); C. Borrell (Carme); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); C. Muntaner (Carles); M.I. Pasarin (María Isabel); J. Benach (Joan); M.M. Schaap (Maartje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Navarro (Vicente)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Methods:

  15. Community support and participation among persons with diabilities. A study in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Frans Leenders; Marju Medar; Zsolt Bugarszki

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands) and four cities (Tallinn,

  16. Safety of nuclear power reactors in the former Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs

  17. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  18. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =

  19. The Magnitude and Distance Decay of Trade in Goods and Services : New Evidence for European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Burger (Martijn); M.J.P.M. Thissen (Mark); F.G. van Oort (Frank); D. Diodato (Dario)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using a newly assembled, consistent and disaggregated dataset (12 goods and 7 services) on internal and bilateral trade for 25 European countries, we analyse the difference between trade in goods and services. The measurement of both trade in goods and trade in

  20. How Does Transport Policy Cope with Climate Challenges? Experiences from the UK and Other European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Lawler, Mary; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some European countries have adopted comprehensive “sustainable transport” policies, in which climate change is addressed. This paper looks into how sustainable transport policy frameworks deal with climate change c...

  1. Google Trends terms reporting rhinitis and related topics differ in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, Jean; Agache, Ioana; Anto, Josep M.; Bergmann, Karl C.; Bachert, Claus; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Bousquet, Philippe J.; D'Amato, Gennaro; Demoly, Pascal; de Vries, Govert; Eller, Esben; Fokkens, Wytske; Fonseca, Joao; Haahtela, Tari; Hellings, Peter W.; Just, Jocelyne; Keil, Thomas; Klimek, Ludger; Kuna, Piotr; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Mösges, Ralf; Murray, Ruth; Nekam, Kristof; Onorato, Gabrielle; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Thibaudon, Michel; Tomazic, Peter; Triggiani, Massimo; Valiulis, Arunas; Valovirta, Erkka; van Eerd, Michiel; Wickman, Magnus; Zuberbier, Torsten; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim was

  2. Correlates of use of health care services by children and adolescents from 11 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berra, S.; Tebé, C.; Erhart, M.; Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Auquier, P.; Detmar, S.; Herdman, M.; Alonso, J.; Rajmil, L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between use of health care services and health status, sociodemographic, and health care system characteristics in children and adolescents from 11 European countries. Research Design: Cross-sectional surveys in representative samples included using phone or

  3. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care...

  4. Influenza vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in 11 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Stock, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Litaker, D.G.; Apfelbacher, C.J.

    BACKGROUND: National vaccination coverage rates for individuals at increased risk of influenza-related complications represent a useful public health indicator of preparedness. We compared European countries regarding (i) vaccination coverage among high-risk groups and (ii) the likelihood that

  5. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peculiarities of Future Finance and Economics Specialists' Training in Western European Countries and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoniuk, Olena; Pokudina, Larysa

    2016-01-01

    The article touches on the peculiarities of future finance and economics specialists' training in educational establishments of Western Europe and Ukraine. The problem of higher economic education has been considered. The experience of higher economic education organization in developed European countries has been generalized. The peculiarities of…

  7. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  8. Educational inequalities in self-rated health across US states and European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Präg, Patrick; Subramanian, S V

    2017-07-01

    The US shows a distinct health disadvantage when compared to other high-income nations. A potential lever to reduce this disadvantage is to improve the health situation of lower socioeconomic groups. Our objective is to explore how the considerable within-US variation in health inequalities compares to the health inequalities across other Western countries. Representative survey data from 44 European countries and the US federal states were obtained from the fourth wave of the European Values Study (EVS) and the 2008 wave of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using binary logistic regression, we analyze different forms of educational inequalities in self-rated health (SRH), adjusted for age and sex. The extent of educational inequalities in SRH varies considerably over European countries and US states; with US states in general showing greater inequality, however, differences between US states and European countries are less clear than commonly assumed. The US has considerable differences in educational inequalities in SRH across geographic locations. To understand the reasons for the US health disadvantage, comparative research has to take into account the vast variation in health inequalities within the US.

  9. Teachers' Perception of School Violence in a Sample from Three European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Jose Jesus Gazquez; Diaz, Adolfo Javier Cangas; Fuentes, Maria del Carmen Perez; Acien, Francisca Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore, in three European countries (Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic), teachers' perception of the prevalence of different problematic aspects related to coexistence in schools, and of how they are personally affected by these aspects. The results reveal a high prevalence of fights, insults and…

  10. A qualitative analysis on trends in fruit consumption in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Groot, M.J.; Kyriakidi, A.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to present future fruit consumption trends in four European countries using expert interviews. Experts from both outside and within the food fruit sector in Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain were asked to elaborate on the trend factors that have influenced

  11. Reported barriers to evaluation in chronic care : Experiences in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knai, C.; Nolte, E.; Brunn, M.; Elissen, A.M.J.; Conklin, A.; Pedersen, J.P.; Brereton, L.; Erler, A.; Frølich, A.; Flamm, M.; Fullerton, B.; Jacobsen, R.; Krohn, R.; Saz-Parkinson, Z.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Chevreul, K.; Durand-Zaleski, I.; Faris, F.; Sarria-Santamera, A.; Sönnichsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The growing movement of innovative approaches to chronic disease management in Europe has not been matched by a corresponding effort to evaluate them. This paper discusses challenges to evaluation of chronic disease management as reported by experts in six European countries. Methods We

  12. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, M. van; Heuvelman, C.J.; Heide, H.G. van der; Hallander, H.O.; Advani, A.; Guiso, N.; Konig, C.H. Wirsing von; Vestrheim, D.F.; Dalby, T.; Fry, N.K.; Pierard, D.; Detemmerman, L.; Zavadilova, J.; Fabianova, K.; Logan, C.; Habington, A.; Byrne, M.; Lutynska, A.; Mosiej, E.; Pelaz, C.; Grondahl-Yli-Hannuksela, K.; Barkoff, A.M.; Mertsola, J.; Economopoulou, A.; He, Q.; Mooi, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, pertussis is still an endemic disease, with regular epidemic outbreaks. With the exception of Poland, European countries have replaced whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) by acellular vaccines (ACVs) in the 1990s. Worldwide, antigenic divergence in vaccine antigens

  13. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  14. Trends in Campylobacter incidence in broilers and humans in six European countries, 1997-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jore, S.; Viljugrein, H.; Brun, E.; Heier, B.T.; Borck, B.; Ethelberg, S.; Hakkinen, M.; Kuusi, M.; Reiersen, J.; Hansson, I.; Engvall, E.O.; Lofdahl, M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.; Hofshagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine incidences of Campylobacter in broilers and humans, and to describe seasonal variation and long-term trends by comparing longitudinal surveillance data in six Northern European countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands). Due

  15. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  16. Success stories in landscape management for functional biodiversity: an assessment from 5 west-European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Burgio, G.; Eggenschwiler, L.; Gerowitt, B.; Mante, J.; Powell, W.; Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Kragten, S.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Within IOBC, a small scale inventory was made to collect success stories in landscape management for functional biodiversity. Five projects from different European countries were analysed to define the indicators in the people, planet and profit domains being seen as important for success. Projects

  17. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  18. Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products from 14 European Countries: The TRANSFAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp van - Baart, M.-A.; Couet, C.; Cuadrado, C.; Kafatos, A.; Stanley, J.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of bakery products from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in cookies and biscuits ranged from <1 to 28%.Transfatty acids content in sweet pastry ranged from practically 0 to 33%. Croissants and

  19. Incidence rates and trends of hip/femur fractures in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, G; Abbing-Karahagopian, V; Huerta, C

    2014-01-01

    Hip fractures represent a major public health challenge worldwide. Multinational studies using a common methodology are scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence rates (IRs) and trends of hip/femur fractures over the period 2003-2009 in five European countries. The study was performed using seve...

  20. ICT Use and Achievement in Three European Countries: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karl

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, in many European countries large investments were made to foster the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education with the expectation that ICT would make teaching and learning more effective. This would, for example, become evident in scores obtained by students in the Programme for International…

  1. Some Peculiarities in Training Future Masters in Technology Education in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Olena

    2017-01-01

    In the article, the importance of studying foreign experience in order to improve quality of future Masters' training in higher education institutions has been justified. The main peculiarities of training Masters in Technology education in European countries, namely, in Germany, Sweden and France have been outlined. It has been revealed that…

  2. Introduction: mass screening, health technology assessment, and health policy in some European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortwijn, W.J.; Banta, H.D.; Cranovsky, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The series of papers in this issue was developed to examine the use of health technology assessment in policies toward prevention-specifically toward mass screening-in European countries. The papers actually examined three screening strategies: mammography screening for breast cancer,

  3. Marital status, labour force activity and mortality: A study in the USA and six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Van Hedel (Karen); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio); M. Bopp (Matthias); S. Esnaola; K. Kovács (Katalin); P. Martikainen; E. Regidor (Enrique); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAims: Labour force activity and marriage share some pathways through which they potentially influence health. In this paper, we examine whether marriage and labour force participation interact in the way they influence mortality in the USA and six European countries. Methods: We used

  4. Unemployment and retirement and ill-health: a cross-sectional analysis across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Alavinia (Seyed Mahammad); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the associations between different measures of health and labor market position across ten European countries. Methods We studied 11,462 participants of the Survey on Health and Ageing in Europe (SHARE) who were 50–64 years old. Logistic regression was used to

  5. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior : Social network analyses in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled

  6. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W N; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-12-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3-4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2-118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of death, it is likely that our results

  7. Nuclear safety in countries that are candidate for entry to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this report, experts from countries members of the European Union have wished to give their collective opinion about nuclear safety in countries that are standing for integrating the E.U.. The investigated countries are Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Rumania, Slovenia and Czech Republic. This report is based on information given in international cooperation programmes such as Phare programmes as well as in bilateral contacts. 2 aspects are considered: regulatory authorities and the level of safety in operating nuclear power plants. This report does not deal with radioactive waste management nor with radiation protection. (A.C.)

  8. Policies on sexual expression in forensic psychiatric settings in different European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, Rajveer; McDonald, Stephanie; Völlm, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Sexual expression by forensic psychiatric patients is poorly researched. Forensic experts representing 14 European countries were interviewed to explore the diverse ways in which sexual expression within forensic settings is handled. No country had a national policy, although many had local policies or shared practices. Progressive approaches to patient sexuality were evident in nine of the countries sampled. The UK appeared the most prohibiting and excluding, its protocols apparently based on risk aversion and lack of emphasis or consideration of patients' sexual needs. Uniform national policy supporting patients' sexual expression would provide significant improvements.

  9. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mortality trends for tuberculosis in European Union countries, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahamneh, Moad J; Al-Rahamneh, Anas; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés

    2017-07-18

    The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000-2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20-85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alpha2000-2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing ischaemic stroke in six European countries. The EuroHOPE register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, A; Meretoja, A; Peltola, M; Numerato, D; Heijink, R; Engelfriet, P; Wild, S H; Belicza, É; Bereczki, D; Medin, E; Goude, F; Boncoraglio, G; Tatlisumak, T; Seppälä, T; Häkkinen, U

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hospitalizations, treatment and case fatality of ischaemic stroke were assessed utilizing a comprehensive multinational database to attempt to compare the healthcare systems in six European countries, aiming also to identify the limitations and make suggestions for future improvements in the between-country comparisons. National registers of hospital discharges for ischaemic stroke identified by International Classification of Diseases codes 433-434 (ICD-9) and code I63 (ICD-10), medication purchases and mortality were linked at the patient level in each of the participating countries and regions: Finland, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Scotland and Sweden. Patients with an index admission in 2007 were followed for 1 year. In all, 64,170 patients with a disease code for ischaemic stroke were identified. The number of patients registered per 100,000 European standard population ranged from 77 in Scotland to 407 in Hungary. Large differences were observed in medication use. The age- and sex-adjusted all-cause case fatality amongst hospitalized patients at 1 year from stroke was highest in Hungary at 31.0% (95% confidence interval 30.5-31.5). Regional differences in age- and sex-adjusted 1-year case fatality within countries were largest in Hungary (range 23.6%-37.6%) and smallest in the Netherlands (20.5%-27.3%). It is feasible to link population-wide register data amongst European countries to describe incidence of hospitalizations, treatment patterns and case fatality of ischaemic stroke on a national level. However, the coverage and validity of administrative register data for ischaemic stroke should be developed further, and population-based and clinical stroke registers should be created to allow better control of case mix. © 2014 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  12. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  13. Attitudes of women from five European countries regarding tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Wei, Mei; Heck, Julia E; Allwright, Shane; Haglund, Margaretha; Sanchez, Sara; Kralikova, Eva; Stücker, Isabelle; Tamang, Elizabeth; Gritz, Ellen R; Hashibe, Mia

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco-related cancers and, in particular, lung cancer still represents a substantial public health epidemic across Europe as a result of high rates of smoking prevalence. Countries in Europe have proposed and implemented tobacco control policies to reduce smoking prevalence, with some countries being more progressive than others. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced women's attitudes across five European countries relative to comprehensive smokefree laws in their countries. A cross-sectional landline telephone survey on attitudes towards tobacco control laws was conducted in five European countries: France, Ireland, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. Attitudinal scores were determined for each respondent relative to questions about smokefree laws. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 5000 women were interviewed (1000 women from each country). The majority of women, regardless of smoking history, objected to smoking in public buses, enclosed shopping centers, hospitals, and other indoor work places. More women who had quit smoking believed that new tobacco control laws would prompt cessation - as compared with women who still smoked. In general, there is very high support for national smokefree laws that cover bars, restaurants, and public transport systems. As such laws are implemented, attitudes do change, as demonstrated by the differences between countries such as Ireland and the Czech Republic. Implementing comprehensive smokefree laws will gain high approval and will be associated with prompting people to quit.

  14. Analysis of the frequency of interventional cardiology in various European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Werduch, A.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of interventional cardiology procedures to the population dose in Europe is poorly known. The estimation of the population dose from these procedures requires knowledge of both the typical dose received by patients and an estimate of the number of procedures undertaken annually. Data on the number of cardiology procedures in various European countries are available on the internet for a number of countries. However, this data set is incomplete or out of date. This paper describes the statistical analysis undertaken to estimate the number of interventional cardiology procedures in a number of European countries for 2007. Estimates of the number of procedures are given. On average, the number of cardiac catheterizations per million population is 5346, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is 1599 and 1214 stent procedures. In addition, there are an estimated 973 pacemaker insertions per million population. (authors)

  15. Study of problem of waste chemical current sources in Russia and in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Dornack, C.

    2017-10-01

    This article gives a comparative analysis of handling waste chemical current sources in Russia and in the European countries, presents the effective international documents (Directives, acts) and national legislative acts (state standards, building codes, governmental decrees, etc.), demonstrates the mechanisms for disposal and recycling of waste in the European Union countries. Along with the data of the research works, conducted in other countries during many yearsб it presents the experimental data on leaching out heavy metals from chemical current sources by municipal solid waste landfill filtrate, depending on the morphological composition of domestic waste in the city of Irkutsk. An important point described in the article, is assessment and prediction of negative impact produced on the environment.

  16. Promoting investments in combined heat and power production in East-European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoom, F.; Van Harmelen, T.

    1992-01-01

    The study concerns the evaluation of the potential of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) locations, both in industry and district heating with a heat demand of at least 20 GJ/h or ca. 1 MWe capacity. In fact 58 Hungarian locations were analyzed on scope and profitability for investment in CHP, using financial accounting models and criteria such as Internal Rate of Return and Pay-back Period. Due to the already existing favourable infrastructure in East European countries the present expectations in Hungary about the CHP capacity to be developed in the future are very optimistic (1300 up till 2000 MWe in the year 2000). Clearly there exist an overoptimism concerning the possibilities of increasing the energy efficiency in former East-European countries by investment in cogeneration. A more financially and economic attractive way for efficiency improvements is promoting energy saving in these countries and thus avoiding investments in supply technologies. 6 refs

  17. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries in response to the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated information. During the survey period from January 2010 to February 2011, 89 measures were identified in 23 of the 33 countries surveyed which were implemented to contain public medicines expenditure. Price reductions, changes in the co-payments, in the VAT rates on medicines and in the distribution margins were among the most common measures. More than a dozen countries reported measures under discussion or planned, for the remaining year 2011 and beyond. The largest number of measures were implemented in Iceland, the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Greece, Spain and Portugal, which were hit by the crisis at different times. Cost-containment has been an issue for high-income countries in Europe - no matter if hit by the crisis or not. In recent months, changes in pharmaceutical policies were reported from 23 European countries. Measures which can be implemented rather swiftly (e.g. price cuts, changes in co-payments and VAT rates on medicines) were among the most frequent measures. While the "crisis countries" (e.g. Baltic states, Greece, Spain) reacted with a bundle of measures, reforms in other countries (e.g. Poland, Germany) were not directly linked to the crisis, but also aimed at containing public spending. Since further reforms are under way, we recommend that the monitoring exercise is continued.

  18. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and

  19. Net modelling of energy mix among European Countries: A proposal for ruling new scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.

    2012-01-01

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and secure supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted an energy policy for Europe, which was supported by several documents on different aspects of energy and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and contemporary view of energy interchanges between states was not available. In a previous work of the same authors, energy import/export interchanges between European States were used to develop a geographic overview at one-glance. In this paper, the enhanced Interchange Energy Network (IEN) is investigated from a modelling point of view, as a Small-World Net, by supposing that connections can exist between States with a probability depending also on economic/political relations between countries. -- Highlights: ► Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. ► Panel data from 1996 to 2008 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. ► The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small-World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. ► Interesting behavioural features as outcome derived, as shown for the case example of the Germany.

  20. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin; Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying to answer these questions, this study aims to shed light on international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The number of publications and normalized citation impact values are compared for these countries based on InCites (Thomson Reuters), from 1981 up to 2011. The international collaboration by researchers affiliated to institutions in Eastern European countries at the time points of 1990, 2000 and 2011 was studied with the help of Pajek and VOSviewer software, based on data from the Science Citation Index (Thomson Reuters). Our results show that the breakdown of the communist regime did not lead, on average, to a huge improvement in the publication performance of the Eastern European countries and that the increase in international co-authorship relations by the researchers affiliated to institutions in these countries was smaller than expected. Most of the Eastern European countries are still subject to changes and are still awaiting their boost in scientific development.

  1. Solid waste management in European countries: a review of systems analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana; Martinho, Graça; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2011-04-01

    In the past few decades, solid waste management systems in Europe have involved complex and multi-faceted trade-offs among a plethora of technological alternatives, economic instruments, and regulatory frameworks. These changes resulted in various environmental, economic, social, and regulatory impacts in waste management practices which not only complicate regional policy analysis, but also reshape the paradigm of global sustainable development. Systems analysis, a discipline that harmonizes these integrated solid waste management strategies, has been uniquely providing interdisciplinary support for decision making in this area. Systems engineering models and system assessment tools, both of which enrich the analytical framework of waste management, were designed specifically to handle particular types of problems. Though how to smooth out the barriers toward achieving appropriate systems synthesis and integration of these models and tools to aid in the solid waste management schemes prevalent in European countries still remains somewhat uncertain. This paper conducts a thorough literature review of models and tools illuminating possible overlapped boundaries in waste management practices in European countries and encompassing the pros and cons of waste management practices in each member state of the European Union. Whereas the Southern European Union (EU) countries need to develop further measures to implement more integrated solid waste management and reach EU directives, the Central EU countries need models and tools with which to rationalize their technological choices and management strategies. Nevertheless, considering systems analysis models and tools in a synergistic way would certainly provide opportunities to develop better solid waste management strategies leading to conformity with current standards and foster future perspectives for both the waste management industry and government agencies in European Union. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Comparison Of Travel Behaviour In 11 European Countries By Use Of Post- Harmonized European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Travel behaviour comparison among countries has become interesting to understand structural differences in travel behaviour between countries which are important to help developing more sustainable transport policies. To that end, National Travel Surveys (NTS’s) are the most suitable tool. The ai...... differences in urban structure, density, income, shopping centre structure, and business structure on travel behaviour. The mileage at the international travel is a special challenge which should be investigated further.......Travel behaviour comparison among countries has become interesting to understand structural differences in travel behaviour between countries which are important to help developing more sustainable transport policies. To that end, National Travel Surveys (NTS’s) are the most suitable tool. The aim...... of this paper is to compare travel behaviour among 11 European counties using NTS’s. A post-harmonization process is developed to overcome methodological differences between the surveys and to isolate the differences in travel behaviour. Travel behaviour is measured as mileage, time use, and trips per trip...

  3. Spatial Planning Experiences for Vulnerability Reduction in the Wildland-Urban Interface in Mediterranean European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiana-Martín Luis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface in countries in the European Mediterranean basin is increasing vulnerability to forest fires. Despite more effective extinction systems, this is still a growing problem. This article defends the importance of spatial planning (land-use and urban planning and the need for systematic intervention to mitigate this wildfire risk. A critical review of the current situation, noting intervention focused on buildings and plots and insufficient action on intermediate spatial scales, is followed by the presentation of significant and relevant experiences in the European context.

  4. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  5. East-west differences in the organization of botulinum toxin use in nine Central European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, C N; Suppan, K; Wenzel, K; Homann, B; Pluta-Fürst, A; Crevenna, R; Schinagl, D; Ruzicka, E; Dressle, D; Ivanic, G

    2003-05-01

    Availability and quality of expensive treatment modalities such as botulinum toxin (BTX) largely depend on organizational aspects such as costs, reimbursement by insurance companies, expertise and facilities for expert training, and the propagation of research. To investigate which determinants influence the organization of BTX' use throughout nine Central European countries (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia and Switzerland) we sent out questionnaires to leading BTX experts and consulted data banks of manufacturers and bulletins of international organizations. In Western European countries, there is a tendency for users to organize themselves in formal groups and to concentrate on research whereas the way how BTX is provided is diverse regarding qualifications of specialists and institutions. In the post-communist Eastern European countries, we found a tendency towards a centralized system of reimbursement and BTX treatment seems to be more in the hands of neurologists than any other specialists. Strong correlations were observed between the number of BTX centres, degree of organization of user groups and number of scientific publications, on the one hand, and parameters of healthcare performance and socioeconomic determinants, on the other. Our study suggests that in the nine countries surveyed, organizational aspects of BTX use vary considerably, whilst similarities are based mainly on socioeconomic rather than socio-demographic determinants.

  6. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  7. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  8. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Taxes as a political instrument in the climate policy of some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, Sjur

    2000-06-01

    While the use of climate taxes in Norway has not been increasing much recently, many European countries have shown an increasing interest in taxing their factories. There is also increasing interest within the EU centrally for such ''green'' taxes. The report briefly reviews the use of green taxes in some European countries. The focus is on some of the ''green'' (and rich) nations within the EU, namely Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands, as theses countries have had the most rapid increase in the use of taxis in their climate policies in the 1990s. In addition, Great Britain is also discussed, where the use of green taxes has recently been implemented as a climate policy. A main objective of the report has been to introduce a comparative perspective into the Norwegian debate on green taxes and climate. In Norway, some actors have described the attempts to go in for the use of taxes as a means towards the industry as distinctively Norwegian. The report concludes that taxes on the manufacturing industries are used increasingly often in important European countries. The report may also add background material to the current debate in Norway on gas power plants

  10. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-05-31

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty-which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home-the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  11. The role of healthcare system in dental check-ups in 27 European countries: multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shiho; Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether public expenditure on health and Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) are associated with dental check-ups in European countries. Individual data were from Eurobarometer 72.3, 2009 a cross-national survey of 27 European countries. Eligible participants were those aged 18 years and older in 27 European countries. Dental check-ups reflected dental visits for oral examination and getting advice on oral health in the last 12 months. Individual factors included age, gender, marital status, urbanisation, education, subjective social status, and difficulty in paying bills. Public expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) and EHCI were used as contextual factors. A set of multilevel logistic regression models was used to examine the relationship between dental check-ups and each of healthcare expenditure and EHCI adjusting for demographic factors, GDP per capita and socioeconomic indicators. Total number included in the analysis was 23,842. Participants in countries with greater healthcare expenditure and higher score of EHCI were significantly 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) and 1.30 times (95% CI: 1.04, 1.64) more likely to report dental check-ups within the past 12 months after accounting for demographic characteristics, GDP per capita, and all socioeconomic indicators. The findings suggest that greater governmental support for the healthcare and better characteristics of healthcare system are positively associated with routine dental attendance. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in the European Union, with particular reference to transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilind Kabashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.

  13. Differences in treatment regimes, consultation frequency and referral patterns of diabetes mellitus in general practice in five European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background. In many European countries, maturity onset diabetes mellitus (DM) is to a large extent managed in general practice. Objective. Our aim was to compare management of DM in general practice in five European countries in order to contribute to international guidelines on the management of DM

  14. Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5 positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy

  15. HIV Strategic Information in Non-European Union Countries in the World Health Organization European Region: Capacity Development Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Handanagic, Senad; Cakalo, Jurja Ivana; Rinder Stengaard, Annemarie; Rutherford, George

    2017-06-23

    Capacity building of the national HIV strategic information system is a core component of the response to the HIV epidemic as it enables understanding of the evolving nature of the epidemic, which is critical for program planning and identification of the gaps and deficiencies in HIV programs. The study aims to describe the results of the assessment of the needs for further development of capacities in HIV strategic information systems in the non-European Union (EU) countries in the World Health Organization European Region (EUR). Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to national AIDS programs. The first questionnaire was sent to all countries (N=18) to find out, among other issues, the priority level for strengthening a range of HIV surveillance areas and their key gaps and weaknesses. The second questionnaire was sent to 15 countries to more specifically determine capacities for the analysis of the HIV care cascade. Responses to the first questionnaire were received from 10 countries, whereas 13 countries responded to the second questionnaire. Areas that were most frequently marked as being of high to moderate priority for strengthening were national electronic patient monitoring systems, evaluation of HIV interventions and impact analysis, implementation science, and data analysis. Key weaknesseses were lack of electronic reporting of HIV cases, problems with timeliness and completeness of reporting in HIV cases, under-estimates of the reported number of HIV-related deaths, and limited CD4 count testing at the time of HIV diagnosis. Migrant populations, internally displaced persons, and refugees were most commonly mentioned as groups not covered by surveillance, followed by clients of sex workers and men who have sex with men. The majority of countries reported that they were able to provide the number of people diagnosed with HIV who know their HIV status, which is important for the analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal HIV care cascades

  16. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil

    2007-01-01

    identified and screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies took place in UK and Nordic countries. The well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and low educational level and aspiration appear consistently associated with teenage pregnancy......BACKGROUND: As part of the REPROSTAT2 project, this systematic review aimed to identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in 25 European Union countries. METHODS: The search strategy included electronic bibliographic databases (1995 to May 2005), bibliographies of selected articles...... and requests to all country representatives of the research team for relevant reports and publications. Primary outcome measure was conception. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies of individual-level factors associated with teenage (13-19 years) pregnancy in EU countries. RESULTS: Of 4444 studies...

  17. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health in 10 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Anton E; Bos, Vivian; Lahelma, Eero

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes over time in inequalities in self-reported health are studied for increasingly more countries, but a comprehensive overview encompassing several countries is still lacking. The general aim of this article is to determine whether inequalities in self-assessed health in 10...... Germany, Austria, Italy, and Spain. The proportion of respondents with self-assessed health less than 'good' was measured in relation to educational level and income level. Inequalities were measured by means of age-standardized prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Socioeconomic inequalities...... in self-assessed health showed a high degree of stability in European countries. For all countries together, the ORs comparing low with high educational levels remained stable for men (2.61 in the 1980s and 2.54 in the 1990s) but increased slightly for women (from 2.48 to 2.70). The ORs comparing extreme...

  18. Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall

    2009-01-01

    product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years...... for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion......Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities...

  19. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study...... at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. SETTING: Twenty-nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...

  20. Effects of Global Incidents on Dynamic Correlations of Emerging European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogus Emin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the international integration of stock markets of emerging European countries with the world market and to analyse the evolution of the integration levels in the case of four global/regional incidents; the 1998 Russian crisis, the 2001 Dotcom crisis and 9/11 shocks, the 2004 EU enlargement, and the 2007-2009 global financial crisis. The findings show that volatilities of the stock markets and correlation structures of those markets with the world market significantly change due to the impacts of global/regional incidents. Although, it is obvious that each incident has differential impact on each country depending on the internal dynamics of those countries at the times of incidents, the findings still clearly reveal the general common impacts of the investigated incidents on the return volatilities and the correlation structures of the sample countries with the world market.

  1. International competitiveness of Eastern European countries: importance of trade orientation and eurointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkas Nataliia Igorivna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses international competitiveness of foreign trade of three Eastern European countries: Belarus, Slovakia and Ukraine. For Eastern Europe trade direction moved steadily during the transition period from the CIS countries to EU. In order to compare the development of trade integration is important to examine the intra-industry trade (IIT. The paper provides the comparison of Grubel–Lloyd indices for Ukraine, Slovakia and Belarus with EU and CIS countries during the period from 1995 to 2015. To consider the technological readiness of these countries we analyze in detail the group 7: Machinery and transport equipment. We find that a rise in intra-industry trade is driven by the introduction of a new variety of exports. The results suggest that EU integration have tended to demonstrate IIT grow while increasing specialization in exporting high-technology as opposed to traditional or low technology goods.

  2. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HALLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the main European countries where the immigrants originate from. We will see how globalisation manifests itself in a twofold manner in the economy and the society of a developing country, just like migration. We will show why a poor country is avoided by immigrants and deserted, as a result of immigration, by its own population, while, just like the developed states, it is likely to face the same demographic, economic and social problems, considering that the process of demographic transition is already manifested.

  3. DOCTRINAL AND IDEOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF THE CONSERVATISM IN THE WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Gjorshoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an illustration of certain specifications in the conservative discourse in a certain European western countries. Each one of the countries from the western hemisphere has its particular peculiarities that determine the usage of the political operation by the conservative parties. Certainly, the complexity of the conservative ideology study has been enriching with the perception of the most basic practices in the political activity of the right parties in some western countries. This paper consists of a short definition about the conservatism followed by its primary and secondary principles. Then, continues to an individual cases in a three highly developed European countries where as a sample are taken the most significant parties in the conservative and Christian Democrat ideology. The conservatism as a political ideology has been formed in the middle of the XVII century as a resistance towards the shifts and the challenges that were under influence of the enlightenment, industrialization and the urbanization. If the conservatism as a political theory, ideology and practice originates from the countries with foregoing activities, logically emerges a need to study their characteristics. The author’s intention is to represent the traits creating the content of that ideology and activity, what are the distinction marks that would be the most appealing of the certain country, as well as to prove the link with the parties from the conservative family on a European level. The study of the conservatism as a political ideology in the modern ideological- doctrinal spectrum would be certainly impossible if there is no closer look to those paradigms.

  4. [Developments of nursing research within German-speaking countries - publications from 1988 until 2007 in the journal "Pflege"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Elke; Halek, Margareta; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine

    2010-10-01

    "Pflege" is the nursing research journal with the largest circulation in the German-speaking area and has been nursing research experts' only communication platform for a considerable time. Analysing the structure of articles aims to focus on development and alteration of the German-speaking region's nursing research. The study consists of a retrospective analysis of publications in the nursing research journal "Pflege". 589 articles from 1988 until 2007 could be included into the analysis. Research questions refer to the amount of empirical studies and the study designs in quantitative projects. Almost 50 % of all publications of the "Pflege" represent results of empirical research; the remaining publications come from "other publications" and increasingly literature reviews. Research designs are mainly simple cross-sectional surveys; only 20 % are intervention studies (including five randomised controlled trials). The importance of intervention studies will increase in future. This development cannot be seen in the "Pflege". There is a need for further bibliometric analysis to be conducted to find out whether German-speaking nurse researchers actually seldom conduct intervention studies, or whether they prefer to publish in journals with a high impact factor.

  5. European Union’s Public Fishing Access Agreements in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M.; Standing, André; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy. PMID:24312191

  6. Development of Exports and Imports of Kosova with European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosova, within the nine years period, has moved from a post conflict country to a country considered to be in transition. Kosova has passed from its determination for reconstruction of the country to the orientation towards economic development and integration to European structures. But economic development is not yet sufficient in order to address challenges that Kosova is facing, such as high percentage of unemployment and high deficit of trade exchange. The unemployment rate in Kosova is the most concerning economic issue. Unemployment norms move from about 30 % (IMF to 40% (SOK, 2006. High deficit of recurrent accounts also present a great concern for Kosova economy, which has been evaluated to be 17.3% of gross domestic production (GDP following receipt of assistance from abroad, and decrease of trade deficit remains one of economic priorities in Kosova. Current ways of cooperation between countries are based on ignoring existing borders and mutual cooperation among people of the world, based on freedom and equality among entities of market economy. Kosova supports open economic policies and it achieved to sign some of Free Trade Agreements (FTA with regional countries of western Balkans. It is expected that Kosova will endorse other FTA also with other countries in the region and wider since these actions are to be taken in order to support economic development of Kosova. In the post war period, the main trade partner of Kosova has been European Union (Germany, Greece, Slovenia, Italy, and Austria, whose participation in general import of Kosova for 2004 was 26.7%, while this integration in general export of Kosova in 2004 was 28.7%. The purpose of this study is that I wanted to present importance of trade cooperation of Kosova with UE countries and offer information of the course of imports and exports of Kosova with EU countries, as well as to analyze possibilities and advantages that this cooperation offers for economic development of

  7. The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Torriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.

  8. The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Production and Energy Imports Among Countries in the European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehaun, Sarah J.

    Most European countries must import fossil fuels due to a lack of domestic supplies but, in the interest of having a secure energy supply that is not susceptible to disruptions, would like to decrease their dependence on imports. It is possible that increasing renewable energy production could achieve this objective, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This analysis examines whether there is a relationship between renewable energy production and non-renewable energy imports, using data on European Union member countries and Norway from 1990-2014. Previous literature on the relationship between renewables and imports is scarce but provides suggestive evidence that production of renewables could lower import dependence, even if it cannot fully substitute for fossil fuels. However, the results of this analysis provide no evidence to support this position. Instead, I find that as renewable energy production increases, fossil fuel imports also increase.

  9. Self-regulation and the new challenges in journalism: Comparative study across European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Karmasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.

  10. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    deeper investigation. This paper presents the results of a probabilistic risk assessment for MeHg based on: (1) primary concentration data, as well as secondary data from published papers, and (2) primary species-specific consumption data collected in five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy......, Portugal and Spain). The results indicated that in the southern European countries, larger subgroups of the population (up to 11% in Portugal) are potentially at risk for a MeHg exposure above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value, while this risk is much lower in Ireland and Belgium. This research...... the results of this study in order to develop consumer advices that optimise health benefits versus potential health risks by providing species-specific information....

  11. VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE AS A METHOD OF HEALTH CARE FINANCING IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of systematically rising health expenditure and insufficient cover provided by publicly-financed health systems additional methods of private health care funding become more and more considerable. The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of voluntary health insurance (VHI purchased in European countries and to analyze its contribution to health care financing systems. In the paper voluntary health insurance as a part of health expenditure incurred by the European countries is considered. Next, the results of analysis concerning the main characteristics of health insurance markets in Europe are presented. The conducted analysis was mainly focused on: the value of gross written premiums, the amount of benefits paid, the number of health insurers operating in the markets and the percentage of populations covered by voluntary health insurance. The current trends and challenges for the health insurance sector in Europe are also discussed.

  12. Variations in the Prevalence of Obesity Among European Countries, and a Consideration of Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Blundell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the prevalence of obesity across the European continent has in general been rising. With the exception of a few countries where a levelling-off can be perceived, albeit at a high level, this upward trend seems likely to continue. However, considerable country to country variation is noticeable, with the proportion of people with obesity varying by 10% or more. This variation is intriguing and suggests the existence of different profiles of risk or protection factors operating in different countries. The identification of such protection factors could indicate suitable targets for interventions to help manage the obesity epidemic in Europe. This report is the output of a 2-day workshop on the ‘Diversity of Obesity in Europe'. The workshop included 14 delegates from 12 different European countries. This report contains the contributions and discussions of the materials and viewpoints provided by these 14 experts; it is not the output of a single mind. However, such is the nature of scientific analysis regarding obesity that it is possible that a different set of 14 experts may have come to a different set of conclusions. Therefore the report should not be seen as a definitive statement of a stable situation. Rather it is a focus for discussion and comment, and a vehicle to drive forward further understanding and management of obesity in Europe.

  13. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  14. Variations in the Prevalence of Obesity Among European Countries, and a Consideration of Possible Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John E; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Boyland, Emma; Blaak, Ellen; Charzewska, Jadwiga; de Henauw, Stefaan; Frühbeck, Gema; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hebebrand, Johannes; Holm, Lotte; Kriaucioniene, Vilma; Lissner, Lauren; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Schindler, Karin; Silva, Ana Lúcia; Woodward, Euan

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the prevalence of obesity across the European continent has in general been rising. With the exception of a few countries where a levelling-off can be perceived, albeit at a high level, this upward trend seems likely to continue. However, considerable country to country variation is noticeable, with the proportion of people with obesity varying by 10% or more. This variation is intriguing and suggests the existence of different profiles of risk or protection factors operating in different countries. The identification of such protection factors could indicate suitable targets for interventions to help manage the obesity epidemic in Europe. This report is the output of a 2-day workshop on the 'Diversity of Obesity in Europe'. The workshop included 14 delegates from 12 different European countries. This report contains the contributions and discussions of the materials and viewpoints provided by these 14 experts; it is not the output of a single mind. However, such is the nature of scientific analysis regarding obesity that it is possible that a different set of 14 experts may have come to a different set of conclusions. Therefore the report should not be seen as a definitive statement of a stable situation. Rather it is a focus for discussion and comment, and a vehicle to drive forward further understanding and management of obesity in Europe. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Prevalence and transmission of hepatitis E virus in domestic swine populations in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Alessandra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype 3 and 4 can cause liver disease in human and has its main reservoir in pigs. HEV investigations in pigs worldwide have been performed but there is still a lack of information on the infection dynamics in pig populations. Findings The HEV transmission dynamics in commercial pig farms in six different European countries was studied. The data collected show prevalence in weaners ranging from 8% to 30%. The average HEV prevalence in growers was between 20% and 44%. The fatteners prevalence ranged between 8% and 73%. Sows prevalence was similar in all countries. Boar faeces were tested for HEV only in Spain and Czech Republic, and the prevalence was 4.3% and 3.5% respectively. The collected data sets were analyzed using a recently developed model to estimate the transmission dynamics of HEV in the different countries confirming that HEV is endemic in pig farms. Conclusions This study has been performed using similar detection methods (real time RT-PCR for all samples and the same model (SIR model to analyse the data. Furthermore, it describes HEV prevalence and within-herd transmission dynamics in European Countries (EU: Czech Republic, Italy, Portugal, Spain, The Netherlands and United Kingdom, confirming that HEV is circulating in pig farms from weaners to fatteners and that the reproductive number mathematical defined as R0 is in the same range for all countries studied.

  16. Google Trends terms reporting rhinitis and related topics differ in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Agache, I; Anto, J M; Bergmann, K C; Bachert, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Bousquet, P J; D'Amato, G; Demoly, P; De Vries, G; Eller, E; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Haahtela, T; Hellings, P W; Just, J; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Kuna, P; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Mösges, R; Murray, R; Nekam, K; Onorato, G; Papadopoulos, N G; Samolinski, B; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Thibaudon, M; Tomazic, P; Triggiani, M; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Eerd, M; Wickman, M; Zuberbier, T; Sheikh, A

    2017-08-01

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim was to assess whether the same terms could be used to report the seasonal variations of allergic diseases. Using the Google Trend 5-year graph, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all countries apart from Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta. Different terms were found to demonstrate seasonality depending on the country - namely 'hay fever', 'allergy' and 'pollen' - showing cultural differences. A single set of terms cannot be used across all European countries, but allergy seasonality can be compared across Europe providing the above three terms are used. Using longitudinal data in different countries and multiple terms, we identified an awareness-related spike of searches (December 2016). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Processes for consensus building and role sharing. Lessons learned from HLW policies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This report attempts to obtain lessons in implementation of HLW management policies for Japan by reviewing past experiences and present status of policy formulation and implementation as well as reflection of public opinions and consensus building of selected European countries, such as Finland, Sweden and others. After examining the situations of those countries, the author derives four key aspects that need to be addressed; separation of nuclear energy policies and HLW policies, fundamental support shared among national public, sense of controllability, and proper scheme of responsibility sharing. (author)

  18. Trends in Campylobacter incidence in broilers and humans in six European countries, 1997-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jore, S.; Viljugrein, H.; Brun, E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine incidences of Campylobacter in broilers and humans, and to describe seasonal variation and long-term trends by comparing longitudinal surveillance data in six Northern European countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands). Due...... and then removing this effect from the data. Long-term trends were fitted to the de-seasonalized time series. The incidence of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks and incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans showed a concordant seasonality for all the countries. There was a strong association between...

  19. Late-life loneliness in 11 european countries: results from the generations and gender survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt

    2015-01-01

    This study explores country differences in late-life loneliness in Europe among men and women and establishes the role of micro-level differences in socioeconomic status, health, and social variables in these patterns. We use cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the Generations and Gender Survey. The analysis comprises 33,832 Europeans aged 60– 80 from 11 countries. A six-item short version of the de Jong-Gierveld Scale is used to measure loneliness, yet we employ a different ...

  20. Google Trends terms reporting rhinitis and related topics differ in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Agache, I; Anto, J M

    2017-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim...... was to assess whether the same terms could be used to report the seasonal variations of allergic diseases. Using the Google Trend 5-year graph, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all countries apart from Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta. Different terms were found to demonstrate...

  1. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria

    2015-01-01

    : Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. Results All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations...... supplementation. Conclusions Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing...

  2. Tobacco affordability, sales and excise revenues in the 28 European Union countries in 2011-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Guidelines for the FCTC Article 6 state: When establishing their levels of taxation, Parties should make tobacco products less affordable over time in order to reduce consumption. The objective is to estimate the impact of changes in tobacco affordability on tobacco consumption and tobacco excise revenues in 2011-2014 in 28 European Union countries. Material and Methods Tobacco affordability index was calculated using the Eurostat data on harmonized consumer price i...

  3. Food-related lifestyles and their association to obesity in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Cueto, Federico J.A.; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    as independents. The prevalence of obesity in the five countries is 22%. Europeans giving more importance to 'self-fulfilment' (odds = 1.18), 'planning of meals' (odds = 1.15), and preferring 'snacks vs. meals' (odds = 1.24) are more likely tobeoese.Respondentswere less likely to beobese if they attached lower...... predictors of obesity. The resulting consumers' profiling can be used for targeted interventions for weight management in Europe....

  4. A conjoint analysis of food retailers' buying behaviour of fish products in 14 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    This paper reports some initial findings from a large project on retail buying behaviour in 17 European countries. The study demonstrates that the traditional four P's as influencing factors are losing relative importance to some hitherto neglec factors, which retail suppliers have to take into a...... into account, and which could give rise to special problems for small and medium-sized sup-pliers. A segmentation of retail chains based on these new factors is also made....

  5. International trends in health science librarianship: part 4--four Southern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Evagelia; Chaleplioglou, Artemis; Cognetti, Gaetana; Della Seta, Maurella; Napolitani Cheyne, Federica; Juan-Quilis, Veronica; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Laura; Lopes, Sílvia; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-12-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in four Southern European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Future issues will track trends in Latin America and Central Europe. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Harmonisation of Excise Duties on Energy Products and Electricity in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?cu Simona; Burlacu Valentin; Cojocaru Diana

    2013-01-01

    The field of excise duty taxes focuses on the use of these economic instruments designed by the European law in the context of protecting the environment and public health and to establish a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources. Focusing mainly on deriving and explaining economic impacts of the minimum energy taxes rates corresponding to the EU Directive (2003/96/EC) in CEE countries, this article outlines the degree of harmonisation of excise duty on energy products among th...

  7. Changes in Inflation Dynamics under Inflation Targeting? Evidence from Central European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Jaromír; Plašil, M.; Vašíček, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-130 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian model averaging * Central European countries * Inflation Dynamics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/baxa-0449816.pdf

  8. A qualitative analysis on trends in fruit consumption in four European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, J.; Groot, M.J.; Kyriakidi, A.; Lans, van der, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to present future fruit consumption trends in four European countries using expert interviews. Experts from both outside and within the food fruit sector in Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain were asked to elaborate on the trend factors that have influenced fruit consumption in the past and on the trend factors that are expected to have an impact in the future. Furthermore, they were asked to draw possible future scenarios on fruit consumption. As expe...

  9. Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert , Klaus G.; Fernández-Celemín , Laura; Wills , Josephine M.; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann , Stefan; Nureeva , Liliya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim The goal of the study was to investigate the use of nutrition information on food labels and understanding of guideline daily amount (GDA) front-of-pack nutrition labels in six European countries. Subjects and methods In-store observations and in-store interviews were conducted in major retailers in the UK (n?=?2019), Sweden (n?=?1858), France (n?=?2337), Germany (n?=?1963), Poland (n?=?1800) ...

  10. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  11. Experiences of developed European countries in solving issues related to national minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Raduški Nada

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary geopolitical change, inter-ethnic conflicts and clashes, the connection between minority and territorial problems, considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations have found particularly fertile soil in the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West European countries as well, despite high human rights standards. However, even though such problems deserve special attent...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in Different European Countries: Great Britain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian MARINAS; Monica CONDRUZ-BACESCU

    2010-01-01

    The issue of labor relations is highly complex, given the fact that each of the parties involved in the employment relationship (employees, managers, employee representatives, trade unions, employers, state) have objectives and some points of view in their regulation. Moreover, at the level of the whole European area, there are many differences from one country to another regarding the quality of labor relations. In this article, the authors aim to highlight some elements of specificity in te...

  13. Improvement of the Pension System in Uzbekistan: Through the Experience of the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshodjon Alidjonovich Rakhmonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Government’s policy in financing social sphere is becoming more and more topical. In this regard, managing pension system effectively, conducting research basing on “income distribution through the time” principle in its financing is of particular significance. In this article the possibility of applying the experience of European Union countries in the level of coverage of population by the pension plan and its development in Uzbekistan.

  14. Integrated Personal Health and Care Services deployment: Experiences in eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villalba, Elena; Casas, Isabel; Abadie, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    conditions for mainstreaming these services into care provision. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of 27 Telehealth, Telecare and Integrated Personal Health System projects, implemented across 20 regions in eight European countries. The analysis was based on Suter’s ten key principles...... mechanisms, interoperable information systems, policy commitment, engaged professionals, national investments and funding programmes, and incentives and financing. Conclusion: In those cases which provided evidence of success beyond the pilot stage, we observed a promising trend: awareness and introduction...

  15. Epidemiological study concerning the characteristics of organic pig farming in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert; Goebel, Amke; Bochicchio, Davide; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Bourgoin, Aude; Cartaud, Gérald; Dietze, Klaas; Dippel, Sabine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Hegelund, Lene; Leeb, Christine; Lindgren, Kristina; Lubac, Stanislas; Prunier, Armelle; Wiberg, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Interviews and on-farm assessments were conducted in a total of 101 organic pig farms in different European countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden) to gain knowledge about farm management and health status of organic pigs in Europe. 66 farms kept at least one age group outdoors while 35 farms kept their pigs exclusively indoors, for the most part with a concrete outside run. Housing and feeding conditions were characterised by a large heterogeneity within and betw...

  16. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  17. Cost of poor adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, F S; Marcellusi, A; von der Schulenburg, J M Graf; Gray, A; Levy, P; Sciattella, P; Soro, M; Staffiero, G; Zeidler, J; Maggioni, A; Schmieder, R E

    2015-01-01

    The financial burden for EU health systems associated with cardiovascular disease (CV) has been estimated to be nearly €110 billion in 2006, corresponding to 10% of total healthcare expenditure across EU or a mean €223 annual cost per capita. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the costs related to hypertension and the economic impact of increasing adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy in five European countries (Italy, Germany, France, Spain and England). A probabilistic prevalence-based decision tree model was developed to estimate the direct costs of CV related to hypertension (CV defined as: stroke, heart attack, heart failure) in five European countries. Our model considered adherence to hypertension treatment as a main driver of blood pressure (BP) control (BP euro>51.3 billion (8.1 in Italy, 17.1 in Germany, 12.2 in Spain, 8.8 in France and 5.0 in England). Increasing adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy to 70% would save a total of euro>332 million (CI 95%: €319-346 million) from the NPs perspective. This study is the first attempt to estimate the economic impact of non-adherence amongst patients with diagnosed hypertension in Europe, using data from five European countries (Italy, France, Germany, Spain and England).

  18. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES – ENERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of a basic social need, namely alimentation. The aim of the research is to evaluate the energetic food self-sufficiency and its changes in the European Union countries. The research has been conducted using the author’s methodology basing on the amount of energy produced and consumed in 1990-2009. The analyses proved that within the considered period, the European Union became an importer of net energy comprised in agricultural products. The excess in produced energy was mainly observed by the countries of European lowland. Moreover in most of the countries, a decrease in the analyzed factor was observed when compared with the 1990-1999 period. On the other hand, in relation to the new member states the increase in food energetic self-sufficiency was observed. The conclusion has been drawn that, while the general food self-sufficiency is mainly determined by environmental factors, its dynamics is primarily influenced by the factors connected with agricultural policy.

  19. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; de Pina, Maria Fatima; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries—Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. Methods and results The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. Conclusions For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. PMID:26659762

  20. Modeling exchange rate volatility in CEEC countries: Impact of global financial and European sovereign debt crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to envisage the impact of global financial (GFC and European sovereign debt crisis (ESDC on foreign exchange markets of emerg- ing countries in Central and Eastern Europe CEEC countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, poland and Serbia. The daily returns of exchange rates on Czech Republic koruna (CZK, Hungarian forint (HuF, Romanian lea (RoL, polish zloty (pLZ and Serbian dinar (RSD, all against the Euro are analyzed during the period from 3rd January 2000 to15th April 2013, in respect. To examine the impact of global financial crisis and European sovereign debt crisis, dummy variables were adopted. overall results imply that global financial crisis has no impact on exchange rate returns in selected CEEC countries, while European sovereign debt crisis inf luencing in depreciation of polish zloty by 8% and Roma- nian lea by 6%. obtained results by our calculation, imply that global financial crisis increased enhanced volatility on exchange rate returns of Czech koruna, Romanian lea and polish zloty. Moreover, results of empirical analysis imply that this impact has the strongest inf luence in volatility on exchange rate returns of polish zloty.

  1. Trust in the institutions of the European Union: A cross-country examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliyahu V. Sapir and Galina Zapryanova Christine Arnold

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Trust in political institutions is one of the key elements which make representative democracies work. Trust creates a connection between citizens and representative political institutions. Democratic governments which enjoy a large degree of trust also tend to have higher degrees of legitimacy and policy efficacy. In Europe’s multi-level governance structure, it is imperative to understand the determinants of trust in the institutions of the European Union. With the increasing salience of the European Union, are domestic proxies still a key determinant of evaluating its institutions? Are there differences across the institutions and across the member states? We demonstrate that country-level corruption levels are what drives the relationship between domestic and European institutional trust. The majority of the variation in trust in the institutions of the European Union is, however, driven by individual-level predictors. We also find that individuals across Europe evaluate the institutions of the European Union through a single attitude dimension of political trust rather than through separate evaluations.

  2. The provision of accredited higher education on dementia in six European countries: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Jack-Waugh, Anna; Tolson, Debbie; Hellström, Amanda; de Abreu, Wilson; Pesjak, Katja

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization has identified developing the knowledge and skills of healthcare professionals who are involved in dementia care as a priority. Most healthcare professionals lack the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding to provide high quality dementia care. While dementia education amongst most UK university health and social care programmes is inconsistent, we know little about the provision of dementia education in European universities. To examine the provision of accredited higher education on dementia in European countries, to illustrate that it is highly variable despite universities being the major provider of education for healthcare professionals internationally. An exploratory research design was used. The providers of higher education undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the Czech Republic, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. Higher Education Institutions who provide undergraduate and postgraduate education in the fields of nursing, medicine, psychology, social work, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and gerontology in six European countries. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Researchers in each country conducted an internet-based search using the websites of Higher Education Institutions to identify existing accredited dementia education. These searches revealed a lack of dementia education in undergraduate health and social care study programmes. Three of the six countries offered postgraduate study programmes on dementia. There was a significant variation amongst the countries in relation to the provision of dementia education at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral levels. Dementia is a global challenge and educating and upskilling the workforce is a policy imperative. To deliver the best dementia care, investment in interprofessional evidence-based education is required if we are to respond effectively and compassionately to the needs of people living with dementia and their

  3. European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, Mecky I; Manyando, Christine; Ndumbe, Peter M; Corrah, Tumani; Jaoko, Walter G; Kitua, Andrew Y; Ambene, Herman Pa; Ndounga, Mathieu; Zijenah, Lynn; Ofori-Adjei, David; Agwale, Simon; Shongwe, Steven; Nyirenda, Thomas; Makanga, Michael

    2009-07-20

    European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was founded in 2003 by the European Parliament and Council. It is a partnership of 14 European Union (EU) member states, Norway, Switzerland, and Developing Countries, formed to fund acceleration of new clinical trial interventions to fight the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis (TB) in the sub-Saharan African region. EDCTP seeks to be synergistic with other funding bodies supporting research on these diseases. EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts. The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached 150 m euros, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities. While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to

  4. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  5. The legislative backgrounds of workplace health promotion in three European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šidagytė, Rasa; Eglīte, Maija; Salmi, Anne; Šorytė, Dovilė; Vanadziņš, Ivars; Hopsu, Leila; Lerssi-Uskelin, Jaana; Bulotaitė, Laima; Kozlova, Lāsma; Lakiša, Svetlana; Vičaitė, Sigita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the legal database and theoretical basis of workplace health promotion (WHP) in three European countries: Finland, Latvia and Lithuania, and aims to find insights into effective WHP implementation. In November 2013, a stakeholders' survey was carried out. The questionnaire included questions about legal documents and non-legislative measures relevant to WHP, institutions and other bodies/organizations working in the field, WHP conception/definition, and implementation of WHP activities according to the enterprises' size. Only Finland has adopted a specific law on occupational health care (separate from occupational safety). ILO conventions No. 161 (Occupational Health Services Convention) and No. 187 (Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention) are ratified only in Finland. In Finland, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health acts as one ministry, while two Baltic countries have two separate ministries (one for health and another for social affairs). None of the countries has legally approved a definition of WHP. Latvia and Lithuania tend to separate WHP from other activities, whereas Finland integrates WHP into other occupational health and safety elements. Finland has a more extensive legislative and organizational background to WHP than Latvia and Lithuania. In defining WHP, all the countries refer to the Luxembourg Declaration on Workplace Health Promotion in the European Union. Finland's practice of integrating WHP into other occupational health and safety elements is important.

  6. COMPARISON OF EUROPEAN UNION QUALITY LABELS UTILIZATION IN VISEGRAD GROUP COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rka Velcovsk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on European Union quality system known as Protected Designation of Origin, Protected Geographical Indication and Tradional Speciality Guaranteed used in agricultural and food products sector. The aim of the paper is to analyse and compare the utilization of these labels by Visegrad group countries. Firstly, the literature review dealing with the topical area is given. Further, the European Union quality scheme is specified and the comparison of Visegrad group countries according to selected criteria is provided. Empirical part of the paper involves marketing research results analysis and discussion. Data comes from the Database of Origin and Registration. The sample consists of all 93 product names registered as Protected Designation of Origin, Protected Geographical Indication and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed in the database by Visegrad group countries to the 30th April 2013. The frequency of using the labels is analysed according to type of label, country of origin and product class. Pearsons chi-square test of independence and Pearson's and Cramer's contingency coefficients were used in order to confirm if significant differences do exist between variables.

  7. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  8. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms

  9. Present status of practical aspects of individual dosimetry. Pt. 2. Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Regulla, D.; Drexler, G.

    1995-01-01

    The report is prepared in a historically rather unstable period concerning the Eastern European countries. Many independent states are formed which brought political, economical and administrative changes in the region. However such changes had not direct effect on the radiation protection practices concerning the occupationally exposed persons. In general all the newly formed states have adopted the former laws and regulation. Therefore we kept the names of the country of the origin. In near future laws and regulations are expected to be altered in many of these new states. The present laws and regulations are in great extent very similar to each other. However there are variations in practical aspects of the individual dosimetry due to the size of the country and their involvement with nuclear activities. Almost all countries based their regulations on International Safety Standards of IAEA and ICRP-26 recommendations. Since the Chernobyl accident, very many bilateral agreements have been concluded between Eastern European and OECD for the transfer of technology on the radiation safety of the public as well as occupationally exposed persons. (orig./HP)

  10. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

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    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  11. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

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    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  12. Non-Formal Education in International Comparison: Patterns of Participation and Investment in Selected European Countries

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    Katrin Kaufmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation focuses on participation and related investment patterns in job related non-formal education (NFE in selected European countries. Broadening previous research formats of NFE are distinguished by investment including financial and time investments by employers, employees and public authorities. By this, company-sponsored and individual-financed NFE are distinguished sharply and cases with shared investment between employers and employees (co-financed NFE and between employers, employees and public funding (co-financed pooled NFE are accounted for, additionally. For explaining participation in NFE supply and demand models are referred to. Hypotheses on cross-country differences for investment in NFE refer to the Varieties-of-Capitalism approach and countries are selected representing different varieties of capitalism (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Spain, France, UK. Analyses are based on data of the Adult Education Survey (AES 2011/12.

  13. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

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    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...... backwards elimination and forward selection. Due to the structure of the data, several models were explored, by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selection and elimination of variables in the model. The risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized with Campylobacter...... was clearly affected by country. In descending order; broiler flocks were more likely to be colonized in Poland, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway due to country specific factors that could not be explained by the management and climate variables in the explored models. The seasonality...

  15. EVALUATION OF THE FDI ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES USING PROMETHEE METHOD

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    Lorena Škuflić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI could be a significant source for performance improvements of a company because aside capital, they bring knowledge, skills, technologies, as well as contacts and customers which they had in the home country. Foreign investors are motivated by realization of longterm increasing profits through a company in which they invest. Since profit depends on revenue and costs, the motives of investors can be looked for in increasing revenue (market expansion, in reducing costs (lower cost of resources, or in the simultaneous effect on revenue and costs through increased efficiency. This paper analyzes six Southeast European countries (SEE-6 as well as the EU-27 with the aim of assessing the attractiveness of destination. Using the PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations multi-criteria decision making method, authors show advantages and disadvantages of each country, creating the basis for the creation and redefinition of macroeconomic policies to address them.

  16. Statistics on the use of cardiac electronic devices and electrophysiological procedures in the European Society of Cardiology countries: 2014 report from the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatikainen, M J Pekka; Arnar, David O; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Merino, Jose Luis; Levya, Francisco; Hindriks, Gerhardt; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    There has been large variations in the use of invasive electrophysiological therapies in the member countries of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The aim of this analysis was to provide comprehensive information on cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) and catheter ablation therapy trends in the ESC countries over the last five years. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has collected data on CIED and catheter ablation therapy since 2008. Last year 49 of the 56 ESC member countries provided data for the EHRA White Book. This analysis is based on the current and previous editions of the EHRA White Book. Data on procedure rates together with information on economic aspects, local reimbursement systems and training activities are presented for each ESC country and the five geographical ESC regions. In 2013, the electrophysiological procedure rates per million population were highest in Western Europe followed by the Southern and Northern European countries. The CIED implantation and catheter ablation rate was lowest in the Eastern European and in the non-European ESC countries, respectively. However, in some Eastern European countries with relative low gross domestic product procedure rates exceeded those of some wealthier Western countries, suggesting that economic resources are not the only driver for utilization of arrhythmia therapies. These statistics indicate that despite significant improvements, there still is considerable heterogeneity in the availability of arrhythmia therapies across the ESC area. Hopefully, these data will help identify areas for improvement and guide future activities in cardiac arrhythmia management. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cross-cultural validation of the Educational Needs Assessment Tool in RA in 7 European countries

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    Vliet Vlieland Thea PM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Educational Needs Assessment Tool (the ENAT is a 39-item patient questionnaire originally developed in the UK to assess educational needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The objective of this study was to assess the cross-cultural validity of the ENAT in 7 European countries. Methods The ENAT was translated into Dutch, Finnish, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish versions by using Beaton's cross-cultural adaptation process, and was completed by a convenience sample of patients with RA in each country. The generated country-specific data were assessed for construct validity and were then pooled and assessed for cross-cultural invariance using Rasch analysis. Results Individual country-specific analysis showed adequate fit to the Rasch model after adjustment for local dependency within domains. When data from the different countries were pooled, the 39 items deviated significantly from Rasch model's expectations (X2 = 977.055, DF = 351, p = 0.000, PSI = 0.976. Again, most items within domains were found to be locally dependent, significantly affecting the fit. Consequently each domain was treated as a unit (i.e. testlet and the ENAT was re-analysed as a seven-testlet scale resulting into a good fit to the Rasch model (X2 = 71.909; DF = 63; p = 0.207, PSI = 0.951. A test of strict unidimensionality confirmed that all domains contributed to measuring a single construct. Cross-cultural non-invariance was discounted by splitting domains for DIF maintaining an excellent fit to the Rasch model. This allowed calibration of the ENAT into an interval scale. Conclusion The ENAT is a simple tool, which is a valid measure of educational needs of people with RA. Adjustment for cross-cultural non-invariance is available if data from the 7 European countries are to be pooled or compared.

  18. Association between attendance at religious services and self-reported health in 22 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Amanda; Rose, Richard; Bobak, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There are consistent reports of protective associations between attendance at religious services and better self-rated health but existing data rarely consider the social or individual context of religious behaviour. This paper investigates whether attendance at religious services is associated with better self-rated health in diverse countries across Europe. It also explores whether the association varies with either individual-level (gender, educational, social contact) or country-level characteristics (overall level of religious practice, corruption, GDP). Cross-sectional data from round 2 of the European Social Survey were used and 18,328 men and 21,373 women from 22 European countries were included in multilevel analyses, with country as higher level. Compared to men who attended religious services at least once a week, men who never attended were almost twice as likely to describe their health as poor, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.83 [95% CI, 1.49-2.26]. A similar but weaker effect was seen in women, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.38 [1.19-1.61]. The associations were reduced only marginally in men by controlling for health status, social contact and country-level variables, but weakened in women. The relationships were stronger in people with longstanding illness, less than university education and in more affluent countries with lower levels of corruption and higher levels of religious belief. These analyses confirm that an association between less frequent attendance at religious services and poor health exists across Europe, but emphasise the importance of taking individual and contextual factors into account. It remains unclear to what extent the observed associations reflect reverse causality or are due to differing perceptions of health.

  19. Establishment and work of ethics committees in central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Jozef

    2002-01-01

    The genuine reform efforts in medicine and health care in Central and East European (CEE) countries have continued to pose important and thought-provoking challenges to the newly reborn disciplines of medical ethics (or bioethics). They are embodied in the bulk of new ethical problems, concepts and quandaries brought about by the developments, changes, clashes, and "real life" issues of the CEE countries' health care systems and biomedical sciences. Certain part, quite variable from country to country, of this bio-ethical endeavour has been confined to the work and activities of ethics committees (ECs) or similar bodies. They have emerged in varying number, shape, composition, competence, legal status, responsibility and time of appearance, in almost all transition countries of CEE. They may be considered as a kind of "field workplaces" of medical ethics/bioethics within the countries' HCSs or biomedical research structures. Despite some shortcomings and drawbacks, a lot has already been achieved. In some countries the progress has been quick and systematic. The major pitfalls were mostly due to the missing, weak or unclear legal backing of ECs' establishment and work; lack of education and training of their members; insufficient support from health care administrators; misconceptions concerning their mission, procedures, scope of responsibility, and reporting; insufficient or missing funding; low profile societal esteem for ECs' work; but some drawbacks were due also to the underdeveloped 'dialogic' culture of the impartial discussion and democratic discourse in the 'post-totalitarian' CEE transition countries. The future of ECs in CEE will be connected to the countries' integration and harmonization efforts towards research, health systems, and other international structures in Europe and beyond. This should need an extensive and non-discriminatory international partnership, exchange and co-operation.

  20. Impact of External Price Referencing on Medicine Prices – A Price Comparison Among 14 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Katja; Seyfang, Leonhard; Vogler, Sabine; de Joncheere, Kees; Laing, Richard Ogilvie; Leufkens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to examine the impact of external price referencing (EPR) on on-patent medicine prices, adjusting for other factors that may affect price levels such as sales volume, exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE), and size of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: Price data of 14 on-patent products, in 14 European countries in 2007 and 2008 were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Price Information Service of the Austrian Health Institute. Based on the unit ex-factory prices in EURO, scaled ranks per country and per product were calculated. For the regression analysis the scaled ranks per country and product were weighted; each country had the same sum of weights but within a country the weights were proportional to its sales volume in the year (data obtained from IMS Health). Taking the scaled ranks, several statistical analyses were performed by using the program “R”, including a multiple regression analysis (including variables such as GDP per capita and national industry size). Results: This study showed that on average EPR as a pricing policy leads to lower prices. However, the large variation in price levels among countries using EPR confirmed that the price level is not only driven by EPR. The unadjusted linear regression model confirms that applying EPR in a country is associated with a lower scaled weighted rank (p=0.002). This interaction persisted after inclusion of total pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and GDP per capita in the final model. Conclusions: The study showed that for patented products, prices are in general lower in case the country applied EPR. Nevertheless substantial price differences among countries that apply EPR could be identified. Possible explanations could be found through a correlation between pharmaceutical industry and the scaled price ranks. In conclusion, we found that implementing external reference pricing could lead to lower prices. PMID

  1. AN EXAMINATION OF OKUN’S LAW: EVIDENCE FROM EUROPEAN TARGET COUNTRIES

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    Persico Tony Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Okun’s law is tested for six European selected countries in order to compare the responsiveness of unemployment to economic growth over the period 1981-2010. In the first section there is a survey of scientific works that have observed the empirical relationship between growth and unemployment. The countries selected are representative of different socio-economic contexts today existing in Europe, i.e. EU member countries, countries that adopt the Euro, and others which are candidates to join the EU or that although EU members have chosen not to adopt the Euro. Finally, we also refer to the U.S. and Canada, which are country-systems where the regularity of Okun’s rule of thumb was conceived. In particular, we intend to represent the data of the macroeconomic variables GDP and unemployment rate in their annual variations for a time series sufficiently long to show the occurrence of the supposed regularity, and then to investigate specific cases, which represent changes compared to the expected variations. In addition to any changes occurred over time in the studied relationship, these empirical observations, along with the reported literature, will help to draw conclusions about the differences regarding the inflexibility and responsiveness to changes in the aggregated output by the labor market of the countries involved in the study.

  2. Experienced Harm from Other People's Drinking: A Comparison of Northern European Countries

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    Inger Synnøve Moan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study addresses how experienced harm from other people's drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1 the prevalence of experienced harm and 2 the correlates of harm. Method The data comprise 18ȓ69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. Results This study shows that harms from other's drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. Conclusions The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design.

  3. Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries

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    Johan Stedt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria. Methods: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp. from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Results: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ≥1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2% and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%. For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources. Conclusion: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota.

  4. Management of multiple sclerosis patients in central European countries: current needs and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Csépány, Tünde; Fazekas, Franz; Hojs Fabjan, Tanja; Horáková, Dana; Illes, Zsolt; Klimová, Eleonóra; Leutmezer, Fritz; Rejdak, Konrad; Rozsa, Csilla; Šega Jazbec, Saša; Szilasiová, Jarmila; Turčáni, Peter; Vachová, Marta; Vécsei, László; Havrdová, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) experts in Europe are facing rapidly rising demands of excellence due to the increasing complexity of MS therapy and management. A central European expert board of MS experts met to identify needs and obstacles with respect to raising quality of MS care in central and Eastern European countries. There are substantial variations across countries regarding delivery of care and its cost structure, as well as access to treatment. To date, Eastern European countries are often less able to afford reimbursement of immunomodulatory agents than Western countries. Overall, approximately 40% of working-age patients are not working due to MS. Costs rise steeply with increasing disability; indirect costs constitute the bulk of the financial burden in patients with severe MS. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment is meanwhile obligatory as the diagnostic interface in the management of MS patients. Recommended measures directed at improving quality of care include the collection of patient data in registries, enhanced education of healthcare professionals, implementation of national strategies aiming at reducing regional variation, optimization of approval processes, and removal of administrative barriers. Local partnerships with authorities such as those that represent the interests of employees can contribute to leverage the importance of epidemiological data. The need for education extends to (neuro)radiologists who are responsible for reporting MRI findings in expert quality. Dissemination of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS (MAGNIMS) protocol would be an important step in this context. Also, clinical freedom of choice is rated as essential. Physicians should have access to a range of treatment options due to the complexity of disease. Guidelines such as the upcoming EAN-ECTRIMS clinical practice guideline also aim at providing a basis for argumentation in negotiations with national health authorities.

  5. Validity of a short questionnaire to assess physical activity in 10 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tricia; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Franks, Paul W; Gradmark, Anna; Tormo Diaz, Maria Jose; Huerta, Jose Maria; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Vigl, Mattheaus; Boeing, Heiner; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Spijkerman, Annemieke; Benjaminsen-Borch, Kristin; Valanou, Elisavet; de Lauzon Guillain, Blandine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Sharp, Stephen; Kerrison, Nicola; Langenberg, Claudia; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Gonzales, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy; Khaw, Kay Tee; May, Anne; Nilsson, Peter; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Slimani, Nadia; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Feskins, Edith; Riboli, Elio; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nick

    2012-01-01

    To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured in 1,941 healthy individuals from 10 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the short EPIC-PAQ, which refers to past year's activity. Pearson (r) and Spearman (σ) correlation coefficients were calculated for each country, and random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined correlation across countries to estimate the validity of two previously- and one newly-derived ordered, categorical PA indices ("Cambridge index", "total PA index", and "recreational index") that categorized individuals as inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active. The strongest associations with PAEE and MVPA were observed for the Cambridge index (r = 0.33 and r = 0.25, respectively). No significant heterogeneity by country was observed for this index (I(2) = 36.3%, P = 0.12; I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.85), whereas heterogeneity was suggested for other indices (I(2) > 48%, P  47%, P PAQ is suitable for categorizing European men and women into four distinct categories of overall physical activity. The difference in PAEE between categories may be useful when estimating effect sizes from observational research.

  6. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Elodie; Pornet, Carole; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pina, Maria Fatima de; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries-Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Clonal expansion across the seas as seen through CPLP-TB database: A joint effort in cataloguing Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in Portuguese-speaking countries

    KAUST Repository

    Perdigão, João

    2018-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem within the Community of Portuguese Language Speaking Countries (CPLP). Despite the marked variation in TB incidence across its member-states and continued human migratory flux between countries, a considerable gap in the knowledge on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and strain circulation between the countries still exists. To address this, we have assembled and analysed the largest CPLP M. tuberculosis molecular and drug susceptibility dataset, comprised by a total of 1447 clinical isolates, including 423 multidrug-resistant isolates, from five CPLP countries. The data herein presented reinforces Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) strains as the hallmark of M. tuberculosis populational structure in the CPLP coupled with country-specific differential prevalence of minor clades. Moreover, using high-resolution typing by 24-loci MIRU-VNTR, six cross-border genetic clusters were detected, thus supporting recent clonal expansion across the Lusophone space.To make this data available to the scientific community and public health authorities we developed CPLP-TB (available at http://cplp-tb.ff.ulisboa.pt), an online database coupled with web-based tools for exploratory data analysis. As a public health tool, it is expected to contribute to improved knowledge on the M. tuberculosis population structure and strain circulation within the CPLP, thus supporting the risk assessment of strain-specific trends.

  8. Public debt improves the stability of exchange rates in developing countries? The specific case of news European members (2004 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Cuénoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to speak about the current situation in Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC. The majority of them have been entering in European Union in 2004 and 2007. This step has been increasing their international attractiveness and improves their economic growth. However, they must stabilize exchange rate to sustain their foreign direct investment attraction. Two strategies are adopting about the regulation of exchange rate. Bulgarian, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Slovenia and Slovakia are entering in Exchange Rate Mechanism 2 (ERM2 to adopt quickly euro currency (it is now the case for Slovenia in 2007, Slovakia in 2009 and Estonia in 2011. Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Romania prefer only to stabilize their currency for the moment. Despite the strong economic dynamic of these countries before the Subprime crisis, the impact reveals the incapacity for several of them to improve currencies stabilities. The theoretical approach about Mundell-Fleming trilemma informs the necessity to scarify monetary policy in a context of free financial market and fixed exchange rate. In a reality, the capacity to use fiscal policy appears supplementary indeed more efficient.

  9. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim ofthis study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthierand environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Method...... withincountries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supplydata, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.......Purpose Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim ofthis study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthierand environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods...... Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmarkand France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall.Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated...

  10. European Commission (Hg.: Flexible working time arrangements and gender equality. A comparative review of 30 European countries. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Muschiol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung und die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter sind zentrale Bestandteile europäischer Direktive. Der Expertenbericht der Europäischen Kommission bietet nun eine Zusammenfassung über die gegenwärtigen Praktiken flexibler Arbeitszeitmodelle in den 27 EU-Ländern und drei EWR-EFTA-Staaten und stellt deren Auswirkungen auf die Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter dar. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf der internen Flexibilität, was einesteils die flexible Gestaltung der Arbeitsdauer beinhaltet und anderenteils die flexible Organisation der Arbeitszeit. Die Ergebnisse lassen darauf schließen, dass beide Größen wichtige Voraussetzungen für den wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung darstellen. Es zeigt sich allerdings auch, dass eine zunehmende Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung den Frauen auch zum Nachteil gereichen kann.Flexibilizing the organization of working hours and treating all genders as equals are central constituents of the European directives. The European Commission’s expert report does now offer a summary of the current practices of flexible work time in the 27 EU countries and three EEA-EFTA countries and portrays their effects on equal opportunities for all genders. Special attention is paid to internal flexibility, both with regard to the flexible realization of the work duration and the flexible organization of working hours. The results imply that both components are important prerequisites for economic advancement. However, it can also be seen that an increased flexibilization of the organization of working hours can lead to disadvantages for women.

  11. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report; EU`s udvidelse mod Oest - miljoemaessige perspektiver. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs.

  12. A Pathway to National Guidelines for Laboratory Diagnostics of Chronic Kidney Disease – Examples from Diverse European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Yucel, Dogan; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Piéroni, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The principal benefit of guidelines is to improve the quality of care received by patients. In the 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease (KDIGO) was released and it is designed to provide information and assist decision making. This review gives a brief overview of a various national CKD guidelines that rely on the newly released KDIGO guidelines. All of the included countries (France, Turkey, Norway and Croatia) are non-English speaking countries and they differ in population and socio economic aspects. Examples shown in this review may provide valuable experience for countries that are in process of creating their national CKD guidelines. PMID:29333148

  13. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among schoolchildren in German-speaking Switzerland compared to seven countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight in children and adolescents have increased significantly and are a major public health problem. To allow international comparisons, Switzerland joined the European study ‘ENERGY’ cross sectional survey consortium that investigated the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as selected dietary, physical and sedentary behaviors of 10–12 years old pupils across seven other countries in Europe. The aims of the present study was to compare body composition and energy-balance related behaviors of Swiss schoolchildren to those of the seven European ENERGY-countries and to analyze overweight and energy-balance related behaviors of Swiss children according to socio-demographic factors. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study among 10–12 year old children was conducted in Switzerland and seven other European countries using a standardized protocol. Body height, weight and waist-circumference were measured by trained research assistants. Energy-balance related behaviors –i.e. selected dietary, physical activity and screen-viewing behaviors were assessed by questionnaires. Weight status and behaviors in Switzerland were compared to the seven European ENERGY countries. Within the Swiss sample, analyses stratified by gender, parental education and ethnicity were performed. Results Data of 546 Swiss children (mean age 11.6±0.8y, 48% girls were obtained and compared to the ENERGY- results (N=7.148; mean age 11.5±0.8y, 48% girls. In Switzerland significantly less children were overweight (13.9% or obese (2.3% compared to the average across the ENERGY-countries (23.7% and 4.7%, respectively, and were even somewhat lower than the ENERGY countries with the lowest prevalence. Sugar sweetened beverage intakes and breakfast habits of Swiss children did not differ significantly from those of ENERGY. However, the mean time devoted by Swiss children to walking or cycling to school and attending sports activities was

  14. Reasons for institutionalization of people with dementia: informal caregiver reports from 8 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afram, Basema; Stephan, Astrid; Verbeek, Hilde; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Suhonen, Riitta; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Raamat, Katrin; Cabrera, Esther; Soto, Maria E; Hallberg, Ingalill R; Meyer, Gabriele; Hamers, Jan P H

    2014-02-01

    To explore reasons for institutionalization of people with dementia according to informal caregivers as well as variation in reasons between countries. An explorative cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 European countries. Per country, a minimum of 3 long term care facilities, offering care and accommodation as a package, participated in this study. Participating countries were selected to represent different geographic areas in Europe. Of the 791 informal caregivers involved in the RightTimePlaceCare project of people with dementia who were recently admitted to a long term care facility, 786 were included for this study. As part of a semistructured interview, informal caregivers were asked the main reason for institutionalization in an open-ended question. Answers were categorized according to a conventional coding approach. All reasons were then quantified and tested. Mainly patient-related reasons were stated, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%), care dependency (24%), and cognition (19%). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were among the most often mentioned reasons in most countries. Besides patient-related reasons, caregiver burden and the inability of the informal caregiver to care for the patient were stated as reasons (both 15%). Further analyses showed countries differ significantly in reasons according to informal caregivers. Additionally, reasons were analyzed for spouses and child-caregivers, showing that spouses more often stated reasons related to themselves compared with child-caregivers. Multiple reasons contribute to the institutionalization for people with dementia, with several factors that may influence why there were country differences. Variation in the organization of dementia care and cultural aspects, or the relationship between the informal caregiver and person with dementia may be factors influencing the reasons. Because of a wide variation in reasons between countries, no one-size-fits-all approach can be offered to guide informal

  15. Discursive junctions in flood risk governance - A comparative understanding in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Maria; Wiering, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Flood risks are managed differently across Europe. While a number of research studies aim to understand these differences, they tend to pay little attention to the social constructionist aspects of flood risk governance, i.e. the meaning that societies give to flood risk and governance. This paper aims to address this gap by understanding differences in flood risk management approaches (FRMA) from a discursive-institutional perspective. Based on this perspective, an analytical framework was developed to systematically analyse and compare discourses pertaining to flood risk and its governance in six European member states (England (the United Kingdom), Flanders (Belgium), France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). Correspondingly, this paper demonstrates how the hegemonic discursive-institutional patterns of flood risk governance differ between the six European countries. These differences may influence the capability of countries to learn from each other, adopt new FRMAs or cooperate with each other. Moreover, the paper argues that differences in discourses partially account for the differences in FRMAs between countries, combined with other factors. Additionally, broader implications are discussed. For example, the research findings imply that some discourses tend to favour or disfavour other discourses, and that they additionally also tend to favour particular FRMAs; e.g. the flood risk discourse pertaining to high manageability of risks seems to favour a governance discourse of collectivity and central governance. The different insights imply that further research is necessary to understand the complex interaction of discourses and institutional arrangements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accidents in Building Engineering in the European Union Countries in the Years 2008 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasymiuk, Jolanta; Tadeusz Barski, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    According to the ESAW1, an accident at work is an event that results in physical or mental harm to the person doing the work. As a result of this incident, fatal accidents may occur (which in the course of one year lead to death of the victim) or non-fatal accidents (that imply at least four full calendar days of absence from work). In the paper the authors present the number and the analysis of the causes of accidents at work in the construction industry in years 2008 - 2014 in 28 countries of the European Union. The descriptive statistics method was used to achieve the intended goal. The accident rate indicator for individual European Union countries has been shown in the analyzed period. The structure and trends of accidents during the period under investigation, divided into two groups: fatal accidents and non-fatal accidents, were presented. Both groups were analyzed for what caused them and what factors affected the quantity (Age of the victim, work experience, month of occurrence). On the basis of the analyzed causes and factors causing accidents in the construction industry in years 2008 - 2014, the classification of EU countries has been shown in terms of accidents. The paper was concluded with a summary.

  17. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries: A dynamic panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, A.; Zarraga, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market.

  18. Performance Audit in Public Sector Entities - A New Challenge for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana TIRON TUDOR

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement provides an objective basis for evaluating how efficiently public resources are being used and how effectively public service outcomes are being achieved. It is a process used to support government selfanalysis and provide a basis for more informed and publicly defensible decision-making. In this context an important role is reserved to performance external audit performed by external audit institutions. The performance audit analyses the quality of financial administration from the point of view of the three elements of performance: economy, efficiency and effectiveness. We intend to realize a comparative study for some Eastern European countries regarding the performance audit, knowing the fact that since countries differ at the level of individual reforms, there is no single model of reform. Nonetheless, reform strategies have many points in common emphasizing the international character of public management reform. By cross-national comparisons we intend to analyze the impact of implementing the new performance audit in certain Eastern European Countries, and in Romania, focused on the external audit institutions.

  19. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  20. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  1. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-06-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. Remote Monitoring of Chronic Diseases: A Landscape Assessment of Policies in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rojahn

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring (RM is defined as the surveillance of device-transmitted outpatient data. RM is expected to enable better management of chronic diseases. The objective of this research was to identify public policies concerning RM in four European countries.Searches of the medical literature, the Internet, and Ministry of Health websites for the United Kingdom (UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain were performed in order to identify RM policies for chronic diseases, including end stage renal disease (ESRD, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD, diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. Searches were first performed in Q1 2014 and updated in Q4 2015. In addition, in depth interviews were conducted with payers/policymakers in each country. Information was obtained on existing policies, disease areas and RM services covered and level of reimbursement, other incentives such as quality indicators, past/current assessments of RM technologies, diseases perceived to benefit most from RM, and concerns about RM.Policies on RM and/or telemedicine were identified in all four countries. Pilot projects (mostly in diabetes, COPD, and/or heart failure existed or were planned in most countries. Perceived value of RM was moderate to high, with the highest rating given for heart failure. Interviewees expressed concerns about sharing of medical information, and the need for capital investment. Patients recently discharged from hospital, and patients living remotely, or with serious and/or complicated diseases, were believed to be the most likely to benefit from RM. Formal reimbursement is scarce, but more commonly available for patients with heart failure.In the four European countries surveyed, RM has attracted considerable interest for its potential to increase the efficiency of healthcare for chronic diseases. Although rare at this moment, incentives to use RM technology are likely to increase in the near future as the body of evidence of clinical and

  3. The impact of grandparental investment on mothers' fertility intentions in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Tanskanen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evolutionary theory predicts that grandparental investment should support the childbearing of adult children, but evidence from contemporary developed countries is mixed or relatively weak. One possible reason for this lack of clarity is that grandparental support for fertility may vary by country, the economic situation of the adult child's household, and the lineage and the sex of the grandparent. Objective: We investigate the associations between grandparental investments and the intentions of mothers to have a second or third child in four European countries - Bulgaria, France, Lithuania, and Norway - while paying special attention to effect of the country, the financial security of the household, and the different grandparent types. Methods: Using the first wave data (2004-08 of the Generations and Gender Surveys, we measured grandparental investment by the amount of child care help and emotional support mothers reported receiving from their parents. We studied these factors with binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Both emotional support and child care help from grandparents were associated with increased fertility intentions in France and Norway. Emotional support was also associated with increased fertility intentions in Bulgaria, while grandparental child care help was associated with decreased intentions in Lithuania. Emotional support was more strongly associated with fertility intentions in financially secure households. Emotional support received from a maternal grandmother, a maternal grandfather, and a paternal grandmother; and child care help received from a maternal grandfather; were associated with an increased probability that a mother would report the intention to have another child. Conclusions: Grandparental investment, especially emotional support, appears to be most influential in wealthier European countries and among more financially secure families. When a family's socioeconomic situation and the

  4. The Right to Family Reunification in Relation to Third Country Nationals within the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mazilu-Babel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to establish the character of the right to family reunification and to bring together allthe situations in which a Member State of the European Union is “forced” to asses the application for the familyreunification with a third-country national, in accordance with the EU law, both primary and secondary, incidentin the case at hand. The family reunification, as the most important form of migration in the European Union,was subject to previous research, research that was conducted only at a sectored level. Therefore, the “puzzlepieces” must be put together and a “whole picture” conclusion is necessary. It will be submitted that familyreunification right, although derives from a fundamental human right – the right for respect of family life, itseffects depend majorly on the specific factual and legal situation of the ‘beneficiary’ of such a fundamentalright.

  5. Parental Perceptions of and Concerns About Child's Body Weight in Eight European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regber, Susann; Novak, Masuma; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject: Parents of children with overweight and obesity tend to underestimate their children's weight. Most studies show no association between parental education level and accurate parental perception of a child's weight category. Studies show no consistent...... relationship between parental weight perception and the child's gender. What this study adds: Parental underestimation of children's weight category for children in the overweight and obesity categories was found across eight European countries. Regional differences indicated a more accurate parental weight...... perception in Northern and Central Europe. A high proportion of parents in Southern Europe were concerned about future underweight or overweight in their children. Objectives: To evaluate parental perceptions of and concern about child's body weight and general health in children in a European cohort. Design...

  6. Macro-environmental factors and physical activity in 28 European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Thompson, Hayley; Cetateanu, Andreea; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-02-09

    Data from the representative 2013 Eurobarometer survey were combined with macro-environmental data to assess relationships with different domains of physical activity (PA) in 28 European Union countries. Higher mean annual temperatures were the only macro-environmental factor found to be associated with levels of physical activity; an increase in the mean annual temperature by 1°C was associated with-0.94 fewer minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week (95% CI: -1.66 to -0.23). This highlights the importance of modifiable influences (e.g. opportunities for active travel) on PA and underscores the potential of public health interventions to raise levels of physical activity. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    In this paper we analyse how different welfare state regimes affect popular support for redistribution across 15 Western European countries. We suggest that the main reasons why previous studies have not been able to connect welfare state regimes and popular attitudes towards the welfare state...... Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... at: http://www.sfi.dk/s%c3%b8geresultat-10668.aspx?Action=1&NewsId=248&PID=32427#sthash.ISdYS6vF.dpuf...

  8. [Eating disorders after the political changes in the formerly communist Eastern-European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathner, G; Túry, F; Szabó, P

    2001-06-24

    The authors summarize the Central and East European epidemiological data of eating disorders. These demonstrate that eating disorders are not exclusively characteristic to Western societies. In this respect the comparison of newer data to those which were performed before the political changes in 1989-1990 is especially valuable. Formerly in a Hungarian university sample the prevalence of bulimia was 1-1.3% among females, 0-0.8% among males, and this was higher than the prevalence of 0.6% in Austrian females, or 0% in German Democratic Republic. After the social changes similar data were found in several East European countries. This corroborates the culture-change idea of eating disorders. The transition to a Western market economy and the process of globalization is an experiment to evaluate the effect of sociocultural factors. The values and norms (e.g. thinness ideal) come closer to the Western culture, and mass media have a significant impact in this process.

  9. The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.

  10. The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-06-22

    The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe) consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy), and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy . They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy , this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.

  11. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil; da Silva, Miguel Oliveira; Astin, Margaret; Wyness, Laura; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Jahn, Albrecht; Karro, Helle; Olsen, Jørn; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-12-01

    As part of the REPROSTAT2 project, this systematic review aimed to identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in 25 European Union countries. The search strategy included electronic bibliographic databases (1995 to May 2005), bibliographies of selected articles and requests to all country representatives of the research team for relevant reports and publications. Primary outcome measure was conception. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies of individual-level factors associated with teenage (13-19 years) pregnancy in EU countries. Of 4444 studies identified and screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies took place in UK and Nordic countries. The well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and low educational level and aspiration appear consistently associated with teenage pregnancy. However, evidence that access to services in itself is a protective factor remains inconsistent. Although further associations with diverse risk-taking behaviours and lifestyle, sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are reported, the independent effects of these factors too remain unclear. Included studies varied widely in terms of methods and definitions used. This heterogeneity within the studies leaves two outstanding issues. First, we cannot synthesize or generalize key findings as to how all these factors interact with one another and which factors are the most significant. Second, it is not possible to examine potential variation between countries. Future research ensuring comparability and generalizability of results related to teenage sexual health outcomes will help gain insight into the international variation in observed pregnancy rates and better inform interventions.

  12. International migration and unemployment in established member countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.

  13. The educational gradient in marriage: a comparison of 25 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that a new marriage gradient has emerged in the United States, with marriage becoming increasingly the privilege of the better-educated. This article examines whether this is true for Europe and explores differences in the marriage gradient among 25 European countries, using multilevel models. The focus is on the chances of living in a marital (or cohabiting) union during midlife (ages 40-49). Multilevel analyses show that the direction and strength of the gradient depend on the societal context. In countries where gender roles are traditional, better-educated women are less likely to be married than less-educated women; in gender-egalitarian countries, better-educated women are more likely to be married. For men, the educational effect on marriage is absent in traditional countries but becomes positive as gender roles become more equal. Inequality in a society also modifies the gradient: if the degree of economic inequality between educational groups in a society is strong, better-educated men are more likely to be married than less-educated men. In general, the results suggest that there may be an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages for the less well educated in more-developed countries.

  14. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Some Peculiarities in Training Future Masters in Technology Education in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samborska Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the importance of studying foreign experience in order to improve quality of future Masters’ training in higher education institutions has been justified. The main peculiarities of training Masters in Technology education in European countries, namely, in Germany, Sweden and France have been outlined. It has been revealed that European education systems aim at developing future handicraft and technology teachers’ practical abilities and skills. It has been established that organization of teacher placements in each European country somehow differs: in Germany, teacher placement lasts approximately one or two years; in Sweden, teacher placement is rather cross-cutting; in France, teacher placement contributes to individualizing future technology teachers’ training. It has been determined that syllabi for training handicraft and home economics teachers in Germany are oriented toward not a specific discipline, but toward a set of specialties within the framework of general professional industry. It has been specified that modern challenges and paradigm shifts in education have led to implementation of the latest reform in training Future Masters in Technology Education in Sweden. It has been justified that modern French teacher education, in particular, education of technology teachers, is based on the principles of individualization. It has been noted that syllabi of European higher education institutions are rather variative, yet they always contain three types of disciplines – compulsory, partially elective and completely elective. Based on the research findings, it has been concluded that exchanging experience is extremely necessary nowadays and will contribute to improving Ukrainian system of teacher education. It has been determined that education systems in Germany, Sweden and France possess several advantages, namely, information openness, a diversified network of higher education institutions, favourable conditions

  16. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Redondo Cornejo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez Pérez, María José; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W J; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-08-15

    The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. 10 European countries. 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.

  17. Psychological Determinants of Consumer Acceptance of Personalised Nutrition in 9 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poínhos, Rui; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Rankin, Audrey; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Bunting, Brendan; Kuznesof, Sharron; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people’s intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N = 9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway). Results Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants’ perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards personalised nutrition, and the greater their intention to adopt it. Higher levels of nutrition self-efficacy were related to more positive attitudes towards, and a greater expressed intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. Other constructs positively impacting attitudes towards personalised nutrition included more positive perceptions of the efficacy of regulatory control to protect consumers (e.g. in relation to personal data protection), higher self-reported internal health locus of control, and health commitment. Although higher perceived risk had a negative relationship with attitude and an inverse relationship with perceived benefit, its effects on attitude and intention to adopt personalised nutrition was less influential than perceived benefit. The model was stable across the different European countries, suggesting that psychological factors determining adoption of personalised nutrition have generic applicability across different European countries. Conclusion The results suggest that transparent provision of information about potential benefits, and protection of consumers’ personal data is important for adoption, delivery of public health benefits, and commercialisation of personalised

  18. Psychological determinants of consumer acceptance of personalised nutrition in 9 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Poínhos

    Full Text Available To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people's intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment.A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N=9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway.Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants' perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards personalised nutrition, and the greater their intention to adopt it. Higher levels of nutrition self-efficacy were related to more positive attitudes towards, and a greater expressed intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. Other constructs positively impacting attitudes towards personalised nutrition included more positive perceptions of the efficacy of regulatory control to protect consumers (e.g. in relation to personal data protection, higher self-reported internal health locus of control, and health commitment. Although higher perceived risk had a negative relationship with attitude and an inverse relationship with perceived benefit, its effects on attitude and intention to adopt personalised nutrition was less influential than perceived benefit. The model was stable across the different European countries, suggesting that psychological factors determining adoption of personalised nutrition have generic applicability across different European countries.The results suggest that transparent provision of information about potential benefits, and protection of consumers' personal data is important for adoption, delivery of public health benefits, and commercialisation of personalised nutrition.

  19. Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of

  20. Thank You For Smoking! Assessing the Influence of Corporations and Activists on Tobacco Legislation in 22 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Johannes Cornelis; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Need, Ariana

    2016-01-01

    There are significant cross-national difference in tobacco legislation across European countries. Tobacco activism and the counter mobilized tobacco industry may influence legislation and explain these differences. Social movement theories extensively studied the political influence of activists

  1. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...

  2. Economic efficiency of primary care for CVD prevention and treatment in Eastern European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but it also is highly preventable. The prevention rate mainly depends on the patients’ readiness to follow recommendations and the state’s capacity to support patients. Our study aims to show that proper primary care can decrease the CVD-related morbidity rate and increase the economic efficiency of the healthcare system. Since their admission to the European Union (EU), the Eastern European countries have been in a quest to achieve the Western European standards of living. As a representative Eastern European country, Romania implemented the same strategies as the rest of Eastern Europe, reflected in the health status and lifestyle of its inhabitants. Thus, a valid health policy implemented in Romania should be valid for the rest of the Eastern European countries. Methods Based on the data collected during the EUROASPIRE III Romania Follow Up study, the potential costs of healthcare were estimated for various cases over a 10-year time period. The total costs were split into patient-supported costs and state-supported costs. The state-supported costs were used to deduce the rate of patients with severe CVD that can be treated yearly. A statistical model for the evolution of this rate was computed based on the readiness of the patients to comply with proper primary care treatment. Results We demonstrate that for patients ignoring the risks, a severe CVD has disadvantageous economic consequences, leading to increased healthcare expenses and even poverty. In contrast, performing appropriate prevention activities result in a decrease of the expenses allocated to a (eventual) CVD. In the long-term, the number of patients with severe CVD that can be treated increases as the number of patients receiving proper primary care increases. Conclusions Proper primary care can not only decrease the risk of major CVD but also decrease the healthcare costs and increase the number of

  3. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care.......5% for emotional abuse. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of pregnant women attending routine antenatal care report a history of abuse. About one in ten of them experiences severe current suffering from the reported abuse. In particular, these women might benefit from being identified in the antenatal care setting...... and being offered specialized care....

  4. Pediatric biobanking: a pilot qualitative survey of practices, rules and researcher opinions in ten European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvaterra, Elena; Giorda, Roberto; Bassi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    such as decision making, privacy protection, minor recontact, and research withdrawal by focusing on theoretical or empirical perspectives. Our research attempted to analyze such issues in a comprehensive manner by exploring practices, rules, and researcher opinions regarding proxy consent, minor assent, specimens...... and data handling, and return of results as faced in 10 European countries. Because of the lack of comparative analyses of these topics, a pilot study was designed. Following a qualitative methodology, a questionnaire draft mostly including open-ended queries was developed, tested, and sent by e...

  5. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  6. Towards the Goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy: Convergence or Divergence of the European Union Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Agata; Zalewska, Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the similarities between the EU countries in terms of achieving the Europe 2020 Strategy goals. Due to the latest data availability, the analysis is based on the year 2014. The study uses grouping methods, including the k-means algorithm. The results indicate the existence of a division between the “old” and “new” European Union Member States. However, as is shown, some of the Strategy’s targets have already been achieved and some indicators have been...

  7. [Occupational dysphonia management in different countries of the European Union and throughout the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are significantly more likely to develop multiple voice problems than non-teachers. The article presents methods for the diagnoses and treatment of occupational dysphonia in different countries of the European Union and throughout the world. Conclusions comprise the implications concerning the model of dysphonic teachers management in Poland, putting strong emphasis on the necessity for multidimensional therapy in collaboration with otolaryngologist/phoniatrician, logopedist/speech therapist and also psychologist/physiotherapist. The importance of training professional voice users in vocal hygiene and healthy voice habits has also been emphasized.

  8. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Income development of General Practitioners in eight European countries from 1975 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Zee Jouke

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gain insight into the international development of GP incomes over time through a comparative approach. The study is an extension of an earlier work (1975–1990, conducted in five yearly intervals. The research questions to be addressed in this paper are: 1 How can the remuneration system of GPs in a country be characterized? 2 How has the annual GP income developed over time in selected European countries? 3 What are the differences in GP incomes when differences in workload are taken into account? And 4 to what extent do remuneration systems, supply of GPs and gate-keeping contribute to the income position of GPs? Methods Data were collected for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Written sources, websites and country experts were consulted. The data for the years 1995 and 2000 were collected in 2004–2005. The data for 2005 were collected in 2006–2007. Results During the period 1975–1990, the income of GPs, corrected for inflation, declined in all the countries under review. During the period 1995–2005, the situation changed significantly: The income of UK GPs rose to the very top position. Besides this, the gap between the top end (UK and bottom end (Belgium widened considerably. Practice costs form about 50% of total revenues, regardless of the absolute level of revenues. Analysis based on income per patient leads to a different ranking of countries compared to the ranking based on annual income. In countries with a relatively large supply of GPs, income per hour is lower. The type of remuneration appeared to have no effect on the financial position of the GPs in the countries in this study. In countries with a gate-keeping system the average GP income was systematically higher compared to countries with a direct-access system. Conclusion There are substantial differences in the income of GPs among the countries included in this study. The

  10. Income development of General Practitioners in eight European countries from 1975 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneman, Madelon W; Van der Zee, Jouke; Groot, Wim

    2009-02-09

    This study aims to gain insight into the international development of GP incomes over time through a comparative approach. The study is an extension of an earlier work (1975-1990, conducted in five yearly intervals). The research questions to be addressed in this paper are: 1) How can the remuneration system of GPs in a country be characterized? 2) How has the annual GP income developed over time in selected European countries? 3) What are the differences in GP incomes when differences in workload are taken into account? And 4) to what extent do remuneration systems, supply of GPs and gate-keeping contribute to the income position of GPs? Data were collected for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Written sources, websites and country experts were consulted. The data for the years 1995 and 2000 were collected in 2004-2005. The data for 2005 were collected in 2006-2007. During the period 1975-1990, the income of GPs, corrected for inflation, declined in all the countries under review. During the period 1995-2005, the situation changed significantly: The income of UK GPs rose to the very top position. Besides this, the gap between the top end (UK) and bottom end (Belgium) widened considerably. Practice costs form about 50% of total revenues, regardless of the absolute level of revenues. Analysis based on income per patient leads to a different ranking of countries compared to the ranking based on annual income. In countries with a relatively large supply of GPs, income per hour is lower. The type of remuneration appeared to have no effect on the financial position of the GPs in the countries in this study. In countries with a gate-keeping system the average GP income was systematically higher compared to countries with a direct-access system. There are substantial differences in the income of GPs among the countries included in this study. The discrepancy between countries has increased over time. The income of

  11. Analysis of innovativeness, as a determinant of competitiveness of the selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premise that the phenomenon of innovation is at the heart of modern economic policies, the focus of the paper is on the most innovative and least innovative European countries, based on the values of the 12th pillar of the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI - Innovation. The research centres on the analysis of the selected countries, observing them as 10 innovation leaders and 10 innovation learners of Europe in 2013. Cluster analysis of the selected countries shows the depth of the gap between the formed clusters of innovation leaders and innovation learners. By applying the method of visualisation, the paper examines the components of the pillar Innovation in respect of these countries. With regard to the clusters formed and a big difference between them, the further course of the research includes the time dimension and analyses the trend of innovativeness in the studied groups of countries for the period 2006 - 2015. The time series graphs for each of the clusters, according to indicators of Innovation, with average values per cluster have been constructed, showing also the trend lines for each of the clusters. Bearing in mind that the majority of macroeconomic time series exhibits time dependence, dynamic relations between them are analysed using the VAR model. Statistically significant interdependence is established between the observed series. Furthermore, through simple linear regression, the impact of innovativeness on GDP per capita of the observed group of countries is examined. It can be concluded that, in addition to the pronounced gap between the achieved levels of innovativeness of the observed groups of countries, there is a positive impact of innovativeness on the achieved level of GDP per capita, expressed in the purchasing power of the domestic currency on the part of the group of innovation 'learners' in the reporting time period.

  12. Methodological Bases for Ranking the European Union Countries in Terms of Macroeconomic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Olena V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental contradictions of existing methodical approaches to assessing the level of the state economic security have been substantiated and proposals on the introduction of a unified methodology for its assessment, which would be acceptable for use at the international level or for a specific cluster of countries, have been developed. Based on the conducted researches it has been found that the there are no unified signs for such classification of countries. To determine the most significant coefficients and critical values of the indicators of economic security, it is appropriate that the countries should be grouped in terms of the level of the economic development proposed by the UN Commission and the IMF. Analysis of the economic security level has been conducted for the countries-members of the European Union as a separate cluster of countries on the example of macroeconomic security indicators. Based on the evaluation it has been found that the proposed list of indicators and their critical values is economically sound and built on the principle of adequacy, representativeness and comprehensiveness. In 2004 the most secure countries of the EU corresponding to the macroeconomic security standards were Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and as in 2014 the percentage of absolutely secure countries decreased from 14.3 to 7.1%, only Denmark and Sweden remained in the ranking. During the analyzed period Bulgaria and Croatia got into the risk zone, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania were in a danger zone. In 2014 Ukraine in terms of its macroeconomic security was in a critical state, which testified about serious structural and system imbalances in its development.

  13. Invasive mucormycosis in children: an epidemiologic study in European and non-European countries based on two registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Dorothea Pana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. Methods Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™ were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and final outcome were recorded and analysed with SPSS v.12. Results Sixty-three unique cases (44 proven and 19 probable were enrolled from 15 countries (54 in European and 9 in non-European countries. Median age was 13 years [Interquartile Range (IQR 7.7] with a slight predominance (54.1 % of females. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (46 %, other malignancies (6.3 %, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15.9 %, solid organ transplantation, trauma/surgery and diabetes mellitus (4.8 % each and a variety of other diseases (7.9 %; in 9.5%, no underlying medical condition was found. Neutropenia was recorded in 46 % of the patients. The main sites of infection were lungs (19 %, skin and soft tissues (19 %, paranasal sinus/sino-orbital region (15.8 % and rhino-cerebral region (7.9 %. Disseminated infection was present in 38.1 %. Mucormycosis diagnosis was based on several combinations of methods; culture combined with histology was performed in 31 cases (49.2 %. Fungal isolates included Rhizopus spp. (39.7 %, Lichtheimia spp. (17.5 %, Mucor spp. (12.7 %, Cunninghamella bertholletiae (6.3 % and unspecified (23.8 %. Treatment comprised amphotericin B (AmB monotherapy in 31.7 % or AmB in combination with other antifungals in 47.7 % of the cases, while 14.3 % received no antifungals. Surgery alone was performed in 6.3 %, and combined

  14. EU Country Specific Recommendations for health systems in the European Semester process: trends, discourse and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Clemens, Timo; Stoner, Deborah; Brand, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    In the framework of "Europe 2020", European Union Member States are subject to a new system of economic monitoring and governance known as the European Semester. This paper seeks to analyse the way in which national health systems are being influenced by EU institutions through the European Semester. A content analysis of the Country Specific Recommendations (CSRs) for the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 was carried out. This confirmed an increasing trend for health systems to feature in CSRs which tend to be framed in the discourse on sustainability of public finances rather than that of social inclusion with a predominant focus on the policy objective of sustainability. The likelihood of obtaining a health CSRs was tested against a series of financial health system performance indicators and general government finance indicators. The odds ratio of obtaining a health CSR increased slightly with the increase in level of general Government debt, with an OR 1.02 (CI: 1.01, 1.03; p=0.007) and decreased with an increased public health expenditure/total health expenditure ratio, with an OR 0.89 (CI: 0.84, 0.96; p=0.001). The European Semester process is a relatively new process that is influencing health systems in the European Union. The effect of this process on health systems merits further attention. Health stakeholders should seek to engage more closely with this process which if steered appropriately could also present opportunities for health system reform. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Clustering Analysis of Common Tasks Undertaken by Engineering Technicians in Informatics and Manufacturing in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadourakis, George M.; Natsika, Christina; Magnan, Myrna; Barsics, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    VALEURTECH is a pilot project under the European Commission's Leonardo II programme. It includes 35 partners from higher education institutions and professional organizations in eight European countries and has the major objectives: of (a) setting up a homogeneous "labelling" process, such as a diploma supplement, based on a common…

  16. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period f......, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union....

  17. The European PV market evaluation for potential investors - actual information on the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdziel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The EU has ambitious targets for the introduction of PV. According to the white book of the European Commission, the target for 2010 is to install 3000 MWp. In the following the European PV markets of the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland are presented and evaluated for potential investors. (author)

  18. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a

  19. Disapproval of Homosexuality: Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, H.M. van den; Ploeg, R. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  20. Disapproval of Homosexuality : Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Hanneke; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Scheepers, Peer

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  1. Spanish-speaking patients' engagement in interactive voice response (IVR) support calls for chronic disease self-management: data from three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Marinec, Nicolle; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Gutierrez-Valverde, Juana Mercedes; Rodriguez-Saldaña, Joel; Mendoz-Alevares, Milton; Silveira, Maria J

    2013-02-01

    We measured Spanish-speaking patients' engagement in Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls using data from self-management support studies in Honduras, Mexico and the US. A total of 268 patients with diabetes or hypertension participated in 6-12 weeks of weekly IVR follow-up. Participants had an average of 6.1 years of education, and 73% of them were women. After 2443 person-weeks of follow-up, patients had completed 1494 IVR assessments. The call completion rates were higher in the US (75%) than in Honduras (59%) or Mexico (61%; P health at enrolment were less likely (adjusted odds ratio 0.59; P = 0.02). Satisfaction rates were high, with 98% of patients reporting that the system was easy to use, and 86% reporting that the calls helped them a great deal in managing their health problems. IVR self-management support is feasible among Spanish-speaking patients with chronic disease, including those living in less-developed countries. Involving informal caregivers may increase patient engagement.

  2. What do different databases tell about the use of opioids in seven European countries in 2002?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamunen, K.; Laitinen-Parkkonen, P.; Paakkari, P.

    2008-01-01

    and significant discrepancies in the amounts Of opioids consumed between the national data and the INCB report. The source of data for the national registers on drug consumption varied (pharmacies or wholesale). The INCB data provide information oil opioid import and estimated need rather than on medical......Objective: The objective of this paper was to analyse opioid consumption in a number European countries using different sources of data. Methods: Data were extracted from the United Nations' International Narcotics Control Board Report (INCB) 2003 and from the registers of the national health...... authorities in seven countries where data were available for 2002. The amount of opioid used was calculated as daily defined doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day). Danish Register of Medicinal Products Statistics was further explored for characteristics of opioid consumption (age, gender, type...

  3. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  4. Containment integrity and leak testing. Procedures applied and experiences gained in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries

  5. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    2016-01-01

    This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...... explored by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selecting and eliminating variables in the model. Despite national differences in broiler production, common risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks were identified across all six countries....... These were generally related to inadequate biosecurity. Identified risk factors were: broiler houses older than 15 years, absence of anterooms and barriers in each house, shared tools between houses, long downtime, and drinker systems with bells or cups. Also, the risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized...

  6. Interregional migration and housing structure in an East European transition country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between interregional mobility at the municipality level and the local housing structure in a country where the housing sector is characterised by a relatively high private ownership rate, a small private rental sector and persistent undersupply of new...... residential housing. Panel data for Lithuania – an East European transition country – for the years 2001-2008 are used to analyse internal migration inflows and outflows. Besides the usual migration determinants such as unemployment and wage differences, also housing sector characteristics are included...... in the empirical analysis. The results show that internal migration flows are quite responsive to variations in housing market characteristics, especially to the supply of new dwellings indicating that housing shortage is the key factor hampering interregional migration. Udgivelsesdato: Autumn...

  7. An approach to burnout and job characteristics of Spanish emigrants in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vallejo-Martín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Job characteristics (both external and job content in Spanish migrant population in European countries (The United Kingdom and Germany and their connection with the three dimensions of burnout syndrome were analyzed in this study. It was also assessed whether these variables were predictors of life satisfaction. Using a sample made up of 679 people, results showed that the worse the job characteristics (external and job content characteristics, the higher the levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism and the lower the professional efficacy (and vice versa. Likewise, among other findings, differences in burnout dimensions and job content characteristics according to the match between job and training level and time of residence in the country of destination were observed. Finally, job characteristics, cynicism, and professional efficacy were found to be predictors of life satisfaction, but not emotional exhaustion.

  8. Assessing the Sustainability of Credit Growth: The case of Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coudert, Virginie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Credit growth rates as high as 30% or 50% a year were observed in some Central Eastern European countries (CEECs in 2006-2007, such as the Baltic States, Bulgaria or Romania. This strong credit growth could have been due to the catching-up process but could also have been excessive, paving the way to the credit crunch that followed the crisis in 2008-2009. We try to assess the excessiveness of credit by applying a number of methods. First, we consider the gap between current credit and its long-term trend and we find some signs of credit booms, in several CEECs in 2005-2007. Second, we assess the "normal" growth of credit with regard to fundamentals through econometric estimations. Credit growth is also shown to have been excessive in several countries just before the 2008-2009 financial crisis.

  9. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Akdogan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkish context and concludes that there is an influence of local accounting policies over IFRS practice in Turkey and this influence still exists in Europe and Australia. This shows that as long as diversity in accounting policies of IFRS is present, entities are expected to be inclined to select their local accounting policies by leading to comparability of financial statements within the country rather than between countries in the IFRS context.

  10. Analyzing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2008-01-01

    by exploiting a long and complete time-series from the Eurobarometer Survey, 1973-2002 allowing an examination of trends in life satisfaction across 15 European countries employing a modified version of Kendall's Tau. Our results show that while current GDP growth does not affect trends in well-being......Previous empirical research has been unable to find a sufficient correlation between subjective well-being and per capita income, being hampered by limited longitudinal information and an inability to account for the predictions of competing theories. We bring new evidence to this question......, accelerations in GDP growth do. In addition, faster GDP growth and faster growth of government consumption than in neighbouring countries induces positive trends in life satisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of aspirations theory and the theory of reference group comparisons.  ...

  11. What do different databases tell about the use of opioids in seven European countries in 2002?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamunen, K.; Laitinen-Parkkonen, P.; Paakkari, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper was to analyse opioid consumption in a number European countries using different sources of data. Methods: Data were extracted from the United Nations' International Narcotics Control Board Report (INCB) 2003 and from the registers of the national health...... authorities in seven countries where data were available for 2002. The amount of opioid used was calculated as daily defined doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day). Danish Register of Medicinal Products Statistics was further explored for characteristics of opioid consumption (age, gender, type...... of opioids consumed) by patients in primary care. Total opioid consumption and consumption of 11 selected opioids (7 strong and 4 weak) were analysed. The amount of opioids consumed by outpatients was also examined. Results: There were considerable differences in the number of opioids reported...

  12. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  13. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.

  14. European-French cross-cultural adaptation of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire and pretest in French-speaking Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray-Kaeser, S.; Satink, T.J.; Andresen, M.; Martini, R.; Thommen, E.; Bertrand, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version

  15. Osteoporosis in the European Union: a compendium of country-specific reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M; Compston, J; Cooper, C; Stenmark, J; McCloskey, E V; Jönsson, B; Kanis, J A

    2013-01-01

    This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were sustained, comprising 620,000 hip fractures, 520,000 vertebral fractures, 560,000 forearm fractures and 1,800,000 other fractures. The economic burden of incident and prior fragility fractures was estimated at € 37 billion. Previous and incident fractures also accounted for 1,180,000 quality-adjusted life years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden) and country specific information extracted. The clinical and economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in 2010 is given for each of the 27 countries of the EU. The costs are expected to increase on average by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. In spite of the high cost of osteoporosis, a substantial treatment gap and projected increase of the economic burden driven by aging populations, the use of pharmacological prevention of osteoporosis has decreased in recent years, suggesting that a change in healthcare policy concerning the disease is warranted.

  16. Analysis of municipal waste generation rate in Poland compared to selected European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klojzy-Karczmarczyk, Beata; Makoudi, Said

    2017-10-01

    The generated municipal waste rates provided in the planning documents are a tool for forecasting the mass of waste generated in individual waste management regions. An important issue is the decisive separation of two concepts: waste generated and waste collected. The study includes analysis of the generation rate for Poland with division into urban and rural areas. The estimated and projected rate of municipal waste generation for Poland provided in subsequent editions of National Waste Management Plans (KPGO) changed since 2000 within wide range from about 300 to more than 500 kg per capita in an individual year (kg/pc/year). Currently, the National Waste Management Plan for the years 2017-2022 estimates municipal waste generation rate at approx. 270 kg/per capita/year with a projected increase to 330 kg/per capita/year in 2030. Most European countries adopt higher municipal waste generation rate, often exceeding 600 kg/per capita/year. The objective of the paper is therefore to analyze the causes of this difference in the declared values. The morphological composition of municipal waste stream in Poland and in selected European countries (e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland) was analyzed. At present it is not possible to balance the value of the generation rate with the rate of waste collection in Poland. The conducted analyzes allow for determining a number of reasons for variation of the rate value in particular countries, mostly morphological composition of municipal waste, inclusion of household-like waste from infrastructure facilities or not and amount of waste collected in rural areas. The differences in the generation rates and provided possible reasons indicate the need to harmonize the methodology for estimating rates of municipal waste generation in various countries, including Poland.

  17. Analysis of municipal waste generation rate in Poland compared to selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generated municipal waste rates provided in the planning documents are a tool for forecasting the mass of waste generated in individual waste management regions. An important issue is the decisive separation of two concepts: waste generated and waste collected. The study includes analysis of the generation rate for Poland with division into urban and rural areas. The estimated and projected rate of municipal waste generation for Poland provided in subsequent editions of National Waste Management Plans (KPGO changed since 2000 within wide range from about 300 to more than 500 kg per capita in an individual year (kg/pc/year. Currently, the National Waste Management Plan for the years 2017-2022 estimates municipal waste generation rate at approx. 270 kg/per capita/year with a projected increase to 330 kg/per capita/year in 2030. Most European countries adopt higher municipal waste generation rate, often exceeding 600 kg/per capita/year. The objective of the paper is therefore to analyze the causes of this difference in the declared values. The morphological composition of municipal waste stream in Poland and in selected European countries (e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland was analyzed. At present it is not possible to balance the value of the generation rate with the rate of waste collection in Poland. The conducted analyzes allow for determining a number of reasons for variation of the rate value in particular countries, mostly morphological composition of municipal waste, inclusion of household-like waste from infrastructure facilities or not and amount of waste collected in rural areas. The differences in the generation rates and provided possible reasons indicate the need to harmonize the methodology for estimating rates of municipal waste generation in various countries, including Poland.

  18. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 ICUs from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, D J; Derde, L P G; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Kozińska, A; Hryniewicz, W; Goossens, H; Bonten, M J M

    2016-01-01

    The European epidemiology of MRSA is changing with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA during 2 years in 13 ICUs in France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. Surveillance cultures for MRSA from nose and wounds were obtained on admission and twice weekly from all patients admitted to an ICU for ≥3 days. The first MRSA isolate per patient was genotyped in a central laboratory by MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec (sub)typing. Risk factors for patients with an unknown history of MRSA colonization were identified. Overall, 14 390 ICU patients were screened, of whom 8519 stayed in an ICU for ≥3 days. Overall MRSA admission prevalence was 3.9% and ranged from 1.0% to 7.0% for individual ICUs. Overall MRSA acquisition rate was 2.5/1000 patient days at risk and ranged from 0.2 to 8/1000 patient days at risk per ICU. In total, 557 putative MRSA isolates were submitted to the central laboratory for typing, of which 511 (92%) were confirmed as MRSA. Each country had a distinct epidemiology, with ST8-IVc (UK-EMRSA-2/-6, USA500) being most prevalent, especially in France and Spain, and detected in ICUs in five of eight countries. Seventeen (3%) and three (70 years and hospitalization within 1 year prior to ICU admission. The molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 European ICUs in eight countries was homogeneous within, but heterogeneous between, countries. CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA genotypes and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing isolates were detected sporadically. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Welfare state regimes and income-related health inequalities: a comparison of 23 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikemo, T A; Bambra, C; Joyce, K; Dahl, Espen

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of income-related health inequalities varies between welfare regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern and Eastern). Specifically, it examined whether the Scandinavian welfare state regime has smaller income-based health inequalities than the other welfare state regimes. The first (2002) and second (2004) waves of the representative cross-sectional European Social Survey (ESS), which comprised more than 80 000 respondents, were used to analyse income inequalities (relative health difference between the first and third income tertile) in self-reported health (general health, limiting longstanding illness) amongst those aged 25 or more. Data related to 23 European countries classified into five welfare state regimes. The study controlled for age and adjusted for educational attainment. When comparing the health of the first income tertile with the third, the Scandinavian countries only seemed to hold an intermediate position: they did not have the smallest, or the largest, health inequalities. However, the Anglo-Saxon welfare states had the largest income-related health inequalities for both men and women, while countries with Bismarckian welfare states tended to demonstrate the smallest. This pattern was unchanged after controlling for educational attainment. However, education seemed to explain the largest part of income-related health inequalities in the Southern regime. This study shows that the magnitudes of income-related health inequalities indeed vary by welfare state regime. However, this variation was not always in the direction expected as the Scandinavian countries did not exhibit the smallest health inequalities.

  1. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  2. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Pereira-da-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  3. Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Orton, Lois; Hawkes, Corinna; Taylor-Robinson, David; O'Flaherty, Martin; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Hyseni, Lirije; Moonan, May; Rayner, Mike; Capewell, Simon

    2014-11-21

    Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord. We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. We created a public health nutrition policy database for 30 European countries. National nutrition policies were classified and assigned using the marketing "4 Ps" approach Product (reformulation, elimination, new healthier products); Price (taxes, subsidies); Promotion (advertising, food labelling, health education) and Place (schools, workplaces, etc.). We interviewed 71 senior policy-makers, public health nutrition policy experts and academics from 14 of the 30 countries, eliciting their views on diverse current and possible nutrition strategies. Product Voluntary reformulation of foods is widespread but has variable and often modest impact. Twelve countries regulate maximum salt content in specific foods. Denmark, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland have effective trans fats bans. Price EU School Fruit Scheme subsidies are almost universal, but with variable implementation.Taxes are uncommon. However, Finland, France, Hungary and Latvia have implemented 'sugar taxes' on sugary foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Finland, Hungary and Portugal also tax salty products. Promotion Dialogue, recommendations, nutrition guidelines, labelling, information and education campaigns are widespread. Restrictions on marketing to children are widespread but mostly voluntary. Place Interventions reducing the availability of unhealthy foods were most commonly found in schools and workplace canteens. Interviewees generally considered mandatory reformulation more effective than voluntary, and regulation and fiscal interventions much more effective than information strategies, but also politically more challenging. Public health nutrition

  4. Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus

  5. THE IMPACT OF THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY ON THE ECONOMIC CYCLE OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Behun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry is a key sector in many national economies and is involved in creating sustainable economic growth. At the same time, it is a sector sensitive to internal and external impacts that result in fluctuations in the economic cycle, copying its development or even outstripping the development of economic cycles. The main objective of this contribution was to identify the relationship between manufacturing and GDP, which represents the economic cycle in European Union countries. The time series of selected indicators of the manufacturing industry and GDP from the Eurostat database for Q1 2000-Q4 2016 were used for analysis purposes. An analysis of 296 time series with a quarterly periodicity from 22 EU countries (including the United Kingdom was performed. The results of analyses indicate that the processing industry is a sector with significant cyclical behavior. In most countries, production and sales in the manufacturing industry behaved as concurrent indicators, changes in production and sales almost immediately reflected in the growth or decline in GDP. Labor market indicators have been shown to be delayed cyclical indicators. Changes in the economic development of the countries have a strong impact on employment, the remuneration of employees and the number of hours worked in the sector. Strong cyclical industries must be constantly monitored, as negative changes in these sectors will automatically exacerbate the economic cycle recession. The results of our analyses represent a valuable platform for economic policy makers and regional strategic plans.

  6. Main health risks associated with Moroccan fishery products exported to European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The export of fishery products constitutes a very significant axis of the exchanges with certain countries, especially the countries of the European Union (EU. In Morocco, the exported fish products are controlled by the veterinarians of the National Office of the Health Security of Food products (NOHSF according to a procedure which is based on documentary control, identity and physical control and possibly analytical control. This control is complemented by monitoring plans. Currently, the product control has become a more demanding task due to the significant volume of fish production, the lack of means and human resources, hence the need for a novel approach to the control of fishery products based on risk analysis, which involves the establishment of appropriate controls aiming at guaranteeing that the products are safe. The objective of this work is the hierarchization of the main health risks associated to the fishery products exported to EU countries by Morocco. This approach is based on an overall analysis and statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA of the health profile of the notifications of the Rapid Alert System for the foodstuffs and feeding stuffs (RASFF from 1981 to 2015. This work allowed the development of a criticality matrix which specifies the health profile of species of products exported to EU countries via Morocco according to species, of danger and type of product. The control of fishery products based on risk analysis is a very important approach for the Moroccan competent authority.

  7. Impact of unemployment variations on suicide mortality in Western European countries (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Ghosn, Walid; Jougla, Eric; Rey, Grégoire

    2015-02-01

    A scientific debate is currently taking place on whether the 2008 economic crisis caused an increase in suicide rates. Our main objective was to assess the impact of unemployment rate on suicide rate in Western European countries between 2000 and 2010. We then tried to estimate the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment during the 2008-2010 economic crisis. The yearly suicide rates were modelled using a quasi-Poisson model, controlling for sex, age, country and a linear time trend. For each country, the unemployment-suicide association was assessed, and the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed, notably in order to evaluate whether the unemployment-suicide association found was biased by a confounding context effect ('crisis effect'). A significant 0.3% overall increase in suicide rate for a 10% increase in unemployment rate (95% CI 0.1% to 0.5%) was highlighted. This association was significant in three countries: 0.7% (95% CI 0.0% to 1.4%) in the Netherlands, 1.0% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.8%) in the UK and 1.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 2.9%) in France, with a significant excess number of suicides attributable to unemployment variations between 2008 and 2010 (respectively 57, 456 and 564). The association was modified inconsistently when adding a 'crisis effect' into the model. Unemployment and suicide rates are globally statistically associated in the investigated countries. However, this association is weak, and its amplitude and sensitivity to the 'crisis effect' vary across countries. This inconsistency provides arguments against its causal interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries and opportunities for the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Hoogzaad, J.; Van Dam, J.; Smeets, E.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-12-01

    This paper discusses an approach to determine future biomass production potentials and cost supply curves based on a bottom-up approach. The approach uses detailed data on NUTS3 level (the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union). The NUTS is the territorial classification for the compilation of regional accounts for Central and Eastern European Countries and results in biomass supply curves for different scenario conditions that could occur in a European setting. A first assessment of the Ukraine reveals that even with modest assumptions, the Ukrainian agricultural sector could supply 2,000 to 3,000 PJ of primary biomass per year on medium term (i.e. 2010-2015). Cost levels of liquid fuels produced from biomass (such as methanol or Fischer-Tropsch diesel) could end up around 6 Euro/GJ, which is about competitive with production costs of diesel and gasoline from mineral oil. Given the growing demand for biofuels in particular in the EU, biofuels could prove an extremely valuable export commodity for the Ukraine on shorter term already

  9. Neurosurgical training programme in selected European countries: from the young neurosurgeons' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerhodzic, Ibrahim; Tonge, Mehmet; Matos, Bostjan; Musabeliu, Erion; Raspanti, Cristina; Ferdinandov, Dilyan; Galimova, Rezeda; Muroi, Carl; Balik, Vladimir; Kursumovic, Adisa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the Neurosurgical Training Programme (NTP) in some European countries. Although there is no official data on how many neurosurgeons are certified in Europe, our calculation shows that this number is somewhat lower than in the United States of America and even 3 times lower than in Japan (per 100.000 population). It is also evident that there is no consensus in the Programme duration or in the official NTP content, despite the recommendations of the EANS (The European Association of Neurosurgical Societies). Trainees from outside the European Union (EU) are under-represented in the EANS training courses. We believe that in the eastern part of Europe there is the most space for improvement in neurosurgical training. Solving of all these problems requires first and foremost their recognition and consideration - then devising a solution. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast several NTP's in Europe in order to promote a more coherent medical education. Some remarks and suggestions from the perspective of young neurosurgeons are given.

  10. Factors Influencing the Capacity of Anticorruption Law Enforcement Bodies in South East European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ALISTAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a regional perspective regarding the independence of judiciary system, based on the magistrates’ perception. Taking into consideration that the independence of judiciary is a concept which has to be not only guaranteed by constitutional and statutory provisions, but mostly perceived as a functional reality, the present article analyses the factors which influence the capacity to act efficiently of the judicial structures in South East European countries. The article is presenting ones of explanation for low capacity to fight corruption in this region of Europe. The analyse is built on a sociological survey conducted in nine countries from the standpoint of the hierarchical relationships and of the guarantees of operational and professional independence, legislative framework, resources as well as the relationship between justice and the society. The data used in this articles provided by the study “Integrity and resistance to corruption of the law enforcement bodies in South East European countries”. The concluding remarks are based on questionnaires sent out to judges and prosecutors and emphasis cultural, managerial and functional aspects of judicial system, exposed by magistrates themself.

  11. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect and evalu......Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect...... and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries...

  12. Sources of growth: Evidence from ten central and Eastern European countries during 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a growth accounting exercise for the 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries that are part of the European Union over the period 1993-2008. We estimate the capital share (α from a Cobb-Douglas production function in an intensive form, by employing panel data techniques. The Hausman and Chi-Square tests indicate that a Cross- Section Random Effects with Period Fixed Effects model best suits our data. Based on this model, we find a capital share between 0.45 and 0.83, higher than the usual 0.3-0.4 used in growth accounting literature. When we take into consideration the quality of labour force the estimated capital share slightly decreases, but still remains high, in a range between 0.39 and 0.79. Our growth accounting results reveal that, on average, capital per worker accumulation is the main engine of growth in CEE, followed by the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP. However, when dividing by sub-periods, we found that the contribution of TFP cannot be neglected since during 1997-2004 it proved to be the main engine of growth in some CEE countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. Some policy implications are offered based on our results.

  13. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  14. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  15. Association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.

  16. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Appendix; EU`s udvidelse mod Oest - miljoemaessige perspektiver. Bilagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The appendix presents detailed information about the sectors air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste water and energy in the East European countries. European regulations within these areas are presented together with data about emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, use of ozone depleting substances, amount of different waste types and their management, water quality control, and energy consumption for individual energy sources. (LN).

  17. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in Ten European Countries – the EPIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline WJ; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2018-01-01

    Background How coffee consumption relates to mortality in diverse European populations, with variable coffee preparation methods and customs, is unclear. Objectives To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men and women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Ten European countries. Participants A total of 521,330 men and women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Main outcome measure Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs) estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers sub-cohort (n=14,800). Results During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41,693 deaths occurred. Compared with non-consumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption experienced statistically significant lower all-cause mortality (Men: HR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.82–0.95; P-trendcoffee and circulatory disease mortality, (HR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.68–0.90; P-trendcoffee and ovarian cancer mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.23 P-trend 0.001). In the EPIC-biomarkers sub-cohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and C-reactive protein. Limitation Reverse causality may have led to spurious findings; however, results did not differ following exclusion of participants who died within 8-years of baseline. The study is also limited by a single assessment of coffee drinking habits at baseline. Conclusions These results confirm prior findings on the reduced risk of mortality associated with coffee drinking but additionally show that this relationship does not vary by country where coffee preparation and drinking habits may differ. The study also reports novel inverse relationships between coffee drinking and digestive disease

  18. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  19. Comparative analysis of public service advertising regulation in Russian Federation and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureeva Maria, R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear

  20. Macro-level age norms for the timing of sexual initiation and adolescents' early sexual initiation in 17 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margreet|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410163; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; Ter Bogt, Tom F M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071628274; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/2007 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n = 33,092)