Sample records for speaking background australian

  1. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Chen Jack


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  2. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.


    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  3. Clinically speaking: A communication skills program for students from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Miguel, Caroline San; Rogan, Fran; Kilstoff, Kathleen; Brown, Di


    This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative oral communication skills program for first year students in a Bachelor of Nursing degree at an Australian university. This program was introduced in 2004 to meet the needs of first year undergraduate students from non-English speaking backgrounds who had experienced difficulties with spoken English while on clinical placement. The program consisted of early identification of students in need of communication development, a series of classes incorporated into the degree program to address students' needs, followed by a clinical placement block. This paper describes the structure of the program, discusses some of the major problems encountered by students in the clinical setting and presents some of the teaching strategies used to address these problems. Evaluations of the program suggest that students' communication skills and confidence improved, resulting in a more positive clinical experience for the majority of students.

  4. Australian School Practices and the Education Experiences of Students with a Refugee Background: A Review of the Literature

    Miller, Emily; Ziaian, Tahereh; Esterman, Adrian


    Schools have the potential for significant impact on the lives of Australian students with a refugee background. Many of these young people speak at least one language other than English, have previous histories of interrupted schooling or have experienced trauma during times of displacement and forced migration. Combined with the further…

  5. A Background in Science: What Science Means for Australian Society

    Harris, Kerri-Lee


    Prior to this research little was known about the ways in which people draw upon their science backgrounds. An earlier CSHE [Centre for the Study of Higher Education] study for the ACDS [Australian Council of Deans of Science] examined employment outcomes and confirmed that many science graduates pursue careers outside scientific research. There…

  6. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications


    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938

  7. Cultural conflict: the impact of western feminism(s) on nurses caring for women of non-English speaking background.

    Blackford, Jeanine; Street, Annette


    Much research has been conducted for understanding the health needs of people of different cultural backgrounds and the problems they experience in seeking health care. In Australia, despite such research, it is argued that there remains an exclusionary health care culture that continues to affect equity and access for people of non-English speaking background. There was a need for research in which health professionals examined their own Anglo-Australian culture and its impact on other ethnic communities. Such concerns provided the impetus for a feminist praxis study to engage nurses in understanding and improving care for migrant women. This study was conducted with 26 nurses in a paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Five collaborative research groups were formed, each consisting of four to six nurses who were co-researchers. Together, the nurses and researchers explored the health care experiences of migrant women, using a variety of quantitative and qualitative data collection strategies. This paper explores a major finding of the study, which was the impact of liberal feminist approaches on the practices of Australian nurses who cared for women of different ethnicity and race. The study found that the efforts of liberal feminist nurses to "treat all people the same" meant that women from different cultural backgrounds did not always receive equity in care. Through the feminist praxis process the nurses were able to explore contradictions in their practice and focus on equity in care to meet the specific gendered and racially constructed needs of women of different cultural backgrounds. A number of strategies were adopted that included regular use of female health interpreters and provision of privacy for migrant women when caring for their children.

  8. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen


    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  9. Shared antenatal care fails to rate well with women of non-English-speaking backgrounds.

    Small, R; Lumley, J; Yelland, J; Rice, P L


    To compare the views of women from non-English-speaking backgrounds who received antenatal care at a public hospital clinic with those whose care was shared between a public hospital clinic and a general practitioner. Structured interviews in the language of the woman's choice. Women were recruited from the postnatal wards of three maternity teaching hospitals in Melbourne between July 1994 and November 1995, and interviewed six to nine months later. Women born in Vietnam, Turkey and the Philippines who gave birth to a live healthy baby (over 1500 g) were eligible. Of 435 women recruited, 318 (Vietnamese [32.7%], Filipino [33.6%] and Turkish [33.6%]) completed the study. Women's ratings of their antenatal care overall and views on specific aspects of their antenatal care. Women in shared care (n = 151) were not more likely than women in public clinic care (n = 143) to rate their care as "very good" (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.72-2.63). Satisfaction with particular aspects of care (waiting times, opportunity to ask questions, whether caregivers were rushed, whether concerns were taken seriously) did not differ significantly between those in shared care and those in public clinic care. Women in shared care were not happier with their medical care than women in public clinic care (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.35-1.96), but were more likely to see a caregiver who spoke their language (OR, 17.69; 95% CI, 6.15-69.06), although two-thirds still saw a GP who spoke only English. Shared antenatal care is not more satisfying than public clinic care for women from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Further evaluation of shared care is clearly needed.

  10. Speaking

    Schofield, James


    Make yourself understood in business. This brand new self-study book is the perfect way for business people who spend a lot of time on the phone or in meetings and want to improve their spoken English, getting their message across effectively. The focus is on the key language required to speak English accurately in business. 'Collins English for Business' is a new series of self-study skills books which focus on the language you really need to do business in English - wherever you are in the world. Each title includes tips on how to communicate effectively and how to communicate inter-culturally. Other titles in the series: Listening and Writing. * Powered by COBUILD - using the real language of business English * Contents: Twenty 4-page units cover the key areas, such as Networking and Small Talk, Telephoning, Telephone and Video Conferencing, Presentations and Interviews. * Each unit contains: - Exercises focused on vocabulary or key structures - Grammar tips - Key phrases * Audio CD: dialogues are recorded...

  11. Communication challenges experienced by migrants with cancer: A comparison of migrant and English-speaking Australian-born cancer patients.

    Hyatt, Amelia; Lipson-Smith, Ruby; Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Sze, Ming; Aldridge, Lynley; Goldstein, David; Jefford, Michael; Bell, Melanie L; Butow, Phyllis


    Understanding the difficulties faced by different migrant groups is vital to address disparities and inform targeted health-care service delivery. Migrant oncology patients experience increased morbidity, mortality and psychological distress, with this tentatively linked to language and communication difficulties. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the communication barriers and challenges experienced by Arabic, Greek and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) speaking oncology patients in Australia. This study employed a cross-sectional design using patient-reported outcome survey data from migrant and English-speaking Australian-born patients with cancer. Patients were recruited through oncology clinics and Australian state cancer registries. Data were collected regarding patient clinical and demographic characteristics and health-care and communication experiences. Data from the clinics and registries were combined for analysis. Significant differences were found between migrant groups in demographic characteristics, communication and health-care experiences, and information and care preferences. Chinese patients cited problems with understanding medical information, the Australian health-care system, and communicating with their health-care team. Conversely, Arabic- and Greek-speaking patients reported higher understanding of the health-care system, and less communication difficulties. Our study findings suggest that migrant groups differ from each other in their health communication expectations and requirements. Lower education and health literacy of some groups may play a role in poorer health outcomes. Public health interventions and assistance provided to migrants should be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of that language or cultural group. Future research directions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Australian and International Student Success Rates in Group of Eight Universities. Go8 Backgrounder 5

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008


    This Go8 Backgrounder compares the academic performance of three cohorts of students in Group of Eight (Go8) universities: Australian students, international students on campus in Australia (onshore) and international students overseas (offshore). Analysis of data supplied by Go8 universities shows that in 2007 students passed 91.8% of the courses…

  13. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications.

    Garrett, Pamela W; Dickson, Hugh G; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Whyte, Linda


    No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy.

  14. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Bense, Katharina


    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  15. How accessible are interpreter services to dialysis patients of Non-English Speaking background?

    Edward Zimbudzi


    Full Text Available Benefits of utilising professional interpreters in clinicalsettings have been well documented. However, not manystudies have focused on use of professional interpreters bydialysis patients of Non-English Speaking Background (NESBwho are in the clinical settings every second day of their lives.The underlying question for this research was to determinethe level of interpreter utilisation by dialysis patients of NESBat a major urban teaching hospital.MethodA multi-method approach was used involving (a in-depthinterviews of health care professionals working with dialysispatients to elicit their views regarding interpreter access anduse by dialysis patients of NESB, (b observations ofinteractions between staff and dialysis patients of NESB and(c review of medical records belonging to dialysis patients ofNESB who were admitted 24 months prior to the study.ResultsInterviews revealed that only 50% of Health Care Workers(HCWs had accessed an interpreter for dialysis patients ofNESB over a period of six months. Observations of staff/NESBpatient interactions showed that professional interpreterswere used in only 25% of the observed occasions. Thereview of medical records revealed that there was noevidence of interpreter use in 32% of the recordsbelonging to dialysis patients of NESB. The study alsoshowed that non-compliance with dialysis treatmentregime was more likely to occur among patients who hadlimited access to interpreters.ConclusionThe study demonstrated a suboptimal utilisation ofinterpreter services by dialysis patients of NESB. Severalbarriers to inaccessibility and underutilisation ofprofessional interpreters were identified.Recommendations to improve communication betweenHCWs and dialysis patients of NESB are suggested.

  16. The Frontier Speaks Back: Two Australian Artists Working in Paris and London

    Catherine Margaret Speck


    Full Text Available Australian artists living and working in Paris and London in the Belle Époque and modern eras had a deep engagement with cosmopolitanism in cities that were at the frontiers of international modernism. They experienced the liberation of putting aside issues of nation, and of working in large, alienating but culturally challenging multi-nation environs in the pre and post war years. This paper will explore how two women artists, Hilda Rix in Paris, a hub of internationalism; and Nora Heysen in London, a city ill-described in the Empire language of ‘home’ for Australians, connected with and articulated cosmopolitan culture. Expatriatism facilitated an offshore variant of Australian modernism.

  17. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    Hindmarsh, Richard


    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level.

  18. Effective University Teaching: Views of Australian University Students from Low Socio-Economic Status Backgrounds

    Devlin, Marcia; O'Shea, Helen


    As the Australian higher education population further diversifies as a result of federal government policy changes, the collective understanding of effective university teaching in the Australian context will need to evolve to incorporate such shifts. The Australian Government has set clear targets for increased university participation of people…

  19. Presentation of self and symptoms in primary care consultations involving patients from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Roberts, Celia; Sarangi, Srikant; Moss, Becky


    This paper draws on the PLEDGE research project (Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice) 1 The Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice (PLEDGE) project was funded by Sir Siegmund Warburg's Voluntary Settlement (2001-2003). The research team was: Celia Roberts, Roger Jones, Becky Moss, Srikant Sarangi and Val Wass. which has a database of 232 video-recorded interactions from GP surgeries in South East London. We focus on the opening episodes-the first opportunity the patient has to report on why they have come to see the doctor-to explore some of the contrasts in self presentation and the interactional work that doctors do when faced with the unexpected. Patients who speak a local London or standard variety of English present three aspects: a description of symptoms, the context in which they occurred, and an affective or epistemic stance. These 'micro discourse routines' are accomplished interactionally through the design of figure/ground relationships, framing and metacommunication and presentation of the 'moral self'. Although some patients from non-English speaking backgrounds use broadly similar 'micro discourse routines', the majority configure the relationship between medically salient facts, adequate contextual information and the stance which conveys the 'moral self' in different and apparently less 'orderly' ways. So openings often become protracted and harder work interactionally for both sides. While conversation analytic studies and communication skills textbooks represent the medical consultations as orderly, we suggest that such apparent orderliness must, at least, be partly the result of ironing out linguistic and cultural diversity. Interactional sociolinguistic analysis is used to shed light on the design of these routines and to provide analytic frameworks for doctors in reflecting on their own practice in ways which challenge patient-centred models.

  20. Immigrant-Background Australians' Recollections of Justice, Injustice and Agency in Stories about Starting School

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Perry, Bob


    This article investigates the recollections of justice, injustice and agency in the autobiographical narratives of a group of Australian immigrants who shared their experiences of starting school. The data consists of 24 autobiographical narrative interviews with participants who started school either overseas and then in Australia, or in…

  1. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Crouch Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  2. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  3. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen


    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  4. Speaking of Speaking

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.


    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  5. Do Teachers Coming from Diverse Ethno-Cultural Backgrounds Represent an Added Value for the Profession? Findings of a Study Conducted in French-Speaking Switzerland

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Bauer, Stéphanie; Radhouane, Myriam


    Research has drawn attention to a certain gap between the increasing ethno-cultural diversity of school enrolment and the relative ethno-cultural homogeneity of the teaching body. In French-speaking Switzerland very little attention has been paid to this matter. The purpose of this article is to analyse the potential added value associated with…

  6. The emergence of care facilities in Thailand for older German-speaking people: structural backgrounds and facility operators as transnational actors.

    Bender, Désirée; Hollstein, Tina; Schweppe, Cornelia


    This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of old age care facilities for German-speaking people in Thailand. It analyses the conditions and processes behind the development and specific designs of such facilities. It first looks at the intertwinement, at the socio-structural level, of different transborder developments in which the facilities' emergence is embedded. Second, it analyses the processes that accompany the emergence, development and organisation of these facilities at the local level. In this regard, it points out the central role of the facility operators as transnational actors who mediate between different frames of reference and groups of actors involved in these facilities. It concludes that the processes of mediation and intertwining are an important and distinctive feature of the emergence of these facilities, necessitated by the fact that, although the facilities are located in Thailand, their 'markets' are in the German-speaking countries of their target groups.

  7. Sun-related behaviours among young Australians with Asian ethnic background: differences according to sociocultural norms and skin tone perceptions.

    Day, A K; Wilson, C J; Hutchinson, A D; Roberts, R M


    Deliberate tanning, poor sun protection and sun exposure increase an individual's risk for skin cancer. Recent evidence suggests that individuals of Asian heritage have lower incidence of skin cancer than Caucasians but that their post-diagnosis outcomes are often worse. In Western cultures tanning behaviours are often motivated by a desire for 'attractive' tanned skin. Conversely, a light complexion is desired in a number of Asian cultures and may consequently serve to protect this group from excessive and risky sun exposure behaviours. This possibility is yet to be tested, with little known about the sun-related behaviours of Asian people residing in Australia. The present study involves 140 South Australian young adults who report having Asian heritage. Results show that the majority of female participants, and significantly fewer males, reported participating in deliberate outdoor tanning behaviour. Perceptions of family, peer and media tanning norms influenced behaviour, with peer norms being the strongest predictor. The desire for a lighter skin tone was associated with increased sun-protective behaviour and a lower number of previous severe sunburns. As a significant proportion of participants engaged in deliberate tanning behaviour, it is recommended that future research continue to explore factors associated with tanning, including an explicit measure of culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill


    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  9. New Speak

    Harste, Gorm


      En ny form for samfundsvidenskabeligt set uklart sprogbrug anvendes stadig oftere i organisation og politik. Ord som "sammenhængskraft", "myndighedsbetjening" og "kvalitetsløft" kritiseres ofte og kaldes varm luft eller new speak. Jeg vil hævde, at ordene i new speak rummer et dobbelt perspektiv......, uddannelse, militær etc.). Derfor er der gået varm luft og new speak i politisk og organisatorisk sprogbrug. Hvor funktionssystemer internt betjener sig af binært kodet kommunikation, må meddelelser mellem funktionssystemer nemlig afstå fra den klare veldefinerede tale.  ...

  10. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K


    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.

  11. Caregivers' experience of the decision-making process for placing a person with dementia into a nursing home: comparing caregivers from Chinese ethnic minority with those from English-speaking backgrounds.

    Caldwell, Lauren; Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry


    The experience of care transitions for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups has been poorly researched. Few studies have examined the decision to put someone on a waiting list for a nursing home and then actually accept a place. Many nursing homes have long waiting lists, but sometimes offers of a place are declined. Our aims were to investigate the decision-making process for placing a person with dementia on a waiting list for a nursing home, why offers of a place are accepted or declined, and the influence of cultural factors, comparing caregivers from Chinese and English-speaking backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers of people with dementia on waiting lists or living in nursing homes (20 Chinese background and seven English-speaking background) were conducted, with thematic analysis of factors affecting caregivers' decision-making. Caregivers were at different stages of decision-making when they applied for a waiting list - some were ready for placement, others applied "just in case," and for some there was no waiting time because of an urgent need for placement. Caregivers' decisions were influenced by their emotions and expectations of nursing homes. The decision-making process was similar for both cultural groups, but Chinese caregivers spoke more about their sense of duty, the need for a Chinese specific facility, and declining a place because of family disagreement. Understanding cultural issues, including stereotypes and concerns about nursing homes, and providing better information about admission processes may help caregivers by allaying their anxiety about nursing home placement.

  12. Speaking Code

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  13. Speak Up! Public Speaking for Libraries

    Felkar, Sarah; Mallette, Michelle; Meunier, Shanna


    Learn about public speaking for libraries in a session that is fun, friendly and not intimidating (as public speaking often can be). The speakers will discuss how public speaking is often an important part of working in a library.

  14. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    ... with others. However, you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There ... If it is hard to speak with a trach in place, special devices can help you learn to create sounds. One-way valves, called speaking valves, are placed ...

  15. Australian Government Information Resources

    Chapman, Bert


    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  16. Language core values in a multicultural setting: An Australian experience

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.


    While it has been agreed by the members of the European Community (except the UK) that all secondary students should study two EC languages in addition to their own, in Australia the recent emphasis has been on teaching languages for external trade, particularly in the Asian region. This policy over-looks the 13 per cent of the Australian population who already speak a language other than English at home (and a greater number who are second generation immigrants), and ignores the view that it is necessary to foster domestic multiculturalism in order to have fruitful links with other cultures abroad. During the 1980s there have been moves to reinforce the cultural identity of Australians of non-English speaking background, but these have sometimes been half-hearted and do not fully recognise that cultural core values, including language, have to achieve a certain critical mass in order to be sustainable. Without this recognition, semi-assimilation will continue to waste the potential cultural and economic contributions of many citizens, and to lead to frustration and eventual violence. The recent National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia addresses this concern.

  17. Australian Journalists' Professional and Ethical Values.

    Henningham, John


    Reports on the first comprehensive national study of Australian journalists. Finds that Australian journalists are similar to their United States colleagues in distributions of age, sex, and socioeconomic background, but have less formal education. Shows that Australians have mixed professional and ethical values and are committed both to…

  18. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Butcher, Andrew


    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  19. Dynamic Speaking Assessments

    Hill, Kent; Sabet, Mehran


    This article describes an attempt to adopt dynamic assessment (DA) methods in classroom speaking assessments. The study reported in this article focused on four particular applications of dynamic speaking assessment (DSA). The first, "mediated assistance" (MA), involves interaction between an assistor and a learner to reveal problems in…

  20. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Fulcher, Glenn


    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  1. The Speaking Brain

    Hagoort, P.; Levelt, W.J.M.


    How does intention to speak become the action of speaking? It involves the generation of a preverbal message that is tailored to the requirements of a particular language, and through a series of steps, the message is transformed into a linear sequence of speech sounds (1, 2). These steps include

  2. A Sociolinguistic Profile of 100 Mothers from Middle to Upper-Middle Socio-Economic Backgrounds in Penang-Chinese Community: What Languages Do They Speak at Home with Their Children?

    Low, Hui Min; Nicholas, Howard; Wales, Roger


    This paper reports the findings of a survey of 100 mothers of Chinese children aged between 6 and 36 months from middle to upper-middle socio-economic backgrounds in Penang, Malaysia. The findings include the language backgrounds of these mothers, their contextual uses of multiple languages and their language choices with their children. Through…

  3. Australian coal


    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  4. Scientists must speak

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson


    .... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...

  5. If First-Year Students Are Afraid of Public Speaking Assessments What Can Teachers Do to Alleviate Such Anxiety?

    Nash, Gregory; Crimmins, Gail; Oprescu, Florin


    Public speaking and oral assessments are common in higher education, and they can be a major cause of anxiety and stress for students. This study was designed to measure the student experience of public speaking assessment tasks in a mandatory first-year course at a regional Australian university. The research conducted was an instrumental case…

  6. Developing the Students’ English Speaking Ability Through Impromptu Speaking Method.

    Lumettu, A.; Runtuwene, T. L.


    Having multi -purposes, English mastery has becomea necessary for us.Of the four language skills, speaking skill should get the first priority in English teaching and speaking skills development cannot be separated from listening.One communicative way of developing speaking skill is impromptu speaking,a method sudden speaking which depends only on experience and insight by applying spontaneity or improvisation. It is delivered based on the need of the moment of speaking using simple language.This research aims to know (1). Why impromptu speaking is necessary in teaching speaking? (2). How can impromptu speaking develop the students’ speaking skills.The method of this research is qualitative method and the techniques of data collection are: observation,interview and documentation. The results of data analysis using Correlation shows a strong relation between the students’ speaking ability and impromptu speaking method (r = 0.80).The research show that by using impromptu speaking method, the students are trained to interact faster naturally and spontaneously and enrich their vocabulary and general science to support speaking development through interview, speech, presentation, discussion and storytelling.

  7. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.


    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour

  8. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.


    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour

  9. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom



    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  10. Who speaks for science?

    Ray, D.L.


    A missinformed or uninformed public can stop anything even when it is clearly in society's benefit and the public will remain uninformed and uneducated in science until the media professionals decide otherwise, until they stop quoting charlatans and quacks, and until respected scientists speak up

  11. Public Speaking: Revisited.

    Taufen, Phyllis M.

    There is a simple but effective process for developing public speakers in elementary and junior high schools. After discussing the importance of effective speaking, the teacher puts a topic sentence, on favorite desserts for example, on the board or overhead projector and students think of their favorite desserts and some related words and…

  12. My Hesitation to Speak English

    Oda, Naruha


    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  13. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Gould, Judith


    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  14. Responding to the Diversity of Chinese Language Learners in Australian Schools

    Scrimgeour, Andrew


    Until recently Chinese language learning in Australian primary and junior secondary schools has been characterised by programs primarily designed for second language learners who have had no prior knowledge of or exposure to Chinese language. Participation in such programs by Australian-born children who speak Putonghua (Mandarin) or another…

  15. Online Business Chinese Speaking Instruction: A Speak Everywhere Speaking Program for Practical Business Chinese

    Li, Bailu; Fukada, Atsushi; Hong, Wei


    Despite the obvious importance of speaking skills, for technology and other reasons, it is difficult for foreign language instructors to provide ample speaking practice opportunities to students. However, particularly in business language teaching, speaking is crucial. To address this problem, the authors have created an oral program for a Business Chinese textbook on an online platform called Speak Everywhere. This article discusses general oral training issues and reports on the design of t...

  16. Cultural aspects of adjustment to coronary heart disease in Chinese-Australians: a review of the literature.

    Daly, John; Davidson, Patricia; Chang, Esther; Hancock, Karen; Rees, David; Thompson, David R


    The burden of illness associated with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has determined this as a key focus for research at a basic science, individual and population level. Although considerable research has been conducted on specific aspects of the experience of CHD, such as anxiety or depression, there is a lack of research investigating the global aspects of the illness experience from the individual's perspective. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research examining the cross-cultural experiences of patients from Non-English Speaking Backgrounds (NESB). Given the multicultural nature of Australian society, and that health and illness are culturally constructed experiences (Manderson 1990), it is important to include the perspectives of people from minority cultures in health related research in order to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate health care and information during an illness. Further, the potential to prevent and modulate the course of CHD, by strategies such as smoking cessation and lipid management, mandate a health promotion agenda based on equity and access for all members of society. This article discusses cultural aspects of CHD in relation to nursing and allied health care during the recovery phase of an acute cardiac event. It reviews the research that has been conducted in this area, focusing on the Chinese-Australian population. The CINAHL, MEDLINE, FAMILY (Australian Family and Society Abstracts Database), PsychINFO, and Multicultural Australian and immigration Studies (MAIS) databases were searched, identifying literature published from 1982. Keywords used were Chin* (Chinese, China), Asia* (Asia, Asian), experience, adjustment, psychological, heart, coronary, cardiac, health and services. Reports not written in English were excluded. Australian Government reports were also searched, as well as hand searching of nursing and medical textbooks. These searches resulted in over 1000 articles. However, only around 50 were relevant for this

  17. Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique

    . Suranto


    Full Text Available Abstract : Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique. Speaking is one of the basic competence from the other fourth basic competence (listening, speaking, reading and writing. Speaking ability should be mastered by every students, in order to achieve that competence students should be given the right technique to study sepaking. The successfull of the students speaking can be seen from their ability to express idea, thought and feeling through speaking. The objective of this Action Research is to improve students’s oral communication skill through the debate technique. This study was conducted at MA Ma’arif Nu 5 Sekampung Lampung Timur from March to April 2014. The research data were taken from students in the eleventh class, with 28 students and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The research findings indicate that there are improvements in students’ english speaking skill through the debate technique. By analyzing data qualitatively and quantitatively from the end of the first cycle to the second cycle and it was found that the students’ English speaking skill increased 20,9% over the standard that has been determined by the researcher that is 65%. The researcher concludes that the students’ english speaking skill can be improve through the debate technique in learning process.   Key words : action research, debate technique, english speaking skill

  18. Australian energy statistics - Australian energy update 2005

    Donaldson, K.


    ABARE's energy statistics include comprehensive coverage of Australian energy consumption, by state, by industry and by fuel. Australian Energy Update 2005 provides an overview of recent trends and description of the full coverage of the dataset. There are 14 Australian energy statistical tables available as free downloads (product codes 13172 to 13185).

  19. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Sean Gorman


    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  20. Speaking to Nations

    Jensen, Lars

    The ebbs and flows, which typically influences not just rhetoric around, but also how we think through nationalism, suggest nationalism is somehow at the core the same ‘thing’. But is it really? What connects the rise of nationalism in Australia in the 1880s, to the nationalism of the First...... surrounding refugees and migrancy in Australia and Europe (since this is what we are invited to do by the organisers), and how the deconstruction of such discourses might lead to more constructive ways of speaking through nation, might offer a way. I think Stan Grant’s book, Talking to My Country, through its...... combination of incisive criticism and insistence on constructive nation-(re)building offers an interesting launching pad. I am hoping to use Grant’s nation-rebuilding project to suggest ways that could open up similar spaces in equally exclusivist, the-nation-is-white-places in Europe. I am aware Grant has...

  1. Background Material

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  2. Students’ Motivation in Speaking English

    Mas Darul Ihsan


    Full Text Available As the English teacher in the classroom, there will be some problems or conditions need to be accomplished. Teacher will see some of the students are very motivated, motivated or even feeling ignored in studying English. The learners who have contacted with English will find that some features are quite easy and extremely difficult. One of the more complicated problems of second or foreign languages learning and  teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom. Motivation is a concept without physical reality, we cannot see motivation; we see effort, interest, attitude and desire. For speaking, it is important first to give competence and then performance. Competence is more likely to the extent a communicator is motivated to be so. Motivation is the extent to which a communicator is drawn towards or pushed away from communicating competently in a given context then performed. This is a descriptive  quantitative research. The data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and analyzed to get the result.  The date taken from the students of Muhammadiyah 1 Senior High School Gresik in Easy-Speaking course. The researcher wanted to know the students’ motivation in practicing speaking English in Easy-Speaking course. The results show that 1 the learners effort in practicing speaking English is 56.1 %. 2 The learners’ interest in practicing speaking English is 49.7 %. 3 The learners’ attitude towards practicing speaking English is 59.9 %. 4 The learners’ desire in practicing speaking English is 71.43 %. Then, some suggestions are made: 1 Using media is very important both to increase the learners’ motivation and to give a big opportunity to learners to explore their idea. 2 Giving more variations techniques in teaching and learning process in order do not monotonous. 3 Giving prizes, encouraging and giving extra points for learners who can express their idea by speaking English well. 4 Creating

  3. Background radiation

    Arnott, D.


    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  4. Young Spanish-English Speaking Children's Reading Attitudes in Relation to Language Skills

    Wood, Carla L.; Gabas, Clariebelle M.


    Background: Reading attitudes are recognised as an influencing factor on the language and literacy achievement of school age monolingual English-speaking children. The relationship between reading attitudes and achievement in young Spanish-speaking English Learners (ELs) remains understudied. Purpose: The aim of the current study was to describe…

  5. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill


    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…

  6. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility?

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya


    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  7. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn


    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Andrew Hassam


    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  9. Greek-Australians: A Question of Survival in Multicultural Australia.

    Smolicz, J. J.


    Argues that Australians from different ethnic backgrounds are not a threat to cohesion as long as they share the overarching values which are reflected in Australia's democracy, economic system, legal institutions, and in Engish as the common language of communication. Discusses the Greek-Australian tradition of family life. (SED)

  10. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?

    William Budiselik


    Full Text Available On 12 November 2012 the then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced she was recommending to the Governor General the establishment of a Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Following inquiries in Australia and elsewhere much is already known about institutional and inter-institutional child protection failures and what is required to address them. That Australia’s national government has pursued another abuse inquiry with terms of reference limited to institution-based (excluding the family sexual abuse is of interest given the lack of political will to enact previous findings and recommendations. This article examines the background to the Government’s announcement, the Commission’s terms of reference and some of its settings, and literature on the nature of royal commissions across time and place. After the lack of success in implementing the recommendations of previous inquiries into how to better protect Australia’s children, the question is: how will this Royal Commission contribute to Australian child protection and safety? Will the overwhelming public support generated by “truth speaking to power” in calling for this inquiry translate into action?

  11. Uranium: a notable Australian decision

    Willheim, E


    Australia, with 20% of the world's known reserves, has legislated strict controls for the mining, milling, and export of its uranium deposits. Background information on the environmental inquiry preceding this legislation is reviewed, including a description of the Australian Environmental Protection Act and the Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry. A package of six bills implemented the Australian government's decisions on: (1) nuclear proliferation and safeguards, (2) mining in the Kakadu National Park wilderness area, (3) economic and social protection of the Aboriginal people, (4) nuclear waste disposal, (5) security from nuclear terrorism, and (6) environmental controls. The author concludes that the decision and implementing legislation were improved as a result of the public environmental inquiry technique.

  12. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    Boldeman, J.


    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  13. Speaking of nuclear energy

    Gillen, V.A.


    At the 1989 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference, the Japanese Government pledged an extra-budgetary contribution for a three-year enhanced public information programme. On this basis the programme was developed centering on a series of two-day regional media seminars. It was determined that these seminars were to be informative and educational, and provide balanced, honest background material on the subject of nuclear energy. The speakers chosen were a mix of IAEA and outside experts from around the world. About 500 participants from 20 countries took part over the initial three years of the programme. This document contains a selection of speeches and topics that, is believed, captured the essence of the information presented during the regional seminars

  14. Australian uranium mining policy

    Fisk, B.


    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speaking Strategies Employed by Second ...


    speaking skills and more strategy training should be given in using wide varieties of speaking .... helpful, and meta cognitive strategies are important for ..... think of. Similarly, in compensating for the missing knowledge, gestures, word coinage.

  16. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Fuselli, Silvia; Nakbunlung, Supaporn; Seielstad, Mark; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Kangwanpong, Daoroong


    Abstract Background The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to est...

  17. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    Afrizal, M


    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  18. An Assessment of IELTS Speaking Test

    Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba


    The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…

  19. The Literacy and Numeracy "Crisis" in Australian Workplaces: Discursive Rhetoric vs. Production Floor Realities

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony


    The dominant discourse on adult literacy and numeracy in Australia sees the federal government, industry, workforce skills agencies and the media speaking with one voice on the "crisis" involving workers' low literacy and numeracy skills. Underpinning this discourse are the Australian results of the international Adult Literacy and Life…

  20. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia


    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  1. Australian Asian Options

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas


    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and patients' judgments of a Question Prompt List for Italian-speaking cancer patients

    Annunziata Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Question Prompt Lists (QPLs have proven very effective in encouraging cancer patients to ask questions, allowing them to take up a more active role during visits with the oncologist. As no such tool has yet been validated for Italian-speaking users, we carried out the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of an existing Australian Question Prompt List. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in accordance with the five steps described by Guillemin and Beaton. Forward and back translations of the original tool were carried out, and the products discussed by an Expert Committee who agreed on a prefinal version of the Italian QPL, which was submitted to 30 volunteer patients for evaluation. They rated each question's adequacy of content, clarity of wording, usefulness, and generated anxiety, on a 3-point Likert scale. Based on the analysis of patient ratings, the final version of the Italian QPL was produced. Results Few discrepancies between the two back translations and the original version of the instrument were noted, indicating that the Italian translation (synthesis of the 2 forward translations was substantially accurate. Most volunteer patients felt that the questionnaire was adequate, easy to understand and useful. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Certain questions on diagnosis and prognosis generated the highest level of anxiety. Patient comments and ratings on clarity highlighted the need to clarify common health care terms which are not widely used by the public (i.e. guideline, multidisciplinary team and clinical trial Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Italian Question Prompt List that is now available for multi-center international studies and can be safely used with Italian-speaking cancer patients.

  3. The relationship between spoken English proficiency and participation in higher education, employment and income from two Australian censuses.

    Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail


    Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.

  4. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    Okuyama, Ayako; Wagner, Cordula; Bijnen, Bart


    Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour for patient safety and aimed at (1) assessing the effectiveness of speaking up, (2) evaluating the effectiveness of speaking-up training, (3) identifying the factors influencing speaking-up behaviour, and (4) developing a model for speaking-up behaviour. Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for English articles describing health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour as well as those evaluating the relationship between speaking up and patient safety. Influencing factors were identified and then integrated into a model of voicing behaviour. In total, 26 studies were identified in 27 articles. Some indicated that hesitancy to speak up can be an important contributing factor in communication errors and that training can improve speaking-up behaviour. Many influencing factors were found: (1) the motivation to speak up, such as the perceived risk for patients, and the ambiguity or clarity of the clinical situation; (2) contextual factors, such as hospital administrative support, interdisciplinary policy-making, team work and relationship between other team members, and attitude of leaders/superiors; (3) individual factors, such as job satisfaction, responsibility toward patients, responsibility as professionals, confidence based on experience, communication skills, and educational background; (4) the perceived efficacy of speaking up, such as lack of impact and personal control; (5) the perceived safety of speaking up, such as fear for the responses of others and conflict and concerns over appearing incompetent; and (6) tactics and targets, such as collecting facts, showing positive intent, and selecting the person who has

  5. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)


    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be {approx}1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m{sup -3} in Queensland to 16 Bq m{sup -3} in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Solomon, S.B.


    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be ∼1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m -3 in Queensland to 16 Bq m -3 in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year

  7. The Australian synchrotron

    Farhi, R.


    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  8. Australian road rules


    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  9. Washability of Australian coals

    Whitmore, R L


    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  10. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations


    Science Monitor, February 6, 2007. 10 For example, Senator John Kerry voiced specific concerns about alleged Qatari government and private support...Sen. Kerry Speaks on Middle East to Brookings Institute,” April 2, 2009. Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 6...alcohol, which is available in licensed premises such as the bars of major hotels and clubs. 53 U.S

  11. Language as a barrier to care for Xhosa-speaking patients at a ...

    Background. Disease is closely linked to the social context in which we live. Difficulty with communication, cultural incompatibility between patients and health care providers and socioeconomic obstacles are important barriers to quality care when doctors and patients come from different backgrounds and speak different ...

  12. Australianness as fairness

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko


    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ......-go’ principle at times conceptually overlaps with cosmopolitan ethics. However, it also bears the potential to hinder cosmopolitan practices. Ultimately national and cosmopolitan ethical frameworks have to be interrogated simultaneously when applied to micro-level interactions....

  13. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.


    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected pheno...

  14. The 2003 Australian Breast Health Survey: survey design and preliminary results

    Favelle Simone


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. Methods The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30–69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Results Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4% had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1% reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9% had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. Conclusion The

  15. Effective Instruction of Public Speaking

    竹野, 茂; Shigeru, TAKENO


    This paper explores the instruction of public speaking in a large-size class. The author has been in charge of the speech classes,SPEECH III and SPEECH IV mainly for the second year students at Miyazaki Municipal University for several years. At the preparation stage of SPEECH III, and IV, he intended that the class size was about 30 students as one group in the lecture style. But, in reality, more than 50 students took the course. Then he had to rethink the way of teaching. To solve the prob...

  16. The physics design of the Australian synchrotron storage ring

    Boldeman, J.W.; Einfeld, D.


    This paper describes the physics design of the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring--Boomerang, which is currently under construction on a site adjacent to Monash University in Melbourne, Victoria. It also includes brief historical notes on the development of the proposal, some background material on the Australian synchrotron research community and preliminary information on possible research programs on the new facility. The facility itself is now in the early stages of construction under the leadership of Seaborne and Jackson

  17. Communicative Language Teaching: Changing Students’ Speaking Skill

    Juni Bayu Saputra


    This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.

  18. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Sofyan A. Gani


    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  19. Student Satisfaction with EFL Speaking Classes: Relating Speaking Self-Efficacy and Skills Achievement

    Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh


    This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…

  20. Education as Invitation to Speak: On the Teacher Who Does Not Speak

    Vansieleghem, Nancy; Masschelein, Jan


    As a response to "Le Fils," a film directed by the Dardenne brothers, we explore the idea of speaking as an invitation and juxtapose it against ideas of speaking as a transactional, calculative, calibrated, activity. Speaking tends to be understood as a relatively straightforward matter: as a means of communication structured by such values as the…

  1. Virtual reality simulations as a new tool for practicing presentations and refining public-speaking skills

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Michalsky, Jan


    Presentations are typically practiced alone while talking to oneself in a silent room. It is not only questionable whether such a rehearsal setting is a proper preparation for a real public-speaking situation. Giving the same talk repeatedly to oneself also bears the risk that speaking "erodes......" from the communicative act of conveying a message into a mere mechanical exercise that is neither content- nor audience-oriented. Against this background, it is tested from a digital-humanities perspective whether a VR public-speaking simulation, in which a speaker can rehearse his/her talk...... in a virtual conference room and in front of a virtual audience, is a suitable and preferable alternative to practicing a presentation on one's own. Prosodic measures of speaking style are analyzed and compared between two groups of 12 speakers, a control group and a VR test group, each of which performed...

  2. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    Siegel, Joseph


    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  3. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  4. The Effect of “Speak Up” Training Toward Apprehension of Speaking in Front of Public

    Amalia, Rizky Nur; Hidayati, Farida


    This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of “SPEAK uP” training toward apprehension of speaking in front of public.The characteristic subject of this study is to students of SMK Negeri 8 Semarang who took social worker studies as their major; mostly they are having apprehension in ability of speaking in front of public with high and extra high category level on apprehension of speaking in front of public, those students had agreed to join “SPEAK uP” training completely. This study generally...


    Ahmad Baidawi


    Full Text Available Speaking is considered the most important skill of language especially English because having ability to speak is one of the evidence that someone has good proficiency of the language itself. Therefore, it is very urgent to teach speaking to the students in order that they master it well. To teach speaking, the teacher must design learning activities as well as possible and it also must be supported by various teaching media especially visual media such as pictures, realia, television etc. in order that learning activities is more various, interesting and motivates students to participate actively. The presence of visual media presents different learning experience which can stimulate students to think creatively so that they always get new idea to express when they want to speak. Therefore, the more various the teacher uses the media, the better learning objectives students achieve

  6. Speaking Effectively: A Guide for Air Force Speakers

    Kline, John


    Speaking Effectively presents techniques on how to speak successfully. It takes a "how-to" approach to effective speaking in the Air Force and presents proven techniques as concisely and completely as possible...

  7. Satisfaction With Communication in Primary Care for Spanish-Speaking and English-Speaking Parents.

    Flower, Kori B; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Perrin, Eliana M

    Effective communication with primary care physicians is important yet incompletely understood for Spanish-speaking parents. We predicted lower satisfaction among Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking Latino and non-Latino parents. Cross-sectional analysis at 2-month well visits within the Greenlight study at 4 pediatric resident clinics. Parents reported satisfaction with 14 physician communication items using the validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). High satisfaction was defined as "excellent" on each CAT item. Mean estimations compared satisfaction for communication items among Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. We used generalized linear regression modeling, adjusted for parent age, education, income, and clinic site. Among Spanish-speaking parents, we compared visits conducted in Spanish with and without an interpreter, and in English. Compared to English-speaking Latino (n = 127) and non-Latino parents (n = 432), fewer Spanish-speaking parents (n = 303) reported satisfaction with 14 communication items. No significant differences were found between English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. Greatest differences were found in the use of a greeting that made the parent comfortable (59.4% of Spanish-speaking Latinos endorsing "excellent" vs 77.5% English-speaking Latinos, P English-speaking Latinos, P < .01). After adjusting for parent age, education, income, and study site, Spanish-speaking Latinos were still less likely to report high satisfaction with these communication items. Satisfaction was not different among Spanish-speaking parents when the physician spoke Spanish versus used an interpreter. Satisfaction with physician communication was associated with language but not ethnicity. Spanish-speaking parents less frequently report satisfaction with communication, and innovative solutions to enhance communication quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Two sides of the coin: patient and provider perceptions of health care delivery to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds

    Komaric Nera


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia is a culturally diverse nation with one in seven Australians born in a non-English speaking country. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD populations are at a high risk of developing preventable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and chronic respiratory disease, especially communities from the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, North Africa, the Indian subcontinent and China. Previous studies have shown that access to services may be a contributing factor. This study explores the experiences, attitudes and opinions of immigrants from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds and their health care providers with regard to chronic disease care. Methods Five focus groups were conducted comprising participants from an Arabic speaking background, or born in Sudan, China, Vietnam or Tonga. A total of 50 members participated. All focus groups were conducted in the participants’ language and facilitated by a trained multicultural health worker. In addition, 14 health care providers were interviewed by telephone. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. All qualitative data were analysed with the assistance of QSR NVivo 8 software. Results Participants were generally positive about the quality and accessibility of health services, but the costs of health care and waiting times to receive treatment presented significant barriers. They expressed a need for greater access to interpreters and culturally appropriate communication and education. They mentioned experiencing racism and discriminatory practices. Health professionals recommended recruiting health workers from CALD communities to assist them to adequately elicit and address the needs of patients from CALD backgrounds. Conclusions CALD patients, carers and community members as well as health professionals all highlighted the need for establishing culturally tailored programs for chronic

  9. Comprehension of idiomatic expressions by Russian speaking typically developing children

    Eliseeva N.N.


    Full Text Available Background. The ability to understand idiomatic expressions begins to develop at an early age. However, such skill is not achieved within the same age and at the same pace in children speaking di erent languages. Objective. This study assesses comprehension of idiomatic expressions by Russian-speaking monolingual children aged 4 to 12 and monitoring the age dynamics of gurative language understanding. Design. 80 children were split in 4 age groups balanced for gender and level of formal education. e participants were asked to identify the correct non-literal meaning of 10 idioms. For each idiomatic expression, children heard three potential interpretations (one correct, and two incorrect ones of which one was literal while the other was overtly wrong. Results. Age-related di erences were analysed by performing a series of univariate ANOVAs. ese analyses showed that already at preschool age children begin to understand some kinds of idiomatic expressions and that such ability slowly develops throughout childhood. Interestingly, until the age of 6 children predominantly interpreted idioms literally. By the age of 7 their ability to correctly understand the non-literal meanings of idiomatic expressions enhanced signi cantly until it reached a plateau around the age of 12. Conclusion. The results of the study are in line with those found for children speaking other languages. The findings are interpreted in light of recent theories of language and cognitive development. Potential limitations of the study are also discussed.

  10. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    M.J. Warren; W. Hutchinson


    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  11. Australian uranium industry

    Warner, R K


    Various aspects of the Australian uranium industry are discussed including the prospecting, exploration and mining of uranium ores, world supply and demand, the price of uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle. The market for uranium and the future development of the industry are described.

  12. Australian uranium today

    Fisk, B.


    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  13. Australian Film Studies.

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  14. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Gede Ginaya


    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  15. Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.

    Sato, Marc; Shiller, Douglas M


    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Under visually-cued conditions, reduced N1/P2 amplitude was observed during speaking vs. listening, reflecting a motor-to-sensory prediction. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of behavioral compensatory F1 response and the magnitude of this speaking induced suppression (SIS) for P2 during the altered auditory feedback phase, where a stronger compensatory decrease in F1 was associated with a stronger the SIS effect. Finally, under the auditory-cued condition, an auditory repetition-suppression effect was observed in N1/P2 amplitude during the listening task but not active speaking, suggesting that auditory predictive processes during speaking and passive listening are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Gouazé, André


    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  17. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Woods John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  18. The durban beach monitoring program: simple surveys speak volumes

    de Wet, p


    Full Text Available program: simple surveys speak volumes Pierre de Wet, Andrew Mather, Andr? Theron SAEON summit, 6 October 2010 ? CSIR 2010 Slide Outline ? Background / History ? Monitoring area circle6 Examples of survey data & trends circle6...) and near-shore deposition cf. classical understanding / scheme ? CSIR 2010 Slide 6 ? id. areas vulnerable to erosion ? effect of replenishment rates / locations visible Beach survey data s h o r e l i n e p o s i t i o n [ m...

  19. “You never know who are Sami or speak Sami” Clinicians’ experiences with language-appropriate care to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Northern Norway

    Inger Dagsvold


    Full Text Available Background: The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. Objectives: This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients’ language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Method: Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Findings: Two themes were identified: (a identification of Sami patients’ language data and (b experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Conclusion: Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients’ language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients’ experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying

  20. Patterns of Multiple Risk Exposures for Low Receptive Vocabulary Growth 4-8 Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental "circumstance" with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The best fitting model identified six distinct classes. 46% of children were in a Developmentally Enabled group, 20% were in a group typified as Working Poor families, 10% of children were in group typified as Overwhelmed group, 9% of children were in a group defined by Child Developmental Delay, 8% of children were in a group defined by Low Human Capital, and 7% of children were in a group defined by Resource Poor non-English Speaking background families. These groups had quantitatively and qualitatively distinct patterns of risk factors and showed different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary. Our results demonstrate a range of multiple risk profiles in a population-representative sample of Australian children and highlight the mix of risk factors faced by children. Children with distinct patterns of risk factors have different onward trajectories of receptive vocabulary development.

  1. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes

    Seema Mihrshahi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children

  2. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Menz Hylton B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  3. Word Order Acquisition in Persian Speaking Children

    Nahid Jalilevand


    Discussion: Despite the fact that the spoken-Persian language has no strict word order, Persian-speaking children tend to use other logically possible orders of subject (S, verb (V, and object (O lesser than the SOV structure.


    Fadilah Fadilah


    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  5. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...


    The innovation of Spolsky's (1989) model of second language learning is that it was presented in the form of a mathematic ... perceived proficiency in speaking Kinyarwanda and English. Methods .... is very effective for the learners' learning.

  6. Speaking Up and Speaking Out about Gender in Mathematics

    Rubel, Laurie H.


    Diversity and equity are stated priority areas across the field of mathematics education, from the ivory towers of the academy, across teacher education programs, to school districts, schools, and individual classrooms. The talk surrounding diversity and equity is usually framed around categories of race, cultural background, language, disability…

  7. An alternative to the scheduled death of radiotherapy in French speaking Africa

    Mouelle Sone, A.; Bey, P.


    A description of the situation of the radiotherapy in French speaking Africa, from the point of view of the therapists and equipment. The economic context does not allow to consider the cancer problem as an emergency one. The epidemic of AIDS has pushed at the background every other question. (N.C.)

  8. Building Bridges of Understanding with the French-Speaking People in Europe.

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with French-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and French culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on France,…

  9. Investigating Differences between American and Indian Raters in Assessing TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks

    Wei, Jing; Llosa, Lorena


    This article reports on an investigation of the role raters' language background plays in raters' assessment of test takers' speaking ability. Specifically, this article examines differences between American and Indian raters in their scores and scoring processes when rating Indian test takers' responses to the Test of English as a Foreign…

  10. The role of primary health care services to better meet the needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community

    Lloyd, Jane E.; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F.


    Background Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences?a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the communit...

  11. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    M.J. Warren


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  12. Two sides of the coin: patient and provider perceptions of health care delivery to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.

    Komaric, Nera; Bedford, Suzanne; van Driel, Mieke L


    Australia is a culturally diverse nation with one in seven Australians born in a non-English speaking country. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) populations are at a high risk of developing preventable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and chronic respiratory disease, especially communities from the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, North Africa, the Indian subcontinent and China. Previous studies have shown that access to services may be a contributing factor. This study explores the experiences, attitudes and opinions of immigrants from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds and their health care providers with regard to chronic disease care. Five focus groups were conducted comprising participants from an Arabic speaking background, or born in Sudan, China, Vietnam or Tonga. A total of 50 members participated. All focus groups were conducted in the participants' language and facilitated by a trained multicultural health worker. In addition, 14 health care providers were interviewed by telephone. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. All qualitative data were analysed with the assistance of QSR NVivo 8 software. Participants were generally positive about the quality and accessibility of health services, but the costs of health care and waiting times to receive treatment presented significant barriers. They expressed a need for greater access to interpreters and culturally appropriate communication and education. They mentioned experiencing racism and discriminatory practices. Health professionals recommended recruiting health workers from CALD communities to assist them to adequately elicit and address the needs of patients from CALD backgrounds. CALD patients, carers and community members as well as health professionals all highlighted the need for establishing culturally tailored programs for chronic disease prevention and management in CALD populations. Better health care

  13. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    White, J.W.


    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  14. Fostering elementary school children’s public speaking skills

    Herbein, Evelin; Golle, Jessika; Tibus, Maike


    Mastering public speaking is a competence which is already required in elementary school. Surprisingly, however, systematic research on the promotion of public speaking competence among elementary school children is scarce. In order to address this gap, we developed and evaluated a public speaking...... the training effects on public speaking skills and speech anxiety. The dependent variables were assessed via self-ratings (extent of public speaking skills, speech anxiety) and video ratings of a public speech (appropriateness of public speaking skills). Findings revealed positive training effects on public...... speaking skills overall: Participating in the training elicited more appropriate speeches in terms of nonverbal and organizational skills but did not influence speech anxiety....

  15. Australian Students' Perceptions of Racial Attitudes in the United States.

    Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.


    This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…

  16. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob


    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  17. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.


    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  18. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing



    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  19. Exposure to radon in Australian tourist caves

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Lyons, R.G.


    In 1991 the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) produced guidelines and recommendations dealing with workplace exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. An intervention level of 1000 Bq m -3 has been proposed. Australia has over 40 tourist caves, under the management of the various State Departments or private groups. The limited data available on radon levels in Australian caves would suggest that some of these caves may be in excess of the proposed intervention level, thus presenting a potential health risk for the cave guides. This paper summarises the current information on radon in Australian caves and describes the proposed methodologies to be used for a Worksafe Australia-funded survey of radon levels in Tourist caves within Australia. This survey is to be carried out jointly by researchers at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, University of Auckland and the University of Sydney, during 1994 and 1995. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  20. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro


    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  1. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing


    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  2. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  3. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik


    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  4. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Colin Hearfield


    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  5. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Montague, Alan


    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  6. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    McCoombe Scott


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological


    Yustinus Mali


    Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.

  8. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Gracey, M


    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  9. Australian research reactor studies

    McCulloch, D.B.


    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  10. Western Australian natural gas

    Harman, Frank


    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  11. Australian nuclear safeguards

    Kerin, J.C.


    The Australian Government considers that allegations made by the West German magazine - Der Spiegel in its January and February 1988 editions, flow from a lack of understanding of the complexities of international trade in nuclear materials, confusion between internal and international flag swaps and failure to comprehend the equivalence principle used in nuclear materials accounting. The Ministerial statement briefly outlines these issues and concludes that there is no evidence that any material subject to Australia's bilateral safeguards agreement has been diverted from peaceful uses or that Australia's safeguard requirements have been breached

  12. Australian methane fluxes

    Williams, D.J.


    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Background sources at PEP

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.


    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Australian University International Student Finances

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati


    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  15. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational




    Full Text Available The use of English in Indonesia has developed quickly in all of the fields. It is affected by many things in many ways. The need of English has also increased quickly in many parts of Indonesian life. To face it, teaching English at young ages or studentseems like the solution. Speaking is one of the skills that should be tough to the student. To get effective learning, it's useful to know what are factors contributing to the student speaking development. This research showed that there are some contributing factors to the students’ speaking development. Those factors are Teacher, Daily Practice, Listening to English Music, Family Support, Watching English Video and Movie, Motivation to Learn, Classroom Environment, Learning Material. Such as a good teacher would provide good learning. Support of the family would also give an effective outcome for the student's development. So, the factors should be known to get a better outcome for the students

  17. Revisiting the thinking-for-speaking hypothesis

    Wessel-Tolvig, Bjørn Nicola; Paggio, Patrizia


    Many studies try to explain thought processes based on verbal data alone and often take the linguistic variation between languages as evidence for cross-linguistic thought processes during speaking. We argue that looking at co-speech gestures might broaden the scope and shed new light on different...... thinking-for-speaking patterns. Data comes from a corpus study investigating the relationship between speech and gesture in two typologically different languages: Danish, a satellite-framed language and Italian, a verb-framed language. Results show cross-linguistic variation in how motion components......: In 28% of the cases, in fact, Italian speakers express manner in path-only speech constructions gesturally. This finding suggests that gestures may be instrumental in revealing what semantic components speakers attend to while speaking; in other words, purely verbal data may not fully account...

  18. Hypoglycemia perception: Cross-cultural differences in Punjabi and Hindi speaking postmenopausal women.

    Bhutani, Jaikrit; Kalra, Sanjay; Bhutani, Sukriti; Kalra, Bharti


    The cross cultural differences in perception of menopausal symptoms are well known and these differences in perception of hypoglycemic symptoms in Russian-speaking and Caucasian postmenopausal women have been reported. This study assessed cross - linguistic and cross - cultural differences in symptomatology of self reported hypoglycemia, between Punjabi and Hindi speaking diabetic post menopausal women. Thirty Punjabi speaking and 20 Hindi speaking diabetic postmenopausal women aged over 50 years, were recruited for this study. Each subject was asked, what happens to you when you have low sugar? in the language of her choice, and spontaneous answers were recorded verbatim. The data so obtained was analyzed by paper and pen method to obtain an understanding of the frequency of self reporting of various symptoms and then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science ver.19.0. Symptoms of hollowness, cold sweats and headache correlated significantly (P Punjabi speaking cohort were bilingual. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may have been missed or over-reported by participants. Diabetes care professionals should be aware that persons with diabetes from varying linguistic backgrounds may report symptoms of hypoglycemia differently.

  19. Australians' use of surrogacy.

    Everingham, Sam G; Stafford-Bell, Martyn A; Hammarberg, Karin


    To investigate the characteristics of parents and intended parents and their current and planned behaviour in relation to surrogacy arrangements. Members of two Australian parenting support forums who were considering surrogacy or were currently or previously in a surrogacy arrangement were invited to complete an online survey during July 2013. Sociodemographic characteristics; proportions engaging in domestic uncompensated and overseas compensated arrangements; countries used; costs incurred; and impact on behaviour of state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Of 1135 potential participants, 312 (27%) commenced the survey. Of these, 24 did not fulfil inclusion criteria and 29 did not complete the survey. Eighty-nine respondents were considering surrogacy and 170 had commenced or completed surrogacy. Many respondents (53%) considered both overseas and domestic surrogacy. Among those who only considered one option, overseas surrogacy was considered significantly more often than domestic surrogacy (92% v 8%; P surrogacy were India and the United States, and average total estimated costs were $69 212 for India and $172 347 for the US. Barriers discouraging domestic surrogacy included concern that the surrogate might keep the child (75%), belief that it was too long and complicated a process (68%) and having no one of the right age or life stage to ask (61%). Few intended parents (9%) were deterred by state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Most Australian intended parents via surrogacy consider or use overseas compensated arrangements. Laws banning compensated surrogacy do not appear to deter those seeking surrogacy arrangements.

  20. Background radiation levels and medical exposure levels in Australia

    Webb, D.V.; Solomon, S.B.; Thomson, J.E.M.


    The average effective background dose received by the Australian population has been reassessed to be ∼1.5 millisievert (mSv) per year. Over half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This background is to be compared with medical radiation, primarily diagnostic, which could add half as much again to the population exposure. This paper reviews research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background and from medical use. While the latter exposure is accepted to have a social benefit, there is a need to ensure that doses are no more than necessary to provide effective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  1. The Importance of Background Culture Knowledge in Reading



    As achieving cross-culture communication is the final aim of learning English,it turns out to be inefficient to attach more importance on the ability of listening,speaking,reading,writing and knowledge system.Background culture knowledge is supposed to be an important way to reach the aim of language teaching,and help readers understand articles.Considering the effects of background culture knowledge and its importance,this article will do a research on it and try to help both readers and teachers aware of the importance of background culture knowledge and take note of it.

  2. The Australian synchrotron research program

    Garrett, R.F.


    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  3. Library Service to the Spanish Speaking.

    Peterson, Anita R.

    This manual was developed to formalize Inglewood Public Library's existing policies and programs regarding library services to the Spanish speaking, and to define future program goals. The introduction discusses why such services have been initiated, why the manual was developed, and the potential benefits the manual has for library…

  4. Confident Communication: Speaking Tips for Educators.

    Parker, Douglas A.

    This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…

  5. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena


    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  6. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  7. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick


    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  8. Idiom Comprehension in Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie


    This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…

  9. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    Issitt, Steve


    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  10. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  11. Speaking and Listening in Content Area Learning

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy


    Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.

  12. Challenges in Learning to Speak Arabic

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.


    This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…


    Krismiyati Krismiyati


    Full Text Available Teaching English for non English Department students will be quite a challenge as the students have various background and interest. Handling those students in a big number in a class that requires them to speak is another impending challenge. This is an action research on role-play in English classroom for Information Technology students. This study tries to see whether recorded-role play could maximize students‘ potential in speaking. This study involved 30 students taking English course in Information Technology Faculty. The students were given a situation in which they had to act the role play. They drafted the role -play before they recorded it. The result shows that students felt less tense in acting the role. They also got more time to practice their pronunciation before recording. It even gave students who felt reluctant and shy in the class to actively participate. In addition, students could play around with the supporting background sound to show their creativity. Surprisingly, most students do their best to show their effort in their speaking as the end-product would be played in the classroom, even the most quiet students performed really well. Finally, this recorded-role play proved to be an effective way to maximize students‘ potential in speaking.

  14. Factors that Influence Comprehension of Connectives among Language Minority Children from Spanish-Speaking Backgrounds

    Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Martiniello, Maria


    This study explores factors influencing the degree to which language minority (LM) children from Spanish-dominant homes understand how connectives, such as "in contrast" and "because", signal relationships between text propositions. Standardized tasks of vocabulary, listening comprehension, word reading, and a researcher-designed text cohesion…

  15. Speaking Strategies Employed by Second Year Students at Mettu ...

    Communicative language teaching should not just aim to teach learners the ... the speaking strategies employed by second year English major students at Mettu ... activities and strategy training in teaching learning process of speaking skills.

  16. Planning of Hiatus-Breaking Inserted /?/ in the Speech of Australian English-Speaking Children

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine


    Purpose: Non-rhotic varieties of English often use /?/ insertion as a connected speech process to separate heterosyllabic V1.V2 hiatus contexts. However, there has been little research on children's development of this strategy. This study investigated whether children use /?/ insertion and, if so, whether hiatus-breaking /?/ can be considered…

  17. Coping support factors among Australians affected by terrorism: 2002 Bali bombing survivors speak.

    Stevens, Garry J; Dunsmore, Julie C; Agho, Kingsley E; Taylor, Melanie R; Jones, Alison L; Raphael, Beverley


    To examine terrorism survivors' perceptions of factors likely to promote coping and recovery, and to determine whether coping supports vary according to demographic, physical and mental health, incident-exposure and bereavement variables. Individuals directly exposed to and/or bereaved by the 2002 Bali bombings and who had participated in a New South Wales Health therapeutic support program completed cross-sectional telephone interviews during July-November 2010. Spoken passages were categorised into coping support themes. Advocated supports were then examined by demographic, physical and mental health, incident-exposure and bereavement variables. Based on their experiences, respondents identified personal, social and service-related factors that they believed would optimally support future survivors of terrorism. Of the 81 people contacted, 55 (68%) participated, providing a total of 114 comments. Thirty-two respondents were women, and 54 had lost relatives or friends in the bombing. Mean age was 50 years (range, 20-73 years). Four meaningful coping support themes emerged, with excellent inter-rater reliability: professional help and counselling; social support; proactive government response and policy; and personal coping strategies. Women were significantly more likely to advocate the need for proactive government response (P = 0.03). Men were more likely to endorse the use of personal coping strategies (P terrorism-affected groups. Male survivors may benefit more from mental health interventions that initially build on problem-focused forms of coping, including brief education about reactions and periodic check-ups. Proactive government health and support services that allow simplified and longer-term access were consistently identified as priority areas.


    Alemdar Yalçın; Ferah Burgul Adıgüzel


    The participants of this study, the aim of which was to determine the importance of speaking in career according to senior manager and speaking traits which a director should have, constitute fifteen senior manager who are working as counselor, deputy counselor, general director and chairman who were assigned by minister, prime minister or president. In this study which was based on qualitative data, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data obtained was descriptively analyzed. A...

  19. Speaking up in case management, part II: implementing speaking up behaviors.

    Banja, John D; Craig, Kathy


    Case managers will occasionally witness colleagues from their own or other healthcare disciplines providing care in ways that frankly deviate from or violate standards of care, rules, regulations, policies, and procedures. This article discusses the case manager's ethical obligation to speak up in such instances, as well as lists strategies and techniques that facilitate and enhance professional communications around "speaking up." All case management work environments. When healthcare professionals practice in ways that deviate from established policies, procedures, rules, regulations, and standards of care, they jeopardize the safety and welfare of their clients and, often, their employing institutions. Unfortunately, professionals often remain silent about such errors and deviations for fear that they might suffer retaliation if they speak up or because they do not anticipate a constructive or positive organizational response. Nevertheless, organizations and employees who recognize the value of speaking up can use a variety of strategies described in this article that enable speaking up to become a professional and organizational reality. Because they practice in the midst of multidisciplinary care, case managers have a marked opportunity to witness any number of practice standards being ignored or violated. Case managers need to develop communication skills and organizational savvy regarding how to approach and remedy such situations, especially when deviations from standards of care have become routine or "normalized." Critical elements in speaking up include cultivating a method to discern the moral perils of remaining silent, learning communication techniques to conduct emotionally challenging conversations, and building organizational leadership that recognizes the value of speaking up and supports safe harbors for employees who speak up appropriately.

  20. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James


    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background.

  1. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne


    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  2. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C


    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Iberri-Shea, Gina


    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  4. Fearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activities for the Elementary Classroom

    Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.


    Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…

  5. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and condition...

  6. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Ingram, D. E.


    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  7. Incorporating TED Talk Assignments into a Public-Speaking Course

    Hayward, Pamela A.


    Courses: Introduction to public speaking, advanced public speaking, hybrid/survey introduction to communication. Objectives: At the end of this activity, students will be able to (1) explain the elements of a speaking outline and discover these elements in real-world speech examples, (2) recreate outline formats effectively in their personal…

  8. Multilingualism in Brussels: "I'd Rather Speak English"

    O'Donnell, Paul; Toebosch, AnneMarie


    Language is both a divisive and a unifying force in Brussels. Historically predominantly Dutch-speaking, surrounded by the officially Dutch-speaking federal state of Flanders, located in a majority Dutch-speaking nation-state, and with the majority of its Belgian citizens Francophone, Brussels has officially been bilingual Dutch-French since 1962.…

  9. Australian coal year book 1986


    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  10. 1982 Australian coal conference papers


    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  11. Foundations of Australian Agricultural Economics

    Myers, Laurel


    In the early years of the twentieth century, Australia's leading economists were well versed in the nature of Australian agriculture but it was not until the 1930s and 1940s that scientists and economists alike realised there was an obvious need for trained agricultural economists. In this paper it is argued that the foundations of Australian agricultural economics were laid in the period immediately following the economic upheaval of the Great Depression and the Second World War. The formali...

  12. Australian black coal statistics 1991


    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  13. Predictors of Likelihood of Speaking Up about Safety Concerns in Labour and Delivery

    Lyndon, Audrey; Sexton, J. Bryan; Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Rosenstein, Alan; Lee, Kathryn A.; Wachter, Robert M.


    Background Despite widespread emphasis on promoting “assertive communication” by caregivers as essential to patient safety improvement efforts, fairly little is known about when and how clinicians speak up to address safety concerns. In this cross-sectional study we use a new measure of speaking up to begin exploring this issue in maternity care. Methods We developed a scenario-based measure of clinician’s assessment of potential harm and likelihood of speaking up in response to perceived harm. We embedded this scale in a survey with measures of safety climate, teamwork climate, disruptive behaviour, work stress, and personality traits of bravery and assertiveness. The survey was distributed to all registered nurses and obstetricians practicing in two US Labour & Delivery units. Results The response rate was 54% (125 of 230 potential respondents). Respondents were experienced clinicians (13.7 ± 11 years in specialty). Higher perception of harm, respondent role, specialty experience, and site predicted likelihood of speaking up when controlling for bravery and assertiveness. Physicians rated potential harm in common clinical scenarios lower than nurses did (7.5 vs. 8.4 on 2–10 scale; p<0.001). Some participants (12%) indicated they were unlikely to speak up despite perceiving high potential for harm in certain situations. Discussion This exploratory study found nurses and physicians differed in their harm ratings, and harm rating was a predictor of speaking up. This may partially explain persistent discrepancies between physicians and nurses in teamwork climate scores. Differing assessments of potential harms inherent in everyday practice may be a target for teamwork intervention in maternity care. PMID:22927492

  14. Safer sex and condom use: findings from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Rissel, Chris; Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; Grulich, Andrew E; Simpson, Judy M


    Background It is important to have current and reliable estimates of the frequency and correlates of condom use among Australian adults. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years, from all states and territories, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews. The overall participation rate among eligible people was 66.2%. Although most respondents had used a condom at some time in their lives, fewer than half of those who were sexually active in the year before being interviewed had used a condom in that year. Condom use in the last year was associated with youth, speaking a language other than English at home, bisexual identity, greater education, residence in major cities, lower income and having multiple sexual partners in the last year. One-quarter of respondents used a condom the last time they had vaginal intercourse and one-sixth of these were put on after genital contact. Condom use during most recent vaginal sex was associated with youth, lower income, having sex with a non-regular partner and not using another form of contraception. Condom use appears to have increased between 2001-02 and 2012-13. Consistent with other research, this study showed that condom use was strongly associated with partner type and use of other contraception. There may be a need to highlight among people with multiple sexual partners the fact that non-barrier methods of contraception do not offer protection against sexually transmissible infections. The finding that many condoms were applied after genital contact suggests a need to promote both use and correct use of condoms.

  15. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana


    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  16. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    Wilson, R.W.


    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  17. Zambia Country Background Report

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  18. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    Bennie, Jason A.; Thornton, Lukar E.; van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z.; Banting, Lauren K.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.


    Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about ...

  19. Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians

    Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T


    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (...


    Elvira Rosyida MR


    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  1. 'Speak out' - issues in participatory materials development

    Zannie Bock


    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.

  2. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Ng Shu-Kay


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  3. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    Johnson, Karen Hill


    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  4. Patients' need for information provision and perceived participation in decision making in doctor-patient consultation: Micro-cultural differences between French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland.

    Camerini, Anne-Linda; Schulz, Peter J


    To explore micro-cultural differences in patients' need for information provision, perceived participation in decision making, and related concepts during the doctor-patient consultation between French- and Italian-speaking patients in Switzerland. In 2012, 153 French- and 120 Italian-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) were surveyed on their need for information provision, perceived participation in decision making, cLBP knowledge, psychological empowerment, and trust in their doctor. T-tests and regression analyses with interaction terms were performed. Results show that French- and Italian-speaking patients significantly differed in their participation in decision making, with French-speaking patients reporting higher involvement. Need for information provision was related to empowerment among French- and to trust among Italian-speaking patients. For participation in decision making, trust was the only related concept among French-, and cLBP knowledge among Italian-speaking patients. Significant interaction terms indicate a moderation of micro-cultural background. Findings point towards differences in the relationships between individual patient characteristics (i.e. knowledge, empowerment) and relational doctor-patient characteristics (i.e. trust) and patients' need for information provision and participation in decision making between French- and Italian-speaking patients in Switzerland. Doctors should be aware of these differences when dealing with patients of different micro-cultural backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo


    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  6. Culture Qualitatively but Not Quantitatively Influences Performance in the Boston Naming Test in a Chinese-Speaking Population

    Ting-Bin Chen


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Boston Naming Test (BNT is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. Methods: A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Results: Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. Conclusion: For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  7. The natural radiation background

    Duggleby, J.C.


    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  8. Effects of background radiation

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.


    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  9. The cosmic microwave background

    Silk, J.


    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.


    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  11. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    Maria Cristina Fava


    Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.

  12. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam


    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate.

  13. Australian national proton facility

    Jackson, M.


    important in children and other long-term survivors. When used with chemotherapy, the lower dose to normal tissue will reduce acute toxicity and the risk of second malignancies. It may also be possible to use a smaller number of radiotherapy fractions and thus reduce the total cost of treatment. With the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of such a facility, which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced early next year. This presentation will outline the planned facility that would have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre would enable the conduct of randomised trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. The beam would be available for physics, engineering and biological research

  14. Thermal background noise limitations

    Gulkis, S.


    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  15. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.


    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  16. Mammographic screening practices among Chinese-Australian women.

    Kwok, Cannas; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate


    To report mammographic screening practice among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, acculturation factors (English proficiency and length of stay in Australia), cultural beliefs, and having a mammogram as recommended. Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Of 988 Chinese-Australian women over 18 years of age invited to participate in the study, 785 (79%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of these women, 320 (40.8%) were in the target age range of 50 to 69 years. The Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) was used as a data collection instrument. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests, and logistic regression. Of the 320 women in the targeted age range of 50 to 69 years, 238 (74.4%) had a mammogram as recommended biannually. Being married-de facto, in the 60 to 69 age group, and speaking Cantonese at home were positively associated with women's mammographic screening practice. However, no statistically significant differences in acculturation factors and having a mammogram as recommended were found. In terms of CBCSB score, women who had mammograms as recommended had more positive attitudes toward health checkups and perceived fewer barriers to mammographic screening. Effort should be focused on specific subgroups of Chinese-Australian women in order to fully understand the barriers involved in participating in mammographic screening. Nurses can use the findings from the present study to design culturally sensitive breast cancer screening programs to encourage women's participation in mammography. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Gill Tiffany K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  18. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.L.


    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  19. Peran Public Speaking dalam Kegiatan Open Mic (Studi tentang Peran Public Speaking terhadap Kemampuan Comic dalam Kegiatan Open Mic Komunitas Stand Up Indo Kota Medan)

    Rovis, Disa Yumna


    This study, entitled "The Role of Public Speaking on Open Mic Activity". The aim of the research is knowing the public speaking proses and the use of public speaking on the ability of comic on open mic activity. Public speaking theory is used for this research. Descriptive qualitative method is used in this research by nonparticipant observation tecnique through interviewing the comic. Based on this research, open mic activity uses the specific elements of public speaking. They are, the speak...

  20. Western Australian food security project

    Maycock Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  1. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    Maryam Vahab; Sima Shahim; Mohammad Majid Oryadizanjani; Salime Jafari; Maryam Faham


    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 ...

  2. Should there be an Australian Army Association?


    subscriptions, private donations , and the commercial sales of specialized merchandise. It also determined that a lifetime individual membership would be...following potential sources of income: individual subscriptions, corporate subscriptions, private donations , and the commercial sales of... Armoured Corps RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RAMSI Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands RAN Royal Australian Navy RAR Royal Australian

  3. An Australian view of the uranium market

    Lloyd, B.


    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. Introduction (principal Australian uranium deposits, possible Australian production, estimates of world-wide uranium resources and production, estimates of world-wide uranium requirements); Australian marketing policy; commercial considerations; uncertainties affecting the industry, including unnecessary and undesirable government involvement, and supply and demand. (U.K.)

  4. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  5. Public Speaking: Managing Challenging People and Situations.

    Baum, Neil; Boughton, Leonarda


    Every public speaker has encountered, or most likely will encounter, a difficult member of the audience who disrupts their presentation. This is a source of anxiety and discomfort, not only for the presenter, but for the audience as well. Learning how to manage the disruptive audience member is an art form, just like being a good public speaker. A professional speaker knows how to handle this disruption without making the audience uncomfortable and without embarrassing the disruptor. This article discusses ways to manage the disruptive audience member and will help those of you who do public speaking to tactfully and professionally disengage someone who is ruining your program.

  6. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez


    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Jones Aled


    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.


    Tarcisia Sri Suwarti


    Full Text Available Abstract Many people do not understand the importance of public speaking technique. The most frequent phenomenon of public speaking is in PKK (Family Welfare Guidance as one of the organization within our closest community. Therefore, there should be a training of public speaking skills for PKK cadres of RW VI, Tandang Village, Tembalang Subdistrict, Semarang. It is expected to explore the potency of PKK cadres to improve their confidence and bravery to speak up in public. After training, it is also expected that the PKK cadres can continuously implement all of the training materials. Thus, these cadres can sharpen their ability to do public speaking in front of?é?á forum which can produce other achievements that can improve the quality of PKK cadres. It can result on the increasing of their role and involvement in every governmental or non governmental activity or program. Keywords: public speaking, PKK cadres, technique performance, giving information

  9. The Australian solar scene

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)


    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  10. Reflections from teachers and students on speaking anxiety in an EFL classroom

    Akkakoson Songyut


    Full Text Available This paper reports on part of the research project in which instructor perspectives on the role of anxiety in an EFL speaking classroom and anxiety-coping strategies students employ when speaking English have been investigated. The existence of students’ speaking anxiety was revealed via a teacher interview. A total of 88 students from the intact classes also responded to an interview form for an analysis of anxiety-coping strategies they utilised when speaking English in class. The qualitative data from both instruments was analysed using the content analysis. The findings of the teacher interview data put forward that students of this study have experienced speaking-in-class anxiety. This anxiety may influence their grades, to some extent. Three factors that may hinder students’ development of oral skills emerge, including their lack of self-confidence, having poor English background and having neither intrinsic nor extrinsic motivation to use English. Using the target language as the medium of communication in class is viewed by the teachers as a must in theory, but flexibility is allowed in practice. Moreover, the results of the student interview data show a wide range of strategies employed to deal with anxiety (ie social, affective, meta-cognitive, compensatory, cognitive and memory-related strategies. Social strategies are the most frequently-used techniques. Suggestions for improvement in the overall oral English (ie vocabulary focus, audiovisual focus, self-practice, social focus, auditory focus, meta-cognitive focus, compensatory focus and affective focus have also been given by the student participants. An increased repertoire of vocabulary is viewed as the most effective tool for such improvement.

  11. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy


    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  12. The Effectiveness of Learning Instruments of Speaking Containing Character Values toward Speaking Learning

    Wisudariani N. M. R.


    Full Text Available This development research aimed at describing the effectiveness of learning instruments of speaking that were contained in character values. The objects of the study were a syllabus, lesson plan, textbook, and assessment. The subjects of the study were the lecturers of Speaking and the 2nd-semester students of IIA, IIB, and IIC in the academic year of 2015/2016. The data was collected through observation, questionnaire, and test. The data was analyzed by administering descriptive qualitative technique and descriptive statistics. The results of the study showed that the learning instruments was effective to be used in the teaching and learning process, to improve students understanding on the materials, to improve students speaking skill, and to shape characters such as religious, polite, communicative, open, democratic, respectful, responsible, curious, discipline, confident, cooperative, appreciate achievement, logic, critic, creative and innovative, and love reading. The results of the study indicated that the learning instruments of speaking contained of character values were effective so that it was feasible to be used by both lecturers and students of Indonesian Language and Literature Department, Language and Art Faculty of Ganesha University of Education.

  13. Thinking Critically, Speaking Famously, and Writing Effortlessly: An Alternative Performative Public Speaking Assignment

    Charlesworth, Dacia


    Although the concepts of style and delivery occupy a significant portion of any public speaking class, students often fail to make use of stylistic devices or delivery techniques while writing and presenting their speeches. This activity invites students to critically analyze a public speech and then present the critique using their own voice…

  14. To Speak or Not to Speak: Promoting the Dartmouth Model at a Small Private College.

    Cipolla, William F.

    The paper reviews the selection and use of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model at Western Maryland College. The purpose was to produce a student who could read, understand, speak, and write French easily enough to make a foreign language major attractive and less formidable. The program proposed a three-semester sequence of intensive French…

  15. Using Mobile Phone to Overcome Students’ Anxiety in Speaking English

    Machmud Karmila


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to discover whether the use of mobile phone can minimize students’ anxiety in speaking English and in turn will improve their speaking skill. Anxiety has become a major problem for students when asked to speak in a speaking class. Using quasi experimental method, the data of this research was collected through questionnaire of foreign language anxiety classroom scale, and oral test for speaking ability. Factorial design 2 x2 using ANOVA is used to analyze the data of this research. The result has shown: (1 the score of students’ learning achievement in speaking English who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than the students’ who were taught by using conventional teaching. It means that the use of mobile phone application results in better influence towards students’ speaking ability; (2 The learning achievement of the students with high anxiety in speaking English who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than the high-anxiety students who were taught by conventional teaching; (3 The learning achievement in speaking English of low anxiety students who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than low anxiety students’ who were taught by conventional teaching.

  16. Speaking and writing strategies for the TOEFL IBT

    Stirling, Bruce


    Comprehensive Prep for the TOEFL Increase your TOEFLʼ iBT score by increasing your speaking and writing scores. How? By using the strategy called argument mapping. Why argument mapping? Because the TOEFLʼ iBT speaking and writing sections are all argument-based tasks. That means if you want high speaking and writing scores, you must know how to map out (develop and deliver) spoken and written arguments, quickly and proficiently. With argument mapping, you will be able to do just that. Best of all, you can apply argument mapping to all six speaking tasks and both writing tasks. That means you w

  17. Australian black coal statistics 1990


    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  18. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Kerry, Stephen Craig


    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  19. Australian Naturalism and Its Critics.

    Hyung, Park Sun


    Details the ongoing debate between Australian naturalists and their critics since the publication of C.W. Evers and G. Lakomski's seminal book "Knowing Educational Administration." Examines critics' views in several categories: the coherence concept, coherentism criteria, the naturalistic fallacy, and questions concerning foundations and…

  20. Public speaking: creating presentations that are awe inspiring not yawn producing.

    DeVan, Marsheila; Baum, Neil


    Many physicians want to be good platform speakers; however, few of us have the background and training necessary to be an outstanding public speaker. Yes, we all have slide decks and PowerPoint programs provided to us so that we can turn our backs to the audience and read the verbiage on the slides. But does that technique generate useful information to the audience? Or if speaking to a lay audience, does that kind of talk make the audience members get out their cell phones and call the office to make an appointment in our practice? Probably not. This article will provide suggestions that will enhance your speaking and presentation skills. This, in turn, will make you a darling of the pharma industry and encourage potential patients in your audience to become patients in your practice.

  1. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  2. Malaysia; Background Paper

    International Monetary Fund


    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  3. Boomerang - the Australian light source

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.F.


    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was one of seven major national research facilities funded by the Federal Government in December 1995. The program provides guaranteed access and travel funds for Australian scientists to conduct synchrotron radiation-based research at two overseas facilities - the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan and the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. The Federal Government also provided funding of $100K to carry out a Feasibility Study for an Australian-based facility. This has been completed and included a mission to a number of laboratories overseas that were or had recently constructed a facility that could be considered for Australia. Following the mission, consensus was achieved within the community for the specifications of a proposed Australian facility. The proposed facility, Boomerang, has an energy of 3 GeV, an emittance of 16 nm rad and will be equipped in the first phase with 9 instrument stations. Boomerang will be competitive in performance with other facilities currently under construction overseas. A detailed proposal has been submitted to the Federal Government for funding. No site has been specified in the proposal. The proposal was prepared within the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) following extensive consultation with industrial and scientific groups in all Australian states. Valuable contributions have been made by members of all the committees of the ASRP, the Australian synchrotron research community that works through the ASRP and the National Synchrotron Steering Committee. Important contributions have also been made by many industrial groups including consortia in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. The input from the ANKA staff at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and, in particular. Professor Einfeld has been a critical component. The estimated capital cost of a no frills laboratory has been estimated to be $100M in 1999 dollars. The

  4. Current situation and future prospects for the Australian beef industry.

    Greenwood, Paul Leo; Ferguson, Drewe M


    Beef production extends over almost half of Australia, with about 47,000 cattle producers that contribute about 20% ($A12.7 billion GVP) of the total value of farm production in Australia. Australia is one of the world's most efficient producers of cattle and was the world's third largest beef exporter in 2016. The Australian beef industry had 25 million head of cattle in 2016-17, with a national beef breeding herd of 11.5 million head. Australian beef production includes pasture based cow-calf systems, a backgrounding or grow-out period on pasture, and feedlot or pasture finishing. Feedlot finishing has assumed more importance in recent years to assure the eating quality of beef entering the relatively small Australian domestic market, and to enhance the supply of higher value beef for export markets. Maintenance of Australia's preferred status as a quality assured supplier of high value beef produced under environmentally sustainable systems from 'disease-free' cattle is of highest importance. Stringent livestock and meat quality regulations and quality assurance systems, and productivity growth and efficiency across the supply chain to ensure price competiveness, are crucial for continued export market growth in the face of increasing competition. Major industry issues, that also represent research, development and adoption priorities and opportunities for the Australian beef industry have been captured within exhaustive strategic planning processes by the red meat and beef industries. At the broadest level, these issues include consumer and industry support, market growth and diversification, supply chain efficiency, productivity and profitability, environmental sustainability, and animal health and welfare. This review provides an overview of the Australian beef industry including current market trends and future prospects, and major issues and opportunities for the continued growth, development and profitability of the industry.

  5. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat

    Reem Joukhadar


    Full Text Available Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to

  6. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat.

    Joukhadar, Reem; Daetwyler, Hans D; Bansal, Urmil K; Gendall, Anthony R; Hayden, Matthew J


    Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to assist with

  7. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Gurrin Lyle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  8. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Clifton Peter M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  9. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    Hovmark, Henrik


    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  10. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987


    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  11. Monitored background radiometer

    Ruel, C.


    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  12. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Vernon Wesley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  13. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress


    Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 45 Stephen J. Hadley and William J. Perry, co...Generally speaking, delays in maintenance periods will impact the overall operational availability of the submarine force,” Lt. Cmdr. Tim Hawkins

  14. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate


    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  15. Public Speaking versus Hybrid Introductory Communication Courses: Exploring Four Outcomes

    Broeckelman-Post, Melissa A.; Pyle, Andrew S.


    The purpose of this study was to compare student growth in public speaking and hybrid introductory communication skills courses on four outcomes: public speaking anxiety, self-perceived communication competence, intercultural effectiveness, and connected classroom climate. This study also sought to find out whether there were differences in the…

  16. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

    Raja, Farhan


    Despite being competent in their field of work, professional's worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to…

  17. The Development and Test of the Public Speaking Competence Rubric

    Schreiber, Lisa M.; Paul, Gregory D.; Shibley, Lisa R.


    In response to the demand for increased accountability within the university classroom, there have been calls for a new generation of rubrics that effectively assess students' competence in several areas, including public speaking. This article describes the development, test, and factor analyses of the Public Speaking Competence Rubric (PSCR), an…

  18. Using Critical Communication Pedagogy to Teach Public Speaking

    De La Mare, Danielle M.


    Using Critical Communication Pedagogy, this semester-long service-learning approach to public speaking requires students to apply public speaking concepts to a speech they develop and deliver to a specific community audience, to examine their own biases, and to explore and evaluate various strategies for adapting to their audience.

  19. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white ...

    Objective. To inv:estigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. Design. A comparative study ·of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. Settings and subjects. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosaspeaking ...

  20. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.


    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  1. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Laboratory Services

    SpeakUP TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Laboratory Services To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM ... are more likely to get better faster. To help prevent health care mistakes, patients are urged to “ ...

  2. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei


    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  3. Should Philosophers and Educators Be Speaking to Each Other?

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.


    Responds to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" suggesting that philosophers and educators are actually speaking to one another, copiously and productively, though the conversation sometimes takes other, less direct modes. The paper asks whether they should be talking to each other,…


    Lilis Suryani


    Full Text Available Speaking is one of essential skills that should be mastered by students. In fact, the students face difficulties in speaking such as difficulty to arrange the sentences, fear of making mistakes, and lack of motivation. It is supported by Nunan (1993, he states that there are some challenges in teaching speaking skill in EFL classroom namely lack of motivation, and they tend to use their first language. Related to those problems, role play is offered to overcome the problems in speaking. The aim of the research was to know the effect of using role play in teaching speaking. The research used pre-experimental design with one group pre test and post test design which consist of 30 students as the sample. The data were obtained by using pre test and post test. Then, obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 20. The result of the research showed that significance value was .00 and it is lower than the significance level .05. It means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, teaching speaking by using role play has a significant effect on improving the students’ speaking ability.    Keywords: role play, speaking, motivation

  5. Test Writing and Speaking at GCE Ordinary Level

    Harding, Ann


    Discusses diversity which has arisen in testing of productive skills at GCE O level. Criteria to apply in assessment of foreign language acquisition, and writing and speaking tests in particular, are discussed, as well as the weighting of writing and speaking at O level. (RM)

  6. Using Communicative Games in Improving Students' Speaking Skills

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; Kultsum, Ummi; Armadi, Ari


    The aims of the study are to know whether communicative games have an impact on teaching speaking skill and describe how communicative games give an influence on speaking skills of students at junior high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. Classroom Action Research (CAR) was implemented based on Kurt. L model. The procedures used were planning,…

  7. Improving Lecture Quality through Training in Public Speaking

    Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.


    Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills training…

  8. Fear of Public Speaking: How Can I Overcome It?

    ... I overcome it? How can I overcome my fear of public speaking? Answers from Craig N. Sawchuk, Ph.D., L.P. Fear of public speaking is a common form of ... It can range from slight nervousness to paralyzing fear and panic. Many people with this fear avoid ...

  9. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    Jackett, Mark


    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  10. Rater Judgment and English Language Speaking Proficiency. Research Report

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Wigglesworth, Gillian


    The paper investigates whether there is a shared perception of speaking proficiency among raters from different English speaking countries. More specifically, this study examines whether there is a significant difference among English language learning (ELL) teachers, residing in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA when rating speech samples of…

  11. The Extinction and Return of Fear of Public Speaking.

    Laborda, Mario A; Schofield, Casey A; Johnson, Emily M; Schubert, Jessica R; George-Denn, Daniel; Coles, Meredith E; Miller, Ralph R


    Prior studies indicate extinguished fear often partially returns when participants are later tested outside the extinction context. Cues carried from the extinction context to the test context sometimes reduce return of fear, but it is unclear whether such extinction cues (ECs) reduce return of fear of public speaking. Here we assessed return of fear of public speaking, and whether either of two types of ECs can attenuate it. Participants gave speeches of increasing difficulty during an exposure practice session and were tested 2 days later in a different context. Testing occurred in the presence of physical ECs, after mentally rehearsing the exposure session, or without either reminder. Practice reduced fear of public speaking, but fear partially returned at test. Neither physical nor mental ECs reduced partial return of fear of public speaking. The return of extinguished fear of public speaking, although small, was reliable, but not appreciably sensitive to presence of ECs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Giving Speaking Practice in Self-Access Mode a Chance

    Kerstin Dofs


    Full Text Available Finding resources and activities which will interest students and promote speaking in a self-access resource can be challenging. This article describes how the School of English at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT, Christchurch, New Zealand, works to enable speaking practice in their Language Self Access Centre (LSAC. The activities which students are encouraged to do were produced consequent to research and an examination of good practice world- wide within the field of autonomy in language learning. The article will explore some basic design principles and conditions which were followed with the aim of creating maximal “comprehensible outputs” for speaking (Anderson, Maclean & Lynch, 2004, and, at the same time, creating conditions for these speaking tasks which would optimise development of autonomous language use (Thornbury, 2005. This is followed by an analysis of how the resources provided in a designated speaking area in the LSAC fulfil these principles and conditions, and how they may foster autonomous learning.

  13. Enhancing The EFL Learners’ Speaking Skill Through Folktales Based Instruction

    Nyoman Mantra Ida Bagus


    Full Text Available This present research was conducted to improve the EFL learners’ speaking skill through the implementation of Folktales Based Instruction. Consequently this study was intended to explore the valuable usefulness of folktales based instruction implemented intensively in EFL classroom. The subject of the present study consisted of 30 EFL adult learners. The study was conducted in two consecutive cycles in which two learning sessions were carried out for each cycle. The t ea ching ses sions were s t rongly focused on the learners’ active engagement in various communicative classroom activities to ensure that the learners gain higher level of speaking ability. The research result showed that the learners’ speaking skill improved significantly in the second cycle compared to the first cycle. The questionnaire result also showed that the learners strongly enjoyed learning speaking through the integration of folktales based instruction.Therefore it is recommended that teachers should consider utilizing folktales based instruction in teaching speaking skill.

  14. Tornado hazard communication disparities among Spanish-speaking individuals in an English-speaking community.

    Ahlborn, Leslie; Franc, Jeffrey Michael


    The state of Oklahoma, known for destructive tornados, has a native Spanish-speaking (NSS) population of approximately 180,241, of which 50% report being able to speak English "very well" (US Census Bureau). With almost 50% of these native Spanish-speaking persons being limited English proficient (LEP), their reception of tornado hazard communications may be restricted. This study conducted in northeast Oklahoma (USA) evaluates the association between native language and receiving tornado hazard communications. This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among a convenience sample of NSS and native English-speaking (NES) adults at Xavier Clinic and St. Francis Trauma Emergency Center in Tulsa, OK, USA from September 2009 through December 2009. Of the 82 surveys administered, 80 were returned, with 40 NES and 40 NSS participants. A scoring system (Severe Weather Information Reception (SWIR)) was developed to quantify reception of hazard information among the study participants (1-3 points=poor reception, 4-5=adequate reception, 6-8=excellent reception). Pearson's chi-squared test was used to calculate differences between groups with Yates' continuity correction applied where appropriate, and SWIR scores were analyzed using ANOVA. P-valuestornado siren. NSS were less likely to have Internet access (Ptornado warning reception between NSS and NES. Poor English proficiency was noted to be 75% among NSS, which is approximately 25% more than estimated by the US Census Bureau. This study demonstrates a need for emergency managers to recognize when appropriate and overcome communication disparities among limited English proficient populations.

  15. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  16. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes


    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  17. EIGHT KEYS BEFORE LEARNING TO SPEAK ENGLISH: (A Proposal for Motivating EFL Speaking Learners in Indonesia

    Abd Wafi


    Full Text Available Being able to speak English fluently is as measuring rod for someone who is said to be good at English. In Indonesian context, English is still as foreign language and this becomes problem for them who want to learn it. The problem could be caused by the difficulty of the English itself, the learners’ personality and the process in learning it. There are ample solutions to deal with those difficulties; however, the writer provides a solution as a proposal for motivating the learners; there are 8 keys to be possessed by the learners before they learn to speak English. They are (1 Listen up, (2 be good at imitating, (3 use the mouth, (4 check the voice, (5 have the motion, (6 smile, (7 thank God, and (8 love. The solution is as inner drive or  instrinsic motivation for the learners and it can also be used by the teachers, tutors and lecturers as reference for motivatingthe learners in learning or in mastering English speaking.

  18. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  19. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R


    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  20. Fear of Public Speaking: Perception of College Students and Correlates.

    Ferreira Marinho, Anna Carolina; Mesquita de Medeiros, Adriane; Côrtes Gama, Ana Cristina; Caldas Teixeira, Letícia


    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of fear of public speaking among college students and to assess its association with sociodemographic variables and those related to the voice and oral communication. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was conducted with 1135 undergraduates aged 17-58 years. The assessment instruments were (1) a questionnaire addressing the variables sex, age, field of undergraduate study, voice, and frequency of exposure to public speaking, and (2) the Self-statements During Public Speaking Scale (SSPS), which includes variables implicated in specific domains of public speaking. A descriptive analysis was performed of the variables as well as uni- and multivariate logistic regressions to examine their association with fear of public speaking. The level of significance was set at 5%. In all, 63.9% of the college students reported fear of public speaking. As many as 89.3% of the students would like their undergraduate program to include classes to improve public speaking. Being female, having infrequent participation as speakers in groups, and perceiving their voice as high-pitched or too soft increase the odds of exhibiting fear of public speaking compared with students without those features. A great number of undergraduates report fear of public speaking. This fear is more prevalent among women, students who participate in few activities involving speaking to groups of people, and those who have a self-perception of their voice as high-pitched or too soft. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Report on environmental radiation monitoring associated with visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships in 1980; and, amendments to the guidelines for environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports


    The Australian Government requires that an environmental radiation monitoring program be carried out in association with visits of nuclear ships to Australian ports. The objectives and requirements of the program are summarised and the results of the marine environmental sampling program undertaken at berths are presented, together with radiation measurements taken during visits. During 1980, no releases of radioactive material were detected, nor were any radiation measurements recorded in excess of natural background levels

  2. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry


    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh


    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  4. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.


    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  5. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Cevdet Kızıl; Valorie Eddy; Laura Clary; Katrina Crowell


    This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition...

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequencing reveals potential origins of the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei infesting two iconic Australian marsupials

    Fraser, Tamieka A.; Shao, Renfu; Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M.; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Whiteley, Pam; Holme, Roz; Carver, Scott; Polkinghorne, Adam


    Background Debilitating skin infestations caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, have a profound impact on human and animal health globally. In Australia, this impact is evident across different segments of Australian society, with a growing recognition that it can contribute to rapid declines of native Australian marsupials. Cross-host transmission has been suggested to play a significant role in the epidemiology and origin of mite infestations in different species but a chronic lack of gene...

  7. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E


    Background Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Methods Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data ...

  8. Job satisfaction of overseas-qualified nurses working in Australian hospitals.

    Timilsina Bhandari, K K; Xiao, L D; Belan, I


    The aims of this study were to explore factors associated with the job satisfaction of overseas-qualified nurses working in public hospitals in South Australia and to compare whether factors associated with job satisfaction of overseas nurses from English-speaking backgrounds differed from those from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Overseas-qualified nurses have become an essential part of the nursing workforce in Australia. Although this nurse population has different expectations and values in relation to their jobs when compared with local nurses, studies on job satisfaction among overseas nurses are scarce. A cross-sectional survey using the Job Satisfaction of Overseas-Qualified Nurses questionnaire was conducted in five major public hospitals in South Australia. One hundred and fifty-one overseas-qualified nurses completed the questionnaire. Four factors were found to influence job satisfaction: Supportive work environment, interpersonal relationships, communication in English, and salary and salary-related benefits. Communication in English was the predominant factor that was associated with job satisfaction in nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds. This group of nurses also showed a negative correlation between length of stay in Australia and satisfaction with their work environment. Participants' responses to open-ended questions revealed issues relating to discrimination and racism. Supportive work environment, interpersonal relationships, communication in English, and salary and salary-related benefits were major factors associated with job satisfaction in overseas-qualified nurses in this study. Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds faced additional challenges in communication in the workplace and in dealing with issues of discrimination and racism. Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds need to be supported early in their employment, especially with their communication skills. Consideration also needs to be given to the education

  9. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya


    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  10. Culturally attuned Internet treatment for depression amongst Chinese Australians: a randomised controlled trial.

    Choi, Isabella; Zou, Judy; Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake F; Li, Stephen; Johnston, Luke; Andrews, Gavin; Hunt, Caroline


    Although depression can be treated effectively with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), only a small percentage of Chinese Australians access evidence-based treatment due to practical and cultural barriers. The present study examined the efficacy and acceptability of an Internet delivered CBT (iCBT) program to treat Chinese Australians with depression. The Chinese depression iCBT program (the Brighten Your Mood Program) is a culturally adapted version of the clinically efficacious Sadness iCBT Program. Fifty-five Chinese Australians with depression were randomly allocated to either an immediate treatment group or to a waitlist control group. Treatment consisted of an 8 week program with 6 CBT online educational lessons, homework assignments, additional resources presented in Chinese and English, and weekly telephone support with Mandarin/Cantonese-speaking support personnel. An intention-to-treat model was used for data analyses. Seventeen of twenty-five (68%) treatment group participants completed all lessons within the timeframe. Compared to controls, treatment group participants reported significantly reduced symptoms of depression on the Chinese versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (CBDI) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (CB-PHQ-9). The within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) were 1.41 and 0.93 on the CBDI, and 0.90 and 0.50 on the CB-PHQ-9, respectively. Participants rated the procedure as acceptable, and gains were sustained at three-month follow-up. The study included several subclinical participants and some measures that have not been previously validated with Chinese Australians. Results provide preliminary support for the efficacy and acceptability of an iCBT program at reducing symptoms of depression in Chinese Australians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Jalil Aslani


    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  12. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise


    This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonst...

  13. Tonal Language Background and Detecting Pitch Contour in Spoken and Musical Items

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.


    An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…

  14. Using a Teacher Rating Scale of Language and Literacy Skills with Preschool Children of English-Speaking, Spanish-Speaking, and Bilingual Backgrounds

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Guiberson, Mark


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a teacher report measure, the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL; Dickinson et al. in "Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): a research-based tool." Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,…

  15. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.


    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  16. Using Aptitude Testing to Diversify Higher Education Intake--An Australian Case Study

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim


    Australian higher education is currently entering a new phase of growth. Within the remit of this expansion is an express commitment to widen participation in higher education among under-represented groups--in particular those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper argues that one key mechanism for achieving this goal should be the…

  17. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard


    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  18. Young Chinese Australians' Subjectivities of "Health" and "(Un)Healthy Bodies"

    Pang, Bonnie; Alfrey, Laura; Varea, Valeria


    Young people with English as an Additional Language/Dialect backgrounds are often identified in public health messages and popular media as "bodies at risk" because they do not conform to the health regimens of contemporary Western societies. With increasing numbers of Chinese students in Australian schools, it is necessary to advance…

  19. School Policies on Bullying and Cyberbullying: Perspectives across Three Australian States

    Chalmers, Caitlin; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Spears, Barbara A; Butler, Des; Cross, Donna; Slee, Phillip; Kift, Sally


    Background: Despite decades of research, bullying in all its forms is still a significant problem within schools in Australia, as it is internationally. Anti-bullying policies and guidelines are thought to be one strategy as part of a whole school approach to reduce bullying. However, although Australian schools are required to have these…

  20. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene


    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Disparities: Bias in the SF-36v2 among Spanish-speaking Medical Patients

    Sudano, Joseph J.; Perzynski, Adam; Love, Thomas E.; Lewis, Steven A.; Murray, Patrick M.; Huber, Gail; Ruo, Bernice; Baker, David W.


    Background Many national surveys have found substantial differences in self-reported overall health (SROH) between Spanish-speaking Hispanics and other racial/ethnic groups. However, because cultural and language differences may create measurement bias, it is unclear whether observed differences in SROH reflect true differences in health. Objectives This study uses a cross-sectional survey to investigate psychometric properties of the SF-36v2 for subjects across four racial/ethnic and language groups. Multi-group latent variable modeling was used to test increasingly stringent criteria for measurement equivalence. Subjects Our sample (N = 1281) included 383 non-Hispanic whites, 368 non-Hispanic blacks, 206 Hispanics interviewed in English and 324 Hispanics interviewed in Spanish recruited from outpatient medical clinics in two large urban areas. Results We found weak factorial invariance across the four groups. However, there was no strong factorial invariance. The overall fit of the model was substantially worse (change in CFI > .02, RMSEA change > .003) after requiring equal intercepts across all groups. Further comparisons established that the equality constraints on the intercepts for Spanish-speaking Hispanics were responsible for the decrement to model fit. Conclusions Observed differences between SF-36v2 scores for Spanish speaking Hispanics are systematically biased relative to the other three groups. The lack of strong invariance suggests the need for caution when comparing SF-36v2 mean scores of Spanish-speaking Hispanics with those of other groups. However, measurement equivalence testing for this study supports correlational or multivariate latent variable analyses of SF-36v2 responses across all four subgroups, since these analyses require only weak factorial invariance. PMID:21430580

  2. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

    Thomas Merlin C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  3. Who taught Adam to speak?1

    Arthur C. Custance


    Full Text Available It is taken for granted that the first man, being half-ape, 'spoke’ by copying them. Research shows that such grunts and cries cannot ‘evolve' into cultured speech because the speech organs and brain structure required for human language are entirety different from those needed for of animal communication. The difference in animal and human thinking processes is not merely one of degree but rather of kind. This difference is seen in the use of signs vs. symbols, of emotional and situational language v.v. conceptual, objective language. No animal communication system can account for the human one. Perhaps, then, speech is instinctive? No, for people, however primitive, have been found without a language. Yet unless spoken to, one does not learn to speak as demonstrated by feral (wild children and deaf-mutes(like Helen Keller. So the question is - who spoke to the first human being - Adam to teach him? About all that scientific investigation can do is to demonstrate what cannot be the origin of this extraordinary trait of human nature. The only light we have is from revelation. The first two chapters of Genesis not only tell us Who spoke first but also how the process of language was acquired. But the implications of the necessity of this unique faculty in terms of his humanity and the purpose of his very creation are profound.

  4. Executive Summary - Historical background


    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years


    Martin Kustati


    Full Text Available Abstract: The aims of the study are to describe: 1. Speaking strategies that are most frequently used by the students of the English Department in Tarbiyah Faculty; 2. The contribution of Students’ Speaking-Related LLS in developing their speaking ability; and, 3. The contribution of students’ learning motivation in the development of their speaking skills. speaking test, strategy inventory for language learning (SILL, and learning motivation questionnaire were employed to collect the data. The research findings revealed that there were thirty-four speaking strategies which were most frequently used by high, average, and low achievement students. The findings also showed that bothe students’ speaking strategies and motivation give significant contribution on students’ speaking ability.  Thus, speaking lecturers are expected to be able to implement innovative and varied teaching techniques.

  6. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Prospects for Australian Agriculture

    Nicholas Sadgrove; Graham Jones


    This review is a comprehensive introduction to pertinent aspects of the extraction methodology, chemistry, analysis and pharmacology of essential oils, whilst providing a background of general organic chemistry concepts to readers from non-chemistry oriented backgrounds. Furthermore, it describes the historical aspects of essential oil research whilst exploring contentious issues of terminology. This follows with an examination of essential oil producing plants in the Australian context with ...

  7. A comparison of beliefs about exercise during pregnancy between Chinese and Australian pregnant women

    Guelfi, Kym J.; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A.; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P.; Yang, Huixia


    Background Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women?s beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to ...

  8. Testing the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    Courtney, Claire; Strotz, Luke; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale


    In the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, many countries have been forced to reassess the risk of tsunamis to their coasts. Australia, with relative tectonic stability, has previously been considered at low risk of tsunami inundation. Within written history, only small tsunamis have struck the Australian coast, causing little damage. However, a body of work has arisen that sheds doubt on this apparent low risk, with researchers suggesting that megatsunamis have affected the east Australian coast, in particular southern New South Wales. With proposed run-ups in excess of 100m, recurrence of such megatsunamis in the now densely populated New South Wales coastal region would be catastrophic. The disjunct between historical and geological records demands a thorough re-evaluation of New South Wales sites purported to contain evidence of megatsunamis. In addition, the unique set of diagnostic criteria previously used to identify Australian palaeotsunami deposits is distinctly different to criteria applied to paleotsunamis globally. To address these issues, four coastal lagoonal sites in southern New South Wales were identified for further investigation. In addition to paleotsunami investigation, these sites were selected to provide a geological record of significant events during the Holocene. Site selection was based on small accommodation space and a high preservation potential with back barrier depressions closed to the sea. A suite of diagnostic criteria developed over the past two decades to identify palaeotsunamis have been applied to cores extracted from these sites. Methods used include sedimentary description, grain size analysis, micropalaeontology, geochemistry and a variety of dating techniques such as radiocarbon and lead 210. Preliminary analysis of these results will be presented, with particular focus on sites where there is evidence that could indicate catastrophic saltwater inundation.

  9. The Attitudes and Perceptions of Non-Native English Speaking ...

    native English speaking adults toward explicit grammar instruction (EGI). The factors influencing those attitudes and perceptions are also explored. The data collected in this study indicate that adult English as a second language (ESL) students ...

  10. Virtual Reality Therapy: case study of fear of public speaking.

    North, Max M; Schoeneman, Curt M; Mathis, James R


    The major goal of this research case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in the treatment of the fear of public speaking. A twenty-eight-year-old Caucasian male was selected from questionnaires distributed to a class of undergraduate students enrolled at Kennesaw State University. Two assessment measures were used in this study. The first measure used was the Attitude Towards Public Speaking (ATPS) Questionnaire. The second measure used was the eleven-point Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) scale. These measurements assessed the anxiety, avoidance, attitudes and disturbance associated with the subject's fear of public speaking before and after each VRT treatment session. This case study of public speaking fear indicates that VRT may be used as an effective treatment method for reducing self-reported anxiety.

  11. Suicide Prevention Exposure, Awareness, and Knowledge Survey (SPEAKS) - Student

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SPEAKS- student dataset contains individual level information from a sample of college students on GLS funded campuses. These data include student demographics,...

  12. Working with Spanish-Speaking Latin American Students in Toronto

    Duran, Marcela S.


    The problems affecting the reception, adjustment, and placement of Spanish-speaking students into the Toronto school system are discussed, and include immigration patterns, Spanish values, and the Latin American school. (Author/HP)

  13. Competition and trade in Australian gas markets

    Holmes, Leanne; Mander, Sally


    Although Australia has large gas reserves, the bulk of reserves (about 80 per cent) are located on the North West Shelf, off Western Australia. On the other had, the major demand centres are located in the south east of the country. The relative scarcity of proven gas reserves close to major markets has meant that governments in the state and territories with reserves have a strong vested interest in the future use of the gas. Equally, governments in states and territories that do not have gas reserves are interested in securing future supplies. The scope for increasing competition and trade in Australian gas markets depends on a number of features of the industry. These include: the characteristics of the resource, the structure of supply including the presence of natural monopolies, the nature and extent of upstream or downstream integration of firms and the presence of long term contracts - the characteristics of gas demand, and the regulatory and policy framework. The main purpose in this article is to review the economic factors driving natural gas markets in Australia, highlighting the factors influencing competition and trade. Against this background, some options for reform are also examined. 30 refs., 6 figs

  14. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    Williams, D.


    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  15. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    John Hicks


    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  16. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.


    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  17. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Hamacher, Duane W.


    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  18. Asian and Australian power policy

    Hammons, T.J.


    This article is a 1995 Summer Meeting panel session summary on infrastructure, interconnections, and electricity exchanges in Asia and Australia. Panelists focused on the present and future state of the electric power sector, future expansion of Asian and Australian power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, cooperation, new capacity, direction of reforming the industry, interstate relations in the fuel and energy complex, and the impact of privatization on electric supply. They addressed electricity and energy issues in both developing and developed Asian countries and in Australia as seen by the United Nations (UN), the World Energy Council (WEC), The World Bank, Japan, Australia, India, China, East Russia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

  19. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  20. The Australian Skills Agenda: Productivity versus Credentialism?

    Ashenden, Dean


    Discusses the rise of the concept of improved skills recognition in Australian industry. Highlights include the role of industrial relations; the Australian vocational education and training system; recognition, industrial relations, and workplace change; career and training paths; credentials; and future prospects. (10 references) (LRW)

  1. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  2. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    Vanclay, F.


    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  3. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Vize, Anne


    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  4. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Sharrock, Geoff


    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…


    Sinta Hoerun Nisa


    This study entitles “Classroom Interaction Analysis in the EFL Speaking Class” aimed at analyzing the categories of teacher talk, student talk and classroom interaction types used during EFL speaking class. The research employed a qualitative design and applied a case study. Subjects of the research were an English teacher and 25 students at the second semester of English Education Department of the University of Kuningan. The data were gained through naturalistic observation and document ana...

  6. IELTS speaking instruction through audio/voice conferencing

    Hamed Ghaemi


    Full Text Available The currentstudyaimsatinvestigatingtheimpactofAudio/Voiceconferencing,asanewapproachtoteaching speaking, on the speakingperformanceand/orspeakingband score ofIELTScandidates.Experimentalgroupsubjectsparticipated in an audio conferencing classwhile those of the control group enjoyed attending in a traditional IELTS Speakingclass. At the endofthestudy,allsubjectsparticipatedinanIELTSExaminationheldonNovemberfourthin Tehran,Iran.To compare thegroupmeansforthestudy,anindependentt-testanalysiswasemployed.Thedifferencebetween experimental and control groupwasconsideredtobestatisticallysignificant(P<0.01.Thatisthecandidates in experimental group have outperformed the ones in control group in IELTS Speaking test scores.

  7. USP Marion: A Few Prisoners Summon the Courage to Speak

    Stephen C. Richards


    Full Text Available USP Marion is the first supermax federal penitentiary. Marionization refers to the experimental control program used at this prison. The prisoners speaking in this article suffered many years of solitary confinement. This research brief discusses some of what they experienced in their own words. These are the recollections of a few Marion prisoners that have summoned the courage to speak out and share their darkest memories.

  8. USP Marion: A Few Prisoners Summon the Courage to Speak

    Stephen C. Richards


    USP Marion is the first supermax federal penitentiary. Marionization refers to the experimental control program used at this prison. The prisoners speaking in this article suffered many years of solitary confinement. This research brief discusses some of what they experienced in their own words. These are the recollections of a few Marion prisoners that have summoned the courage to speak out and share their darkest memories.

  9. Lithuanian speaking childrens' bilingualism. language situation and policy

    Paškauskaitė, Ieva


    Lithuanian Speaking Childrens' Bilingualism. Language Situation and Policy The purpose of this study is to investigate the language situation of Lithuanian speaking children in Sweden and its causes. This study is specifically concerned with the subjects of bilingualism and family language policy: language strategies and methods. The concept of bilingualism is complex and can be defined in different ways, therefore this study is based on a table which was introduced by T. Skutnabb-Kangas in 1...

  10. Background noise levels in Europe

    Gjestland, Truls


    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  11. Using "Reading to Learn" (R2L) Pedagogy to Teach Discussion Genre to Non-Chinese-Speaking Students in Hong Kong

    Shum, Mark Shiu-kee; Tai, Chung Pui; Shi, Dan


    Non-Chinese-speaking (NCS) South Asian students, as ethnic minority group in Hong Kong, are the main disadvantaged social cohort in Chinese language learning. It has been a challenge for L1 Chinese teachers to conduct L2 Chinese teaching to NCS students with diversified native languages and socio-cultural backgrounds. "Reading to Learn,…

  12. The Effects of Phonological Awareness of Zulu-Speaking Children Learning to Spell in English: A Study of Cross-Language Transfer

    De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica


    Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…

  13. Intelligibility in Context Scale: Normative and Validation Data for English-Speaking Preschoolers.

    McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; Shahaeian, Ameneh


    The purpose of this study was to describe normative and validation data on the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012c) for English-speaking children. The ICS is a 7-item, parent-report measure of children's speech intelligibility with a range of communicative partners. Data were collected from the parents of 803 Australian English-speaking children ranging in age from 4;0 (years;months) to 5;5 (37.0% were multilingual). The mean ICS score was 4.4 (SD = 0.7) out of a possible total score of 5. Children's speech was reported to be most intelligible to their parents, followed by their immediate family, friends, and teachers; children's speech was least intelligible to strangers. The ICS had high internal consistency (α = .94). Significant differences in scores were identified on the basis of sex and age but not on the basis of socioeconomic status or the number of languages spoken. There were significant differences in scores between children whose parents had concerns about their child's speech (M = 3.9) and those who did not (M = 4.6). A sensitivity of .82 and a specificity of .58 were established as the optimal cutoff. Test-retest reliability and criterion validity were established for 184 children with a speech sound disorder. There was a significant low correlation between the ICS mean score and percentage of phonemes correct (r = .30), percentage of consonants correct (r = .24), and percentage of vowels correct (r = .30) on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (Dodd, Hua, Crosbie, Holm, & Ozanne, 2002). Thirty-one parents completed the ICS related to English and another language spoken by their child with a speech sound disorder. The significant correlations between the scores suggest that the ICS may be robust between languages. This article provides normative ICS data for English-speaking children and additional validation of the psychometric properties of the ICS. The robustness of the ICS was suggested

  14. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T


    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (ppublic speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Iryna Tkachenko


    Full Text Available The current state of higher choreographic education and features of professional training of choreographers in the German-speaking countries, in particular Austria, Germany and Switzerland were analyzed. It is found that most of the German-speaking countries are Germany, Austria and Switzerland, which became the object of study. The considered the structure of higher choreographic education in the German-speaking countries. Universities, higher dance schools and higher art schools are functioning in Germany. Universities and academies are functioning in Austria and Switzerland. The institutions of theatre sciences, faculty of pedagogy and psychology, departments of performing arts are the structural units of the universities. The institutions of higher education have both private and state ownership. It is found out that the main areas for which training is future choreographers in the German-speaking countries there is a "Dance", "Dance pedagogy", "Modern dance", "Science of dance", "Choreography". German-speaking countries recognized by the training of specialists in the specialty choreography of Modern dance that has no analogues in Ukraine. The term of study is four (bachelor and two (master years. Higher choreographic education in these countries has a different approach and aims at mastering a separate specialty that provides future dance instructors completely and thoroughly master the basic knowledge and skills in this specialty. Specific conditions and rules of admission to the higher educational institutions of German-speaking countries.


    Muhammad Aprianto Budie Nugroho


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether to what extent pictures can improve students’ speaking competence. It was carried out at SMAN in Cigugur for three months. The subject of the research was the students of SMAN in Cigugur in the academic year 2012/2013. The research method was classroom research and it was conducted in two cycles. The data was collected through interview, observation, diaries, document and test. The qualitative data were analyzed by using constant comparative method. While the quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistic to calculate the mean scores of pre-test, test, and post-test. The research findings show pictures can improve the students’ speaking competence by indicating their speaking fluency, appropriate vocabularies, grammatical sentences, and good pronunciation. The advantages of pictures were also shown by the classroom situation, i.e.: during the speaking class the students can answer teacher’s questions; the students had courage to express their idea freely; the speaking activities was not limited in the written way; and their attention in speaking class.

  17. Improving English Speaking Fluency: The Role of Six Factors

    Gholamhossein Shahini


    Full Text Available This qualitative study, using an open interview, set out to investigate the roles six factors, including age, university education, teachers of English Language institutes, teaching English, dictionary, and note-taking, played in improving English speaking fluency of seventeen fluent Iranian EFL speakers. The participants were chosen purposefully based on the speaking scale of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The findings indicated that early age had a great impact on the participants’ speaking fluency. They mentioned that they could not pick up fluency if they had started learning English at older ages. Moreover, university education had no effect on enhancing their fluency. They stated that not having enough opportunities to speak English in classrooms, being exposed to wrong amounts of input from their classmates or even from some university instructors, having no access to English native speakers in English Language Departments, professors’ talking in native language out of classes, in their offices or even sometimes in classes all led to their losing motivation after entering the university. In contrast, teachers in English language institutes had a supportive role in increasing the participants’ English learning. Although two participants quit teaching English since it had a negative influence on their speaking, it had a positive impact on improving speaking ability of the rest. And finally, fruitful strategies were suggested on how to use dictionaries and note-takings.

  18. The Internal Consistency Reliability of the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism among Australian Jews

    Patrick Lumbroso


    Full Text Available The Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism was developed initially to extend among the Hebrew-speaking Jewish community in Israel a growing body of international research concerned to map the correlates, antecedents and consequences of individual differences in attitude toward religion as assessed by the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The present paper explored the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the English translation of the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism among 101 Australian Jews. On the basis of these data, this instrument is commended for application in further research.

  19. The manifest but concealed background of our communication

    Erkut SEZGIN


    Full Text Available That manifest background needs to be elucidated as against intentional memory and imagination habits structured by our learning and operating with rules and pictures (representations of language. That’s the background which is concealed by our very demonstrative forms of expressions meaning and speaking habits expressed by intentional gestures and gesticulations of meaning the surrounding differences and identities: As if they are self essential representative of their own truth and certainty, which is supposed to be meant by the demonstrative, intentional form of the expression. While on the other hand, such intentional demonstrative gestures and gesticulations of meaning operate as conditioned forms of expressions of truth beliefs of imagination and memory habits expressed in reaction to the differences and identities pictured (represented by names and descriptions in deep oblivion of the internal signifying connections of the Use of pictures.

  20. Young Learners' Response Processes When Taking Computerized Tasks for Speaking Assessment

    Lee, Shinhye; Winke, Paula


    We investigated how young language learners process their responses on and perceive a computer-mediated, timed speaking test. Twenty 8-, 9-, and 10-year-old non-native English-speaking children (NNSs) and eight same-aged, native English-speaking children (NSs) completed seven computerized sample TOEFL® Primary™ speaking test tasks. We investigated…

  1. The Development and Evaluation of Speaking Learning Model by Cooperative Approach

    Darmuki, Agus; Andayani; Nurkamto, Joko; Saddhono, Kundharu


    A cooperative approach-based Speaking Learning Model (SLM) has been developed to improve speaking skill of Higher Education students. This research aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of cooperative-based SLM viewed from the development of student's speaking ability and its effectiveness on speaking activity. This mixed method study combined…

  2. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    D. Stewart


    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  3. My Students Don't Speak English

    Williamson, Amy M.


    Today's classrooms are increasingly diverse, and some of the students may be learning English at the same time they're trying to learn math, science, and history. Many new teachers are left to decide on their own how best to address the variety of backgrounds, languages, and experiences their students bring to the classroom. For new teachers with…

  4. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret


    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  5. Backgrounder


    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...



    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  7. Backgrounder


    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.



    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...


    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  10. Australian natural gas market outlook



    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  11. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Dwek, Eli


    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  12. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    Vydrik, A.A.


    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  13. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective

    Anthony J. Burton


    Full Text Available Background: Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. Methods: The first author interviewed (n=16 health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results: Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. Conclusion: With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population.

  14. Concussion Incidence and Recurrence in Professional Australian Football Match-Play: A 14-Year Analysis

    Nathan Gibbs


    Full Text Available Background. Concussion incidence rates in professional Australian football may be underreported due to the injury classification definition. A myriad of factors contribute to concussion risk; however, there is limited long-term surveillance in Australian football. This study analysed concussion in one Australian football team over an extended period. Method. Match-play concussion injuries in one team (n=116 participants were diagnosed and treated by the team physician over 14 years. Analysis of factors related to concussion including matches played, time of day and season, and return to play provided an insight into occurrence and recurrence rates. Results. 140 concussions were recorded (17.6 per 1000 player match hours. A strong relationship was evident between matches played and concussion incidence (r=0.70 and match conditions did not negatively affect the concussion rate. Whether an athlete returned to play in the same match or suffered a loss-of-consciousness concussion (p=0.84, their ensuing rate of concussion was not affected. Conclusion. Concussion in professional Australian football was related to the number of matches played. Further, neither previous incidence nor loss of consciousness affected future concussion risk. This study provides ecologically valid evidence of the concussion incidence rate in professional Australian football and has implications for the management of athletes sustaining concussion injuries.

  15. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Hay Phillipa J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  16. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

    Thomas David P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  17. Background subtraction theory and practice

    Elgammal, Ahmed


    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  18. Effects of Sustained Impromptu Speaking and Goal Setting on Public Speaking Competency Development: A Case Study of EFL College Students in Morocco

    El Mortaji, Latifa


    Research on impact of sustained impromptu speaking on public speaking competency development is scarce and lacking. The researcher investigated Moroccan college students' public speaking competency development through extemporaneous (i.e. carefully prepared and rehearsed) speech performance, after implementation of a teaching strategy involving…

  19. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Maryam Safari


    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  20. A new opportunity for Australian uranium


    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  1. A new opportunity for Australian uranium



    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    Falk, J.


    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  3. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    Clark, A.W.; Trahair, R.C.S.; Powell, R.J.; Walker, R.M.


    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  4. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Jones, R


    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  5. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Pull, Charles B


    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  6. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    Andrea B. Horn


    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  7. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne


    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  8. Brief virtual reality therapy for public speaking anxiety.

    Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M


    The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.

  9. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

    Farhan Uddin Raja


    Full Text Available Despite being competent in their field of work, professional’s worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons behind the anxiety level in undergraduate students of a public speaking class and recommend strategies to overcome this fear. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a sample of 50 students using convenience sampling technique from a reputable private sector business school in Karachi. The findings showed that students who fear public speaking can perform well if they use certain strategies to fight their fears. 75% participants admitted their fear of public speaking and 95% participants agreed that if proper counseling, instruction and coaching is provided, this fear can be overcome. Research revealed that exposure to virtual environment can facilitate student confidence and enables themto face audience irrespective of the size.


    Muhammad Khatib Bayanuddin


    Full Text Available This research discusses about an analysis of the directive speech acts used in english speaking class at the third semester of english speaking class of english study program of IAIN STS Jambi. The aims of this research are to describe the types of directive speech acts and politeness strategies that found in English speaking class. This research used descriptive qualitative method. This method used to describe clearly about the types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts based on the data in English speaking class. The result showed that in English speaking class that there are some types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts, such as: requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitives, permissives, and advisores as types, as well as on-record indirect strategies (prediction statement, strong obligation statement, possibility statement, weaker obligation statement, volitional statement, direct strategies (imperative, performative, and nonsentential strategies as politeness strategies. The achievement of this research are hoped can be additional knowledge about linguistics study, especially in directive speech acts and can be developed for future researches. Key words: directive speech acts, types, politeness strategies.

  11. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: sing along!

    Racette, Amélie; Bard, Céline; Peretz, Isabelle


    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were tested in the repetition and recall of words and notes of familiar material. Lyrics of familiar songs, as well as words of proverbs and prayers, were not better pronounced in singing than in speaking. Notes were better produced than words. In Experiment 2, the aphasic patients repeated and recalled lyrics from novel songs. Again, they did not produce more words in singing than in speaking. In Experiment 3, when allowed to sing or speak along with an auditory model while learning novel songs, aphasics repeated and recalled more words when singing than when speaking. Reduced speed or shadowing cannot account for this advantage of singing along over speaking in unison. The results suggest that singing in synchrony with an auditory model--choral singing--is more effective than choral speech, at least in French, in improving word intelligibility because choral singing may entrain more than one auditory-vocal interface. Thus, choral singing appears to be an effective means of speech therapy.

  12. Brain Dominance And Speaking Strategy Use of Iranian EFL Learners

    Nastaran Mireskandari


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of brain dominance on the use of Language learning speaking strategies. One hundred forty two undergraduate students of Shiraz University, Iran, participated in this study. The Hemispheric Dominance Test (HDT was employed to categorize participants as right-, left- and whole-brain dominant, and a Speaking Strategy Questionnaire was administered to evaluate their use of speaking strategies. The results were analyzed using a one-way between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the three brain dominant groups in their overall use of speaking strategies. A MANOVA was also run to investigate whether the groups had preferences regarding the use of any particular strategy type. Results indicated a statistically significant difference between the whole brain dominant participants and both left brain and right brain dominant learners for using compensation speaking strategies. To teach and learn more effectively, instructors and learners need to better understand and appreciate individual differences and how they can affect the learning process. They could find ways to combine activities that accommodate both left and right brain learners, employing not only the usual linear, verbal model, but also the active, image-rich, visuo-spatial models so that learners would be able to use both hemispheres.

  13. The influence of patients' immigration background and residence permit status on treatment decisions in health care: Results of a factorial survey among general practitioners in Switzerland

    Drewniak, D.P.; Krones, T.; Sauer, C.G.; Wild, V.


    This study examines the influence of patients' immigration background and residence permit status on physicians' willingness to treat patients in due time. A factorial survey was conducted among 352 general practitioners with a background in internal medicine in a German-speaking region in

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes


    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  15. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.


    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  16. Measurement of natural background neutron

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong


    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  17. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Prospects for Australian Agriculture

    Nicholas Sadgrove


    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to pertinent aspects of the extraction methodology, chemistry, analysis and pharmacology of essential oils, whilst providing a background of general organic chemistry concepts to readers from non-chemistry oriented backgrounds. Furthermore, it describes the historical aspects of essential oil research whilst exploring contentious issues of terminology. This follows with an examination of essential oil producing plants in the Australian context with particular attention to Aboriginal custom use, historical successes and contemporary commercial prospects. Due to the harsh dry environment of the Australian landmass, particularly to the cyclical climatic variation attendant upon repeated glaciation/post-glaciation cycles, the arid regions have evolved a rich assortment of unique endemic essential oil yielding plants. Though some of these aromatic plants (particularly myrtaceous species have given birth to commercially valuable industries, much remains to be discovered. Given the market potential, it is likely that recent discoveries in our laboratory and elsewhere will lead to new product development. This review concludes with an emphasis on the use of chemotaxonomy in selection of commercially viable cultivar chemotypes from the Australian continent. Finally, drawing largely from our own results we propose a list of Australian endemic species with novel commercial potential.

  18. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)


    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  19. Youth Views of Experiences and Benefits of Public Speaking

    Ben Silliman


    Full Text Available Ninety-eight youth participants, ages 9-17, involved in a public speaking event reported that preparation and presentation of a 5-12 minute demonstration or illustrated talk improved confidence, knowledge of a selected topic and skills in communicating, goal setting, organizing, working with others, and doing research. Positive benefits were reported from first-year as well as multi-year participants. Most youth surveyed indicated that they participated by choice and received adequate assistance in preparation for speaking. Similar results were found for a smaller group (N = 20 involved in a non-competitive performing arts event. A randomly-selected group (N = 37 interviewed about the extended effects of public speaking revealed that the experience helped them in school presentations, community leadership, and more in-depth involvement in specific topic areas. Implications of results for youth programming and engaging wider audiences of youth are discussed.

  20. Australian Mining's product register 1990-91


    The Australian Minings' Product Register 1990-91 contains an industry review, resource assessment, mineral industry statistics, directory of exploration and mining companies, buyers guide and directory of consultants.

  1. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L


    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Comparative growth performance of different Australian ...

    Comparative growth performance of different Australian provenances and local land ... and Ubiri in the West Usambara Mountains (WUM), North East Tanzania. ... with local land races for subsequent management as seed production stands.

  3. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Janya McCalman


    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  4. 1980 Australian coal conference. Conference papers


    Papers were presented under the following headings: supply and demand for coal; government policies - coal development; mining finance and taxation; Australian coal mining practices; research and development; infrastructure and transportation; legislation and safe working practices; and industrial relations.

  5. Acoustic properties of naturally produced clear speech at normal speaking rates

    Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.


    Sentences spoken ``clearly'' are significantly more intelligible than those spoken ``conversationally'' for hearing-impaired listeners in a variety of backgrounds [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996); Payton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581-1592 (1994)]. While producing clear speech, however, talkers often reduce their speaking rate significantly [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434-446 (1986); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996)]. Yet speaking slowly is not solely responsible for the intelligibility benefit of clear speech (over conversational speech), since a recent study [Krause and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165-2172 (2002)] showed that talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates with training. This finding suggests that clear speech has inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. To gain insight into these acoustical properties, conversational and clear speech produced at normal speaking rates were analyzed at three levels of detail (global, phonological, and phonetic). Although results suggest that talkers may have employed different strategies to achieve clear speech at normal rates, two global-level properties were identified that appear likely to be linked to the improvements in intelligibility provided by clear/normal speech: increased energy in the 1000-3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low frequency modulations of the intensity envelope. Other phonological and phonetic differences associated with clear/normal speech include changes in (1) frequency of stop burst releases, (2) VOT of word-initial voiceless stop consonants, and (3) short-term vowel spectra.

  6. Career intentions of Australian physical education teachers

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R


    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers’ career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers’ work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the respondents wanted a change from their current PE teacher job and 39.8% were intending to leave PE teaching. The most frequent reasons for wanting to...

  7. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization


    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  8. JEM-X background models

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.


    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  9. Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students.

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin


    Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.

  10. [Bioethics and the French speaking world: an answer to globalization].

    Byk, Christian


    Are we able, today, to take a step closer to bringing together the French speaking world and bioethics by realizing that their association could provide a profound view of the current evolution of our world characterized by what is referred to as globalization? Could we be even more ambitious and register the specificity of the rapport between the French speaking world and bioethics confronted with this global phenomenon of deconstruction/reconstruction of the planetary order by setting as its path a dynamic balance, which is an integral part of the use of the French language and cultural diversity, a central point in a truly pluridisciplinary and pluralist bioethics?

  11. The Absolute Necessity for a Working Model to Support Pre-Service Teachers of a Non-English Speaking Background

    McCluskey, Kerryn


    With universities seeking to increase their enrolment of international students, and the increasingly diverse domestic market, it is not surprising that researchers' interest has turned to the impact of a diverse university population. The focus of this paper is a model that has been implemented to enable higher levels of achievement on the…

  12. Academic Buoyancy Mediates Academic Anxiety's Effects on Learning Strategies: An Investigation of English- and Chinese-Speaking Australian Students

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad


    A primary goal our study was to explore whether relations between academic anxiety and students' use of a range of learning strategies (memorisation, elaboration, personal best [PB] goals and cooperation) were mediated by academic buoyancy. We were also interested in extending knowledge of anxiety and its role in students' learning strategy use.…

  13. Development of physiotherapy inherent requirement statements – an Australian experience


    Background The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities promotes equal rights of people with a disability in all aspects of their life including their education. In Australia, Disability Discrimination legislation underpins this Convention. It mandates that higher education providers must demonstrate that no discrimination has occurred and all reasonable accommodations have been considered and implemented, to facilitate access and inclusion for a student with a disability. The first step to meeting legislative requirements is to provide students with information on the inherent requirements of a course. This paper describes the steps which were taken to develop inherent requirement statements for a 4-year entry-level physiotherapy program at one Australian university. Case presentation Inherent requirement statements were developed using an existing framework, which was endorsed and mandated by the University. Items which described inherencies were extracted from Australian physiotherapy professional standards and statutory regulatory requirements, and units contained in the physiotherapy program. Data were integrated into the 8 prescribed domains: ethical behaviour, behavioural stability, legal, communication, cognition, sensory abilities, strength and mobility, and sustainable performance. Statements for each domain were developed using a 5-level framework (introductory statement, description of the inherent requirement, justification for inherency, characteristics of reasonable adjustments and exemplars) and reviewed by a University Review Panel. Refinement of statements continued until no further changes were required. Fifteen physiotherapy inherent requirement statements were developed. The eight domains identified in the existing framework, developed for Nursing, were relevant to the study of physiotherapy. Conclusions The inherent requirement statements developed in this study provide a transparent, defensible position on the

  14. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    Dillon Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

  15. Exploring “Speak-O-Rama” as a Public Speaking Module: A Pilot Study in an Islamic Integrated Primary School

    Nurul Iman Ahmad Bukhari


    Full Text Available This paper describes the pilot study in implementing a public speaking module for a primary school level. The module development was structured according to ASSURE Model with the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT as the basis used in designing the module activities.  One group of Year 4 students from an Islamic integrated school was selected and the research method employed was the quasi-experimental research with pre and post-tests as well as interviews with the English teachers on the students’ performance and self-confidence.  Students were also interviewed to identify their self confidence level before and after the implementation of the public speaking module. This research project is hoped to increase students’ oral proficiency along with increasing self-confidence in public speaking at a young age, and to propose the implementation of this module as reference in primary education.

  16. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    Maggiore, M.


    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  17. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  18. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Winkelmann, Max


    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  19. Publishing and Australian literature : crisis, decline or transformation?

    Bode, Katherine


    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  20. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Katherine Bode


    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  1. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN. Geneva


    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  2. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    V. Haverd


    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  3. Writing Disabilities in Spanish-Speaking Children: Introduction to the Special Series.

    Jiménez, Juan E

    This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities focuses on studies of writing disabilities in Spanish-speaking children. The World Health Organization (2001) included writing difficulties as one of the problems considered to constitute an impediment to school participation, a significant element in the normal developmental process of the child. In this introduction, I describe the background of a larger project promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This special series offers recent findings on writing disabilities in Spanish-Speaking children within the UNESCO project. The pilot study was carried out in the Canary Islands, an autonomous Spanish region located between three continents and composed of seven islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the current empirical evidence on writing disabilities comes from English, a language with deep orthography; therefore, it is very relevant to investigate the writing process in Spanish, a language with shallow, fine-grained orthography. Included are a number of articles that form a conspectus on writing disabilities in the Spanish language. Topics center on early grade writing assessment, prevalence of writing disabilities, handwriting and keyboarding, transcription and text generation, graphonomic and handwriting analysis, and instructional practices with an learning disabled population.

  4. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena


    OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in South......OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics...... in Southern Sweden. SAMPLE: A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms during...... the past week and PTS symptoms during the past year. RESULTS: Out of 1003 women, 21.4% reported another language than Swedish as their mother tongue and were defined as non-native. These women were more likely to be younger, have fewer years of education, potential financial problems, and lack of social...

  5. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    Angwin, M.


    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  6. An economic appraisal of the Australian Medical Sheepskin for the prevention of sacral pressure ulcers from a nursing home perspective.

    Mistiaen, P.; Ament, A.; Francke, A.L.; Achterberg, W.; Halfens, R.; Huizinga, J.; Post, H.


    BACKGROUND: Many devices are in use to prevent pressure ulcers, but from most little is known about their effects and costs. One such preventive device is the Australian Medical Sheepskin that has been proven effective in three randomized trials. In this study the costs and savings from the use of

  7. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Chiaki eYanagisawa


    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  8. Inequality in provider continuity for children by Australian general practitioners

    Reynolds Graham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little published on provider continuity in Australian general practice and none on its effect on inequality of care for children. Method Questionnaire administered to parents of the ACT Kindergarten Health Screen asking the name of their child's usual GP and practice address between 2001 and 2008. Results Parents of 30,789 children named 433 GPs and 141 practices. In each year, an average of 77% of parents could name both the GP and the practice, an average of 11% of parents could name only the practice, and an average of 12% of parents could name neither. In each year, 25% of parents could not name a usual GP for children of Aboriginal or Torres Straight Islander descent, or children born outside of Australia, compared to 10% of all other children (p = Conclusions Many GPs (39% were reported to provide continuity of care for in the ACT region and some GPs (20% displayed transient care. Indigenous children or children born outside of Australia had less equity of access to a nominated GP than all other children. Such inequity might disappear if voluntary registration of children was adopted in Australian general practice.

  9. Social networks and expertise development for Australian breast radiologists.

    Taba, Seyedamir Tavakoli; Hossain, Liaquat; Willis, Karen; Lewis, Sarah


    In this study, we explore the nexus between social networks and expertise development of Australian breast radiologists. Background literature has shown that a lack of appropriate social networks and interaction among certain professional group(s) may be an obstacle for knowledge acquisition, information flow and expertise sharing. To date there have not been any systematic studies investigating how social networks and expertise development are interconnected and whether this leads to improved performance for breast radiologists. This study explores the value of social networks in building expertise alongside with other constructs of performance for the Australian radiology workforce using semi-structured in-depth interviews with 17 breast radiologists. The findings from this study emphasise the influences of knowledge transfer and learning through social networks and interactions as well as knowledge acquisition and development through experience and feedback. The results also show that accessibility to learning resources and a variety of timely feedback on performance through the information and communication technologies (ICT) is likely to facilitate improved performance and build social support. We argue that radiologists' and, in particular, breast radiologists' work performance, needs to be explored not only through individual numerical characteristics but also by analysing the social context and peer support networks in which they operate and we identify multidisciplinary care as a core entity of social learning.

  10. Australian patterns of prostate cancer care: Are they evolving?

    Lo, Jonathon; Papa, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M.; Murphy, Declan; Lawrentschuk, Nathan


    Background Approaches to prostate cancer (PCa) care have changed in recent years out of concern for overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Despite these changes, many patients continue to undergo some form of curative treatment and with a growing perception among multidisciplinary clinicians that more aggressive treatments are being favored. This study examines patterns of PCa care in Australia, focusing on current rates of screening and aggressive interventions that consist of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Methods Health services data were used to assess Australian men undergoing PCa screening and treatment from 2001 to 2014. Age-specific rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening were calculated. Ratios of radical prostatectomy (RP) with PLND to RP without PLND, and HDR brachytherapy to low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy were determined by state jurisdictions. Results From 2008, the rate of PSA screening trended downward significantly with year for all age ranges (P use of HDR brachytherapy (ratio of HDR to LDR brachytherapy < 0.5 for all jurisdictions except the Australian Capital Territory). Conclusion Rates of PLND and HDR brachytherapy for PCa have declined in Australia, providing evidence for the effect of stage migration due to widespread PSA screening. Currently, PSA screening rates remain high among older men, which may expose them to unnecessary investigations and treatment-related morbidity. PMID:27014660

  11. Designing the online oral language learning environment SpeakApps

    Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Appel, Christine; Ó Ciardubháin, Colm; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source techno-pedagogical solution to facilitate online oral language production and interaction. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed method

  12. Native-English Speaking Instructors Teaching Writing in China

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodi; Fu, Danling


    This article presents two separate but related studies on native-English speaking (NES) instructors' teaching writing practice in Chinese universities. One study is a case study that explores the teaching practice of three NES instructors' writing instruction in a southern Chinese university as well as students' responses to their practice.…

  13. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.


    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  14. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and the Public Speaking Classroom

    Colvin, Janet Weston; Tobler, Nancy


    From the earliest roots of rhetoric, practitioners emphasized the need for analyzing one's audience before developing a speech. Textbooks for most basic public speaking courses spend at least one chapter discussing audience analysis. Authors discuss adapting messages to various demographic, cultural, and individual differences. As a result,…

  15. "Community" as a Guiding Theme for the Public Speaking Course

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy


    First-year students at many universities find themselves in new communities, with little understanding of how their new university, city, academic, or career communities function. Developing a student's sense of community can have long-term benefits. Using the theme of "Community" in the basic public speaking course provides students with…

  16. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  17. A New Approach to Public Speaking Course in ESL Classroom

    Hou, Minghua


    This paper is a project report on the experiment of an English public speaking and debating course with advanced level English majors in College of Arts and Science, Yangtze University. The paper analyzes the validity of the course, introduces the design rationale, the design and experiment process, and students' responses. The paper suggests that…

  18. Using Public Speaking Tasks in English Language Teaching

    Iberri-Shea, Gina


    The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for using public speaking tasks in English language teaching (ELT) and to highlight some of their many advantages. For the purpose of this article, the author will focus on two types of these tasks: student presentations and debates. Student presentations may consist of either individual or…

  19. A Global Integration: Internationalizing a Public Speaking Course

    Lyons, Florence A.


    Institutions of higher education around the world have responded to the challenge of globalization by internationalizing their curricula. Incorporating elements of cross-cultural examination to a freshman Fundamentals of Public Speaking class proved to be an important first step toward globalization for this speech professor. In the class,…

  20. Improving the EFL Learners' Speaking Ability through Interactive Storytelling

    Marzuki; Prayogo, Johannes Ananto; Wahyudi, Arwijati


    This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners' speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners' everyday activities at their home and…

  1. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  2. Enabling white, Afrikaans-speaking adolescents towards post ...

    Using rich qualitative data, we describe the ecosystemically-embedded protective antecedents that enabled 10 white, Afrikaans-speaking adolescents from divorced families towards resilience. The description both confirms and extends what was known about the roots of adolescent resilience, post-divorce. We use these ...

  3. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Ambulatory Care

    ... Your Care Ambulatory Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Everyone has a ... he or she has confused you with another patient. P ay attention to the ... for their identification (ID) badges. • Notice whether your caregivers have washed ...

  4. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Home Care

    ... Your Care Home Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Everyone has a ... you think they have confused you with another patient. P ay attention to the care you ... for their identification (ID) badges. • Make sure you or family members ...

  5. Using Awareness Training to Decrease Nervous Habits during Public Speaking

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…

  6. Impromptu: great impromptu speaking is never just impromptu

    Ramlah A. Nawi


    Full Text Available Great impromptu speaking, reciting and singing are never just an isolated impromptu act. It is the result of endless practice to perfect performance that can then be given impromptu. One of the main objectives of learning English as a Second Language (ESL is to be able to speak English impromptu, not just on the stage or in front of an audience but also in a casual meeting, on the street or during a formal meeting in a board-room. In fact to be able to speak “impromptu” should be the Holy Grail of teaching and learning ESL, more important than reading, writing and listening. So how come it is not given the priority it deserves – and how come it seems such a difficult goal? We believe it is because teachers and learners neglect to emphasize and practice the key to learning impromptu speaking. That key we believe is practice, practice and more practice. We can remember songs from our kindergarten years and we can still sing them because we practiced, practiced and practiced them. We believe that the teaching of ESL often overlooks the critical importance of lots of practice to create depth of learning and that creative methods of practicing need to be taught and practiced in ESL courses until such methods become deeply habitual, in fact they become a new personal paradigm. If our students aim to become great at ESL, they, too, must take continuous never-ending practice to heart.

  7. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers.

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others


    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  8. The acquisition of L2 speaking : A dynamic perspective

    Lowie, Wander; Verspoor, Marjolijn; van Dijk, Marijn; Alonso Alonso, Rosa


    The complex dynamic systems theory approach to second language development has great explanatory power in accounting for the development of speaking as an emergent process. CDST approaches focus on the process of development, rather than on the products of learning, and often include the learner’s

  9. Can You Understand Me? Speaking Robots and Accented Speech

    Moussalli, Souheila; Cardoso, Walcir


    The results of our previous research on the pedagogical use of Speaking Robots (SRs) revealed positive effects on motivating students to practice their oral skills in a stress-free environment. However, our findings indicated that the SR was sometimes unable to understand students' foreign accented speech. In this paper, we report the results of a…

  10. Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru ...

    Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru and Latin America. IDRC's supports various efforts to strengthen the capacity of people working in telecentres across the world through knowledge-sharing, collaboration and networking. Through these efforts, strong telecentre networks in Africa ...

  11. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    Martin, Elizabeth


    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  12. Attitudes toward Suicide among English-Speaking Urban Canadians.

    Domino, George; Leenars, Antoon A.


    A sample of 196 English-speaking Canadian adults residing in 6 major cities of Canada were administered the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. Results are discussed along 10 major dimensions: stigma of suicide, normality, the right to die, acceptability, cry for help, mental illness, religion, antecedents, impulsivity, and incidence. (JPS)

  13. Retention in mental health care of Portuguese-speaking patients

    Gonçalves, Marta; Cook, Benjamin; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Alegría, Margarita; Kinrys, Gustavo


    We compared service outcomes of dedicated language and cultural competency services in adequacy of care, ER, and inpatient care among Portuguese-speaking patients in ethnic- and non-ethnic-specific behavioral health clinics. We assessed adequacy of mental health care, and use of inpatient emergency department among Portuguese-speaking patients, comparing individuals receiving care from a culturally and linguistically competent mental health care setting (the Portuguese Mental Health Program [PMHP]) with usual mental health care in a community health care system in the USA. Propensity score matching was used to balance patients in treatment and control groups on gender, marital status, age, diagnosis of mental disorder, and insurance status. We used de-identified, longitudinal, administrative data of 854 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving care from the PMHP and 541 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving usual care from 2005–2008. Adequate treatment was defined as receipt of at least eight outpatient psychotherapy visits, or at least four outpatient visits of which one was a psychopharmacological visit. PMHP patients were more likely to receive adequate care. No differences were found in rates of ER use or inpatient mental health care. The present study suggests increased quality of care for patients that have contact with a clinic that dedicates resources specifically to a minority/immigrant group. Advantages of this setting include greater linguistic and cultural concordance among providers and patients. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which culturally appropriate mental health care settings benefit minority/immigrant patients. PMID:23427258

  14. Promoting resilience among Sesotho-speaking adolescent girls ...

    and how teachers champion resilience among black adolescent girls living in ... Using. Draw-and-Talk and Draw-and-Write methods, 28 Sesotho-speaking ... space for young people in the midst of trauma, structural disadvantage, ... It cannot be assumed, therefore, that .... preference for English may have led to less detailed.

  15. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf


    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  16. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny


    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  17. Lateralized electrical brain activity reveals covert attention allocation during speaking

    Rommers, J.; Meyer, A.S.; Praamstra, P.


    Speakers usually begin to speak while only part of the utterance has been planned. Earlier work has shown that speech planning processes are reflected in speakers' eye movements as they describe visually presented objects. However, to-be-named objects can be processed to some extent before they have

  18. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.


    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  19. Speaking Self-Assessment: Mismatches between Learners' and Teachers' Criteria

    Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya


    Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…

  20. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Diana Achmad


    Full Text Available This paper reports on students’ pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger with the less competent ones (hereafter, weaker; therefore, eight pairs were observed during the lesson. The task given to the students was to express ‘Agree and Disagree’ in the context of giving opinions related to social life. Based on the observations, the task was successfully implemented by six pairs; thus, the two others faced some problems. From the first pair, it was seen that the stronger student had intimated the weaker one into speaking during the task. The other pair, who was both of the same native, did not converse in English as expected and mostly used their native language to speak with one another presumably due to respect from the stronger student towards the weaker one. In situations like this, when pair-work becomes unproductive, rotating pairs is recommended to strengthen information sharing and assigning roles to avoid a student from taking over the activity from his or her pair. In conclusion, pairing international learners with mixed speaking proficiency by teachers must be conducted as effectively as possible by initially identifying their ability and learning culture to profoundly expand the students’ language resources.

  1. Transcription and the IELTS Speaking Test: Facilitating Development

    Stones, Thomas P.


    This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…

  2. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Achmad, Diana; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah


    This paper reports on students' pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger)…

  3. Motivation to Speak English: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas


    Based on a modern motivation theory of learning, self-determination theory (SDT), this study aimed to investigate the relationships between English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' motivation to speak, autonomous regulation, autonomy support from teachers, and classroom engagement, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The…

  4. Errors on Ghanaian Students' Written English: Is Speaking School ...


    Oct 2, 2016 ... a problem language variety as far as their academic careers are concerned. ... non-Speaking group comprised 10 female students and 5 males. ... there was not a single kind of error that was exclusively committed by ... 1 while the same thing is done with errors found in the scripts of ..... New York: Linguistic.

  5. Public speaking in virtual reality : Audience design and speaker experiences

    Kang, N.


    Whether we are talking about our research at a conference, making a speech at a friend’s wedding, or presenting a proposal in a businessmeeting,we have to speak in public from time to time. How well we deliver a presentation affects the way people think about us and our message. To deliver a

  6. Speaking up, being heard: registered nurses' perceptions of workplace communication.

    Garon, Maryanne


    The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their own ability to speak up and be heard in the workplace. Nurses are central to patient care and patient safety in hospitals. Their ability to speak up and be heard greatly impacts their own work satisfaction, team work as well as patient safety. The present study utilized a qualitative approach, consisting of focus group interviews of 33 registered nurses (RNs), in staff or management positions from a variety of healthcare settings in California, USA. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Findings were organized into three categories: influences on speaking up, transmission and reception of a message and outcomes or results. The present study supported the importance of the manager in setting the culture of open communication. It is anticipated that findings from the present study may increase understandings of nurse views of communication within healthcare settings. The study highlights the importance of nurse managers in creating the communication culture that will allow nurses to speak up and be heard. These open communication cultures lead to better patient care, increased safety and better staff satisfaction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Student Public Speaking: Creating the Confidence, Breaking through Barriers.

    Schornack, Gary R.; Beck, Charles E.

    As employers increase the use of teams and telecommuting in the workplace, the need for improved communication also accelerates both in written and oral modes. For oral communication or public speaking, a review of recent literature indicates this renewed emphasis, with numerous articles highlighting the need coming from disciplines ranging from…

  8. Implementation of Educational Innovation: The Case of Speaking ...

    Implementation of Educational Innovation: The Case of Speaking Assessment in the BGCSE English Examination. ... Marang: Journal of Language and Literature ... The findings have indicated that there are two main contending categories of education officers who have a stake in what is taught and assessed in BGCSE ...

  9. Speaking for Ourselves”: American Muslim Women's Confessional ...

    representation through the medium of autobiography post-9/11, focusing on Sumbul Ali- Karamali's The Muslim Next Door, Asma Gull Hasan's Red, White, and Muslim and the edited collections I Speak for Myself and Love, InshAllah. Highlighting the ...

  10. Honing EAP Learners' Public Speaking Skills by Analyzing TED Talks

    Leopold, Lisa


    Despite the importance of public speaking skills for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students' academic and professional success, few EAP textbooks incorporate authentic, professional speech models. Thus, many EAP instructors have turned to TED talks for dynamic speech models. Yet a single TED talk may be too long for viewing in class and may…

  11. Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing

    Bowkett, Steve


    "Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…

  12. How institutional theory speaks to changes in organizational populations.

    Wells, R


    In this issue, Begun and Luke note striking variation in organizational arrangements across local health care markets and probe how characteristics of those markets affect shifts in organizational populations over time. This article contributes to this FORUM by focusing on how institutional theory's emphasis on the culturally mediated nature of organizational change speaks to the evolution of local market structures over time.

  13. How Many People Speak Esperanto? Esperanto on the Web

    Amri Wandel


    Full Text Available We suggest an updated estimate of the number of Esperanto speakers worldwide, based on the number of people in Facebook who indicate that they speak the language. A simple calculation accompanied by reasonable refinements leads to a number of approximately two million Esperanto users within the internet community alone, probably significantly more worldwide.

  14. Using Word Clouds to Teach about Speaking Style

    Perry, Lisa


    Good public speaking style requires, among other skills, "effective management of the resources of language." Good speakers choose language carefully to create credibility, emotional impact, and logical appeal. If a speaker's language is wishy-washy, dull, vague, or long-winded, the speaker appears less trustworthy. Audience distrust of a speaker…

  15. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Matthew West


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  16. Exploring Australian women?s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira


    Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant wo...

  17. Visual pigments in a living fossil, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri

    Bailes, Helena J; Davies, Wayne L; Trezise, Ann EO; Collin, Shaun P


    Abstract Background One of the greatest challenges facing the early land vertebrates was the need to effectively interpret a terrestrial environment. Interpretation was based on ocular adaptations evolved for an aquatic environment millions of years earlier. The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is thought to be the closest living relative to the first terrestrial vertebrate, and yet nothing is known about the visual pigments present in lungfish or the early tetrapods. Results Here we...

  18. Eat, drink and gamble: marketing messages about ?risky? products in an Australian major sporting series

    Lindsay, Sophie; Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Westberg, Kate; Moodie, Rob; Jones, Sandra


    Background To investigate the alcohol, gambling, and unhealthy food marketing strategies during a nationally televised, free to air, sporting series in Australia. Methods/approach Using the Australian National Rugby League 2012 State of Origin three-game series, we conducted a mixed methods content analysis of the frequency, duration, placement and content of advertising strategies, comparing these strategies both within and across the three games. Results There were a total of 4445 episodes ...

  19. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John


    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  20. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M


    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of...

  1. Profile of Australian preschool children with speech sound disorders at risk for literacy difficulties

    McLeod, S.; Crowe, K.; Masso, S.; Baker, E.; McCormack, J.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Howland, C.


    Background: Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children.\\ud \\ud Aim: To describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns.\\ud \\ud Method: 275 Australian 4- to 5-year-old children from 45 preschools whose parents and teachers were concerned about their talking participated in speech-language p...

  2. Language as a barrier to care for Xhosa-speaking patients at a ...

    incompatibility between patients and health care providers and socioeconomic ... problem, 15% saying that it was a barrier that nurses and doctors did not speak ... The majority of doctors are first-language English speaking, followed by ...

  3. Speaking of Science: Stepping out of the Stereotype

    Castro, J. M.


    Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single event. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be.If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentation interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. "The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking." Scott Berkun, 2010

  4. Speaking of Science: stepping out of the stereotype (Invited)

    Castro, J. M.


    Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely rewarding and gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, get to reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single session. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be. If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentations interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. 'The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking.' Scott Berkun, Confessions of a Public Speaker, 2010

  5. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Fernandes A.C.


    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  6. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.


    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  7. A definition of background independence

    Gryb, Sean


    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  8. Generative electronic background music system

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)


    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  9. Background metric in supergravity theories

    Yoneya, T.


    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  10. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C


    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  11. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    Johansen, Stine Liv


    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  12. Generative electronic background music system

    Mazurowski, Lukasz


    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  13. Which Language R You Speaking? /r/ as a Language Marker in Tyrolean and Italian Bilinguals.

    Kaland, Constantijn; Galatà, Vincenzo; Spreafico, Lorenzo; Vietti, Alessandro


    Across languages of the world the /r/ sound is known for its variability. This variability has been investigated using articulatory models as well as in sociolinguistic studies. The current study investigates to what extent /r/ is a marker of a bilingual's dominant language. To this end, a reading task was carried out by bilingual speakers from South Tyrol, who produce /r/ differently according to whether they dominantly speak Tyrolean or Italian. The recorded reading data were subsequently used in a perception experiment to investigate whether South Tyrolean bilingual listeners are able to identify the dominant language of the speaker. Results indicate that listeners use /r/ as a cue to determine the dominant language of the speaker whilst relying on articulatory distinctions between the variants. It is furthermore shown that /r/ correlates with three interdependent variables: the sociolinguistic background of the speakers, their speech production, and how their speech is perceived.

  14. "Speaking-for" and "speaking-as": pseudo-surrogacy in physician-patient-companion medical encounters about advanced cancer.

    Mazer, Benjamin L; Cameron, Rachel A; DeLuca, Jane M; Mohile, Supriya G; Epstein, Ronald M


    To examine using audio-recorded encounters the extent and process of companion participation when discussing treatment choices and prognosis in the context of a life-limiting cancer diagnosis. Qualitative analysis of transcribed outpatient visits between 17 oncologists, 49 patients with advanced cancer, and 34 companions. 46 qualifying companion statements were collected from a total of 28 conversations about treatment choices or prognosis. We identified a range of companion positions, from "pseudo-surrogacy" (companion speaking as if the patient were not able to speak for himself), "hearsay", "conflation of thoughts", "co-experiencing", "observation as an outsider", and "facilitation". Statements made by companions were infrequently directly validated by the patient. Companions often spoke on behalf of patients during discussions of prognosis and treatment choices, even when the patient was present and capable of speaking on his or her own behalf. The conversational role of companions as well as whether the physician checks with the patient can determine whether a companion facilitates or inhibits patient autonomy and involvement. Physicians can reduce ambiguity and encourage patient participation by being aware of when and how companions may speak on behalf of patients and by corroborating the companion's statement with the patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Mazer, Benjamin L.; Cameron, Rachel A.; DeLuca, Jane M.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Epstein, Ronald M.


    Objective To examine using audio-recorded encounters the extent and process of companion participation when discussing treatment choices and prognosis in the context of a life-limiting cancer diagnosis. Methods Qualitative analysis of transcribed outpatient visits between 17 oncologists, 49 patients with advanced cancer, and 34 companions. Results 46 qualifying companion statements were collected from a total of 28 conversations about treatment choices or prognosis. We identified a range of companion positions, from “pseudo-surrogacy” (companion speaking as if the patient were not able to speak for himself), “hearsay”, “conflation of thoughts”, “co-experiencing”, “observation as an outsider”, and “facilitation”. Statements made by companions were infrequently directly validated by the patient. Conclusions Companions often spoke on behalf of patients during discussions of prognosis and treatment choices, even when the patient was present and capable of speaking on his or her own behalf. Practice Implications The conversational role of companions as well as whether the physician checks with the patient can determine whether a companion facilitates or inhibits patient autonomy and involvement. Physicians can reduce ambiguity and encourage patient participation by being aware of the when and how companions may speak on behalf of patients and by corroborating the companion's statement with the patient. PMID:24862913

  16. Development of Teleological Explanations in Peruvian Quechua-Speaking and U.S. English-Speaking Preschoolers and Adults

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen


    Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…

  17. To Speak Like a TED Speaker--A Case Study of TED Motivated English Public Speaking Study in EFL Teaching

    Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu


    This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…

  18. The Effects and Perceptions of Trained Peer Feedback in L2 Speaking: Impact on Revision and Speaking Quality

    Rodríguez-González, Eva; Castañeda, Martha E.


    The present study examined the impact of trained peer feedback on Spanish as a second language (L2) in terms of language performance, nature of feedback, and perceptions of peer feedback in speaking tasks. Participants in the study included 17 intermediate L2 Spanish learners enrolled in a conversation course that incorporated peer feedback…

  19. The Body as Language and Expression of the Indigenous Australian Cultural Identity

    Dolors Soriano


    Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.

  20. Barriers to effective perioperative communication in indigenous Australians: an audit of progress since 1996.

    Cheng, W Y C; Blum, P; Spain, B


    This prospective study was designed to elucidate barriers limiting effective perioperative communication between indigenous Australians and anaesthetists, and to identify strategies for improving communication. A questionnaire was used to collect data on 1040 consecutive patients undergoing anaesthesia at Royal Darwin Hospital between February and March 2003. 27.1% of these patients described themselves as Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were more likely to undergo emergency surgery and were more likely to be classified as ASA 3, 4 or 5 than non-indigenous patients. Communication difficulties were identified in 28.7% of all Aboriginal patients, which was 31 times higher than those in non-Aboriginal patients. The most common reason identified for this was difficulty in speaking English. Only 17.7% of Aboriginal patients presenting to the operating theatre spoke English as their first language. Unfortunately, the anaesthetic team utilized the Aboriginal interpreter service in only a minority of cases. Communication difficulty in indigenous Australians is pervasive and often goes unrecognized. The results suggest that heath care providers may need staff training in cross-cultural communication and that protocols need to be developed within the health care system so that interpreters are called upon automatically early in the admission process.

  1. Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women.

    Hure, Alexis; Young, Anne; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare


    To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4.5 but food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre. Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.

  2. Children Colouring: Speaking "Colour Difference" with Diversity Dolls

    Srinivasan, Prasanna; Cruz, Merlyne


    This article draws on data from qualitative research that was conducted with children between 6 and 13?years of age as a part of an 18-month project that explored respectfully engaging with cultural diversity in Australian primary schools. We used persona dolls as a research tool to enable children to explore and articulate their knowledge of…

  3. Gender and Sexuality Diversity and Schooling: Progressive Mothers Speak Out

    Ferfolja, Tania; Ullman, Jacqueline


    Although social acceptance of gender and sexuality diversity is growing in Australian society, in schools, visibility and inclusion of knowledge pertaining to those who are gender- and/or sexuality-diverse, such as lesbians, gay men and transgender people, remain marginalised. This may be due, in part, to a belief that parents are opposed to such…

  4. Representation of Nursing Scientists from German-speaking countries in High Impact Journals. A bibliometric publication analysis

    Hirt, Julian; Buhtz, Christian; Mersdorf, Benedikt; Meyer, Gabriele


    Background: The frequency of publications by nursing scientists from the German-speaking area in journals with a high impact factor is an indicator for participation of the discipline in the international discourse. Previous publication analyses focused on nursing science journals only and regularly found an underrepresentation of experimental studies and clinical topics. Aim: To identify and analyse the number of publications by nursing scientists from Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland in international high impact journals. Method: The Journal Citation Reports were used to identify nursing relevant categories of journals in which the highest 10 % of the years 2010 to 2014 were selected according to the 5-year Impact Factor. Inclusion of publications and data extraction were carried out by two independent persons. Results: 106939 publications from 126 journals were screened; 100 publications were identified with 229 contributions by 114 nursing scientists. 42 % of studies are observational and 11 % are experimental. The majority of studies are clinically oriented (55 %). More than 50 % have been published in the past two years. Conclusions: The number of publications by nursing scientists from the German-speaking countries in High Impact Journals is low. There is an increase throughout the observation period. In opposite to former analyses a higher proportion of clinical research has been found.

  5. The Australian National Proton Facility

    Jackson, M.; Rozenfeld, A.; Bishop, J.


    Full text: Protons have been used in the treatment of cancer since 1954 and over 30,000 patients have been treated around the world. Their precise dose distribution allows the treatment of small tumours in critical locations such as the base of skull and orbit and is an alternative to stereotactic radiotherapy in other sites. With the development of hospital-based systems in the 1990's, common tumours such as prostate, breast and lung cancer can now also be treated using simple techniques. The therapeutic ratio is improved as the dose to the tumour can be increased while sparing normal tissues. The well defined high dose region and low integral dose compared with photon treatments is a particular advantage in children and other situations where long-term survival is expected and when used in combination with chemotherapy. In January 2002, the NSW Health Department initiated a Feasibility Study for an Australian National Proton Facility. This Study will address the complex medical, scientific, engineering, commercial and legal issues required to design and build a proton facility in Australia. The Facility will be mainly designed for patient treatment but will also provide facilities for biological, physical and engineering research. The proposed facility will have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre will enable the conduct of randomised clinical trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Cost-utility comparisons with other medical treatments will also be made and further facilities developed if the expected benefit is confirmed. When patients are not being treated, the beam will be available for commercial and research purposes. This presentation will summarize the progress of the Study and discuss the important issues that need to be resolved before the Facility is approved and constructed

  6. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.


    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  7. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    Hume, I.D.


    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  8. Reducing Student Apprehension of Public Speaking: Evaluating Effectiveness of Group Tutoring Practices

    Knight, Misty L.; Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Stewart, Frances


    Research indicates that the fear of public speaking is an extraordinarily common phobia and that a significant portion of the population experiences some form of anxiety over public speaking. Although there is a great deal of research available on the etiology of public speaking anxiety, there is far less research available on interventional…

  9. The Effect of Ethnolinguistic Differences on Proximity between Cantonese and Mandarin Speaking Children.

    Leung, Lanna Oi-Ling; Lewis, George F.


    Examined effects of ethnolinguistic differences on social proximity between Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking Chinese children in a day care center. Found that each group of children was more likely to be in closer proximity to children speaking their own language than to children speaking the other language during free choice floor- and group-time…

  10. Pre-Service English Teachers' Beliefs on Speaking Skill Based on Motivational Orientations

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas


    This study aimed to explore pre-service English teachers' perceptions of teaching speaking in Turkey, the importance they give to this language skill, and their self-evaluation of their speaking competence. With case design and maximum variation sampling approach, seven pre-service English teachers' beliefs about speaking skills were gathered in…

  11. The Effect of Instructing Impression Management Behaviors on Maximizing Applicants' Performance in the IELTS Speaking Test

    Namdar, Sara; Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh


    Speaking proceeds under the constraint of time. While speaking, speakers are under constant pressure to follow the message being received and to formulate rapid responses to their partners. In the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Speaking Test, the communicative nature of the interview creates an ideal situation for applicants…

  12. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.


    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  13. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.


    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  14. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  15. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics


    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  16. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.


    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  17. Postpartum diet quality in Australian women following a gestational diabetes pregnancy.

    Morrison, M K; Koh, D; Lowe, J M; Miller, Y D; Marshall, A L; Colyvas, K; Collins, C E


    To describe the diet quality of a national sample of Australian women with a recent history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine factors associated with adherence to national dietary recommendations. A postpartum lifestyle survey with 1499 Australian women diagnosed with GDM ≤3 years previously. Diet quality was measured using the Australian recommended food score (ARFS) and weighted by demographic and diabetes management characteristics. Multinominal logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between diet quality and demographic characteristics, health seeking behaviours and diabetes-related risk factors. Mean (±s.d.) ARFS was 30.9±8.1 from a possible maximum score of 74. Subscale component scores demonstrated that the nuts/legumes, grains and fruits were the most poorly scored. Factors associated with being in the highest compared with the lowest ARFS quintile included age (odds ratio (OR) 5-year increase=1.40; 95% (confidence interval) CI:1.16-1.68), tertiary education (OR=2.19; 95% CI:1.52-3.17), speaking only English (OR=1.92; 95% CI:1.19-3.08), being sufficiently physically active (OR=2.11; 95% CI:1.46-3.05), returning for postpartum blood glucose testing (OR=1.75; 95% CI:1.23-2.50) and receiving risk reduction advice from a health professional (OR=1.80; 95% CI:1.24-2.60). Despite an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, women in this study had an overall poor diet quality as measured by the ARFS. Women with GDM should be targeted for interventions aimed at achieving a postpartum diet consistent with the guidelines for chronic disease prevention. Encouraging women to return for follow-up and providing risk reduction advice may be positive initial steps to improve diet quality, but additional strategies need to be identified.

  18. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.


    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  19. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982


    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  20. Australian minerals industry 1985-6


    The performance of the Australian mineral industry in 1985-86 was again adversely affected by low commodity prices and tight market conditions. This is shown in a survey conducted by chartered accountants Coopers and Lybrand and published by the Australian Mining Industry Council (AMIC). In a preface to the report, the president of AMIC (Sir Bruce Watson) said: In just 10 years the minerals industry has emerged as Australia's major exporter, accounting for over 40% of total Australian exports of goods. This preeminent ranking has depended on a significant investment effort, and in the creation of a very large asset base. Financing this investment, and achieving the cash flow necessary to service it, are enormous tasks.